Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23
Operations and Productivity Pertemuan 1 1 Pokok Bahasan Pendahuluan : M h as i swa
Operations and
Productivity
Pertemuan 1
1
Pokok Bahasan
Pendahuluan :
M h as i swa mema h am i f a l sa f a ha
Manajemen Operasional, fungsi operasi,
dan hubungannya dengan operasi
organisasi.
2

What Is Operations Management?

is the creation of g oods and services

Operations management

Production

is the set of activities that creates value in the

Sub Bahasan dan Sasaran Belajar

M

Pengertian manajemen operasional:

Perhitungan Produktivitas

Kaitan dengan fungsi lain di dalam organisasi:

form uts of into

in

Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan arti dan cakupan Manajemen Operasional serta sejarah, perkembangannya.

Mahasiswa memahami perlunya mempelajari manajemen operasi terutama bila dikaitkan dengan fungsi lain di dalam organisasi.

Mahasiswa memahami masalah-masalah yang terkait dengan manajemen operasi di dalam organisasi.

p

asa a -masa a

l

h

goods

out and

l

p

h

uts services by transforming

manajemen operas :

i

4

3

operasi di dalam organisasi. p asa a -masa a l h goods out and l p
operasi di dalam organisasi. p asa a -masa a l h goods out and l p
Functions - Bank Commercial Bank © 1984-1994 T/Maker Co. Finance/ Marketing Operations Accounting Transactions
Functions - Bank
Commercial Bank
© 1984-1994
T/Maker Co.
Finance/
Marketing
Operations
Accounting
Transactions
Teller
Check
Security
Scheduling
Clearing
Processing
6
 

Obtains funds Tracks money

Finance/Accounting

creates product or service

Operations

Generates demand/ gets customers

Marketing

Organizational Functions

5

© 1995 Corel Corp.

© 1995 Corel Corp.
© 1995 Corel Corp.
Functions - Airline © 1984-1994 T/Maker Co. Airline Finance/ Marketing Operations Accounting Flight Ground
Functions - Airline
© 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.
Airline
Finance/
Marketing
Operations
Accounting
Flight
Ground
Facility
Catering
Operations
Support
Maintenance
7
Functions - Manufacturer
Manufacturing
Finance/
Marketing
Operations
Accounting
Production
Quality
Manufacturing
Purchasing
Control
Control
8

What Operations Managers Do

Why Study OM?

We want to understand what operations managers do.

We want (and need) to know how goods and services are produced.

OM is such a costly part of an organization.

OM is one of three major functions (marketing finance , and operations) of any, organization.

Plan - Organize - Staff - Lead - Control

10

9

major functions (marketing finance , and operations) of any, organization. Plan - Organize - Staff -
major functions (marketing finance , and operations) of any, organization. Plan - Organize - Staff -

Ten Critical Decisions

The Critical Decisions

Service and product design

Quality management

Who is responsible for quality? How do we define quality?

What product or service should we offer? How should we design these products and services?

4.
5.

2.
3.

9.

6.

7.
8.

1.

10.

Service, product design Quality management Process, capacity design Location Layout design Human resources, job design Supply-chain management Inventory management Scheduling Maintenance

12

11

Layout design Human resources, job design Supply-chain management Inventory management Scheduling Maintenance 12 11
Layout design Human resources, job design Supply-chain management Inventory management Scheduling Maintenance 12 11

The Critical Decisions - Continued

The Critical Decisions - Continued

Location

Process and capacity design

Human resources and job design

Layout design

Where should we put the facility On what criteria should we base this location decision?

What processes will these products require and in what order? What equipment and technology is necessary for these processes?

How should we arrange the facility? How large a facility is required?

How do we provide a reasonable work environment? How much can we expect our employees to produce?

14

13

is required? How do we provide a reasonable work environment? How much can we expect our
is required? How do we provide a reasonable work environment? How much can we expect our

The Critical Decisions - Continued

The Critical Decisions - Continued

Inventory, material requirements planning,

Supply chain management

Maintenance

Intermediate, short term, and project scheduling

Sh

Who are our good suppliers and how many

How much inventory of each item should we have? When do we re-order?

Who is responsible for maintenance? When do we do maintenance?

Is subcontracting production a good idea? Are we better off keeping people on the payroll during slowdowns?

should we have?

ld we ma k e or b uy thi s it em ?ou

16

15

we better off keeping people on the payroll during slowdowns? should we have? ld we ma
we better off keeping people on the payroll during slowdowns? should we have? ld we ma
Where are the OM Jobs 17 Where Are the OM Jobs? Technology/methods Facilities/space utilization Strategic
Where are the OM Jobs
17
Where Are the OM Jobs?
Technology/methods
Facilities/space utilization
Strategic issues
Response time
People/team development
Customer service
Quality
Cost reduction
Inventory reduction
Productivity improvement
18

Division of labor (Adam Smith 1776 and Charles Babbage 1852)

The Heritage of

Management

Standardized parts (Whitney 1800)

The Heritage Management

Operations

Scientific Management (Taylor 1881)

Material requirements planning (Orlicky 1960)

Coordinated assembly line (Ford/Sorenson/Avery 1913)

Computer aided design (CAD 1970)

Gantt charts (Gantt 1916)

Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975)

Motion study (Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 1922

Baldrige Quality Awards (1980)

Qualit

Computer integrated manufacturing (1990)

Computer (Atanasoff 1938)

Globalization(1992)

CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957)

y

Internet

(1995)

control (Shewhart 1924 Demin

- Continued

of

Operations

;

g

1950)

20

19

(DuPont 1957) y Internet (1995) control (Shewhart 1924 Demin - Continued o f O p e
(DuPont 1957) y Internet (1995) control (Shewhart 1924 Demin - Continued o f O p e

Created efficiency principles

In 1881, as chief engineer for Midvale

Born 1856; died 1915

Known as ‘father of scientific

Steel, studied how tasks were done

Eli Whitney

Frederick W. Taylor

management’

Began first motion & time studies

Showed that machine tools could make standardized parts

In 1798 , received g overnment

Born 1765; died 1825

contract to make 10,000 muskets

to exact specifications

M

musket

us e

k

t

par s cou

t

ld b

e use

d i

n any

21

22

© 1995 Corel Corp.
© 1995 Corel Corp.
to exact specifications M musket us e k t par s cou t ld b e
© 1995 Corel Corp.
© 1995 Corel Corp.
to exact specifications M musket us e k t par s cou t ld b e

Frank (1868-1924); Lillian

Further developed work

Applied efficiency methods to

Husband-and-wife engineering

Taylor: Responsibility

the Dozen,” Their Toes”)

their home & 12 children!

team

More

Frank & Lillian Gilbreth

measurement methods

(1878-1972)

(Book & Movie: “Cheaper by

Matching employees to right job

Establishing legitimate incentives for work to be accomplished

Providing the proper training

Providing proper work methods and tools

book: “Bells on

Management for

Should Take

23

24

© 1995 Corel Corp.
© 1995 Corel Corp.
and tools book: “Bells on M a n a g e m e n t for
and tools book: “Bells on M a n a g e m e n t for

In 1913, first used

Born 1863; died 1947

Paid workers very well for 1911 ($5/day!)

In 1903 created Ford Motor Company

moving assembly line to make Model T

Henry Ford

Unfinished product moved by conveyor past work station

,

25

26 decisions His methods involve workers in process Used statistics to analyze post-WW2 quality control
26 decisions His methods involve workers in process Used statistics to analyze post-WW2 quality control
26 decisions His methods involve workers in process Used statistics to analyze post-WW2 quality control
26 decisions His methods involve workers in process Used statistics to analyze post-WW2 quality control
26 decisions His methods involve workers in process Used statistics to analyze post-WW2 quality control
26 decisions His methods involve workers in process Used statistics to analyze post-WW2 quality control
26 decisions His methods involve workers in process Used statistics to analyze post-WW2 quality control
26 decisions His methods involve workers in process Used statistics to analyze post-WW2 quality control
26 decisions His methods involve workers in process Used statistics to analyze post-WW2 quality control
26 decisions His methods involve workers in process Used statistics to analyze post-WW2 quality control

26

decisions

His methods involve workers in

process

Used statistics to analyze

post-WW2

quality control methods in

Credited with teaching Japan

En g ineer & p h y sicist

Born 1900; died 1993

W. Edwards Deming

W. Edwards Deming
‘‘Make them all alike!’ © 1995 Corel Corp.
‘‘Make them all
alike!’
© 1995 Corel
Corp.
& p h y sicist Born 1900; died 1993 W. Edwards Deming ‘‘Make them all alike!’

Significant Events in OM

Contributions From

Human factors Industrial engineering Management science Biological science Physical sciences Information science

Division of labor (Smith, 1776) Standardized parts (Whitney, 1800) Scientific management (Taylor, 1881) Coordinated assembly line (Ford 1913) Gantt charts (Gantt, 1916) Motion study (the Gilbreths, 1922) Quality control (Shewhart, 1924)

27

28

(Ford 1913) Gantt charts (Gantt, 1916) Motion study (the Gilbreths, 1922) Quality control (Shewhart, 1924) 27
(Ford 1913) Gantt charts (Gantt, 1916) Motion study (the Gilbreths, 1922) Quality control (Shewhart, 1924) 27

Lengthy product development

Batch shipments

Job specialization

Local or national focus

Low bid purchasing

Standard products

Significant Events - Continued

New Challenges in OM

CPM/PERT (Dupont, 1957) MRP (Orlicky, 1960) CAD Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) Manufacturing automation protocol (MAP) Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

FromFrom

Rapid product

Mass customization

Empowered employees, teams

Supply chain partnering

Global focus Just-in-time

development,

alliances

ToTo

29

30

Empowered employees, teams Supply chain partnering Global focus Just-in-time development, alliances ToTo 29 30
Empowered employees, teams Supply chain partnering Global focus Just-in-time development, alliances ToTo 29 30
Empowered employees, teams Supply chain partnering Global focus Just-in-time development, alliances ToTo 29 30
Characteristics of Goods Tangible product Consistent product definition Production usually separate from
Characteristics of Goods
Tangible product
Consistent product
definition
Production usually
separate from
consumption
Can be inventoried
Low customer
interaction
© 1995 Corel Corp.
31
Characteristics of Service
Intangible product
Produced & consumed at
same time
Often unique
High customer interaction
Inconsistent product
definition
Often knowledge-based
Frequently dispersed
© 1995 Corel Corp.
32

Goods Versus Services

Goods Versus Services - Continued

automate

tangible

important

Product is transportable

Can be resold

Selling is distinct

Can be inventoried

Some aspects of quality measurable

Site of facility

Often easy to

primarily

Revenue product

from production

GoodsGoods

GoodsGoods

generated

from

for cost

automate

customer

primarily

Provider not product is transportable

Reselling unusual

Quality difficult to

Difficult to inventory

Selling is part of

Often difficult to

important

Site of facility

service.intangible

Revenue generated

service

measure

ServiceService

ServiceService

,

from

contact

for

33

34

of facility service. intangible Revenue generated service measure ServiceService ServiceService , from contact for 33 34
of facility service. intangible Revenue generated service measure ServiceService ServiceService , from contact for 33 34
Changing Challenges for the Operations Manager Past Causes Future Local or Global Focus nat ona
Changing Challenges
for the
Operations
Manager
Past
Causes
Future
Local or
Global Focus
nat ona
i
l
Low-cost, reliable worldwide
i
transportation networks
Cost of capital puts pressure on
reducing investment in
inventory
Quality emphasis requires that
suppliers be engaged in product
improvement
Shorter life cycles, rapid
international communication,
computer-aided design, and
international collaboration
commun cat on an
i
d
focus
Batch (large)
Just-in-time
shipments
shipments
Low-bid
Supply-chain
purchasing
partners
Lengthy
product
development
Rapid product
development,
alliances,
collaborative
designs
36
Goods Contain Services Contain Services Goods / Automobile Computer Installed Carpeting Fast-food Meal
Goods Contain
Services
Contain Services
Goods /
Automobile
Computer
Installed
Carpeting
Fast-food
Meal
Restaurant
Meal Care
Auto
Repair
Hospital
Advertising
Agency
Investment
Management
Consulting
Service
Counseling
2550100
075
25
50
10075
of Product that is a Good Percent of Product that is a ServicePercent
35

38

Land, Labor, Capital, Management

Feedback loop
Feedback loop

Feedback loop

38 Land, Labor, Capital, Management Feedback loop The economic system transforms inputs to outputs at about
38 Land, Labor, Capital, Management Feedback loop The economic system transforms inputs to outputs at about
The economic system transforms inputs to outputs at about an annual 2.5% increase in productivity
The economic system
transforms inputs to outputs
at about an annual 2.5%
increase in productivity
(capital 38% of 2.5%), labor
(10% of 2.5%), management
(52% of 2.5%)
(capital 38% of 2.5%), labor (10% of 2.5%), management (52% of 2.5%) Services Goods and Inputs
Services Goods and
Services Goods and

Services

Services

Goods and

Goods and

Inputs

Process

Outputs

The Economic

Transforms

Inputs

System

to Outputs

Changing Challenges for the Operations Manager Past Causes Future Standardized Affluence and worldwide m arkets;
Changing Challenges
for the
Operations
Manager
Past
Causes
Future
Standardized
Affluence and worldwide m arkets;
increasingly flexible production
Mass
products
custom ization
processes
Job
Em powered
specialization
Changing sociocultural m ilieu.
Increasingly a knowledge and
inform ation society.
em ployees,
team s, and lean
production
Low cost
Environm ental issues, ISO 14000,
increasing disposal costs
Environm entally
focus
sensitive
production,
Green
m
anufacturing,
recycled
m
aterials,
rem anufacturing
37
Typical Impact of Quality Improvement As productivity improved Costs were pared Wages increased Parts per
Typical Impact of Quality
Improvement
As productivity improved
Costs were pared
Wages increased
Parts per man hour
Cost per unit decreased
Average worker's annual cash
compensation increased
$2.25
115
110
$2.00
27000
105
26000
$1.75
100
25000
95
24000
$1.50
Year A
Year B
Year C
Year A
Year B
Year C
Year A
Year B
Year C
39
Productivity
Measure of process improvement
Represents output relative to input
producedUnits
produced
ProductivityProductivity
== Units
Input
usedInput
used
Only through productivity increases can our
standard of living improve
40

Precise units of measure may be lacking

External elements may cause an increase or

Quality may change while the quantity of inputs and outputs remains constant

Productivity

Measurement Problems

Multi-Product Productivity

decrease in productivity

Output Labor + material + energy + capital + miscellaneous

=

42

41

Multi-Product Productivity decrease in productivity Output Labor + material + energy + capital + miscellaneous =
Multi-Product Productivity decrease in productivity Output Labor + material + energy + capital + miscellaneous =

Management - contributes about 52% of the

Basic education appropriate for the labor force

Labor - contributes about 10% of the annual increase

Capital - contributes about 32% of the annual

Maintaining and enhancing skills in the midst

Diet of the labor force

Social overhead that makes labor available

Productivity Variables

Key Variables

Labor

of rapidly changing technology and knowledge

increase

annual increase

Productivity

for Improved

44

43

of rapidly changing technology and knowledge increase annual increase Productivity f o r I m p
of rapidly changing technology and knowledge increase annual increase Productivity f o r I m p

Frequently individually processed

Often difficult to evaluate for quality

Often difficult to mechanize

Typically labor intensive

Often an intellectual task performed by

Service Productivity

professionals

45

to mechanize Typically labor intensive Often an intellectual task performed by Service Productivity professionals 45