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Report No.

T(S)006

USE OF HIGH VOLUME FLY ASH


IN
CONCRETE FOR BUILDING SECTOR

Sponsored by
CII-CANMET CIDA
HVFA PROJECT

Environmental Science & Technology Division


CENTRAL BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE
ROORKEE 247667
JANUARY 2005

Report No. T(S)006


DISCLAIMER
The use of high volume fly ash (30-50 %) in concrete for building
sector for M20, M30 and M40 grades have been made for various properties
as desired by the sponsorer. The responsibility of the Central Building
Research Institute (CBRI), Roorkee is limited to the test results as referred in
the report. All procedural, legal or operational concerns, including
implementation, supervision and execution at site will be the sole
responsibility of the party using this report.

Report No. T(S)006

Project Title
Use of Higher Volume Fly Ash in Concrete for
Building Sector

Team Members
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Prof. VK Mathur (Director)


Dr. CL Verma
Sh. BS Gupta
Dr. SK Agarwal
Dr. Awadhesh Kumar

Report No. T(S)006

CONTENTS

Sl. No.

Page No.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1
2
5
7
7
8

Foreword
Disclaimer
List of Team Members
Introduction
Objective And Scope of Work
Materials
Physical and Chemical Analysis of
Cement and Fly ash
8. Sieve Analysis of Coarse and Fine Aggregate
9. Physical Properties of Materials
10. Experimental Program
11. Trial Mix Design of M20 Grade Concrete
with and without Fly ash
12. Trial Mix Design of M30 Grade Concrete
with (30%) and without Fly ash
13. Trial Mix Design of M30 Grade Concrete
with 40% Fly ash
14. Trial Mix Design of M30 Grade Concrete
with 50% Fly ash
15. Trial Mix Design of M40 Grade Concrete
with (30%) and without Fly ash
16. Trial Mix Design of M40 Grade Concrete
with 40% Fly ash
17. Trial Mix Design of M40 Grade Concrete
with 50% Fly ash
18. Final Mix Design of M20 Grade Concrete
with and without Fly ash
19. Final Mix Design of M30 Grade Concrete
with and without Fly ash
20. Final Mix Design of M40 Grade Concrete
with and without Fly ash

9
9
10
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
19
20

Report No. T(S)006

21. Properties of Hardened Concrete


22. Evaluation of Permeability Coefficient
23. Cost Analysis of M20 Grade Concrete
24. Cost Analysis of M30 Grade Concrete
25. Cost Analysis of M40 Grade Concrete
26. Scanning Electron Micrograph of Fly ash
27. X-ray Diagram of Fly ash
28. M20 Grade Figure of Compressive Strength Vs. Fly ash
29. M30 Grade Figure of Compressive Strength Vs. Fly ash
30. M40 Grade Figure of Compressive Strength Vs. Fly ash
31. Combined Figure of Compressive Strength of
M20, M30 and M40 grade Concrete
32. Discussion
32. References

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

Report No. T(S)006

Introduction:
The use of high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete fits in very well with
sustainable development. High volume fly ash concrete mixtures contain
lower quantities of cement and higher volume of fly ash (up to 60%). The
use of fly ash in concrete at proportions ranging from 35 to 60 % of total
cementitious binder has been studied extensively over the last twenty years
and the properties of blended concrete are well documented. The
replacement of fly ash as a cementitious component in concrete depends
upon several factors. The design strength and workability of the concrete,
water demand and relative cost of fly ash compared to cement. From the
literature it is generally found that fly ash content in the cementitious
material varies from 30-80% for low strength (20 MPa) to high strength
(100MPa).
Studies conducted at Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology
(CANMET) and University of Calgary have indicated that structural
concrete with 28 days strength around 60MPa and of adequate durability can
be produced by the Canadian fly ash replacing up-to 60% cement by weight
and incorporating high range water reducing and air entraining admixtures in
concrete. Dunstan and Thomas1 have studied the performance of high
volume fly ash concrete for structural purposes.
Naik and Ramme2 presented two case histories wherein 70% cement was
replaced by class C fly ash to pave a 254 mm thick roadway. To obtain high
workability and durability a high range water reducing agent and an airentraining agent was added to the concrete mix. The other case reported by
the same authors involved placing of the same High Performance Concrete
in the construction of 138 kV transformer foundations. No problems were
reported during or after construction in both projects and the use of High
Volume Fly ash Concrete (HVFC) resulted in considerable economy and
technical benefits.
Hague etal.3 conducted tests on concrete mixes in which bituminous fly
ashes formed up to 75% of the cementitious material, which varied between

Report No. T(S)006


325 and 400 kg/m3. They concluded that such high volume fly ash concretes
with adequate strength, volume stability, and durability have a great
potential for use in structural applications particularly in pavements.
Langley etal.4 reported two case histories where High Volume Fly ash
Concretes were used with class Fly ash constituting 55% of the cementitious
material along with a superplasticizer. In one case, where columns, beams
and floor slab in a building complex required 50 MPa concrete at 120 days,
the High Performance Concrete yielded concrete with 74 MPa compressive
strength at120 days, thus exceeding the strength requirement. No unexpected
problems were reported and the HVFC proved to be an economical solution
for the particular project. In second case, the same type of HVFC was used
in drilled caisson piles to support a 22 storey building on the Halifax Water
Front, Nova Scotia in Canada. The minimum 28 day the high fly ash
concrete that had compressive strength of the order of 32 MPa and 51 MPa
at 7days and 28 days, respectively, easily met compressive strength
requirement of 45 MPa for the pile concrete.
Malhotra etal.5 studied in detail the properties of concretes with a wide range
of Canadian fly ashes at 58% of the total cementitious materials. These
concretes were tested for compressive strength, creep strain and resistance to
chloride ion penetration at various ages up to one year. The results of study
by Joshi etal.6,7 indicated that with fly ash replacement levels up to 50% by
cement weight, concrete with 28-day strength ranging from 40 to 60 MPa
and with adequate durability can be produced with cost saving of 16% by
50% replacement level.
Bouzoubaa etal.8,9 at CANMET Canada have done studies on the mechanical
properties of concrete made with blended high volume fly ash cements.
Physical properties of high volume fly ash cements and mortars have been
also been studied. The use of the high volume fly ash cements improves the
resistance of the concrete to the chloride ion penetration.
In India, Fly ash mission has initiated projects on use of higher volume fly
ash concrete construction. Gujrat Ambuja cements had laid down a high
volume fly ash (50%) concrete road at their Ropar Plant, Punjab. The grade
of the concrete was M-40.

Report No. T(S)006

Objective and Scope of the Work:


In the present proposal it is planned to conduct lab investigation using high
volume of fly ash (30-50%). for different grades of concrete (M-20, M-30
and M-40) for building sector.
The main purpose of this investigation is to develop confidence among user
agencies in India to use higher volume fly ash concrete in the building
construction.
The following tests were conducted on the concretes.
1. Compressive Strength
2. Rapid Chloride Permeability tests
3. Permeability coefficient measurements

Materials:
53 grade Ordinary Portland cement conforming to BIS 12269-1987 was
used. Its physical properties and chemical composition are given in table 1
Class F fly ash from Dadri, New Delhi conforming to BIS 3812-2000 was
used in the present study. Its physical properties and chemical composition
are also given in table 1. The scanning electron microscope of the fly ash is
shown in the figure- 1. The X ray of Dadri fly ash is shown in figure 2.
Admixtures
Two high range water reducing admixtures; one based on poly carboxylate
and other naphthalene sulfonate polymer based were used in the present
study. Naphthalene sulfonate polymer was used in the final study due to
high cost of poly carboxylate superplasticizer in India.
Aggregates
Crushed stones of 20mm down and 10mm down were used as coarse
aggregate. Local river sand was used as fine aggregate in the concrete
mixtures. Various physical properties of coarse and fine aggregates are given
in table -2

Report No. T(S)006


Table -1

Physical and Chemical analysis of Portland Cement and Fly


Ash

Property

Portland
Fly Ash (Dadri)
Cement (53 grade)
_____________________________________________________________
CaO

61.5

3.68

20.6

60.27

Al2O3

5.10

25.46

Fe2O3

3.90

6.02

LOI

1.51

1.10

Magnesia

3.00

0.29

Alkalies

0.35

2.64

SO3

2.10

0.12

Chloride

0.012

Silica content

Specific gravity

---

3.14

2.25

Specific Surface cm /g

2980

3980

C3S

47.7

C2S

23.3

C3A

6.9

C4AF

11.9

Setting Time (Min.)


Initial

145

Final

230

Compressive Strength (Kg/cm2)


1day

215

3day

435

7day

510

28day

630

Report No. T(S)006

Physical Properties of Aggregates


Density of Coarse Aggregate 2.7
Density of Fine Aggregate

2.6

Water absorption of coarse aggregate 0.5%


Water absorption of fine aggregate 2.5%
Fineness modulus of Fine aggregate 2.965
Fineness modulus of coarse aggregate 6.96

Activated Reactivity Index

120

Table 2 Sieve Analysis of Aggregate


Coarse Aggregate
Sieve, mm
20 mm
(I)
20
100
10
4
4.75
0
Fine Aggregate
Sieve size, mm
4.75
2.36
1.20
0.60
0.30
0.15

10mm
(II)
100
100
4

Mixed

BIS 383

100
42.4
1.6

95-100
25-55
0-10

Passing %
100
85
66
39
11
2.5

Report No. T(S)006

Experimental Program:
The proportions of the trial mixtures for M20, M30 and M40 grade concretes
are summarized in Tables 3 to 9. These mixes were designed according to
IS: 10262 and modified based on observations with the intention of using
minimum cement content. The coarse and fine aggregates were weighed at
room temperature. The coarse aggregate was then immersed in water for 24
hours. The excess water was decant off and the water remained in the
container was determined by the weight difference between the two. In case
of fine aggregate known quantity of water was added in the fine aggregate
and was allowed to stand for 24 hours this procedure was used to insure that
the aggregates were used in a saturated condition in order to know the exact
value of the w/cm of the mixtures. For each concrete mixture 100mm cubes
were cast for the determination of compressive strength and permeability
coefficient tests, 100x50 mm cylinder were cast for determining the rapid
chloride penetration tests. No superplasticizer was used in M-20 grade
concrete.
The specimens were cast in two layers and were compacted. The specimens
were covered with wet gunny bags and saturated burlap and were kept in the
constant room maintained at 27 2Co. After 24 hours the specimens were
demolded and stored in 100% RH until required for testing at various time
intervals.
The rapid chloride ion penetration test was carried out using Prooveit
PR-1090 Model with concrete sample (100 mm dia., 50mm high)

The permeability coefficient was determined using Torrent Permeability


Tester (Proceq, Switzerland) model No. ETI H0455. 100 mm concrete
samples were dried for two weeks after 28 days of curing.

Report No. T(S)006

Properties of the Hardened Concrete:


The compressive strength, rapid chloride ion penetration and permeability
coefficient of various mixes are given in table13.

The compressive strength of various concrete mixes at 7 and 28 days with


various percentages of fly ash is shown in Figures 3-6.
The cost analysis of various concrete mixes has also been calculated and are
given in Tables 14-16

Report No. T(S)006

Table-3 Trial Mix Design of M20 Grade Concrete with Fly Ash
Cement
kg/m3
235

Fly
ash
kg/m3
---

T. Cementitious content
kg/m3
235

280

---

196

Water
litres

___W__
(C+FA)

Fine Agg.
kg/m3

CA<20 mm
Kg/m3

CA<10 mm
kg/m3

Slump
mm

CS 7 days
MPa

CS 28 days
MPa

153.0

0.65

703.27

783.65

522.43

100

20.5

36.0

280

163.0

0.58

677.87

755.34

503.56

90

28.0

41.5

84

280

157.5

0.56

673.37

750.33

500.22

100

18.0

36.0

210

90

300

160.0

0.53

663.95

739.83

493.22

100

20.5

39.0

180

120

300

156.0

0.52

664.07

739.96

493.31

95

19.0

35.0

Report No. T(S)006

Table-4 Trial Mix Design of M-30 Grade Concrete With 30% Fly Ash
Cement
kg/m3
260.0#

Fly
ash
kg/m3
---

T. Cementitious content
kg/m3
260

___W__
(C+FA)

Fine Agg.
kg/m3

CA<20 mm
Kg/m3

CA<10 mm
kg/m3

Slump
mm

CS 7 days
MPa

CS 28 days
MPa

134.0

0.52

692.36

771.79

514.53

80

30.5

44.5

182.0#

78.0

260

125.0

0.48

707.00

787.80

525.20

100

24.0

38.0

192.5#

82.5

275

130.0

0.47

700.16

780.18

520.12

92

26.0

43.5

259.0*

111.0

370

144.0

0.39

629.77

701.75

467.80

125

34.5

50.0

280.0*

120.0

400

144.5

0.36

620.00

691.20

476.80

100

35.5

52.0

294.0*

126.0

420

145.5

0.35

613.5

683.67

455.78

90

42.5

58.0

308.0*

132.0

440

146.5

0.33

601.9

670.74

440.72

85

45.0

60.0

Water
litres

* 0.5 % polycarboxylate based superplasticizer


# 1.0 % naphthalene based superplasticizer

Report No. T(S)006

Table-5 Trial Mix Design of M-30 Grade Concrete With 40% Fly Ash
Cement
kg/m3

T. Cementitious content
kg/m3
300

Water
litres

___W__
(C+FA)

Fine Agg.
kg/m3

CA<20 mm
Kg/m3

CA<10 mm
kg/m3

Slump
mm

180*

Fly
ash
kg/m3
120

120

0.40

690.14

769.01

512.67

192*

128

320

128

0.40

679.54

757.70

222#

148

370

140

0.38

625.32

240#

160

400

142

0.36

252#

168

420

143

264#

176

440

145

* 0.5 % polycarboxylate based superplasticizer


# 1.0 % naphthalene based superplasticizer

95

CS 7
days
MPa
27.0

CS 28
days
MPa
43.0

504.80

100

28.2

46.0

696.79

464.52

125

30.0

44.0

618.60

689.28

459.80

115

31.0

46.0

0.34

612.80

682.84

455.52

105

35.0

48.0

0.33

605.90

675.18

450.10

80

38.0

52.0

Report No. T(S)006

Table-6 Trial Mix Design of M-30 Grade Concrete With 50% Fly Ash
T. Cementitious content
kg/m3
360

Water
litres

___W__
(C+FA)

Fine Agg.
kg/m3

CA<20 mm
Kg/m3

CA<10 mm
kg/m3

Slump
mm

180#

Fly
ash
kg/m3
180

133

0.37

632.12

704.40

470.00

190#

190

380

134

0.35

626.64

698.25

200#

200

400

138

0.34

619.50

210#

210

420

140

0.33

220#

220

440

142

0.32

Cement
kg/m3

# 1.0 % naphthalene based superplasticizer

80

CS 7
days
MPa
27.0

CS 28
days
MPa
44.0

465.20

105

28.0

50.5

690.30

460.20

100

29.0

51.0

612.47

682.40

454.95

90

30.0

52.0

605.31

674.49

459.67

85

32.5

53.5

Report No. T(S)006

Table-7 Trial Mix Design of M-40 Grade Concrete With 30% Fly Ash
Cement
kg/m3

T. Cementitious content
kg/m3
300

Water
litres

___W__
(C+FA)

Fine Agg.
kg/m3

CA<20 mm
Kg/m3

CA<10 mm
kg/m3

Slump
mm

300*

Fly
ash
kg/m3
----

85

CS 7
days
MPa
38.5

CS 28
days
MPa
55.5

130.0

0.43

702.68

782.98

521.99

252*

108

360

138.0

0.38

655.69

730.63

487.08

80

37.0

55.0

273*

117

390

142.0

0.36

644.8

718.5

479

80

37.0

61.0

315#

135

450

151.0

0.34

612.05

682

454.67

85

42.0

64.0

336#

144

480

152.5

0.32

602

670.9

447.28

80

43.5

63.0

350#

150

500

154.0

0.31

595.49

663.54

442.36

80

47.0

66.0

364#

156

520

156.0

0.30

589

656.4

437.6

80

48.5

68.0

* 0.5 % polycarboxlate based superplasticizer


# 1.0 % naphthalene based superplasticizer

Report No. T(S)006

Table-8 Trial Mix Design of M-40 Grade Concrete With 40% Fly Ash
Cement
kg/m3

T. Cementitious content
kg/m3
420

Water
Litres

___W__
(C+FA)

Fine Agg.
kg/m3

CA<20 mm
Kg/m3

CA<10 mm
kg/m3

Slump
mm

252*

Fly
ash
kg/m3
168

148.5

0.35

619.02

689.76

459.84

270*

180

450

149.5

0.33

610.68

680.47

300#

200

500

150.0

0.30

594.00

312#

208

520

152.0

0.29

324#

216

540

153.5

0.28

* 0.5 % polycarboxlate based superplasticizer


# 1.0 % naphthalene based superplasticizer

85

CS 7
days
MPa
29.5

CS 28
days
MPa
53.0

453.65

80

36.0

57.5

662.00

441.20

90

39.0

60.0

587.00

654.60

436.40

85

42.0

65.0

580.00

646.80

431.20

80

45.0

67.0

Report No. T(S)006

Table-9 Trial Mix Design of M-40 Grade Concrete With 50% Fly Ash
Cement
kg/m3

T. Cementitious content
kg/m3
470

Water
litres

___W__
(C+FA)

Fine Agg.
kg/m3

CA<20 mm
Kg/m3

CA<10 mm
kg/m3

Slump
mm

235*

Fly
ash
kg/m3
235

152.5

0.33

599.36

667.86

445.24

260#

260

520

153.0

0.29

586.00

652.80

270#

270

540

154.0

0.29

579.00

280#

280

560

156.0

0.28

571.40

* 0.5 % polycarboxlate based superplasticizer


# 1.0 % naphthalene based superplasticizer

90

CS 7
days
MPa
28.5

CS 28
days
MPa
53.5

435.20

120

34.0

56.0

645.00

430.00

85

40.5

60.0

636.70

430.10

80

42.0

65.0

Report No. T(S)006


On the basis of test results obtained from the trial mixes, final concrete mixes were cast with minimum cement
content fulfilling the strength requirements. The details of these mixes, setting time and density are given in the
Table 10-12. Napthalene sulfonate condensate (1%) was used in final casting.
Table-10 Mix Design of M20 Grade Concrete with Fly Ash
Cement
kg/m3

T. Cementitious content
kg/m3
235

Water
litres

___W__
(C+FA)

235

Fly
ash
kg/m3
-----

CA<20 mm
Kg/m3

CA<10 mm
kg/m3

Slump
mm

Density
kg/m3

0.61

Fine
Agg.
kg/m3
703.27

143.0

196

84

280

180

120

300

Setting time
(Hrs. min.)
Initial Final
5.45 7.15

783.65

522.43

80

2350

150.5

0.54

673.37

750.33

500.22

80

2365

7.15

8.25

152.0

0.51

664.07

739.96

493.31

80

2355

8.50

10.25

Table-11 Mix Design of M-30 Grade Concrete With Fly Ash


Cement
kg/m3

T. Cementitious content
kg/m3
260

Water
litres

___W__
(C+FA)

260.0

Fly
ash
kg/m3
---

CA<20 mm
Kg/m3

CA<10 mm
kg/m3

Slump
mm

Density
kg/m3

0.52

Fine
Agg.
kg/m3
692.36

134

192.5

82.5

275

180.0

120.0

180.0

180.0

Setting time
(Hrs. min.)
Initial Final
7.20
8.35

771.79

514.53

80

2390

130

0.47

700.16

780.18

520.12

92

2385

9.10

10.25

300

128

0.43

690.14

769.01

512.67

90

2380

9.50

11.15

360

135

0.37

632.12

704.40

470.00

80

2375

9.40

11.40

Report No. T(S)006

Table-12 Mix Design of M-40 Grade Concrete With Fly Ash*


Cement
kg/m3

T. Cementitious content
kg/m3
300

Water
litres

___W__
(C+FA)

300

Fly
ash
kg/m3
----

CA<20 mm
Kg/m3

CA<10 mm
kg/m3

Slump
mm

Density
kg/m3

0.43

Fine
Agg.
kg/m3
702.68

130.0

252

108

360

252

168

235

235

Setting time
(Hrs. min.)
Initial Final
7.50
8.55

782.98

521.99

85

2385

138.0

0.38

655.69

730.63

487.08

90

2375

9.45

10.50

420

148.5

0.35

619.02

689.76

459.84

80

2375

10.25

11.25

470

154.0

0.33

599.36

667.80

445.24

80

2365

11.25

11.45

Report No. T(S)006

Table 13: Properties of the Hardened Concrete of Various Mixes


Mix
No.

Cement
(%)

Flyash
(%)

Cementitious
content

___W___
(C+FA)

20

100

00

235

0.61

19.5

34.0

3480

0.038

23

70

30

280

0.54

17.5

34.5

2560

0.029

24

60

40

300

0.51

16.5

35.5

2145

0.022

30

100

00

260

0.52

27.5

44.0

1351*

0.014

33

70

30

275

0.47

25.5

43.0

995

0.010

34

60

40

300

0.43

26.5

42.5

890

0.006

35

50

50

360

0.37

25.5

43.0

775

0.004

40

100

00

300

0.43

38.5

57.0

1295*

0.009

43

70

30

360

0.38

28.5

55.0

990

0.005

44

60

40

420

0.35

29.5

53.0

812

0.002

45

50

50

470

0.33

28.0

53.0

761

<0.002

* On lower side

kg/m3

CS(7D) CS(28d)
MPa
MPa

Chloride
Permeability
Coulombs 28
days

Permeability
Coefficient
KT 10 16
28days

Report No. T(S)006


Table 14 Cost Analysis of M20 grade Concrete with Fly ash
Sl.
No.

ITEMS

UNIT

RATE

Fly ash

Fly ash

Fly ash

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

(in Rs.)

M20

M23

M24

MATERIALS:
(including carriage)
1.

Cement

Kg

3.20

235

196

180

2.

Fly ash

Kg

0.50

84

120

5.

Fine Aggregate

Cu.m

490.00

0.70

0.67

0.66

6.

Coarse Agg.(10 mm Size)

Cu.m

470.00

0.52

0.50

0.49

7.

Coarse Agg.(20 mm Size)

Cu.m

470.00

0.78

0.75

0.74

8.

Water

Kg

0.00

153

157.5

156

9.

Super plasticizer

Liter

30.00

Skilled

each

130.00

0.18

0.18

0.18

Unskilled

each

93.00

2.15

2.15

2.15

Vibrator(Needle type 40 mm)

each

50.00

50.00

50.00

50.00

Sundries

L.S>

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

1993.81

1870.26

1824.38

19.94

18.70

18.24

2013.75

1888.96

1842.63

201.38

188.90

184.26

2215.00

2078.00

2027.00

LABOUR:

Hire & Running Charges :


Mechanical Mixer 0.14 cubic
meter

Total
Water Charges @ 1%
-

Total
Contractor's Profit
& Overheads @ 10%
Cost per Cu.m of Conc.

G.Total

Report No. T(S)006

Table 15 Cost Analysis of M30 grade Concrete with Fly ash


Sl.
No.

ITEMS

UNIT

RATE

Fly ash

Fly ash

Fly ash

Fly ash

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

(in Rs.)

M30

M33

M34

M35

MATERIALS:
(including carriage)
1.

Cement

Kg

3.20

260

192.5

180

180

2.

Fly ash

Kg

0.50

82.5

120

180

5.

Fine Aggregate

Cu.m

490.00

0.69

0.70

0.69

0.63

6.

Coarse Agg.(10 mm Size)

Cu.m

470.00

0.51

0.52

0.51

0.47

7.

Coarse Agg.(20 mm Size)

Cu.m

470.00

0.77

0.78

0.77

0.70

8.

Water

Kg

0.00

134

130

128

133

9.

Super plasticizer

Liter

30.00

2.6

2.75

3.6

Skilled

each

130.00

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

Unskilled

each

93.00

2.15

2.15

2.15

2.15

Vibrator(Needle type 40 mm)

each

50.00

50.00

50.00

50.00

50.00

Sundries

L.S>

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

2137.18

1977.32

1949.91

1919.06

21.37

19.77

19.50

19.19

2158.55

1997.09

1969.41

1938.25

215.85

199.71

196.94

193.82

2374.00

2197.00

2166.00

2132.00

LABOUR:

Hire & Running Charges :


Mechanical Mixer 0.14 cubic meter

Total
Water Charges @ 1%
Total
Contractor's Profit

& Overheads @ 10%


Cost per Cu.m of Conc.

G.Total

Report No. T(S)006

Table 16 Cost Analysis of M40 grade Concrete with Fly ash


Sl.No.

ITEMS

UNIT

RATE

Fly ash

Fly ash

Fly ash

Fly ash

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

(in Rs.)

M40

M43

M44

M45

MATERIALS:
(including carriage)
1.

Cement

Kg

3.20

300

252

252

235

2.

Fly ash

Kg

0.50

108

168

235

5.

Fine Aggregate

Cu.m

490.00

0.70

0.66

0.62

0.60

6.

Coarse Agg.(10 mm Size)

Cu.m

470.00

0.52

0.49

0.46

0.45

7.

Coarse Agg.(20 mm Size)

Cu.m

470.00

0.78

0.73

0.69

0.67

8.

Water

Kg

0.00

130

138

148.5

152.5

9.

Super plasticizer

Liter

30.00

3.6

4.7

Skilled

each

130.00

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

Unskilled

each

93.00

2.15

2.15

2.15

2.15

Vibrator(Needle type 40 mm)

each

50.00

50.00

50.00

50.00

50.00

Sundries

L.S>

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

2291.00

2145.36

2137.38

2110.69

22.91

21.45

21.37

21.11

2313.91

2166.82

2158.76

2131.80

231.39

216.68

215.88

213.18

LABOUR:

Hire & Running Charges :


Mechanical Mixer 0.14 cubic meter

Total
Water Charges @ 1%
Total
Contractor's Profit
& Overheads @ 10%

Report No. T(S)006

Evaluation of the Measured Values:


On the basis of the results of various investigations into the durability of
cover concrete, the following procedure was defined for evaluating the
quality of cover concrete* with respect to its durability.
If the measurements are carried out on dry concrete (i.e. the concrete surface
has not been contact with water for about two weeks), the quality of the
cover concrete can be determined directly from the measured kT values as
given in Table 17:

Table 17 : Quality Classes of Cover Concrete


Quality of Cover Concrete
very bad
Bad
Normal
Good
Very good

Index
5
4
3
2
1

KT (10-16 m2)
>10
1.0-10
0.1-1.0
0.01-0.1
<0.01

* Torrent, R.J, Ebensberger L. Studie uber Methoden zur Messung und Beurteilung der
Kennwerte des Uberdeckkungsbetons auf der Bundesamt fur Strassenbau, Switzerland,
Research Contract No. 89/89, January 1993.

Report No. T(S)006

Figure 1 Scanning Electron Micrograph of Dadri fly Ash

Report No. T(S)006

Figure -2 X-Ray of Dadri Fly Ash

Report No. T(S)006

Compressive Strength in 7 & 28 Days


flyash

CS-7

CS-28

400
300

Kg/ cm2

Compressive Strength

cement

200
100
0

M20

M23

M24

235

196

180

flyash

84

120

CS-7

195

175

165

CS-28

360

340

325

cement

Concrete Mix

Figure 3 Compressive Strength of M20 grade Concrete


With 30%, 40% and Without Fly ash

Report No. T(S)006

Compressive Strength in 7 & 28 Days

Kg/cm2

Compressive Strength

Cement

Flyash

CS -7

CS-28

M30

M33

M34

M35

Cement

260

192.5

180

180

Flyash

82.5

120

180

CS -7

275

255

265

255

CS-28

440

430

425

430

500
400
300
200
100
0

Concrete Mix

Figure -4 Compressive Strength of M30 grade Concrete with


30%, 40%, 50% and Without Fly ash

Report No. T(S)006

Cement

Flyash

CS - 7

CS - 28

M40

M43

M44

M45

Cement

300

252

252

235

Flyash

108

168

235

CS - 7

380

285

295

280

CS - 28

570

565

550

530

600
500
400

Kg/cm2

Compressive Strength

Compressive Strength in 7 & 28 Days

300
200
100
0

Concrete Mix

Figure -5 Compressive Strength of M40 grade Concrete with


30%, 40%, 50% and Without Fly ash

Report No. T(S)006

Comprassive Strength in 7 & 28 Days


cement

flyash

CS-7

CS-28

500
400

Kg/cm

Compressive Strength
2

600

300
200
100
0
M20 M23 M24 M30 M33 M34 M35 M40 M43 M44 M45

Concrete Mix

Figure -6 Compressive Strength of M20, M30 and M40 grade


Concretes with Various Percentages of Fly ash

Report No. T(S)006

Discussion
M20 grade of concrete is lowest grade of concrete, which IS: 456-2000
recommends for use in reinforced concrete construction even for mild
exposure condition. Higher grade of concrete is used either due to higher
strength requirement or due to worse exposure conditions.
It is clear from the controlled test results shown in Table 13 that M20,
M30 and M40 grade plain concrete (i.e. without fly ash) can be produced
with less cement content than the minimum as suggested in IS: 456-2000 in
its table 5. In such situations, one has to either overlook the codal provisions
or use higher cement content. Higher compressive strength values may be
due to high grade of cement used and better controlled conditions in the
laboratory. Similarly in case of M30 and M40 grade, compressive strength
has been achieved with lower cement content. Replacing a suitable
percentage of cement by fly ash can fulfill minimum cement content
requirement.
The replacement of cement by fly ash in all the three grades of concrete
shows that 28 day strength can be achieved when compared to control
concrete.
Fly ash concrete of all grades in Table - 13 has shown improved resistance
to chloride ion penetration and reduced water permeability. The use of fly
ash influences the physico chemical effects associated with pozzolanic and
cementitious reactions that result in pore size reduction and grain size
reduction phenomena. This affects the rheological behavior of fresh concrete
and the strength and durability of hardened concrete. Thus the resistance to
chloride ion penetration and reduced permeability can be derived from the
use of fly ash as supplementary cementing material.
Cost of fly ash concretes shown in Tables 14 - 16 are lower than the cost of
respective plain concrete. Thus, addition of fly ash in concrete, helps in
achieving the codal provisions improves durability and reduces the cost of
the product.

Report No. T(S)006

List of References

1. MRH Dunstan, MDA Thomas, JB Cripwell and DJ Harrison ;


Investigations into theLong Term In-situ Performance of High Flyash
concrete used for Structural Applications, ACI 132, p1-20 (1992)
2. RN Tarun and BW Ramme; High strength Concrete Containing Large
Quantities of Flyash, ACI Materials journal, p 111-116 (1989)
3. MN Hague, BW Langan and MA Ward High Flyash Concrete;
Journal of ACI p54-60 (1988)
4. WS Lanley, GG Carrette and VM Malhotra, Structural Concretes
Incorporating High Volumes Of ASTM Class F Flyash, ACI Materials
Journal p507-514 (1990)
5. VM Malhotra, GG carrette, A Bilodeau and V Sivasundaram, Some
Aspects of Durability of High Volumes of ASTM Class F Flyash
Concretes, MSL 90-20 (OP&J) a report by Mineral Sciences
Laboratories Division (1990)
6. RC Joshi, RP Lohtia and MA Salam, High strength Concrete with
High Volumes of Canadian Sub- Bituminous Caoal Flyash, 3rd
International Symposium on Utilization of High Strength Concrete,
Lilehammer, Norway (1993)
7. RC Joshi, RP Lohtia and MA Salam, Some Durability Related
Properties of Concrete Incorporating High Volumes of SubBituminous Coal Flyash, Proceedings of 3rd CANMET/ACI
International Conference on Durability of Concrete, Nice, France
p447-464 (1994)
8. N, Bouzoubaa, MH Zang and VM Malhotra, Laboratory Produced
High Volume Flyash Blended Cements Compressive Strength and
Resistance to the Chloride ion Penetration of Concrete, Cement and
Concrete, p1037-1046 (2000)
9. N. Bouzoubaa, A. Bilodeau, V. Sivasundaram, B. Fournier and DM .
Golden, Development of Ternary Blends for High Performance
Concrete, Cement and Concrete, p19-29 (2004)

Nandi & Associates


Associates (P) Ltd
Consulting Structural, Geo-technical, Arbitration & Valuation Engineers & Architects

;_tut
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Regd. Office : L 44 Bose Para Road,(Ground Floor & First Floor Annexe), Kolkata 700 084
Corporate Office : 6, Church Lane, (First Floor Left Annexe), Kolkata 700 001
Laboratory : 221/23, Kachari Bazar, Baruipur, 24 Parganas (S), West Bengal
Phone Nos. (033) 2430 3019 / 2410 3087 / (0) 9433220022 / (0) 9830494394 / (0)9831308617 / (0)9932296449 / (0)9231519975
Email : nandi_and_associates@yahoo.com
nandi.and.associates@gmail.com

years of rigorous engineering experience this consultant have not seen any OPC having a specific gravity
anything other than 3.15/3.16. The indication of a specific gravity of 2.95 clearly shows the presence of any
pozzolan blending making the weighted average specific gravity as 2.95 due to the lighter pozzolan materials
of specific gravity in the order of 2.45/2.50 !! The faculty of a such primer institute did not notice this is
astonishing & shameful in respect of their accreditation in the Indian Engineering Community !!
Any way this companys laboratory testing division a NABL accredited laboratory can do these tests as &
when considered necessary. Else in case you are keen for an institutional engagement Jadavpur University,
Kolkata can be entrusted for this purpose under this consultant, who incidentally is a full time professor of the
same university considered to be a centre of excellence in Eastern India.
In case of any further confirmation the tests as stated in Item Nos. 9, 10, 6, 7 & 8 can be performed.
It has been further stated that Fitchner Consulting Engineers (FCE) are always advising for mixing fly ash in
the mix to reduce heat of hydration and other reactivity related issues. The undersigned consultant draws his
conclusion in the same line as them for the following reasons ;
1. For a sustainable development the idea of replacing OPC with fly-ash is the ideal as the quantity of
limestone & gypsum the main ingredients of OPC production are limited in Nature & would become
extinct in the near future. Hence if we do not reduce the production of OPC today our next generation
would be left with no limestone & gypsum deposits for OPC production !
2. Next a tonne of OPC is produced 1.12 tonnes of carbon dioxide are produced, due to calcination of
calcium carbonate which is a green house gas adding to the global warming.
3. Further fly ash when replaced for cement apart from achieving economy being available free at the
Thermal Power Plants, converts a pollution menace, a waste product into a worthy asset.
4. Due to higher fineness it fills the inter-particular spaces of the cement in concrete making a denser &
in turn a tougher cured concrete.
5. The hydration reaction of fly ash unlike OPC is not exothermic & due to lower heat generation the
formation of drying shrinkage & plastic shrinkage cracks are minimized.
6. The fly ash particles are more or less round in shape & as such they have a ball bearing effect in green
concrete adding to its flow ability measured in terms of slump making it more pump-able with lower or
even nil dosage of admixtures (WRA/PCE based).
7. In the case of fly ash concrete the degree of replacement as prescribed in IS : 3812 is to the extent of
35%, but ASTM / Euro Codes / ACI / BS permits replacement even up to 50 %. This consultant has
experimented replacement to the extent of 60 % with very good results. This is being supported in a
recent Australian Code of Practice. The strength gain in these types of concrete continues even up to
120 days of casting. Hence here instead of 28 days characteristic strength we use the concept of 56 days
characteristic strength. In case the activity of striking of forms / shutters has enough float the chances
of the project to suffer in time does not occur.

Our Motto : LABORE OMNIA VINSCENS (Hard work conquers all)


Any Civil / Construction Engineer in distress at a remote site : Try our Construction Problems Help Line at

(0)9433220022

7 days X 24 Hours

Nandi & Associates


Associates (P) Ltd
Consulting Structural, Geo-technical, Arbitration & Valuation Engineers & Architects

;_tut
_tut gx|z W|||<
Regd. Office : L 44 Bose Para Road,(Ground Floor & First Floor Annexe), Kolkata 700 084
Corporate Office : 6, Church Lane, (First Floor Left Annexe), Kolkata 700 001
Laboratory : 221/23, Kachari Bazar, Baruipur, 24 Parganas (S), West Bengal
Phone Nos. (033) 2430 3019 / 2410 3087 / (0) 9433220022 / (0) 9830494394 / (0)9831308617 / (0)9932296449 / (0)9231519975
Email : nandi_and_associates@yahoo.com
nandi.and.associates@gmail.com

This consultant has designed various Mix Designs where there has been replacement of OPC by fly ash from
30 % to 50 %. The fly ash concrete at NALCO, Angul for the raft foundation of the 220.0 M tall chimney at
CPP was done by this consultant. M/s GDCL were the contractors for the project with M/s MECON the
consultants.
Futher this consultant has designed an impermeable concrete using a 50 % replacement of OPC with fly ash at
EVAPORATION PLANT PACKAGE FOR ALUMINA REFINERY PHASE II EXPANSION AT NALCO,
DAMANJODI
On January 12, 2009, NALCO organized a Workshop on USE OF FLY ASH IN CEMENT CONCRETE
at Bhubaneswar, Orissa where this consultant was invited as the main speaker. The Seminar was attended by
dignitaries from all sections of society, including the Chief Conservator of Forest, Ministry of Environment &
Forest, Govt. of India, Mr. Jai Krishna Tewari, IFS, the Engineer in Chief cum Secretary Public Works,
Govt. of Orissa, Mr. S. K. Ray, et al. The press release of the programme is attached in another PDF file for
ready reference.

Besides these this consultant has designed numerous Concrete Mixes in India & abroad
where fly ash has been used as an extensive replacement of OPC, prime amongst them are
Teesta Low Dam Project III & IV Rambhi & Kalijhora, West Bengal, Chuzachen HEP,
Rongli, East Sikkim, Teesta Urja Ltd, (Teesta Stage III), at Chunthang, Sikkim, Subansiri
Lower HEP, Auranachal Pradesh & Dhemaji dist. Assam & Jinghong Dam HEP on River
Mekong & Lancang in South East China.
Hence in case the consultants to the project M/s. Fitchner Consulting Engineers urges BHEL to use a fly ash
mixed concrete the undersigned consultant can give service in designing such mixes. Please make sure you get a
fly ash source where fly ash can be collected fresh from the last hopper of the ESP with a good fineness /
specific surface.
Thanking you in anticipation & with sincere regards,

Prof. S. Nandi
Hony. Principal Consultant, NAPL
&
Professor, Construction Engineering, Jadavpur University.
Dated January 24, 2009

Our Motto : LABORE OMNIA VINSCENS (Hard work conquers all)


Any Civil / Construction Engineer in distress at a remote site : Try our Construction Problems Help Line at

(0)9433220022

7 days X 24 Hours

Following views have been taken from website of TURNER FAIRBANK HIGHWAY RESEARCH CENTRE:US
Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration

To ensure the quality of fly ash to be used in Portland cement concrete, the following sources of ash
should be avoided:
1. Ash from a peaking plant instead of a base loaded plant.
2. Ash from plants burning different coals or blended coals.
3. Ash from plants using fuel oil as supplementary fuel.
4. Ash from plants using precipitator additives, such as ammonia.
5. Ash from start up or shut down phases of operation.
6. Ash from plants not operating at a steady state.
7. Ash that is handled and stored using a wet system
A broad list of properties of a fly ash concrete mixes are:

Workability: At a given water-cement ratio, the spherical shape of most fly ash particles permits
greater workability than with conventional mixes. When fly ash is used, the absolute volume of
cement plus fly ash usually exceeds that of cement in conventional concrete mixes. The
increased ratio of solids volume to water volume produces a paste with improved plasticity and
more cohesiveness (Halstead Woodrow J. Use of fly ash in concrete. National cooperative
highway research program synthesis of highway practice no 127, Transportation research board,
Washington DC, 1986)

Time of Setting: When replacing up to 25% of Portland cement in concrete, All Class F fly ashes
and most of Class C fly ashes increase the time of setting. However, some class C fly ashes may
have little effect on, or possibly even decrease, the time of setting. Delays in setting time
probably be more pronounced, compared with conventional concrete mixes, during the cooler
or colder months (Halstead Woodrow J. Use of fly ash in concrete. National cooperative highway
research program synthesis of highway practice no 127, Transportation research board,
Washington DC, 1986).

Bleeding: bleeding is usually reduced because of greater volume of fines and lower required
water content for a given degree of workability (Halstead Woodrow J. Use of fly ash in concrete.
National cooperative highway research program synthesis of highway practice no 127,
Transportation research board, Washington DC, 1986).

Strength Development: Previous studies of fly ash concrete mixes have generally confirmed
that most mixes that contain class F fly ash that replaces Portland cement at 1:1 ratio gain
compressive strength as well as tensile strength more slowly than conventional concrete mixes
for up to as long as 60 to 90 days. Beyond 60 to 90 days, class F fly ash concrete mixes will
ultimately exceed the strength of conventional Portland concrete mixes (American coal ash
association. Fly ash facts for highway engineers Federal highway administration, Report no
FHWA-SA-94-081, Washington DC, 1995). For mixes with replacement ratios from 1.1:1 to 1.5:1
by weight of class F fly ash to the Portland cement that is being replaced, 28 day strength
development is approximately equal to that of conventional concrete.
Class C fly ashes often exhibit a higher rate of reaction at early ages than Class F fly ashes. Some
class C fly ashes are as effective as Portland cement in developing 28- day strength (Cook James
E, A ready mix concrete companys experience with class C ash. National Ready Mix Concrete
Association, Publication no 163, Silver Spring, Maryland, April, 1981). Both class C and class F fly
ashes are beneficial in the production of high strength concrete. However the American
Concrete Institute (ACI) recommends that class F fly ash replace from 15% to 25% of the
Portland cement and class C fly ash replace from 20% to 35 % (ACI 211-4R-93).

Pumpability: Pumpability is increased by the same characteristics affecting workability,


specifically, the lubricating effect of the spherical fly ash particles and the increased ratio of
solids to liquid that makes the concrete less prone to segregation.

Heat of Hydration: The initial impetus for using fly ash in concrete stemmed from the fact that
the more slowly reacting fly ash generates less heat per unit of time than the hydration of faster
reacting Portland cement. Not only is the risk of thermal cracking is reduced, but greater
ultimate strength is attained in concrete with fly ash because of pozzolanic reaction (Halstead
Woodrow J. Use of fly ash in concrete. National cooperative highway research program synthesis
of highway practice no 127, Transportation research board, Washington DC, 1986). Class F fly
ashes are generally more effective than the class C fly ashes in reducing the heat of hydration.

Sulphate Resistance: Class F fly ash will generally increase the sulphate resistance of any
concrete mixture in which it is included (Hester, J A Fly ash in roadway construction,
Proceedings of the first ash utilization symposium. US Bureau of mines, information circular no
8348 Washington DC, 1967, pp 87-100). Some class C fly ashes may also improve sulphate
resistance, while others may actually reduce sulphate resistance (Dunstan, E R, Jr, A possible
method for identifying fly ashes that will improve sulphate resistance of concrete, Cement
concrete and aggregates, Vol 2, No 1, American Society for Testing and Materials, West
Conshohoken, Pennsylvania, 1980) and accelerate deterioration (Helmuth, Richard. Fly ash in
cement and concrete. Portland Cement Association, Publication no SP040.01T, Skokie, Illinois,
1987). Class C fly ashes should be individually tested before using in a sulphate environment.