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* i; cinni
ABDUCTIONslfi,lPIY *E :, a' 'a'a-:

... : ',rw"*- a hoax' u*Pt#jll*-

o,n H9;ll-.***
::::: ::' :: 'l

A DETUDI ffi " *F*#irs*H#

tu r fu b e k

! in (JFO.Iinked,iw:idcnt
E he incredible and terrifying events bolt of energy' strike :":i:ing
o *Xi,,i*lt**lii,sr.i+L.l:,1r",.j-..."r-"""r,r*I,*r----
that unfolded on the evening of walron'sback.panicking. **,'{'_^:;k
1"::- i"*: -i-;];;,'ii;:i, *"#il*}'tii$},?f#
5 November 1975 were to shatter the Rogersinstantly floored " 'r:';'*ji'i,$.;r"i'y.l;t'i:
.9 t:::*,'*r';;r*-';;l'"'i:.:
q lives of Travis Walton and his six col- the accelerator and drove away.A few
leasues. As they drove home to Snor{lake, hundred metres down the road, realizing he A The vost pine forests of
,\-izona, after working in the forest, the crew had left his friend for dead, Rogers drove Arizono wos lhe setting

noticed a strange, bright light comine down back, only to see the spaceship rise rapidly for the firsl ever
thlough the trees.As the truck screeched to into the sky and disappear. Walton was wilnessed olien obduclion.
a lialt. \\hlton and his colleagueswere con- nowhere to be seen. Newspopers (inset)
fiontecl rvith an awesomesight. reported how Trovis
o '\\l.rer-r\re got around the trees,we all saw F A C IN G A MU R D E R C H A R GE Wolton disoppeored in
the solrrce of the light - boom - less than After five days and a massivepolice search, front of his colleogues ond
100 feet a\{a\.a rnetallicdisc hovering in the there was still no sign of Walton. But,.just as wos nol seen for neorly o
air, glon'ine.' \\ alton recalls. the police were aboul to charge the crew week. For over 2O yeors,
His more calrtious friends remained in rvith murder, Walton reappeared. the only explonolion for
the truck rvhile the irnpetuous Walton He was discovered naked in a phone whot hoppened to Wolton
leaped out and ran to\\'ards the craft. He booth on the outskirts of town, seriously remoins his own - he is
did not want to miss the chance of seeingit dehydrated, delirious and half dead. convinced he wos
up close.As he stood almost beneath it, his Finally, after months of recovery, he was kidnopped by oliens.
bravery left him. He turned to run back to able to remember fragrnents of what had
the truck. He never made it. happened. He recalled being taken inside a
Mike Roeers, the crew boss, saw a 'blue space craft. 'I was lyinu on a table... I saw
The abduction phenomenon, which is
characterized by specific and highly distinc-
tive episodes reported consistently by thou-
sands of people from around the world, is
generally a modern occurrence, confined
lo the post-warperiod

Researchers now acknowledge that the
abduction phenomenon began on 20
September 1961. Betty and Barney Hill were
driving through New Hampshire around
midnight when they spotted a 'pancake-
shaped object with two rows of windows'
which appeared to be following them.
Eventually, Barney pulled off the highway
and crept to within 25 metres of 'an enor-
mous ring-shaped craft with projected fins
and whirring red lights' in the air.
Terrified, the Hills sped off, but moments
afterwards, the car began vibrating. Then
they heard an unusnal beeping sound, and a
haze seemed to fall over them. Later, when
the Hills arrived home, thev discovered that
several strange creatures standing over me.
I became completely hysterical and flipped
out. I knocked them away,but I f'elt so weak 33 r$
I collapsed. They forced me back on the Abducfions profoundly
table, placed a mask over my face and I offect the lives of those
blacked out.' who experience them. The
suffered nightmores for effects ore lroumqtic ond
before hypnosis distur bing, but they o l s o
dElnils of What is significant about the Travis Walton cqn be fr onsfor m ing
Afler hypnosis, case is that it is one of the few abductions
Dr JohnMock, Psychiotrist
remembered the olien observed by independent witnesses.It is
q l\
irnd rhe stqr also unusual because Walton was missing
for five days. In most contemPorary cases, ,,
the abduction experience lasts for only both their watches were two hours slow.
a few hours. They could not remember rvhat had hap
Over the years, sceptics have tried to pened to them in the'missing' two hours.
debunk Walton's claims. The rarity of abduc- Afterwards, both were plagued by dis-
tion reports in the 1970s,meant Walton and turbing dreams. Eventually, they agreed to
his friends were subjected undergo a technique known as hypnotic
to years of ridicule and regression therapy to discover what had
accusations of trickery. Yet happened to them.
: .. all the men subsequently Hypnotic regression allows subconscious
.':j passedlie-detector testsand or buried memories to emerge. Under hyp-
,n^. case has.withstood years nosis, the Hills described being taken on
^€ of rigorousinvestigation. board the UFO 'by bald-headedalien beings,
€o about five foot tall, with greyish skin, pear
shaped heads and slanting cat-like eyes.'
Betty in particular provided a vivid picture
of what seemed to have taken place during
the period of 'missing time'. She remem-
bered being subjected to a medical examina-
a : -.... ::::::t;a.aar.:a.r
tion. She said samples of tissue were taken
{ Whitley Striebercloimsto hove been
obductedin t985. In his book Communion
he describeshow he wos 'mentollyond
physicollyroped' by his obducrors.In his
sequeflronsformalion, Sfriebersoys the
oliensore in foct trying to help Monkind.

soon discredited, but their fabrications put

the credibility of UFO research back years.
It took unti l l he earl y 1980sbel ore f ir sr t he
UFO community and then the public were
taking claims of alien abduction seriously.

In.fune 1992, the Massachusetts Institute of
Technologv (MIT) chaired the Abduction
Study Conference. This lvas the first scien-
tific debate on alien abduction and was an
attempt to allow the leadins investigators to
presentthei r evi dencearrdprovi de a f ior um
fcrrseri orrssci ent i fic di scussi on. tta
Attending the MIT conference were three
of rhe w orl d' s l eadi ng cxperts whose
researchprovidesmuch of rhe evidencesup-
porting the alleeed reality of alien abduc-
tion. Budd Hopkins is responsible for much
of the pioneering investigationsinto abduc-
tion. Dr DavidJacobs, associateprofessor of
Historlr at Temple Universiq', has been inves-
tigating UFOs for 25 r'ears.Ard chairing the
abduction conference rvasperhaps the most
o influerrtial acaclernicto join the abduction
c:rnp. Dr John E. Mack, prof-essor of
o'riutrv at Harvard Medical School, and a ,
P rrli rzel P l i zc tr i rrrrer' .

and a long needle was insertecl into hcr navel

as part of what she called a'preenancv test'.
She was also shown a star nrap of Zeta {4f&a*Fe*PJe&ecalJ
Reticuli. Betty believed the aliens u,'ere shcil.-
' =---- I1!!11!asu,urd,r aprr zo rs"
ing her where they came from. Sy W,4'LTli
The charactcristic nature of' abduction attractseffout
cases,which started rvith the Hills in the
19[r0s,contrasts sharply tvith the notorious
and colourful events described by various
people, known as 'contactees',whose dubi- L":',ll-i'-*'ti"rys*".,
ous encotrnters with aliens filled the
-\nelican tabloids in the 1950s.
Tl-refirst and most famous contactee was
Ceorse Adamski, who claimed to have been
visited bv various humanlike aliens who j,t:i::l

gave him riclesin UFOs to Venus,Mars and

Saturn. Adamski and other contacteeswerc'




One of the outcomes of the conference

was the realization that a huge range of dii t
ferent people had described the same tJpe of
abduction procedure, fhe same details about --***'nl,
what they are subjected to and the same type
of aliens involved. To abduction researchers, *:#
this was strong evidence that abduction is a
reality. If alien abduction was some form of
delusion, the accounts would be fantasy dri- ll:
ven and thus differ wildly. Yet they all fall into :,li
similar and repeated patterns. €:
"i-i' i
When inside the craft, abductees are under
the total control of the aliens. They are usu-
ally asked to strip, placed on a table and
subjected to often painful and frightening
types of invasive surgery. Once returned,
most people's memories of the events have

somehow been wiped clean and cannot be
accessedwithout hypnosis. i .-
Dr Mack cites evidence from several of
his cases.He says,'there are several types of
physical evidence fbr abduction: people
return with fully healed scarson their bod-
ies that were not present the day before.
Also, strange implants... are located on
CAI scans; some have even been removed
and examined.'
So far, chemical analysis of the implants
show that they are made up elements found
on earth. A colleague of Dr Mack's, a
nuclear biologist, ran tests on one implant
taken from the nose ofan alleged abductee.
The implant was not a naturally occurring

'biological subject' bltt nrav hale been a

manufacturecl fibre.
Sceptics maintain that no leliable evi-
dence for abducti on exi sts otrtsicle t he
'l- victim's imagir-ration.T1-rearea that receives
t the heaviestcriticism h:rs been the process
::r g by which hidden rnernories are extracted
using hypnotic regressiontechniques.

Kevin McClure, a member of The Society

:l for Ps,vchicalResearch, claims that man)'
of Horvord soid rhot abduction researchersusinp; hypnosis are
:::l .
fqihd to conform lo iL not qualifiecl psychologists. And McCh.rre
slqndords of accusesthose who are qualilied of implant-
's lowyer ing memories - encouraging victims to
His superiore were oulrcgd recount details that support the abduction
when he published his book scenario by asking leading questions.
Abduction: Humon Encanders McClure also states that False Memorv
with Aliens in 1994. lhe Den Syndrome (FMS) may be responsible for
explaining abductees' reports. FMS is a ctis- But none of these theories cut any ice
order where a memory has been created bv with researchers like Hopkins, Jacobs or
o the subconscious to replace some child- Mack. To them, the evidence for alien
hood trauma, such as sexual abuse. Sceptics abduction overwhelms any psychological
i: of alien abduction argue that many reasonsput forward by rhe sceptics.
abductees are subconsciouslyusing an alien Researchers are positive that Travis
E abduction experience
as a screen to hide a
Walton was not suffering from any mental
I traumatic experience from their past. illness when he rvas abducted. AIso, it is
.9 unlikely that all six of Walton's colleagues
p would have had hallucinations of their
Psychologist Susan Blackmore claims that fiiend's alien abduction at the same time.
abduction experiences can be atificially
#ffi 1& r

6 induced by stimulation of the temporai

- o
lobes (an area of the brain that
- I hove not come ocross lhe
ii, , r-:- plat's a role in the stor-
:.; i- phenom enon of obduction s by
a g e o f memo)' ). Thrs
\4 lfrEtfr
< * a F1 qliens except os q delusi onql
theorv \\ras demon-
strated by a Canaclian- belief of someone suffering
based research tearn from schizophrenio
who designed a device Dr SueDovidson,Psychotheropist
A Sceptics hove
exploined owoy the
fypicol sinister portrcits
of oliens os simply
that generatecl a mag-
netic field which, when applied to the back
of the brain, stimulated an alien abduction
experience in someone lvho has never
And the lie-detector tests show that they
believed they saw Walton's abduction.
modern imoges of claimed to have had orrc. Over-active imaginations and temporal
demons ond evil spirits Albert Budden, author of Allergies and lobes cannot explain the physical scars on
thot hove olwoys been Aliens, has a similar explanation. He is abductees' bodies or the implants taken
presenf in folklorc. convinced that alien abduction is caused by From thei r bocl i es. N ow . U FOl ogi sr s ar e
However, the implonts electromagnetic pollution. Budden believes introducing the theory that rhe butchered
(inser) cloimed to hqve that the electromagnetic radiation in the carcassesof livestock are further evidence
been extrscted from atmosphere is strong enough to affect the that aliens are conducting a planet-wide
obductees' brqins temporal lobes of abductees' brains, caus- experiment. This link has yet
suggest thot obduction ing an alien-abduction-like experience. 'It is to be proven.
is very reol. clear,' he states,'that all abductees are elec-
trically hypersensitive,and that their experi-
ences are a symptom of their allergic reac- In the next issue, WO FILE examines the
tions to an exposure to electromagnetic carcosses
of mutilated anirnals a,nd seeksto dis-
fields in the environment.' coueruthetheraliens are inuolaed.

: ...:;.-;1


A Stonehenge, on mons the many enigmas that sur- routes'Iaid out by line of sight. \\htkins
Solisbury Ploin, took round Stclnehenge,its relationship th.ought the leys had been modifiecl durins
roughly 3OO yeors with other prehistoric monlrments tlie Bronze and Iron Ages but hacl been for-
ro build, storting in sil{A-i{ili*is one of the most contentious. gotten by modern times. The nenlork of'
oround 2OOOBc. According to ley lir.rehunters, Stonehenge leys were accidentally preservecl as rrlallv
Why ir wos builr is is part of a 30-kmlong ley line. medieval churches were built on top of
not reolly known, but Ley lines (the proper term is actually pagan siteswhich were monllme llts on a ley'.
whot is undenioble is l e y s )a re i n v i s i b l ea l i g nmentsof l andmarks. :
Typical features on a ley include stone I FI c A N
the focr rhot it lines -!.1
up wifh onolher five circles, standing stones, pagan altars and Watkins' adoption of the term 'Ler-' lvas
prehistoric ond &burial sites. Churches, h<-rlywells, hill tops, from a Selxon word meaning 'a cleared
religious londmorks. cairns and even ancient trees can also be stretch of ground'. FIe was never happr'rvith
points on a ley. Mosl researchersagree the term and used it onlv for a limited
there must be dt least four markers within period of years, but it str,ick artd is used
15 km before an alignment of lanclmarks commonly today. After \'Vatkins' discover,v,
becomes a genuine ley. finding leys became an English national
It was.businessmanAlfred Watkins who pastime. But, although searching for leys
first mooted the concept of leys more than was populaq there was no agreelnent on the
75 years ago, after having a vision of a net- purpose of the alignments.
work of straight lines linking up landmarks Watkins' theory that leys \rere pre-
in his nadve Herefordshire. He believed historic trade routes was dismissed by
these alignments were Stone Age tracle They refused to believe that

I s outH W EST

Stone Age men had the technology to

build straight paths over long distances.
;::r: TumulusQ
And common sensedictates that travellers l*a:.

would follow the easiestroute, which is not $ll' .i'....i'iox.;

fOld Sorum
always in a straight line. Stone Age tech- lHti'Til corhedrot onolYsis.c
OCleorburY Ring ley, Invoft
nology, howeveq should not be dismissed
to o quic k ly .S t oneh e n g ew a sb u i l t s o th a t a r n'tffi', li;n:?;
d a wn on m ids um m e r mo rn i n g , 2 l J u n e . :.,t,:t::: i ,1,.:il
LEY l'l':il:
the sun rose over the'circlels Heel Stone.
'1,,:1,:, 'I
N th o ugh ley s m ay n o t b e l ra d e ro u te s . rri:::

there is evidence to showlthat Stone"Age

ma n d id hav e t he s ki l l to e re c r mo n u me n ts hunters, could be picked up by energy
th a t a ligned wit h ea c h o rh e r. dowsers.Others have gone further. After a
In t he 1960sand 7 0 s . l e v h u n re rs a n c l spate of UFO sightings in 1961, Tony
archeologists fell out rrhen researchers Wedd, a former RAF pilot, suggested leys
such as author.fohn Michell and dowser are lines of magnetic energy which alien
Tom Graves claimed that leys were chan- c raft tap i nro to refuel .
nels of a mystical earth power. They said These theories were rubbished by scien-
that prehistoric people were more aware of tists. Energy dowsers (unlike water and
th e i r own ps y c hicab i l i ri e sa n d c o u l d s e n s e mineral dowsers) have not put themselves
the earth power so brlitt monuments on up to rigorous scientific testing. And no
th e l e y s .T his ear t h p o w e r.c l a i me d rh e l e y scientific equipment has been able to
came from author and film maker Tonv
Morrison, 'who . has explored Sor,rth
A meri ca and has hecome an exper t or r it s
mythology. He believes that.the straight
lines had a religious significan'ie lor the
peopl e w ho drew them.
Morrison has made extensive studies of
I the N azcal i nes and of areasi n B ol ivia.just
i on the other side of the Andes mountains
from P eru. U si ng i nfra-red su r veying
equi pment. he rel i gi ous m onu-
-studi ed
'o ments i n B ol i vi a' sA ymaran regi on. He dis- ''
covered that many religious monuments
A Whqt mokes the re c o rd a n y my s te ri o u s force emanati ng lvere ir-rperfect alignment - sodre of these
Nozco lines so lrom the earth. alignments were over 30 krn long. The
remorkoble is thor they So, rather than look for some 'magical' l ocal A vmaran Indi ans cal l ed the se lines
con only be seen from explanation for the significance of the leys, si q' i s (meani ng strai ghl l i nes of holy
the oir. Drowings such ley hunters sought out alignments.from pl aces).One ol d w oman sai d to Mor r ison
os the humming bird around the world to see if other cultures SF
con seen ot orcund l5O thought straightlines were special. e @ rt
mefres obove lhe
DE S E RT_M4S TJRP T E CE s We qre so good ot
deseri. The.geometric
pr oiecting our focile not i ons
shopes ond stroight T h e my s te ri o u sl i n e s d raw n on the desert
lines (which run for over floor in the Nazca region of Peru are per-
on fo the fqce of our plonet:
3 km) ore besi seen ot haps the world's most famous linear mark- we or e less skilled ot seei ng
obove 45O melres. i n g s . Be c a u s eo f th e i rn i que cl i mati c and whqf deep sec#etsifs qncient
geological conditions in the desert, the , londscope con r eveol
animals.birds and geometric shapesdrawn P oul D eve'eux, Ley H l n'e.
V Monlgomery ley, on
rhe Welsh border, is one
of the less cleor-cut leys.
on the desert floor have survived for cen-
tu ri e'ss- a s mu c b a s 1 ,5 0 0years.A s for thei r
significance,no-one really knows for sure.. that the siq'is were 'spirit paths'.
The phofogroph of 5r Author Eric von Dziniken proposed that , To ley hunters, this was the clne to the
Nicholos' (right) is roken th e l i n e s w e re l a n d i n g gui des for U FOs. true significance of alignments. Straight
fiom Monlgomery Costle But, if aliens had the technology to cross lines, whether physical (as in the Nazca
looking south on lo on th e v a s tn e s so f s p a c e . i t i s unl i kel y they l i nes) ' or i nvi si bl e (as i n the l i nes b er ween
oligned roqd. The losl would have needed the Nazca desert as a t-Wo points on a ley), were important
poinl on rhe ley is a landing strip. A'more probable answer b€cause their planners believed them to
crossroods, proving thot
ley hunring cqn be q
t€nuous discipline.


Monlgomery GosrleQ
sr Nicholos'
i tvtorrrgo-"" s
Aligned nood i




be pathways ofthe 4ead. .v
This-mythology is common all round
th e w o rl d . T h e C h i n e se bel i eve i n the
a n c i e n t p ra c ti c e o f fe n g shui w hi ch states
that a straight landscape'allows. the easy
passageof evil spirits.
The,.iDutch have evidence that associ-
aies ghosts with straight paths. They have
physical remnants gf medieval death roads
(doodwegen) , ghoit roads (spokenwegen)
and corpse roads (lykyy*egen). These were
straight roads where the dead were taken
l o c e me te ri e s . R e s e a rc herJohn P al mer
fo u n d l e g a l l y b i n d i n g oaths i n H ol l and
fro m th e M i d d l e Ag e s th at suaranteedthe
carriage of the dead'in straight lines only
along death roads.
this trance, shamen believed they flew to
CORPSE WAYS the spi ri t w orl d. Ley researchersbelieve
In GMapy and Britain, there is evidence that the alignments all over the world are
r The theory of leys, of 'church paths' or ',corpseways' where representations of the shamen flight into
first discussed in Alfred ' the dead were carried over specially made the spi ri t w orl d.
Wqtkins' The Ley straight tracks to a cemetery or burial
' Hunler's /|lonucl in the , srbund. The tracks became sacred. TH E WAY A H TA D FOR LEYS
l92Os, hos chonged L e y h u n te rs th i n k the roots of spi ri r- Ley researchers now dismiss the New Agp.*
dromoticolly. The ideo : path myths from around the world come 'i:.
earth energy theories ffom the 1960s and.
of leys being.sources of from the traditions of shamen. These 70s. In doing so, they have tregun to mend
energy puf lhe serious w e re l h e tri b a l me d i c i n e men and w i tch- the bridge with professional archeologists.
ley reseorchGrs back 2O doctors of western Europe, Asia and the Danny Sullivan, editor of The Lq Hunter
yeorc. lf is only now, Americas. Slramen were known to take magazi ne,bel i evesthe younger breed of
when ley hunlers ore p l a n ts th a t ma d e th e m hal l uci nate. archeologists are starting to work closer
looking for historicol Anthropologist Marlence Dobkin de Rois with seriousley hunters, Iooking for arche-
focts, lhoi ley hunring is believes these plants would induce a ological and anthropological evidence not
being token more .tra n c e -l i k es ta l e .w h e re th e shamanw oul d just of leys but of our prehistoric pasl s
seriously by experts. have an out-of-body experience. During asa whole. ffi




enny Randles' fascination with the paranormal In her seaside homeJenny speaks candidly and with
began in the 1960s when, as a teenager, she was passion about her work, and explains how her interest
unsatisfied with the incomplete rurswers science in the paranormal stemmed from early encounters
P.#.# provided for unexplained phenomena. She with unexplained phenomena which, at the time, were
saved up money from delivering newspapers to join almost taken for granted.
the British UFO Research Organization (BUFORA),
and later became one of the group's investigators.
Since I rr'asa child I was aware of abilities, such
Between 1981 and l993,Jenny became BUFORA
as ESP,through my grandmother. She alwaysturned
Director of Investigations, where she helped to devise
and establish an authoritative code of practice for up at our home when somebody was ill - shejust
paranormal researchers. knew. I didn't really think there was anything strange
Today, Jenny is a respected author and researcher on about it. I was too young to think in terms of
many unexplained phenomena. She has written over 'normal' and 'paranormal'; I thought everyone cor-rld
30 books on subjects as diverse as spontaneous human do it. I was also brought up in the Rossendale\/alley.,
combustion and time travel. In 1996 south of Burnley in Lancashire - an area that has
she made a documentary about since become known as 'UFO Alley' because of the
UFO research for the BBC and is number of sightings. But it was actually on a famil'r'
the consultant for ITVos Strange But
trip to Blackpool that I saw my first UFO - a series of
Tiue? seies.
strange lights in the sky. I knew what I san'rvasreal
and was later able to verifizfrom nen'spaper reports
{ Jenny Rondles' mosl recenl that there had been other witnessesto the everlt too.
book deols wirh olleged UFO
croshes oround the world. Did the UFO sighting influence your choice
Alwoys coreful lo present of coreer?
?wo sides lo every slory, her Yes.I trained to be a science teacher, but I for-rnd
bolonced, rotionsl opprooch myself questioning the answerssciencegave for the
hqs won her respect from things I had witnessed.So, in October 1972 I joined
fons qnd critics olike. the investigative team of BUFORA. In 1976, I was
organizing a BUFORA conference in Birmingham and
saw a book for sale on UFOs that was badly researched You've qlso reseorched qlien qbducfions.
and badly written. The author, an American, was going Whqt's your view on this conlnoversiql oreo?
to write next about the British UFO experience, based Something is definitely happening, but I'm not sure
only on press cuttings. I was appalled that someone that it's alwayslittle green men whisking people off
with such limited knowledge of the subject could do into space.I believe the abduction experience is
this, and wrote off to his publisher to say so. Most investigatedin avery'either... or' manner:
publishers would have thrown my letter in the bin. This investigators, skeptics, scientists - whoever - tend to see
one invited me to write the book. It was pure luck. claims of abduction as either an alien kidnapping or a
hallucination, which is a very narrow set of parameters
Hqve you reqched ony firm conclusions on to work with. Rather than looking for evidence of an
lhe exislence of UFOs- do you think, for external third party, like an alien craft, investigators
exomple, there qre cover-ups go:ng on? should concentrate more on the 'internal' phenomena
\A/hile conspiracy theories can be very compelling, I - the beliefs of the individuals concerned in abduction.
think it highly unlikely that there's global secrecyon The frequency and similarities in people claiming to
the subject - someone would have spilt the beans by have been abducted by aliens leads me to think that
now if there was indisputable there is a kind of global psychosis
evidence out there. I think there is
a cover-up of ignorance, rather €# DespitetheFreedomof
going on, a sharedconsciousness.
the origins of which could be
than suppression of the truth. If terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial.
governments are interested in Information Act, papers are This isn't to saythat abduction
UFOs - as I believe the evidence beingwithheld.I{o rational claims are alwaysimagination-
shows- it's because they want personcan claim there'sno there is definitely something
accessto that technology for goaernnxentcouer-up fascinating going on which science
military and commercial use. just doesn't yet understand.
Intelligence agencieswould nr
therefore have an interest in
== Do you think lhere's ony
keeping any information they might have secret from weight to qbducfion testimonies gcined
each other, but as yet I don't think they have any hard from hypnotic regression methods?
evidence to keep secret. They're as much in the dark I'm very suspicious of the regression techniques used
as most people, and it's this ignorance - this lack of to extract evidence of alien abduction. Indeed, in
evidence - that's covered up. 1988 I was instrumental in arrangine a moratorium

Do you think certqin UFOlogisrsore keen to

perpetuote the myfh of cover-ups?
Yes,sometimes they are. Conspiracy theories are
perpetuated by the commercial end of the UFO
community, keen to turn out dramatic stories and
cash in on the current climate of suspicion and
paranoia. This sensationalism creates a real danger
where any old rubbish can get published ro boost
salesand ratings. Then, if the story is later
discredited, it helps to demean serious research.
This is the opposite of the cover-up of ignorance - it
is the active marketing of nonsense. Both add to the
pool of misinformation and disinformation
surrounding UFOs.
Whilst BUFOR{ is a sober research group whose
work I largely respect, the dangers of commercialism
were becoming apparent and it's one of the reasons
why I have now left their council.
The power politics that appeared on the horizon
scared me. However, there are some excellent people
within BUFORA whose ideals I support, and I remain
a loyal member of the association.Indeed, I'm
optimistic that today's council will see things more
clearlv in the future.
for BUFORA which banned its use - the only UFO How should poronormol reseqrch be
group in the world to do so. developed in the future?
There are dangers with regression hypnotherapy. I have found that emotion is the key to that question;
If you have someone who genuinely believes they that often paranormal phenomena are triggered by
have been kidnapped by aliens, who visits a an emotional need in the subconsciousmind. Thus,
researcher who genuinely wants to prove that aliens in order for tests to be successful,you have to
abduct people, all kinds of self-fulfilling prophecies produce the emotional stimulus, The way to establish
can be established. It becomes easy,through these tests is by long-term co-operation with the
regression techniques and a individuals involved, ideall-vin
ce rtain line of que s ti o n i n g ,to association with psychologists or
generate 'memory' from fantasy. #€ 1s psychiatrists.
I know ofa researcher with no The danger is that Some people don't like the
medical backgrolnd who LlFOlogyis slipping from the involvement of doctors. It makes
hypnotized a six-year-oldalleged gresp of the UPO cornmunity them thi nk that they are i nsane.
abductee in the US, which I think and becominga plaything or that we - as researchers- are
is totally unethical. of marketforces doubting their saniry. However,
The dangers were also most witnessesare certainly
highlighted by the so-called satanic sincere and not mentally deluded.
child abuse casesa few years ago - ## Psychologistshelp to keep things
when the evidence for allegations was later proved balanced and objective.
to result from suggestivemethods of regressive My own specialist area is investigating claims of
hypnotism. A lot of damage was done to many paranormal experiences, and the psychologists I
families as a result of spurious evidence obtained work with are dedicated to understanding the
by these methods. workings of the human psyche. Often we attempt to
discover the truth behind paranormal experiences
Why hos reseqrch into the pqrqnormql by investigating the individual's belief in that
generolly fqiled lo come up with definirive experience. It can take months, even years - I've
qnSwers? been working with one alleged abductee since the
Becausethe laboratory experiments that have been mid 1970s;it all depends on the person involved.
devised just don't stimulate people. In the real world The mind will give up information at its own rate.
you see casesof ESP happening when it needs to You can force information out by intrusive
occur - in times of danger or distress,for example. techniques like hypnotherapy, but I believe it's best
This is what we should be concentrating on. Scientific fbr people to confront and understand therr
experiments in labs have failed to provide conclusive experiences in their own time. Real memory,
answers, so we have to find a new way. We need to how ever l ong i t takesto arri ve. w i ns over
perfect experiments that work in the real world. stimulated hypnotic memory any day.
,l ' i :..: i,


- xi
aptain James T. Kirk steps up have to scan every atom in his -: -t:g
. i .-E ;
to the transporteq nods at body. However, there are roughly
his chief engineer, and says 10" in total (that is, 1 followed by LA\^/RENC ENCE

re the fateful words: 'Energize, 28 zeros). Quite apart from the w@ M. KE

Mr Scott.'A moment later, the USS formidable task of storing this

Enterpriseexplodes, as a beam of impossibly large volume of A Almost every plot oI Star Trek
pure energy, equivalent to the information, and the time it would involves lighr-speed lrovel, onlimol{er
force of 1,000 one-megaton take to retrieve it, a law of power ond tronsporter beoms - oll of
hydrogen bombs, rips through its quantum mechanics (the which, soys Lowrence Krquss in his
hull, tearing the vesselapart - its minuscule world of subatomic book, Ihe Physics of Stor lrek (inset),
captain, crew and contents sucked particles that underpins physical oreo|ongwoyfrombecomingrcality...;.;;.::;.:.;:..;;.:1:.1
into the soullessvacuum of space. reality) makes it impossible to read
It never happens like that in Sl,ar the configuration of these atoms on board the Enterprisa,he goes on
Treh,but that, according to accurately in the first place. to say that not all the effects in
physicists,is how it would happen sci encefi cti orrare i rnpossi b le.I n
in real life. This cataclysmiceffect AR T OF TH E P OS S IB TE l act. many turn out ei ther to be
woulcl result directly from the Although Professor Lawrence enti rel y possi bl eor l o have
energy released in trying to Krauss, a physicist at Case Western occurred alreadr'.
vaporize Captain Kirk's body with a Reserve University, and author of Onlv 100 yearsago,.fulesVerne
'transporter beam'. I'he Physicsof Star ZreA,cites the u' asri di cul ed for the very i de a of
But even before Kirk is transporter as probably the most space travel, and H.C. Wells'
vaporized, the transporter would ' implausible' technological device concepl ol ti me travelw as taken
2 Snip" thot hove the power to
lrqvel vosi interstellqr distonces,
fike rhose fuirtured in lndependence
a: Day, ane cvrrenily woy beyond our
rechnologicol skills. According lo fhe
Theory o{ Relativi?y devised in | 91 5
by Albert Einirein (inset), nothing
con move foster thon 3OO,OOOkm
per second, the speed of light.
According to this principle, ir would
foke a spocecroft powered by our
conventionol meons mony yeors lo

""#, rovel the vost dislonces ocross lhe

universe. However, ihere is nothing
fo soy thot olien civiliiotions hove
not found woys oround this
problem using exotic fuel supplies
or qdvonced knowledge of the
fobric of spoce-lime. In focl,
olthough our presenl know-how
oullows deep spoce lrovel, mony
scientists hove qcknowledged thor
it is theorelicolly possible.

for what it was - pure fantasy.But Interstellar travel would involve travel faster than the speed of
today, space travel is one of travelling inconceivably vast light; but travelling at just below
science'smost shining examplesof distances.Our galaxy alone, for light speed, it wor,rldstill take years
fact mirroring fiction, and time example, is approximately 100,000 to reach even the nearest stars.
tra vel is t hought b y s o me s c i e n l i s l s light yearsacross.This means that Another problem is 'time
to be possible - in theorl', at least. it would take at least a 100,000 dilation'. Clocks on the spacecraft
Our achievements in space years, travelling at the speed of w oul d sl orl dow n the neare r it s
exploration since the 1960shave light - 300,000krn per second - velocity reached the speed of light.
been remarkable, although the,vdo to get from one end of the galaxy Frrl ureasl ronaul sretttrtti n g t o
n (J tm eas ur eup lL )l h e ro rrfi n e to the other. Earth would Iind that man,v
interstellar flights that are the hundreds or even thousands
stock-in-trade of outer-space OUTER t t Mt T s ofyears had passedsince they left,
sciencefiction. Nor is there much The main dralvback is that much as Charlton Heston did in
likelihood of this happening for a Einstein'sTheory of Relativity the film The Planet of theApes.
very long time. rules that nothing rvith masscan Although this rvould seem to plrt
a dampener on would-be long-haul you shrank or collapsed. Provided the huge gravitational fields that
spacefarers,all is not lost. In the space around your starship and would be needed. Scientistsadmit,
theory, it appears that it is possible at your destination was not however, that they simply do not
to travel faster than the speed of disturbed, then, literally, in next to know if this is the case.
light compared to distant objects, no time at all, and involving The problems of interstellar
while staying still in relation to virtually no physical movement, you travel are light-years ahead of the
your immediate surroundings. would arrive at your destination kind of technological challenges
To do this you would need to with all clocks synchronized. that are likely to face us in the
create a'warp drive' by short-term. Among possible
manipulating spacetime - the four- SP AC E E X P TOR A TION projects for the not-too-distant
dimensional universe consisting of Mathematically, this is all very well, future are the development of
Iength, breadth, height and time - but to 'bend' spacetime in this way lunar basesfor research and the
so that the spacebehind you depends on there being the exploitation of resources (oxygen,
suddenly expanded by a huge correct balance of matter and for example. can be easily
amount while the spacein front of energy in the universe to create harvested from the lunar soil).

$ elade Runner deols wirh

purpose-built ondroid
'repliconts' lhot perform the
dongerous qnd nqtty iobs thor
no-one else wonls to do. Hqlf
of the fechnology necessory for
rhis is olreody possible.
'MANNY' (inser) is oble lo
simulote sweoling ond
breofhing, qnd is used in the
US to tesf fire-fighting clothing
ond spoce suits. This fype of
reseorch is obviously too
dongerous lo qtlemPt on
Unlike lhe repliconls in Bfode
Runner lhqf leorn to feel
emofion, geneficolly engineered
personolities ore nol yef
possible. Psychologislscloim
thot personolity is the result of
sociol bockground, upbringing,
life experiences, educoiion ond
numerous olher fqctors, most of
which qre outside the confines
of science.Moleculqr biology
qnd neurosciencemoy be oble
to tell us why some people
hove brown hoir, but they
cqnnot exploin the bosis for on
individuol's personolity.
,:: .
-. *"
" -+ . . ' .

:...::.:t :

',,.: 1
.[;l:: '

j-l:i.. -
1",.-it: '
i.: n


ic tubei A moon base could also be used as of life adapted to high levels of
a stopping-off point on manned carbon dioxide (such as plants)
missions to Mars. and cold temperatures. \i\rhether
In the long-term, scientiststhink we humans would want to go
that if the carbon dioxide in the there, though, is a different matter.
rocks of Mars ('fixed' as carbonates, And whether we could afford to,
like limestone rocks on Earth) given the enormous costs of space
could somehow be released into travel, is another consideration.
:i the atmosphere, the resulting
greenhouse effect, which causes TIME ' S A R R OW
global warming on Earth and Time travel has been a basic
Venus, could gradually lead to the i ngredi ent of countl esssci ence
whole planet reaching tolerable fiction films and novels, but ever
temperatures. Eventually, the since Stephen Hawking turned his
planet might be suitable for fbrms attention to the subject, it has
acquired a certain respectability. wormhole - a kind of tunnel in could be prevented if the holes
According to the eminent spacetime, as in the Star Trek series were jammed'with matter that
professor, time travel rnay be a DeepSpaceltline. It would then be exerts an anti-gravitational force,
possibility, but only in the vicinity possible to travel through such a although no one knows how to
of black holes. These are stars that w o rm h o l e to another poi nt i n generate this to order.
have srown so large - about 1,000 space and time. A neat device often used by
times heavier than our own sun - science fiction writers to
that their gravity makes them tIF E OU T TH E R E counteract the technological
collapse into themselves.Their In practice, howeveq the problems of crossing vast distances
name comes from the fact that gravitational force of each black in space is to have intelligent aliens
their gravitational pull is so hole would not only break the link visit us. This assumesthat the
powerful that not even light can between them before you could get visiting extraterrestrials have
escapefrom them. through, it would tear you apart acquired the technology to
In theory, if two black holes before you even entered the overcome the obstaclesimposed by
were to link up they would form a wormhole. Scientistsbelieve this the laws of physics.


,,,Molt,:scientistsare now willing to
1r,,11,,1 realiqr any threat of invasion' is rare, even if thev knerv in which
l:...,.!Cc,qpt-ttteidea that there is ot.her likely to come - in the foreseeable sector of the universe to look. The
else in the
-:;:.:,:r'rlifu'.somewhere future at least - more from vast distance from which they
,jr,.l lverse. Their belief is inspired by minuscule organisms rather than would be observing Earth means
1ilttth. tu* of Very Big Numbers - with 'super-beings'. The question of that they would be seeing life as it
s ofgalaxies, each possible contamination is being happened millions of years ago,
ning billion s o f s ta rs .l h e taken very seriously in the design long before homosapiensappeared.
:s,of there being at least of a manned space flight to Mars, In effect, this rules out the idea of
planet capable of planned for the 21st century. If alien invasions or abductions for
an indefinite period, unless, of

33 le course, the 'aliens'visiting us are

time travellers from our own
lasfronqmers are regularly Scienceficfion suggesfs planet's future.
:,:,.'''t:discoveringstars which they reckon ideos thof fhqf scientists
Otnets orbiting them' The incorporofe into their H M r r LESS POSSr Br jl r r _ES
,::::::.:ii:con!ensusamong astronomers rs theories bul somefimes Even if in reality deep space turns
th at it will only be a ma tte r o f ti me sc:ence furns up nofions out to be a frontier too far for our
)efore more are identified. scientists,science fiction has
slronger thon ony fiction
ventured into a number of other
UTE ORGANISMS worlds (such as bionics, genetic
te what sort of lile thesc f f int n engineering and artificial
will sustain, however, is intelligence) to offer a tantalizing
ible to know. In science there might be some sort of life glimpse of what the future might
, the focus tends to be on out there, the intention is to bring hold in store for us.
r the visiting aliens' it back to Earth under controlled If many of these ideas seem
ntions are benign (as in the conditions - rather than stuck to far-fetched at the time, this is no
buster film ET1 or hostile (as somebody's boot. reason to suppose that they will not
IndependenceDay). If there are indeed intelligent happen absolutely. As Professor
*iair.l:.g",the discoveryof life on Mars aliens 'out there' with the means Krauss admits, scientistshave been
l.:ln,Augrttt 1996,in the form of of looking into deep space, the proven wrong rvhen assumrng E._.
ancient bacteria.suggeststhat in chances of them findinq us are 'absolutes'in rhe pasr.
hemical and biological weapons are to those involved with Unit 731
some of the most terrifying tools of so they could learn from their
mass destruction known to man. g ruesome experi ments w i thout
Cheap and easy to produce, they outraging public decency. As a
-have the ability to decimate the enemy, poi- Pentagon report in December
son crops and ensure generations ofdisease 1947 coldly states: 'Such informa-
and deformig' for those lucky enough to tion could not be obtained in our own latr I Gnorled trees ore oll
survive. All this comes,at a fraction of the oratories because of scruples attached to thol remoin in on oaeo'
cost of atomic weaponry and without the human experimentation. These data were Vietnom dusred with
need for massivetroop deployment. acquired with a total outlay of $250,000 to defoliont Agent Oroi
By late 1947, US intelligence was well on date, a mere pittance...' The biologicol worfo
the way to attaining these apocalyptic techniques used in
weapons, having obtained first-hand evi- G U ITTY SECRET Vietnom Wor rerulted
dence of the effects of numerous biological For this 'pittance', the British and US gov- from 20 yeors of t
agents on humans - including A.rnerican ernments obtained comprehensive details lests on rhe US public. r
prisoners of war - from secret deals with of the effects of BW on humans. They also Indeed, rhe milirory
Unit 731, Japan's biological warfare (BW)
team. and its leader. Shir6 Ishii.
received accounts of live autopsies, dissec-
tions and experiments on foetuses and
development of bi,ol;

The horror stories told by surviving young babies. The symptoms of plague, worfore wirh o higher
American POWs were covered up to spare typhoid, venereal diseases, smallpox, degree of secrecy thon
Ishii and his staff 'embarrassment', and gangrene, salmonella, scarlet fever, diph- the eorly nucleor
Western authorities granted full immunity theria, tetanus, whooping cough and
:::: :i::.:;'=: ::r:=:
- ---

i.-:.,,," =*r:

, t,u

countless other agonizir-rsdiseaseswere progr.unnre of 'dumrny' attacks on some of

also carefully documer)ted ancl handecl theil orr'n rnajor cities to establish the most
over. The fact that the \{est allorved Ishii - e l l c r t i r t r r e l l l o d s o f m a s s c o n t a m i lta ti u l r .
whose crimes were on par rvith sorne of thc \\-ith the onset of the Cold \\rar in the
rvorst Nazi war criminals - to escapeprose- 1!150s.the Perrtagon became rvorried that
cution is one of the darkcst secrets of a Rtrssian submarine could e nte r US
\{brld \{hr II, and rvas withhelcl as classi- \\'ilters. r-elease a cloud of bacteria ancl clis-
fied inlbrmation for 30 I'ears. lrppear before the poptrlace even lealized
Armed rvith the knorvledge of' exactll it had been infected. So, in Scptember
u,hich diseases rn:rcle iclearl B\\' agents. 1!150, trvo Nary patrol boats in the San
\A/estern governmeuts began a shocking Francisco Bay harbour rele2tsed il clor.rcl of
Serratia Marcescens - a relativeh harmless
bacteria developed at the UK biolosical
plant, Porton Dorvn.


After six of these 'mock' rr"ascon-
ch.rdedthat 300 km sq of the San Friucisccr
area had been infectecl. titl-r almost the
entire population - sonre80{).000- havins
breathed in the bactelia. cxperiment
proved that a rnajol US citv rr"astotalll'
unable to defend itself againstnrasscotlta-
mination froln lr'ind-bornebacteria.
ffbwever, the By the late 1950s,the US,\-mr.'had also
conducted fi el d tests i n S ar , anr r : r h,
(J.eorgia, and Atrn Park, Florida. Vast
numbers of mosquitoes were clropped
from aircraft into resiclentialareas- a Unit
731 technique. Local residents suffering roofsat night. Theywokethe next morning
under swarms of the insects fell ill, while to cliscover
a largenumber:tut..1:":lot
others died. Following this, US military them dead and many of them with frac-
p e rsonnel - mas- tured legs. Panic stricken. the villagers ,-.
q u e radi ng as publ i c killed and burned all but four. Tests con- -.'
h e a lth offi ci al s- put ducted on one surviving vole showed it was '
each victim through inlected with the plague.
a s e ri es of medi cal Such was the furore caused by this and
te s ts. A l though the other i nci denl s.that an i nternati onalbody
details remain classi- was formed to investigate.Their findings,
fi e d , i t i s bel i eved ptrblished in the Report of the International
the mosquitoes were ScientfficCommissionfor the Facts Concerning
inlected with a strain Bacterial Warfare in Korea and China were
of Yellow Fever - a damning. Reviewing the Min-Chungviltage
s virus that causeshigh temperature, vomit- incident, the report states:'There remains
ing, and death in one in three sufferers. no doubt that a large number of voles suf-
Further tests to ascertain a ciq"s \.ulner- fering from plague were delivered to the
: ability to biological attack were performed district of Kan-Nanduring the night of April
rhroughout the 1950sand 1960sin Britain, 4-5 1952, by the aircraft which the villagers,
o heard. This was identified as an Americanl

33 tr F-82double-fuselagenight-fighter.' The US
heatedl ydeni ed the al l egati ons.
I will never forget whof
; h e l o o ke d l i ke ... he could D E A TH IN TH E JU N GTE
not lie down, he could not Biological warfare featured again in US
see. His eyes, like mine, i nvol vement i n V i etnam. D el ol i ants wer e
were ierking erroticolly used to stri p the j ungl e of the densevege-
A During the Vielnom Don Bowen,FormerUS Servicemon l ati on rhal served as cover for the Viet
conflicf, rhe US cloimed
u\ Cong. Food crops were destroyed to starve
and demoral i ze enemy sol di ersand t heir
thol the use of Agen!
Oronge to destroy lungle
,, sympathizers.Approximately 26.000 varia-
cover wos nor illegol Canada and the US, culminating in an tions of herbicides and defoliants were
becquse defoliqnts were assault on New York City in 1966. Top- investigatedfor possible use in south-east
not outlowed by the secret Army agents of the Chemical Corps Asia. From these. six were chosen to strip
| 925 Genevo Protocol. Special Operations Division sprayed the rhe jungle. These were known as Agents
Opponenfs to the wor bacteria Bacillus into subway stations
orgued thot the via gratings at peak commuter times.
indiscriminole deslruclion Turbulence from the trains proved to be
of vegelolion wos o an ideal way to rapidly spread the germs
colculoted ot?empt to throughout the city.
poison crops ond inflicr
storvolion. Survivors of M U T U AT D ES T R U C TION
the gossing, such os Vu It was estimated that the assault 'infected'
Thi Lom (inset, centre), up to a million people, and scientists con-
still suffer the effects, os cluded that again there was no way to
do their children, mony defend against an enemy attack. With this
of whom ore born with knowledge, the US stepped up its research
genelic deformities. into offensive military applications - if it
was impossible to survive an enemy attack,
mutual destruction by means of massinfec-
tion should at least be guaranteed.
Knowledge gained from covert domestic
test programmes was not put to active mili-
tary use until the Korean war. One incident
concerned the Korean villagers of Min-
Chung, who heard a plane flying over their
Purple, Green, Blue. White.
Orange and Pink after colour
co ding on t heir co n ra i n e rsO
. I
all of these,Agent Orange was
|-lt. most powerful, and was
used to strip particularlydense
*.u, of u.j.intio,,. The chem-
icalwascomprisedof defoliant
245-T,rhe result o[ a Brirish

deadly dioxint the combina-

tion accelerated growth in
trees and bushes,leaving them
crippled and rotting under
their own weight. It also had
terrible effectson humans.
' O per at ion Ra n c h H a n d '
,I :
in sprafng Agent
Orange over an area roughly
equivalentto the sizeo[ Israel. ::'
By the end of the campaign
Asia, the Pentagon insisted that the nse of A Victims of the Sorin gos
ingredient dioxin had been deposited over chemicals to destroyjungle vegetation did oifqck on the Tokyo
Vietnam. (To put this into perspective. just not violate any international agreemeltts. subwoy system loy dying
85 g of the deadly toxin in the water supply Despite this stance, it was obvious that the in one of lhe stofions.
of Washington DC is enough to kill the effects of the defoliants went much further Although lhe Aum
city's population.) Horrible deformities in than just denuding the jungle, and US Shinriyko secl, who were
newly born babies were reported, as was a opponents to the Vietnam war lobbied blomed for the gossing,
three-fold increase in children born with hard to end the use of Agent Orange. In ocquired sophisricoted
cleft palates and spina bifida and a two-fold L977, the government caved in to demands weoponry from the Russiqn
increase in srill-borns. and the Biological Weapons Convenrion intelligence services in
In response to mounting evidence pre- came into effect, outlawing BW on the 1991, reseorchersore now
sented by Saigon doctors that the US had grounds that it was 'repugnant to the con- <osting doubt over their
an active -BW- : programme in South-east
science of mankind'. Experimentation, involvemenf in the subwoy
however, continued behind closed doors. strike. A more powerful
s group, consisting of 'o
= FU TU R E WAR Joponese group ond o

Today, the US government view prolifera- foreign group' moy hove

.9 tion in biological weapons with great been responsible, using the
I unease.As the 'poor man's nuke', BW is gossing to either discredit
an attractive and affordable option. qnd disbqnd the Aum secl,
During the Gulf War, the allied or divert oftenlion owoy
forces were extremely wary of B\\- from their reol inlentions.
attacks, where the combination of
hot weather and sweaty skin
would make soldiers highly sus-
ceptible to biological agents.
Prior to the invasion of
Kuwait, it was known that Iraq
had stockpiled numeror-rs BW
weapons and was actively inves-
tigating a range of delivery sys-
tems. Weapons, including 28 SCUD
missiles loaded with Sarin, 800 Frcnr Frtr I
nerve agent aerial bombs, 60 tonnes havc.d*raifcdcvidr
of the nerve aqent Tabun and 250 l*t'",'"ifllf,i:,
Lrclr r6g1lf3slya.,
()nc group
^ rcrr
rr0* rll tlx ularrr
trrggc rc d * .l x .n 1fuq
lr({tF r{trttC fnllE
il(Ud itilrt,li
tonnes of mustard gas survived the massive
allied bombins, and there is suspicion,fol-
lowing the BW strikes on the Iraqi sector of
Kurdistan in the late 1980s, that Sadclam
Hussein may have been experimenting
with BW against allied forces.

While the use of BW agents in a military
context is in itself' alarming, there are
fears that terrorists can gain access to
these weapons and use them indiscrimi-
nately in dense population centres. One
such recent event caused alarm around
=.1 the world. The Tokyo subway Sarin attack
: . : ; l' lt r

t. in March 1995, purportedly by members

.,t of the Aum Shinriyko sect, resulted in 12

33 1*.

My son died o senseless
o n d p o i n fu l d e oth. W hen
w i l l t g e t q n onswer ?
My iewel hos gone forever
M o th e r o f Gu f Wo r Ve te r o n,Mi choel A dcock

V During rhe l98Os, nr

British, Europeon ond ,,
Americon monufoclurers fatalities. Had the chemical mixture and
supplied Soddom Hussein's dispersion system been slightly different,
lroq with BW equipment the death toll could have been in the tens
ond chemicol precursors of thousands.
thot resulted in o horrific It is now known that the Aum sect was
gos otfock on Kurds in cledicated to a cataclysmic confrontation
Holobio on l7 Morch with the West ancl that the acquisition of
1988, which left over BW may have been supplied by Russia,
5,OOOpeople deod. keen to win Japanese financial aid. The Tokyo subway incident are frighteningly
Velerons relurning f rom A u m s e c t, i t i s b e l i e ved, penetrated easv to conceal. Developments in 'binary
rhe Gulf olso hod Russia'sdefence industries with the aicl of combinations', whereby two harmless
symptoms consistent with th e R rrs s i a ni n tc l l i g e rr<c s ervi ces. chemicals can be combinecl into lethal
BW poisoning, olrhough The rise of organized crime in Russia agents, means that BW weapons could
the Wesf denies thot has raised fears in the West that BW knowl- theorcti cal l ybe produccd bv arryorganiza-
chemicqls were used edge could easily be exchanged on rhe ti on determi ned to do so.
ogoinst ollied forces. b l a c k m a rk e t. T h e ti ny concenl ral es
needed to mount an attack similar to the NEW BREED OF W A R FA R E
It seems dor-rbtful that Britain and the US
coul d have predi crt' dthcsc modern th r eat s
of BW when they decicled to shroud the
events of Unit 731 in secrecy.Yet experi-
mentation with weapons of such destruc-
ti ve potenti al ,so soon after the devas lat ing
strikes on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, some-
times defies belief. In laying the founda-
ri ons for \4brl d !\' ar IIl . rhe West
c Itritl
x{*din:xl*x$} o unleashed a new and horrific breed

:t l(j t
hil of death upon the world.

rrh l:

l. ! l d
h fl f
llr r. -l
t' l l . l


AIMs To DIscovER
n the mid-l9th century, in a itself by bestowing on its followers
town in northern Kurdistan - at the same time as they were
in Iraq, Sheik Abdul Carim initiated into the order - the
: was instructed by his Sufi power to inflict pain-free
dervish master to go on a retreat Deliberately Caused Bodily
into the mountains. He did so, and Damage (DCBD). This was
was not heard from for two years. followed with SRs,or Super
His family assumed he was dead. Reactions - the instant healing of
T hen. one nigh t. C a ri m these wounds.
appeared to his brother in a dream Since the mid-l980s, Jamal
and revealed his whereabouts. The N. Hussein, a young University of
next day his family went up to the Baghdad graduate with a Ph.D in
mountain and fetched him home. Physics,has attempted to shine the o

It seemed that Carim had been light of science on the healing

communing with God during his reputation of the Tariqa. Hussein o

tlvo-year retreat. A casnazan - a approached Sheik Muhammad

'secret that no one knows' - had s
al-Casnazani,the present Master of
been given to him in deep
meditation. From that point on his
sect of Sufi dervishes would be
known as Tariqa Casnazaniyyah *
meaning 'the way that is known to
n o one' .

Since the 6th century AD, the Sufis
- an offshoot oflslam that focuses
on the spiritual side of the prophet
Mohammed's teachings - have
demonstrated their powers by
producing paranormal ) The Moloysion Kqovqdi ceremony
phenomena, often in the form of involves the insertion of lO8 needles
self-inflicted wounds that heal in rhe body (inser| while the performer
instantly and painlessly. is in o trqnce. loler, when the needles
The more recenl Tariqa ore removed, no blood or wounds con
Casnazaniyah sect began to define be seen.
The heoling
- of rhe
g Tariqa Casnazaniyyah,and asked if
he would allow some of his
dervishes to undergo testing under

serious wounds induced

in DCBDfeots ore not ffi
strict laboratory conditions.
Hussein's goal was to unlock the
secretsof their paranormal
known to be wirhin rhe
self-heoling obiliry of
healing powers.

the humon body in FU N D IN G RESEARCH

n o rmo l ci rcum sfqnces
g To Hussein's delight, Sheik
al-Casnazaniagreed to allow his

n\ =. dervishes to be tested and

instructed his followers to
,, volunteer for the experiments. The
master was even willing to fund the
experiments, at least until Hussein
was able to obtain wider backing.
Thus was born the Paramann
Programme Laboratories (PPL),
located in Amman,Jordan, where,
beginning in 1988, a series of 50
experiments was carried out on 28
. sect members. The results of those
l4M' experi mentsare onl y j ust now
becoming known to the West.

ffi*" % The dervishes shoved

unsterilized metal skewersand
spikes through their cheeks,
to accept what they had been told
in the first place. The self-healing.
powers o[ the dervishes- which
the dervishes had no control over
and did not understand - had
been given to them during their
initiation into the order of Tariqa
Religious instruction and the
recitation of vows were part of the
service, but these had nothing to
do with the bestowing of DCBD
powers. It was required only that a
califa (one of a small number of
carefully chosen 'deputies of the
Master' empowered to
crbate new dervishes) lay a
hand on the initiate
for three minutes,
usuallv in the
form of a
tongue, lower part of the mouth, and disappeared in a few seconds. handshake.
lobe of the ear, neck, arms, chest Usually, a few drops of blood
and abdomen. They hammered initially covered the wound; in rare
daggers into the sides of their skulls instances a blood line of a few
and just below the eyes.They centimetres long appeared, then
chewed and swallowed glass and disappeared. No infections
sharp razor blades, placed red-hot followed, even though unsterilized
plates between their hands and instruments had been used. The
their teeth, laid burning brands researcherscalled this instant
against their faces, arms and legs healing Super Reaction (SR).
for five to fifteen seconds,and
exposed their tongues to the bites IN TOTA T C ON TR OL
of poisonous snakesand scorpions. 'Before, during, and after their
In every caseobserved by the performances the dervishes
researchers,the dervishes never remained entirely alert and able
once felt pain. The DCBD healed to respond consciously and
promptly to external stimuli in
the surrounding environment,'
Dr Hussein says.'They were in
complete command of their
bodies. senses.and
consciousness,and showed no
loss of control, perceptual
distortion, or any other
indication of shift in their
normal consciousness.'
o A wide range of
physiological measurements
E also showed no deviation from
n o rm a l i ty.N otabl y,l he sci enri sts
observed no increase in the
A Sheik Muhommod ol-Cosnozoni is
the present Mosler of rhe self-heoling presence of slow frequencies in
dervishes. He permitted the reseorch the EEG of the subjects.
info the sect which hos led ro After months of intense
cworeness in the Wesf of their powers.
analysis,the researchershad
Curiously, the dervishes could The Paramann researchers '\Arhatexcites me,' saysParamann
not heal themselvesif they had came slowly round to the associateDr. Shetha Al-Dargazelli,
suffered an injury in the normal conclusion - despite a crushing who received her doctorate in
manner. The researchersalso weight of literature insisting that physicslrom Durham University,
discovered that a handful of their these 'self-healing' powers must England, 'is that we may here be
non-califa DCBD-empowered come from an altered state of deal i ng w i th a ki nd of i nrel l i gent
subjects- apparently those with consciousnessgenerated by the
very strong wills - could somehow dervish himself - that they were ---- J-
temporarily force their powers on dealing not with 'self-healing' but rt rrm
non-dervishes, even if the person w i th ' o th e rs -heal i ng' . Think of the possibiliries
d i d n ot want t hem . Th e s c i e n ti s ts for firemen. Shudder ot
dubbed this ability Sponraneous OU T SID E FOR C E
the possibiliries for
Transmission(ST). The researchersobserved that the
soldier s ond whqt fhof
In a few cases,dervishes at the dervishesx'ere able to perform
might do for the
Paramann labs were able to instill the DCBD feats equallr'n'ell
these powers in non-dervish rvhethel ther had received their
ombifions of milifory
subjectspermanently. Sometimes po\rers a minr,rteor 20 r'e:rrs
dervisheswere also able to take Dr DonielJ. Benor,BritishPsychiotrist
previouslr',u'hether ther-rverein a
away these powers - er-en frorn good state of health or a bad olle,
those to whom thev had not whether they believed in the
given them, and even,when reality of the powers or not, and -n\ ,,
healing energv that is qualitatively
the non-dervisheshad been whether or not they had any need different from anything observed
performing their own brand to perform them. It seemed that by science up till now.'
of DCBD feats for years. In the performance of the feats had Modern science has been loathe
rare cases,non-dervishes who nothing to do with psychological to investigate the kind of
had received paranormal and personal components such as phenomena put on display by the
powers were able to bestow knowledge and understanding of Paramann laboratories. \Ahere it
these powers on other the DCBD process,motivation, does so, the information received
non-dervishes. belief or need. i s so contradi croryrhat i r suggest s
The fact that no changes the investigation of paranormal
{ Some Sufis ore whatsoever took place in the brains phenomena is completely lacking
-.$nown in the West qs of the performing denishes in anv kind of comprehensive
'ihirling dervishes,
suggestedthey were in the grip of conceptualbasi s.In papersand
they donce
a force that came from outside. presentations, Paramann
into a
sfqte of


.=t- ,
ForJamal Hussein and his
colleagues, the tendency of
Western science to try to explain
away - or even to refuse to
acknowledge the existence of
DCBD feats - has combined with
the uncertain political climate of
the Middle East to make the PPL
director's task a difficult one.
So far,Jamal Hussein has
presented the Tariqa
Casnazaniyyahderrishes to
audiencesat conferenceson the
medical applicationsof loga in
India; on alternatile medicine in
Brazil and in the Crimea. in
Russia;and on DCBDs and
unconventional healins methods
in Baghdad.
The Amman-based scientist has
continued to work torvards
organizing a conference that
* I would present DCBD feats to the
W est,and he i s contacti rrger linenr

o tt
I. I.

ltlt .ltl-
.+-:-l l
It could well op en
o new er q in med i c i ne,
qnd consequently c oul d
researchersat Durham and in
well be r esponsi bl e
Amman are seeking to begin to lay
for unprecedenfed
the groundwork for such a
conceptual framework.
improvement in fhe
To isolate and then control the welfore of humonity
secrets of the power behind Sufi LouoyJ. Fotoohi,DurhomUniversity

dervish DCBDs would bestow vast E\'

- and potentially threatening -
powers upon humankind. And yet scientistswith a rierr' to forming an
to enable everyone accessto the International Board of Researchers
'self-healing' powers of dervishes to conductjoint researcheson"
is indeed the ultimate goal of the DCBD feats. \\hat are his chances
scientists at the Paramann for successiThe progrrosisis
Programme Laboratories. indeed a difficult one, believes
Hussein. It is, indeed. a'secret that
D A U N TIN G TA S K no one knon's'.
LouayJ. Fatoohi, a graduate in It is Hussein'shope that, on a
physics at Durham University and mountain top in Northern Iraq
a close associateofJamal Hussein, some 150 years ago, it was decided
has said that'before being able to that these self-healing powers
gain any degree of mastery over should be given to the world.
these abilities and employ them The 'secretthat no one knows',
in medicine, a reasonable given by God to Sheik Abdul
understanding of these Carim Iraq and passeddown from
phenomena must become much master to master, is a
more accessible.' continuing mystery. ffi*