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Advertising & IMC: Principles and Practice, 9e (Moriarty)

Chapter 10 Visual Communication


1) Which of the following is NOT a key reason designers focus on the use of visuals in
advertising?
A) anchor associations
B) cement belief
C) communicate quickly
D) replace copy
E) tell interesting stories
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-1
2) In most marketing communication, the power to get attention lies primarily with the
________.
A) visual
B) audio
C) script
D) copy
E) sound effects
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-1
3) Who is the person most responsible for designing images that tell stories and create brand
impressions in an advertisement?
A) copywriter
B) art director
C) producer
D) designer
E) photographer
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 292
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-1

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4) A(n) ________ is the imprint used for immediate identification of a brand or company.
A) icon
B) logo
C) brand image
D) design
E) thumbnail
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 295
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-1
5) Images from collections of copyright-free art that anyone who buys the service can use are
known as ________.
A) sepia images
B) die-cut images
C) process images
D) public art
E) clip art
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
6) Copywriters and art directors who imagine what the finished ad might look like are engaged in
________.
A) visualization
B) dubbing
C) post production
D) stop action
E) surrealism
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
7) Which of the following is NOT included in the art director's toolkit for print advertising?
A) photos
B) illustrations
C) typefaces
D) layout
E) dubbing
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2

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8) When art directors use the word art, they usually mean ________.
A) photographs
B) illustrations
C) color
D) A and B
E) A, B, and C
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
9) Which of the following statements about photographs and illustrations is false?
A) Most people feel that photographs lie because it is so easy to alter them with computer
technology.
B) A photograph is more realistic and an illustration is more fanciful.
C) Illustrations eliminate many of the details you see in a photograph.
D) Illustrations can focus attention on key details of the image.
E) Illustrations can intensify meanings and moods.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
10) Which of the following is a reason color is used in advertisements?
A) attract attention
B) provide realism
C) establish moods
D) build brand identity
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 298
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
11) The use of _______ lends a dignity and sophistication to a visual.
A) full color
B) spot color
C) blue and yellow
D) red and orange
E) black and white
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
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12) A second color used in addition to black-and-white is known as ________.


A) mono color
B) single color
C) spot color
D) limited color
E) contrast color
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
13) Warm colors such as red, yellow, and orange convey ________.
A) intellect
B) alarm
C) danger
D) happiness
E) aloofness
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
14) What colors should an art director use if he or she wants to bring a friendly tone to an ad?
A) deep blues and greens
B) yellow and red
C) cool colors
D) warm colors
E) pastel colors
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
15) The appearance of an ad's printed matter in terms of the style and size of typefaces is known
as ________.
A) medium
B) typography
C) layout
D) design
E) classification
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
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16) The primary function of ________ is to convey the words of the message.
A) typography
B) aesthetics
C) unity
D) balance
E) measurement
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
17) What are the two major typeface families?
A) point and font
B) face and size
C) serif and sans serif
D) justified and unjustified
E) Times Roman and Times
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 301
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
18) Which of the following is NOT an aspect of typeface selection that designers must work
with?
A) digitization
B) capitalization
C) lowercase
D) legibility
E) weight
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 301
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
19) How type relates to the margin is known as ________.
A) weight
B) posture
C) points
D) justification
E) legibility
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2

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20) The ________ of type refers to how easy it is to perceive the letters.
A) legibility
B) point
C) pica
D) justification
E) typography
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 302
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
21) The typography presentation of white letters written on a dark background is known as
________.
A) reverse type
B) negative type
C) white space
D) surprinting
E) ornamental type
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
22) Whether or not to use italic lettering is a(n) ________ decision.
A) typeface
B) font
C) surprinting
D) typesize
E) alignment
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
23) Which of the following does NOT hinder the legibility of print ads?
A) reverse type
B) all capitals
C) left justification
D) ornamental type
E) surprinted type
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2

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24) Running the type over another image in a print ad is known as ________.
A) reverse type
B) surprinting
C) over-printing
D) bleed through
E) nonlinear type
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
25) Which of the following is a design principle that guides designers as they lay out an ad?
A) direction
B) dominance
C) unity
D) balance
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
26) Which design principle describes how all of the elements in an ad come together?
A) unity
B) oneness
C) simplicity
D) direction
E) proportion
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
27) The saying "KISS" refers to the design principle of ______.
A) unity
B) movement
C) simplicity
D) direction
E) proportion
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
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28) A plan that imposes order and at the same time creates an arrangement that is aesthetically
pleasing in a print ad is called a(n) ________.
A) action plan
B) creative plan
C) layout
D) storyboard
E) thumbnail sketch
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
29) Which of the following layouts uses a single dominant visual that occupies about 60 to 70
percent of the ad's space?
A) picture window
B) all art
C) dominant type
D) panel
E) grid
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
30) Which of the following is NOT a common type of ad layout?
A) picture window
B) circus
C) dominant type
D) nonlinear
E) jumbled
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
31) A layout that uses a number of visuals of matched or proportional sizes is known as
________.
A) picture window
B) nonlinear
C) dominant type
D) panel or grid
E) symmetrical
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
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32) A contemporary style of layout that can be read starting at any point in the image is known as
________.
A) circus
B) panel or grid
C) jumbled
D) picture window
E) nonlinear
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
33) A ________ layout type may have art, but it is either embedded in the copy or placed in a
subordinate position.
A) copy dominant
B) circus
C) panel
D) nonlinear
E) picture window
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
34) A ________ layout combines lots of elements to deliberately create a busy image.
A) dominant
B) circus
C) panel
D) nonlinear
E) circular
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
35) A(n) ________ layout type emphasizes the type rather than the art.
A) all copy
B) circus
C) panel
D) nonlinear
E) picture window
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2

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36) Which of the following is NOT a stage in the normal development of a print ad?
A) storyboard
B) thumbnail sketches
C) rough layouts
D) semicomps
E) All of the above are stages in the normal development of a print ad.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 304
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
37) Quick, miniature, preliminary sketches are known as ________.
A) rough layouts
B) semicomps
C) storyboards
D) thumbnail sketches
E) mechanicals
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 304
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
38) In which layout stage of a print ad are the elements assembled in their final position for
reproduction?
A) thumbnail sketches
B) comprehensives
C) mechanicals
D) rough layouts
E) semicomps
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 304
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
39) Which of the following refers to the way elements in a picture are arranged or framed
through a camera lens?
A) balance
B) direction
C) composition
D) function
E) movement
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 304-305
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2

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40) Inexpensive, rough-surfaced, spongy paper that quickly absorbs ink on contact is known as
________.
A) quick paper
B) newsprint
C) die cut paper
D) halftoned paper
E) registered paper
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 305
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-3
41) Color that aligns exactly with the image in a print ad is said to be ________.
A) registered
B) justified
C) halftoned
D) screened
E) centered
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 305
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-3
42) For impact, colors on a billboard should have maximum ________.
A) variety
B) unity
C) contrast
D) shadowing
E) separation
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 305
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2

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43) In an outdoor board, typography should be ________.


A) contrasted with the background
B) contrasted with the foreground
C) complex
D) all-capital letters
E) uncluttered
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 306
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
44) What are the two general types of printed images?
A) formal and informal
B) digitizations and illustrations
C) color and sepia
D) line art and halftone
E) tint blocks and halftone
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 306
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
45) Photographs are considered which type of printed image?
A) formal
B) halftone
C) tint block
D) line art
E) informal
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 306
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
46) Printers create the illusion of shades of color by using dots of color surrounded by ________.
A) tint blocks
B) tint screens
C) color separations
D) offset prints
E) white space
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 307
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3

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47) Full-color images are reproduced using four distinctive shades of ink called ________.
A) process colors
B) primary colors
C) basic colors
D) halftones
E) tint blocks
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 307
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
48) Full-color images are reproduced using four distinctive shades of ink in a process called
________.
A) full-color printing
B) four-color printing
C) tint blocking
D) color surprinting
E) color transferring
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 307
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
49) The process printers use to reduce the original color image to four halftone negatives is
called ________.
A) tint reduction
B) color separation
C) offsetting
D) tint blocking
E) tipping in
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 307
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
50) Which of the following is NOT considered a process color?
A) black
B) magenta
C) cyan
D) yellow
E) brown
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 307
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3

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51) ________ creates a raised surface on paper, and ________ creates a depressed image in
paper.
A) Formal printing; informal printing
B) Tipping out; tipping in
C) Embossing; debossing
D) On-stamping; in-stamping
E) Overlaying; inlaying
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
52) The application of a thin metallic coating molded to the surface of the image with heat and
pressure is called ________.
A) foil stamping
B) embossing
C) debossing
D) digitizing
E) overlaying
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
53) Separate preprinted ads provided by the advertiser to be glued into a publication as the
publication is being assembled are known as ________.
A) embosses
B) die-cuts
C) foil stamps
D) overlays
E) tip-ins
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
54) Previously recorded images, either video, still slides, or moving film are known as
________.
A) morphs
B) stock footage
C) tip-ins
D) photostats
E) clip art
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 309
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
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55) A set of computer-generated letters that appear to be moving across the bottom of the
television screen is known as a(n) ________.
A) crawl
B) morph
C) tip-in
D) register
E) overwrite
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 310
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
56) A video technique in which one object gradually changes into another is called ________.
A) crawling
B) image transfer
C) morphing
D) interlocking
E) dubbing
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 310
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
57) A(n) ________ writes the script for a broadcast production.
A) copywriter
B) arranger
C) producer
D) director
E) editor
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 311
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
58) The ________ develops the storyboard and establishes the look of the commercial.
A) copywriter
B) art director
C) producer
D) director
E) arranger
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4

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59) The ________ takes charge of the production arrangements and makes sure the expenses and
bids come in under budget.
A) copywriter
B) art director
C) producer
D) director
E) arranger
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
60) The ________ has responsibility for the actual filming of the TV commercial.
A) editor
B) art director
C) producer
D) director
E) arranger
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
61) Moving an inanimate object a bit at a time and filming it frame by frame is known as
________.
A) stop motion
B) stop action
C) micro filming
D) slow motion
E) step motion
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 312
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
62) Which of the following is NOT a step of the television production process?
A) preproduction
B) postproduction
C) shorts
D) the shoot
E) message design
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 313
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4

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63) Finding the right director, locating or building a set, and casting the talent are elements of
which step in the production of a television commercial?
A) message design
B) preproduction
C) production
D) postproduction
E) shorts
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 313
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
64) During a television commercial shoot, which technician moves props and sets and lays tracks
for the dolly on which the camera is mounted?
A) grip
B) gaffer
C) camera crew
D) shoot clerk
E) mixer
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 314
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
65) Rough versions of the commercial assembled from cuts of the raw film footage are known as
________.
A) dailies
B) rushes
C) rough cuts
D) interlocks
E) answer prints
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 313-314
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
66) What term refers to the postproduction process of assembling the various pieces of the film
into the same sequence as the storyboard?
A) dubbing
B) release printing
C) refocus
D) video editing
E) transition
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 314
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
17
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67) Which of the following represents the correct order of the television postproduction output?
A) dailies, rushes, rough cut, interlock, release print
B) interlock, rough cut, answer print, release print
C) rough cut, interlock, release print, duplicate print
D) rough cut, interlock, answer print, release print
E) interlock, dubbed print, answer print
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 314-316
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
68) The final version of a television commercial with the sound and film mixed together is called
a(n) ________.
A) interlock
B) answer print
C) release print
D) dubbed print
E) rush print
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 314
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
69) Because users can create their own paths through a website, designers have to make sure that
their sites have clear ________.
A) URLs
B) networks
C) sequencing
D) navigation
E) pop-ups
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 318
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Use of information technology
Objective: 10-5

18
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70) If a website's ________ is cluttered or unclear, website visitors will likely give up and move
on to some other site.
A) banner ad
B) URL
C) navigation
D) pop-up
E) clickthrough rate
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 318
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Use of information technology
Objective: 10-5
71) In effective advertising, the visuals work together with the words to present the creative
concept.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-1
72) Words are generally better than visuals at getting and keeping attention.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-1
73) Undifferentiated products with low inherent interest can be distinguished by linking the
product with a visual representing lifestyles and types of users.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-1
74) The visual's only function in an advertisement is to get attention.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 292
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-1

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75) The person most responsible for creating visual impact is the creative director.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 292
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-1
76) The art director's toolkit for print advertising includes the photos, illustrations, typeface,
color, and layout of the proposed ad.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
77) When art directors use the word art, they mean only illustrations.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
78) Print ads with color tend to get more attention than ads without color.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 298
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
79) Cool colors, such as blue and green, convey happiness.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2
80) The appearance of the ad's printed matter in terms of the style and size of typefaces is known
as typography.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-2

20
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81) Through balance, all the elements in an ad fuse into one coherent image and the pieces
become a whole.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
82) A basic design principle is "Less is more."
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
83) A circus layout combines lots of elementsart, type, colorto deliberately create a busy,
jumbled image.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
84) The layout stage in which the elements are assembled in their final position for reproduction
is known as a comprehensive.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 304
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-2
85) One problem with using color in newspaper advertising is that because of the limitations of
the printing process, the color may not be perfectly in register.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 305
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-3
86) A key to an effective outdoor board is eye-stopping graphics.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 305
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-3

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87) On an outdoor board, the product or brand label may be hundreds of times larger than in real
life.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 305
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
88) Designers of outdoor advertising should make the relationship between foreground and
background as obvious as possible.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 306
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
89) The two general types of printed images are photographs and illustrations.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 306
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
90) Color is reproduced by setting up a printing press with a separate ink roller for every hue and
value in a color photo.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 307
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
91) The process printers use to reduce the original color image to four halftone negatives is
called color separation.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 307
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
92) Tip-ins are separate preprinted ads provided by the advertiser to be glued into a publication
as the publication is being assembled.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-3
93) Morphing is a video technique in which one object gradually changes into another.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 310
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
22
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94) The producer is the person responsible for the actual filming of a television commercial.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
95) The director has responsibility for the actual filming of a TV commercial, including how
long the scene runs.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
96) Stop motion and claymation are two types of animation.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 312
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
97) The four major steps in the production of a television commercial are message design,
preproduction, the shoot, and postproduction.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 313
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 10-4
98) Dailies are rough versions of the commercial assembled from cuts of the raw film footage.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 313-314
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4
99) The result of the editor's initial work is called an interlock, which is a preliminary edited
version of the story that is created when the editor chooses the best shots and assembles them to
create a scene.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 314
Skill: Concept
Objective: 10-4

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100) Web designers are able to use different tools than those that are available to other types of
art directors.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 316
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Use of information technology
Objective: 10-5
101) Adreena wants to make consumers think of antiques with her photograph for a print
advertisement for handcrafted furniture. Adreena should use a sepia tone for the photograph.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2
102) Type in print ads has an aesthetic as well as a functional role.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2
103) An advertiser that wants to soften its brand image would likely switch from using light
typeface to boldface in its print advertisements.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2
104) The video equivalent of a rough layout for a print ad is a storyboard.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 305
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2
105) A perfume maker wants to create an advertisement that gives consumers the chance to
experience a new perfume. The perfume maker should choose to advertise in a magazine rather
than in a newspaper.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 305
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-3
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106) Discuss how the use of visuals can be related to the Facets Model of Effects.
Answer: Designers focus on six key reasons for the effective use of visuals in advertising:
(1) Grab Attention Generally visuals are better than words at getting and keeping attention.
(2) Stick in Memory Visuals stick in the mind because people generally remember messages as
visual fragments or key images that are filed easily in their minds.
(3) Cement Belief Seeing is believing, so visuals that demonstrate add credibility to a message.
(4) Tell Interesting Stories Visual storytelling is engaging and maintains interest.
(5) Communicate Quickly Pictures tell stories faster than words because a picture
communicates instantly. Consumers have to decipher verbal/written communication word-byword, sentence-by-sentence, line-by-line.
(6) Anchor Associations To distinguish undifferentiated products with low inherent interest,
advertisers often link the product with visual associations representing lifestyles and types of
users.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 291
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-1
107) Name and describe primary elements of the art director's toolkit for print advertising.
Answer: The art director's toolkit for print advertising includes the photos, illustrations,
typefaces, color, and layout of the proposed ad.
Illustrations and PhotosWhen art directors use the word art, they usually mean photographs
and illustrations. Photography has an authenticity that makes it powerful whereas illustrations are
more fanciful. Illustrations eliminate many of the details you see in a photograph, often making it
easier to understand.
Color is used to attract attention, provide realism, establish moods, and build brand identity. Print
ads with color get more attention than do ads without color. However, black-and-white also lends
a dignity and sophistication to the visual. Ads can also use spot color, a color in addition to black
and white to highlight important elements.
Typography is the appearance of the ad's printed matter in terms of the style and size of
typefaces. Art directors' concerns include fonts, justification, type measurement, and legibility.
Finally, a layout is a plan that imposes order and at the same time creates an arrangement that is
aesthetically pleasing. Some common types of ad layouts the art director might use are picture
window, all art, panel or grid, dominant type or all copy, circus, and nonlinear. Finally, several
design principles guide designers as they lay out an ad, such as direction, dominance, unity,
white space, contrast, balance, proportion, and simplicity.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 296-303
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2

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108) Explain what layout means, and compare the common ad layouts the art director might use.
Answer: A layout is a plan that imposes order and at the same time creates an arrangement that
is aesthetically pleasing. Some common types of ad layouts the art director might use are:
(1) Picture Window One of the most common formats; it uses a single, dominant visual that
occupies about 60 to 70 percent of the ad's space.
(2) All Art Art fills the frame of the ad and the copy is embedded in the picture.
(3) Panel or Grid Can use a number of visuals of matched or proportional sizes. If there are
multiple panels all of the same size, the layout can look like a window pane or comic strip panel.
(4) Dominant Type or All Copy Layout that emphasizes the type rather than the art, or even an
all-copy ad in which the headline is treated as type art. A copy-dominant ad may have art, but it
is either embedded in the copy or placed in a subordinate position, such as at the bottom of the
layout.
(5) Circus Combines lots of elements art, type, color to deliberately create a busy, jumbled
image. This is typical of some discount store ads or ads for local retailers, such as tire companies.
(6) Nonlinear A contemporary style of layout that can be read starting at any point in the image,
meaning the direction of viewing is not ordered. This style of ad layout works for young people,
but it is not as effective for older generations.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2
109) A printer really needs only four colors to reproduce full-color images. Explain how this can
be and describe the process used in four-color printing.
Answer: Full-color images are reproduced using four distinctive shades of ink called process
colors, in a process called four-color printing. These colors are magenta (a shade of pinkish
purple), cyan (a shade of bright blue), yellow, and black. Printing inks are transparent, so when
one ink overlaps another, a third color is created and that's how the full range of colors is created.
The black is used for type and, in four-color printing, adds depth to the shadows and dark tones
in an image. The process printers use to reduce the original color image to four halftone
negatives is called color separation.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 307
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-3

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110) Name the four steps in the production of a television commercial, and discuss some of the
activities associated with each.
Answer: In general, there are four steps in the production of a television commercial:
(1) Message Design Includes getting client approval on the advertising strategy, choosing the
message format, creating a key frame, writing the script, storyboarding the action and scenes,
and getting client approval of script and storyboard.
(2) Preproduction Develop a set of production notes describing in detail every aspect of the
production. Activities at this stage include find the right director; find the production house or
animation house; work out details in preproduction meetings; locate or build the set; cast the
talent; locate props, costumers, and photographic stills; and get bids for all the production
operations.
(3) Production (the Shoot) The director manages the shoot, and activities include: record the
action on film; record music, voices, and sound effects; create the onscreen graphics; and create
computer graphics.
(4) Postproduction When the commercial begins to emerge from the hands and mind of the
editor. Activities include: edit the film, mix the audio track, synchronize the video and the audio,
give a presentation tape to client for approval, and duplicate videotapes for distribution.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 313-314
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-4
111) What was the challenge facing the advertising agency that developed the campaign for
Altoids described in the chapter's opening vignette?
A) to increase awareness of a new line of mints
B) to increase awareness of the brand among children younger than 12 years old
C) to depict visually the impact of the flavor
D) to communicate to consumers the superior quality of the Altoids brand
E) to communicate to consumers the price/value relationship of Altoids
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 290-291
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-1

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112) The Michelin Man is an illustration that appears in many advertisements for Michelin tires.
The Michelin Man, who is made of tires, represents the brand. The Michelin Man is an example
of a ________.
A) logo
B) position
C) brand icon
D) brand image
E) thumbnail
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 295
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-1
113) Arthur works at an advertising agency and is in charge of the visual look of the message,
both in print and TV, and how it communicates mood, product qualities, and psychological
appeals. He makes decisions about whether to use art or photography in print, film or animation
in television, and what type of artistic style to use. He was trained in graphic design and designs
ads, but he rarely creates the finished art. What is Arthur's job title?
A) producer
B) art director
C) advertising director
D) creative director
E) creative strategist
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-2
114) Stan is a copywriter and Bob is an art director working on a client's account. They are
brainstorming ideas and trying to imagine what the finished ad might look like. What technique
should they use?
A) creative aerobics
B) thought listing
C) "drawing on the right side of the brain"
D) visualization
E) image transfer
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Application
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2

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115) Quiana is an art director working on a print ad for a new client. The client wants the ad to
stress the credibility of the product. Which of the following types of art should Quiana choose?
A) illustration
B) photograph
C) spot color
D) embossing
E) line art
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Application
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2
116) Rahim is an art director developing an advertising campaign for a new online multiplayer
game. The game allows players to create characters who interact in an imaginative environment
with characters created by other players. Which of the following types of art should Rahim
choose for the campaign?
A) illustration
B) photograph
C) spot color
D) embossing
E) halftone
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 297
Skill: Application
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2
117) As you're flipping through the newspaper, your eye catches a bright blue graphic in an ad
for a new restaurant. This ad uses ________ to attract attention.
A) off-set printing
B) tip-ins
C) color separation
D) four-color printing
E) spot color
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-2

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118) Kindrella is trying to convey happiness in a print ad. Which of the following color(s) should
she use in the ad?
A) yellow
B) orange
C) red
D) A and B
E) A, B, and C
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-2
119) Typeface that looks like this ABCDEFGHIJK... is known as ________.
A) serif
B) sans serif
C) block printing
D) ornamental
E) surprinted
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-2
120) In finalizing a newspaper ad, Mandeep is considering changing the spot color from blue to
red. In terms of design, Mandeep is considering a(n) ________ change.
A) functional
B) aesthetic
C) balance
D) movement
E) complexity
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 302
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-2

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121) A print advertisement for Hyatt is dominated by the image of a woman sitting on a pristine
beach, gazing out at a calm ocean. Text below the image reads "Hyatt. You're more than
welcome." The ad also includes a Hyatt website address. Which type of layout does this ad use?
A) picture window
B) circus
C) panel
D) nonlinear
E) dominant type
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-2
122) A print advertisement for Bloomingdale's features seven separate photographs of products
for a trip to the beach, including sunglasses and a beach bag. The largest image in the ad is a
photograph of a famous surfer. The headline for the ad appears above the photographs, and
smaller text providing details on the products and the sale appear below the photographs. Which
type of layout does this ad use?
A) picture window
B) circus
C) panel
D) nonlinear
E) dominant type
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-2
123) A print advertisement for a movie features boldfaced, all caps quotes from respected movie
critics praising the film, the title of the movie, and the names of the actors appearing in the
movie. The ad uses only black, white, and red ink. Which type of layout does this ad use?
A) picture window
B) circus
C) panel
D) nonlinear
E) dominant type
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-2

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124) Saul is taking a sample layout of a new print advertisement to a meeting with the client for
approval. This layout is most likely in the ________ stage.
A) thumbnail
B) panel
C) semicomp
D) high-resolution film
E) rough
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 304
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-2
125) Mmmints, the maker of a line of breath mints, is launching a new flavor. The company's
agency has created an advertisement that includes a flavor strip, which will allow consumers to
experience the taste of the new product. This advertisement is an example of a(n) ________.
A) tip-in
B) embossing
C) stamping
D) debossing
E) die-cut
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-2
126) Lisa writes original music and sometimes writes the lyrics along with the music for radio
and television commercials. What is Lisa's role in TV and radio production?
A) producer
B) director
C) arranger
D) composer
E) talent
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-4

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127) A four-color, full-page advertisement for a sale at a local retailer appeared in the Sunday
newspaper. The ad featured several images of products that would be on sale. The color images,
however, were somewhat blurry. Which of the following best explains why the images were
blurry?
A) The glossy paper used by newspapers is not the best surface for reproducing fine details.
B) The color was not perfectly registered.
C) The advertisement used continuous tones rather than half tones.
D) The advertisement used half tones rather than continuous tones.
E) The advertisement did not use enough white space.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 305
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-3
Refer to the following passage to answer the questions below.
A television ad for Meridia, a prescription medication for the management of obesity, begins by
showing a close-up of a cute, pudgy baby's face while the copy says something to the effect that
doctors have been concerned about your weight all your life. The baby's face gradually turns into
that of a woman who is attractive yet overweight, and the copy indicates that Meridia can help
just ask your doctor. Then the scene shifts, rather abruptly, to the name of the prescription
medication.
128) The art director wants to purchase a previously recorded image of a baby's face rather than
going through the process of casting and abiding by all the regulations for working with minors.
What could the art director use?
A) pre-shot footage
B) open footage
C) stock footage
D) proprietary footage
E) dubbed footage
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 309
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-4

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129) The art director wants to purchase a previously recorded image of a baby's face rather than
going through the process of casting and abiding by all the regulations for working with minors.
This decision was most likely made during the ________ stage of the production process.
A) message design
B) editing
C) preproduction
D) production
E) postproduction
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 313
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-4
130) The technique in which the baby's face gradually changes into a woman's face is known as
________.
A) die-cutting
B) debossing
C) morphing
D) interlocking
E) dubbing
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 310
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 10-4
131) Describe the challenge that was facing the creative team for the Altoids campaign described
in the chapter's opening vignette.
Answer: The challenge was to create advertising that would bring to life the intense flavor of
this extreme mint. The challenge was to depict visually the impact of this flavorwhat it's like to
suck on this miniature atom bomband dramatize the brand slogan, "Curiously Strong Mints."
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 289-290
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-1
132) Explain why pictures are important in print ads.
Answer: Visuals capture more attention with words, and bigger illustrations tend to capture more
attention. The right visual can pull readers into the body copy of an ad.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291-292
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-1

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133) Explain why there is a tension in advertising between creativity and responsibility to a
brand image.
Answer: A brand image is established over years and many market communication campaigns;
new marketing communications should be creative but should not interfere with the established
brand image without strategic cause.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 295
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-1
134) Explain why an illustration might be easier than a photograph to understand.
Answer: An illustration can leave out many details that appear in a photograph, making it easier
for the viewer to focus on the main idea of the image.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-1
135) Compare and contrast functional and aesthetic needs in design.
Answer: Functional needs involve making the visual message easy to perceive; aesthetic needs
involve making the visual attractive and pleasing to the eye.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 302
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2
136) Explain the two ways videographers and photographers handle composition.
Answer: Videographers and photographers handle composition by placing or arranging the
elements in front of their cameras or by manipulating their own point of view if the elements
can't be moved.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 305
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2

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137) The Institute for Outdoor Advertising (IOA) recommends several tips for designers. Discuss
three of them.
Answer: Students can discuss any three of the following:
(1) Graphics Make the illustration an eye-stopper.
(2) Size Images in billboards are huge. The product or the brand label can be hundreds of times
larger than life.
(3) Colors Use bold, bright colors. The greatest impact is created by maximum contrast
between two colors such as dark colors against white or yellow.
(4) Figure/Ground Make the relationship between foreground and background as obvious as
possible. The background should never compete with the subject.
(5) Typography Use a simple, clean, uncluttered type that is easy to read at a distance by an
audience in motion.
(6) Product Identification Focus attention on the product by reproducing the label or package in
a huge size.
(7) Extensions Extend the frame of the billboard to expand the scale and break away from the
limits of the long rectangle.
(8) Shape For visual impact, create the illusion of three-dimensional effects by playing with
horizons, vanishing lines, and dimensional boxes.
(9) Motion Add motors to boards to make pieces and parts move. Disklike wheels and glittery
things that flicker in the wind create the appearance of motion, color change, and images that
squeeze, wave, or pour. Use revolving panels, called kinetic boards, for messages that change.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 305-306
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-3
138) Compare and contrast the two general types of printed images.
Answer: There are two general types of printed images: line art and halftone. A drawing or
illustration is called line art because the image is solid lines on a white page. Photographs,
referred to as continuous tone or halftone, are much more complicated to reproduce. They have a
range of gray tones between black and white.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 306
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-3
139) Explain how printers use screens to create the illusion of shades of colors.
Answer: Printers create the illusion of shades by converting continuous-tone art and photos to
halftones by shooting the original photograph through a fine screen. The screened image is
converted to a pattern of dots that gives the illusion of shadesdark areas are large dots that fill
the screen and light areas are tiny dots surrounded by white space. The quality of the image
depends on how fine the screen is.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 307
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-3
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140) Compare and contrast the responsibilities of a producer and a director in a broadcast
production.
Answer: The producer takes charge of the production, handles the bidding and all production
arrangements, finds the specialists, arranges for casting talent, and makes sure the expenses and
bids come in under budget. The director has responsibility for the actual filming or taping,
including scene length, who does what, how lines are spoken and the characters played, and how
the camera records the flow of action.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-4
141) Compare and contrast the responsibilities of a composer and an arranger working on a
broadcast production.
Answer: The composer writes original music and sometimes writes the lyrics along with the
music. The arranger takes the original music and orchestrates the various instruments and voices
to make the music fit a scene or copy line.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-4
142) A major television commercial production company is seeking summer interns. The jobs
students would fill are called grip and script clerk. In which stage of the television production
process will these roles be found, and what can you expect to do if you take either of these
positions?
Answer: These roles are part of the production (the shoot) stage of the TV production process.
The grip is a person who moves props and sets and lays tracks for the dolly on which the camera
is mounted. The script clerk checks the dialogue and other script details and times the scenes.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 313-314
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-4
143) Describe a web designer's toolkit.
Answer: Web designers work with animation effects, sophisticated navigation paths, and
streaming video.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 316
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Use of information technology
Objective: 10-5

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144) How do banner ads compare to outdoor boards?


Answer: Banner ads are designed more like outdoor boards than conventional print ads because
their small space puts intense requirements on the designer to make the ad communicate quickly
and succinctly, and yet attract attention and curiosity to elicit a click-through response.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 316
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Use of information technology
Objective: 10-5
145) John is designing a website for a client. What does he need to know about designing the
navigation of the website to make it easy to use?
Answer: The navigation must be clear, making it easy for customers to move through the site,
find the information they want, and respond. Problems to avoid are navigation that is cluttered or
unclear. Regular users should be able to customize the site to fit their own interests and
navigation patterns.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 318
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Use of information technology
Objective: 10-5
Refer to the following passage to answer the questions below.
Kimberly is an art director at an advertising agency, and she is developing the print campaign for
one of the agency's clients. The clients don't have a large budget, so they would like to keep the
costs of production as low as possible; this means that the creation of original art in their ads is
not feasible. The desired look of the ads is formal, and the mood Kimberly wants to convey is
calm, serene, reflective, and intellectual. She also wants the layouts to be formal because the
product is financial services targeted to consumers 50+ years old.
146) Considering that the client does not want to pay for original visuals to be included in their
ads, how will Kimberly get the visuals she needs to get attention and to set the tone for the ads?
Answer: She can use clip art, which are image collections of copyright-free art that anyone who
buys the clip-art service can use.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296
Skill: Application
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2
147) What color or colors should Kimberly use to convey the mood she desires?
Answer: Cool colors, such as blue and green, are aloof, calm, serene, reflective, and intellectual.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300
Skill: Application
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2

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148) Kimberly is considering using mostly copy in her ad since financial services is a complex
topic and the market is interested in knowing detailed information. Describe the layout you
would suggest.
Answer: The dominant type or all copy layout would serve Kimberly well. This layout
emphasizes type and copy, and any art is embedded in the copy or placed in a subordinate
position, such as at the bottom of the layout.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2
149) Kimberly is considering using visuals of matched or proportional sizes. Name and describe
the appropriate layout she should use.
Answer: The panel or grid layout can use a number of visuals of matched or proportional sizes.
If there are multiple panels all of the same size, the layout can look like a window pane.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2
150) Which design principles are most appropriate for what Kimberly wants to do?
Answer: The design principles of balance and simplicity seem most applicable here.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 10-2

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