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Lecture 1
Introduction to Metallurgy and Material science:
Metallurgy and materials science is the subject which deals with different materials
which are used in engineering applications. Up to 19th century it was developed as art and
metallurgical techniques are transferred from forefathers to next generation. In 19th century
beginning metallurgy and materials science is a developed as science and the scientists observed that
The external exhibited properties are function of internal crystal structure and arrangement of
Metallurgy and materials science subject deals with different crystallographic
structures and its defects and also deals with different phase diagrams of binary systems and How
these phases are influences the mechanical properties? The ferrous metals have significant
applications in field of engineering .So that, this subject deals with iron-iron carbide phase diagram
and different types of cast irons and different types of steels. Non- ferrous metals like copper ,
titanium, Aluminium and their alloys are explained in this subject. Some special materials such as
refractory materials, Ceramic materials, glass, composite materials and Nanomaterials are also
discussed in this subject.
1.1 Classification of materials:
1. Metals and alloys
2. Ceramics
3. polymers
4. composite materials
5. semi- conductors
6. Bio-materials.
1.1.1 Metals:
1. Metals are inorganic substances composed of one or more metallic elements, and also contain
non-metallic elements.
2. Metals have definite crystal structure.
3. Metals possess good electrical and thermal conductivity.
4. They relatively strong and ductile at room temperature.
5. Metals generally posses good ringing sound.
Alloys are combination of two or more metals or metals and non metals. We can subdivided
alloys into ferrous alloys and non ferrous alloys. Detail explanation we will learn in next units.
1.1.2. Ceramics:
1. Ceramics are inorganic materials.
2. These are non-metallic
3. Ceramics having high- refractory strength
Ex: glass, porcelain, china clay
4. Ceramics usually consists of oxides, nitrides, carbides, silicates of different metals.
1.1.3 Polymers:


Many polymers are organic compounds and chemically inert

Basically they are composed of a long molecular chain with C,H2 and non-metallic elements.
Most of the polymers are poor conductors of electricity due to their nature of binding
Polymers are light in weight.

1.1.4 Composites:
1. Composites are consists of more than one material. So that the required properties we can
Ex: R.C.C, Al-Boron composites, reinforced plastic tubes etc.
1.1.5Semi- Conductors:
1. Properties of these materials in between conductors and insulators. Semi conductors are
improved by doping impurities like Ga, Ar, K etc.
1.1.6 Bio- Materials:
1. These materials from which certain components are made that are implanted into the human
body for replacing damaged parts or for correcting some defects in the body. These materials
should compatible with tissues.
1.2 Bonds in Solids:
Bonding between atoms of solid materials occurs at where their potential energy minimum.
When atoms are bonded together then atoms are in more stable than unbonded.
When two atoms are at the more distance the attractive or repulsive forces between them
negligible. But they approach each other the attractive force slowly increases accordingly to their
valancy electrons. Depending on the attractive forces (Electro negativity) electrons of the atoms are
interchanged or shared and either positive or negative charge developed on the atoms. Due to this
attractive force between the atoms increased and it caused for decreasing of the distance between the
atoms, but simultaneously caused for developing of repulsive force due to positive nuclei. They are
balanced at one position where the potential energy minimum. At this position the atoms having

Two different types of bonds are generally formed in the solids.

1. Primary Bonds
2. Secondary Bonds
1.2.1 Primary Bonds:
Primary Bonds are very strong bonds and their bonding strength lies in between 1001000Kj/ mole . These are
1. Ionic Bond
2. covalent Bond
3. Metallic Bond
1.Ionic Bond:
Ionic bonds are non-directional bonds. These are formed in between highly
electropositive and electronegative ions. This high electropositive ion, highly negative ions
formed due to shifting of electrons form one atom to other. Due to high bonding strength
generally Ionic bonds are solids. Its bond braking strength also high
Ex: NaCl, HCl etc.
Characteristics of ionic Bond:

Ionic solids are hard and brittle.

Ionic solids are poor in electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity
Most of the materials are acted as insulating materials
Ionic solids having high boiling and melting points
Ionic solids are soluble in water.

2.Covalent Bond:
Covalent bonds are formed due to the sharing of electrons between two or more no. of
atoms. Their electro negativity difference is very less. So that, they share the electrons. The
bonding strength is relatively lower than the ionic bonds.
Covalent bonds we can divided as bonds and bonds and hybridization. The end to
end overlapping of orbitals caused for formation of bond.
Example S2 .
The lateral overlapping of the orbitals caused for formation of bonds. Ex:O2 .
The bonds in between S and P orbitals and these are sp, sp2, sp3 hybridization.

SP hybridization- diagonal (e.g.: BeF2)

SP2 hybridization- trigonal (e.g.: graphite)
SP3 hybridization- tetrahedral (e.g.: BeF2)

When each carbon atom forms there covalent bonds due to SP2 hybridization,
then the graphite is formed as layer. The bonding in between one layer to other layer
is very less so that one layer very early sides over the other. So that graphite is a good
Other examples:
All alkynes -SP, Alkenes -SP2, Alkanes - SP3

1. Covalent bonds are direction bonds.
2. They existing in liquids, glasses and solid forms.
3. Generally these are bad conductors of electricity and thermal, some materials are
4. These are insoluble in water and soluble is non polar solvent like alcohol, benzene
The outer most electrons of metal atoms are very weekly bonded and when such
atoms interact to became a solid, their valence electrons form a gas of electrons known
as electron gas. Then a metallic bond results from the attraction between the positive
metal ions as and the electron gas.

Generally 4 th period elements and alkali metals are forms metallic bonds.
Ex: K, Ca , Se, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge
Characteristics of metallic bonds:
1. Metallic bonds are weaker than ionic and covalent bonds.
2. Non-directional.
3. Having less boiling and melting points.
4. Good conductors of electrical and thermal energy.
5. Most of the metals are crystalline materials.
1.2.2 Secondary Bonds:
After formation of primary bonds, under particular conditions, the formed molecules
are behaves like dipoles, and they attracts the neighbor molecules and they bonded
together. These bonds are called secondary bonds and these are very weak, these are
clarified as
(1) hydrogen bonds
( Ex:H2O and CH3OH + H2O)
(2) Vander walls bonds
When temperature decreases Vander walls forces increases.