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Date: 11 Oct 2007

1. Assessment of water quality of Manchar Lake in Sindh (Pakistan)

Ghulam Murtaza Mastoi,

Syed Ghulam Sarwar Shah,
Mohammad Yar Khuhawar


Manchar Lake is the largest natural freshwater lake in Pakistan. The Lake has
received less fresh water in past few years. In addition, drainage water is being
discharged in the Lake through Main Nara Valley Drain (MNVD) since many years.
Consequently, concern has grown regarding the water quality of the Lake. The aim of
this study was to assess the water quality of Manchar Lake and MNVD and the
objectives were to determine physiochemical properties and the concentrations of
common cations and anions as well as seven trace metals i.e. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe, Pb
and Cd. The concentration of the trace metals were determined by simultaneous
preconcentration and solvent extraction using flame atomic absorption spectrometer.
Results of physicochemical parameters of Manchar Lake water samples showed mean
pH 8.4 (0.2), conductivity 2,310.3 (581.3) S cm1and hardness (as CaCO3) 213.1
(62.3) mg l1. Mean concentrations of cations and anions were Na 521.5 (49.7),
Cl 413.6 (225.7), Ca 70.7 (12.9), Mg 56.2 (28.9), K 17.6 (6.5), NO30.34
(0.2) andPO340.02 (0.01) mg l1. Mean concentrations of trace metals were Zn
15.7 (1), Fe 12 (3.5), Pb 9 (2.7), Cu 8.9 (7.7), Ni 4.3 (3.4), Co 4 (3.4) and Cd
1.1 (1) g l1. MNVD water samples showed mean pH 8.9 (0.8), conductivity
1,735.7 (567.8) S cm1 and hardness (as CaCO3) 184.8 (32.4) mg l1. In MNWD,
the mean concentrations of cations and anions were Na 482.7 (11.7), Cl 395.7
(271.5), Ca 79.1 (23.5), Mg 54.2 (28.1), K 26.2 (21.3), NO 3 0.5 (0.3)
andPO340.1 (0.1) mg l1. Mean concentrations of trace metals observed in MNWD
water were Fe 14.9(3.5), Cd 8.3 (9.4), Pb 6.9 (2.4), Cu 6.6 (3.1), Zn 6.2 (1.8),
Co 4.5 (2.7), and Ni 3.5 (2.9) g l1. The pH of both Manchar Lake and MNVD
waters and concentration of Pb in Manchar Lake and concentration of Cd in MNVD
water were higher than the World Health Organisations guideline values for the
drinking water quality. The water quality of Manchar Lake was found degraded.

2. Determination of natural radioactivity in public drinking water quality

assessment Friday, October 29, 2004

S. Akyil


The determination of 90Sr and the gross particleactivity originating from radium
isotopes was performed on water samples atvarious stages of treatment taken from
water treatment plants before distributionto the consumers.

. 010 Jun;72(10):24-30.

3. The challenges of sustainable access to safe drinking water in

rural areas of developing countries: case of Zawtar El-Charkieh,
Southern Lebanon.
Massoud MA1, Al-Abady A, Jurdi M, Nuwayhid I.
Author information
Adequate and safe water is important for human health and well-being, economic production, and
sustainable development. Failure to ensure the safety of drinking water may expose the community to the
risk of outbreaks of waterborne and infectious diseases. Although drinking water is a basic human right,
many people do not have access to safe and adequate drinking water or proper sanitation facilities. The
authors conducted a study to assess the quantity, cost, continuity, coverage, and quality of drinking water
in the village of Zawtar El-Charkieh, Lebanon. Their aim was to identify the challenges of sustainable
access to safe drinking water in order to determine the short-term management actions and long-term
strategies to improve water quality. Results revealed that contamination of the source, absence of any
disinfection method or insufficient dose, poor maintenance operations, and aging of the networks are
significant factors contributing to water contamination during the storage and distribution process.
Establishing a comprehensive drinking water system that integrates water supply, quality, and
management as well as associated educational programs in order to ensure the safety and sustainability
of drinking water supplies is essential.

4. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in

Peshawar, Pakistan
Department of Development Studies, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan

INAMULLAH, E. and A. ALAM, 2014. Assessment of drinking water quality in Peshawar, Pakistan. Bulg.
J. Agric. Sci., 20: 595-600

Drinking water contamination is one of the core issues in many developing countries and of the challenges
scientists and planners. Need of water quality assessment in different parts of the country is thus imperative to
analyze state of the water consumed for different purposes especially for drinking purpose. The present study
took into account water quality assessment of 32 locations inside Peshawar. Groundwater samples were

collected both from tube wells as well as from household ends and subjected to physical, chemical and
bacteriological analysis as well as presence of heavy metals, to check their suitability for drinking purpose.
Results revealed that physical and chemical characteristics of 96.87% samples were within the permissible
limits. However, 84.35% of the samples collected from household ends were contaminated with coliform
bacteria and could not be considered safe for human consumption. 31.2% of the samples collected directly
from tube wells also showed suspicious results. Faulty distribution and storage infrastructure and their lack of
maintenance are concluded main reasons behind drinking water contamination in Peshawar.
Key words: water contamination, bacteriological analysis, atomic absorption
spectrophotometry, hard water, Peshawar KPK

5. Promoting safe drinking water.

Author information
Pike-MacDonald S1, Best DG, Twomey C, Bennett L, Blakeley J.
2007 Jan;103(1):14-9.

Ensuring access to safe drinking water is a major public health concern. The outbreaks of disease from
water-borne pathogens in communities like Walkerton and North Battleford alerted the federal
government to the need for a standardized multi-barrier approach to managing public drinking water
distribution systems. Although many provinces and territories have adopted such an approach, there are
problems with water quality throughout Canada. Between 1997 and 2004, the authors conducted a
community health needs and resources assessment study in Newfoundland and Labrador to assess
health beliefs and practices, satisfaction with health and community services and concerns in relation to
community health. The data collection methods used were a random household survey (N = 2,842), key
informant interviews (N = 86) and focus group sessions (N = 22). The results indicated that the quality of
drinking water was of serious concern. In this article, the authors discuss the study findings and the
implications for nursing practice in relation to developing healthy public policy and population health

6. Significance and Assessment of the Biological Stability of Drinking

Volume 5 / 5B, 1995, pp 89-102

D. van der Kooij

Biologically-stable drinking water does not support the multiplication of micro-organisms in
drinking water distribution systems. Such multiplication (regrowth) adversely affects water
quality, e.g. by the presence of opportunistic pathogens, coliforms, increased heterotrophic
colony counts, development of invertebrates. Disinfection is not effective against biofilms
and sediments, which play a key role in regrowth, and cleaning methods are labor intensive.
Regrowth therefore should be prevented by strictly limiting the concentration of compounds
serving as energy sources for microorganisms. Growth measurements with selected pure
bacterial cultures are used for assessing the concentration of easily assimilable organic
carbon (AOC) in drinking water. Regrowth of heterotrophic bacteria is very limited in water
supplies in the Netherlands at AOC concentrations below 10 g of acetate-C equivalents per
liter. The concentration of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC), which is assessed as the
reduction in DOC concentration in samples incubated with an assemblage of bacteria, did
not decrease below the level of 0.2 mg/I in drinking water during distribution in Paris.
Biological filtration processes are needed to remove the concentration of growth promoting
compounds for obtaining biostable drinking water.

7.Risk Assessment for Safe Drinking Water Supplies

. 23 Sep 2014

Mohammed H. Dore

This chapter reviews principles of source water protection, for both point and
nonpoint sources of pollution as well as the main approaches to risk assessment for
potable water supplies. It includes an overview of some risk assessment case studies.

8. .

Journal of Cleaner Production

Volume 16, Issue 4, March 2008, Pages 401409

Environmental, financial and quality assessment of drinking water

processes at Waternet

Mauricio Tapiaa,
Maarten A. Siebela, , ,
Alex W.C. van der Helmb, c,
Eric T. Baarsd,
Huub J. Gijzena

Waternet (formerly Amsterdam Water Supply) has been seeking a sustainable scenario for producing
drinking water and offering services that fulfill the requirements of clients and regulations, and, at the
same time, maintains a sound environmental performance while keeping costs as low as possible.
Presently, the company is in the process of evaluating alternatives for the treatment of water that cause
the least financial and environmental impacts. The quantification of these impacts, for the current
conditions, was carried out in earlier investigations. However, until now, the water quality aspect was not
yet considered.
In order to include this water quality aspect into the financial and environmental assessment, a quality
function was constructed created by comparing water quality parameter values for a current and an
alternative treatment process. Four qualifications were assigned to the sum of these scores: Worse,
Same, Better and Much better. The qualifications allowed the comparison of the water quality and the
financial and environmental impacts of the selected alternatives using a graphical representation of them.
The method was applied focusing on the environmental and financial assessment of six alternative
processes for the LoenderveenWeesperkarspel treatment line, and including the quality aspect, as a
third parameter for comparison.

9. Drinking Water: Factors Affecting the Quality of Drinking Water

: 09 Jul 2014

Vladyslav V. Goncharuk

The relative critical overview of indicators, which set norms to the drinking water and are
used as background for regulatory instruments of the USA, the EU, the WHO, Ukraine and
Russia, has been revealed. The analytical review of current problems in drinking water
preparation technology at centralized drinking water treatment plants has been delivered.
The role of natural organic compounds of natural origin in drinking water quality has been
revealed. The application of different technological measures to prepare high quality
drinking water has been analysed and explained. The influence of condition of water
distribution system on the drinking water quality has been evaluated. It has been cited the
examples of modern technological systems of drinking water treatment. A new concept of
supply the population with a quality drinking water has been introduced. It is based on
representation the need to consume adequate water by a person, which is genetically safe,
comprises no man induced alloys, and is characterized by occurrence of such natural
substances and microelements that are easiest to digest for a body from water.

Drinking water quality and human health risk in

Charsadda district, Pakistan

Dec 2013

Sardar Khana, b, , ,
Maria Shahnaza,
Noor Jehana,
Shafiqur Rehmana,
M. Tahir Shahc,
Islamud Dind


Access to safe drinking water is one of the basic human rights and essential for healthy life. The
present study investigated the concentrations of various pollutants in drinking water and health
risk in Charsadda district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from
dug-wells, tube-wells and hand pumps which were the most common sources of drinking water
and analyzed for physical parameters, anions, heavy metals and coliform bacteria using standard
methods. The concentrations of nitrate (10.314.84 mg L1) in 13 sites exceeded the permissible
limit (10 mg L1) set by US-EPA, while sulfate concentrations (505555 mg L1) in 9 sites
exceeded the permissible limit (500 mg L1) set by WHO. Similarly, the concentrations of Pb, Cd,
Ni and Fe exceeded their respective permissible limits set by different organizations in some
locations. Furthermore, the coliform bacterial contamination (25 MPN 100 mL1) was also found
in some sources of water, confirming the bacterial contamination of drinking water. In the study
area, improper disposal of sewage and solid wastes, over application of agrochemicals
(pesticides and fertilizers), deteriorating condition of piping network and transportation were the
major sources responsible for contamination of drinking water. Water contamination with coliform
bacteria was the main source of waterborne diseases like gastroenteritis, dysentery, diarrhea and
viral hepatitis as complained by most of the respondents during questionnaire survey. In order to
reduce the health risk, it is necessary to immediately stop the uses of drinking water from
contaminated sources and government should supply treated/clean water with supply lines far
away from solid waste, sludge and sewage sites. The farmers should be properly trained to avoid
the overusing of agrochemicals responsible for drinking water contamination, while both women
and men should be properly educated with water knowledge through awareness and training
programs needed for sustainable use and management of drinking water.