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FACULTY OF PHARMACY

Practical Physics I

Fall 2012

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

Contents

(2) Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat (Joule's Law) by Electrical Method 12

(3) Determination of the Melting Point of a Solid Material ------------------------------------------ 15

(4) Determination of the Specific Gravity using Archimedes Principle and Density Bottle --- 18

(5) Speed of Sound in Air -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29

(6) The Simple Pendulum ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31

(7) Specific Heat by the Method of Mixing --------------------------------------------------------------- 33

(8) Measurement of Viscosity of a Liquid by Stokes Law ---------------------------------------------- 37

Page 1

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

0. Objective

instruments like:

1. Vernier caliper,

2. Micrometer Screw Gauge and

3. Spherometer Screw.

1. Vernier caliper

1.1. Apparatus

2. Parallelepiped solid object.

1.2. Theory

A very ingenious device for obtaining accuracy of a greater order than that

obtainable by eye-estimation was invented by (Pierre Vernier), and is

known by his name.

Page 2

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

fraction of the finest division on the main scale of a measuring

instrument.

The simplest vernier scale has (10 divisions) that correspond in length to (9

divisions) on the main scale. Each vernier division is therefore shorter than

a main scale division by ( 1 ) of a main scale division. The first vernier

10

10

2

) short of the next mark on the main scale, and

10

10

mark on the main scale. It therefore, coincides with a mark on the main

scale.

If the vernier scale is moved to the right until one mark, say the third,

coincides with some mark of the main scale the number of tenths of a

main-scale division that the vernier scale is moved is the number of the

vernier division that coincides with any main-scale division. The third

vernier division coincides with a main-scale mark, therefore the vernier

scale has moved (3/10) of a main scale division to the right of its zero

position. The vernier scale thus tells the fraction of a main-scale division

that the zero of the vernier scale has moved beyond any main-scale mark.

Page 3

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

The term "least count" is applied to the smallest value that can be read

directly from a vernier scale. It is equal to the difference between a mainscale and a vernier division.

Least account =

S

n

where (n) is the number of divisions on the vernier scale and (S) is the

length of the smallest main-scale division.

In order to make a measurement with the instrument, first determine its

least count, then read the number of divisions on the main scale before

the zero of the vernier scale and note which vernier division coincides with

a mark of the main scale. Multiply the number of the coinciding vernier

mark by the least count to obtain the fractional part of a main-scale

division to be added to the main-scale reading.

1.3. Method

parallelepiped body, the length (L cm), the width (W cm) and the

depth (D cm).

2. Calculate the volume (V cm3) of the body.

Page 4

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

1.4. Results

Length (L) =

Width (W) =

Depth (D) =

Volume (V) = L * W * D = *

Page 5

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

2.1. Apparatus

2. Spherical body.

2.2. Theory

It consists essentially of a carefully machined screw to which is attached a

circular scale.

In general, there is a circular head of a large diameter fitted to the screw

and moving past a scale fixed parallel to the axis. The head is subdivided

into a definite number of equal divisions, so that the screw can be turned

through fractions of a revolution and these fractions read on the

micrometer head.

Page 6

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

equal to the "pitch" of the screw, this being the distance between

similar points on consecutive turns of the thread.

The circular scale enables one to read the fractions of turns, and the

linear scale enables one to record the whole number of turns. The

least count of a micrometer screw is the pitch of the screw divided by

the number of divisions on the circular scale. One type of metric

micrometer has the linear scale graduated in mms, a screw having a pitch

of (1 mm), and (100 divisions) on the circular scale. The least count of this

instrument is (

1mm

= 0.01mm ).

100

2.3. Method

body.

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Page 7

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

2.4. Results

The radius of the sphere (R = D/2) =

The volume of the sphere (V) = (4/3) R3 = 4/3*3.14*()3 =

Page 8

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3. Spherometer Screw

3.1. Apparatus

1. Spherometer, and

2. Spherical peace.

3.2. Theory

curvature of a spherical surface. In many cases as, for example when

dealing with a lens the surface is only a small portion of a sphere. In such

a case the radius of curvature is the radius of the sphere of which the

surface forms a part.

height

as nearly as possible at the corners of an equilateral triangle. Through the

centre of the table passes a screw of fine pitch forming a fourth leg. The

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Page 9

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

position of this leg can be read by means of a scale fixed at right angles

to the table and a circular scale attached to the head of the screw.

Measurement of the radius of curvature of a spherical surface

Place the spehrometer with the fixed feet resting on the surface,

and adjust the central foot till it just touches the surface. Read the circular

scale.

Replace the instrument on the plane surface and find how many whole

turns have to be made to bring the central foot back to the plane of the

other three feet. Using this reading with the readings of the circular

head in the two adjustments calculate the distance through which the

screw was moved.

Take the mean of several adjustments and let the height be (h cm).

Measure the distance between the two fixed feet carefully to (0.1 mm)

with a millimeter scale for each side of the triangle and take the mean

of the results: let it be (a cm). Then the radius of curvature is given by

the expression

a2 h

R=

+

6h 2

(cm)

(2)

3.3. Method

its four legs and define the reading of the spherometer.

2. Put the spherometer on the plane surface and adjust

its four legs and define the reading to give the height

(h).

3. Calculate the radius of curvature (R) using Eq (2).

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Page 10

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3.4. Results

Reading of the spherometer on plane surface (h2) =

The height of the spherical peace (h = h2 - h1) =

The triangle length (a) =

a2 h

+ =

The radius of the spherical peace (R ) =

6h 2

)2

6

Page 11

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

Equivalent of Heat (Joule's Law) by

Electrical Method

0. Objective

electrical method

1. Apparatus

1. Voltmeter and/or Ameter, (AC or DC)

2. Rheostat,

3. Power supply, (AC or DC)

4. Heating conductor,

5. Calorimeter within wooden box,

6. Thermometer, and

7. Stop watch

2. Theory

current of intensity (I ampere) in a conductor of resistance (R Ohm),

then the amount of electrical energy(E Joule) used in time (t sec) is given

by:

E=VIt

(Joules)

(1)

putted in a calorimeter of mass (mc gm) and specific heat (Sc cal gm-1 oC1

), the amount of energy of Eq (1) is changed into heat (H calorie) given

by:

Page 12

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

H = (mw + Wc) ( 2 - 1)

Fall 2012

(calorie)

(2)

where [Wc = (mc Sc) cal oC-1] is the water equivalent of the calorimeter, (

1 and 2 oC) are the initial and final temperatures of the system. The

equation of equivalent between electrical (mechanical) energy and heat

transformed is given by:

J (mw + Wc) ( 2 - 1) = V I t =RV 2 t,

(Joule)

(3)

coefficient) that is given by

2 /

=

( + )(2 1)

( 1 )

Figure (1)

3. Method

1. Make the connections as shown in Fig (1). Adjust the value of the

rheostat so that the potential (V) can be read accurately. Then switch off

the transformer.

2. Find the mass of the calorimeter (mc), and water (mw) and note down

the temperature of calorimeter and its contents (i)

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[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3. Now switch on the transformer and start the stop watch. Keep on

stirring the water, so that the temperature may be kept uniform.

4. Switch off the transformer when the rise in temperature becomes (5

o

C or 6 oC). Note down the final temperature ( f). Also stop the stop

watch and record the time for which the current was passed (t).

5. The readings of voltmeter (V) and ammeter (I) must be taken at an

interval of (30 sec) [nearly constants]. The average values should be

substituted in the formula.

4. Results

The current passes through the conductor (I) =

Mass of water taken (mw) =

Mass of calorimeter (mc) =

Specific heat of calorimeter (Sc) =

Water equivalent of calorimeter (Wc) = mc Sc =

Final temperature of water (f) =

Time for which current was passed (t) =

The mechanical equivalent of heat (J) = 4.18 Joule/cal.

The resistance of the heater coil (R) = (

2 /

+ )(2 1)

Page 14

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

Point of a Solid Material

0. Objective

1. Apparatus

1. Beaker containing water,

2. Test tube fitted with a cork,

3. A thermometer passing through the cork,

4. Heating arrangement, and

5. Stop watch.

2. Theory

transferred between it and its surroundings. There are some cases in

which the transfer of energy does not result a change in temperature.

This is the cases whenever the substance changes from one state to

another; such as change from solid to liquid (melting) and from liquid to

gas (boiling). This is called phase change. All such phase changes

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[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

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amount of energy required during a phase change depends on the

amount of the used substance.

The quantity of energy required for changing the phase of a unit of

mass of a substance is called the Latent Heat (L cal gm-1).

The value of the Latent Heat for a substance depends on the nature of

the phase change, as well as on the properties of the substance.

Latent heat of fusion (Lf cal gm-1) is the term used when the phase

change is from solid to liquid (to fuse means to combine by melting).

3. Method

fix the cork along with the thermometer.

2. Adjust the test tube in a beaker containing water to do not

contact the beaker body.

3. Heat water to its boiling point. The solid material in the test

tube has melted and is in the liquid state.

4. Extinguish the heater and allow water and solid material to

cool.

5. Record the temperature of the solid material each half a

minute.

6. Plot a graph between time (t minutes) as abscissa and

temperature ( oC) as ordinate.

7. The temperature corresponding to the horizontal line in the

graph gives the melting point of the solid material (m oC). At this

temperature, liquid material is converted into solid material

without change of temperature, Fig (2). The temperature at the

horizontal line in Fig (2) gives the melting.

Page 16

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

4. Results

(T

min)

( )

(T

min)

( )

(T

min)

( )

(T

min)

( )

Page 17

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

Gravity using Archimedes Principle

and Density Bottle

0. Objective

using the density bottle and Archimedes principle

1. Apparatus

1. Sensitive balance,

2. Density bottle,

3. Set of weights,

4. Beaker,

5. Liquid, and

6. Heavy body and light body.

Theory

The specific gravity (G) of a material is defined as the ratio between the

weight (mass) (Mm gm) of a specific volume (V cm3) of this material to

the weight (mass) (Mw gm) of the same volume of water at the same

temperature. Also, the specific gravity (G) of a material can be defined

as the ratio between the density of this material (m gm cm-3) and the

density of the water (w gm cm-3) at the same temperature. Therefore;

=

=

=

(1)

Page 18

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

1. Theory

buoyant force. The buoyant force is the resultant force due to all forces

applied by the fluid surrounding the immersed object. Archimedes

principle states that the magnitude of the buoyant force always equals

the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. The buoyant force acts

vertically upward through the point that was the center of gravity of the

displaced fluid. Note that Archimedess principle does not refer to the

makeup of the object experiencing the buoyant force. The objects

composition is not a factor in the buoyant force because the buoyant

force is exerted by the fluid. We can verify this as follows:

Suppose we focus our attention on the indicated cube of a solid material

in the container illustrated in Fig (1.1). This cube is affected by two

forces. One of these forces is the gravitational force (Fg dyne) that is

acting down and is given by:

= =

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()

(1)

Page 19

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

where (Ms gm) is the mass of the solid material cube, (s gm cm-3) is the

solid material density, (V cm3) is the cube volume and (g cm sec-2) is the

acceleration of gravity. The other force is the buoyant force (FB Dyne)

that is acting upward and it is due to the difference of the fluid pressure

on the upper and lower faces of the solid cube.

The pressure at the bottom of the cube is greater than the pressure at

the top by:

=

where (f gm cm-3) is the density of the fluid, and (h cm) is the height of

the cube. The pressure difference (P Dyne cm-2) between the bottom

and top faces of the cube is equal to the buoyant force per unit area of

those faces that is:

=

( 2 )

where (A cm2) is the area of the upper or lower faces of the cube.

Therefore, the buoyant force is given by:

FB = P A = f g h A = f V g,

(Dyne)

Because the mass of the fluid in the cube is (Mf = f V) we see that

FB = Mf g = f V g

(Dyne)

(2)

submerged or partly submerged object.

Using Eqs (1) and (2), the net force (F dyne) acts on the body immersed

in the fluid is given by:

F = Fg FB = (Ms - Mf) g = (s - f) V g

(Dyne)

(3)

This force (F dyne) equals the weight of the body totally immersed in the

fluid (Wsf dyne) while the gravitational force (Fg dyne) is the weight of

the body in air (Ws dyne). Therefore, we have for submerged body in the

fluid the following:

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Page 20

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

1. If the gravitational force (Fg dyne) is greater than the buoyant force (FB

dyne), the body will be totally submerged in the fluid.

2. If the gravitational force (Fg dyne) is equal to the buoyant force (FB

dyne), the body will be partially submerged in the fluid.

The specific gravity of the body (GS), defined in Eq (1), and using Eqs (1)

and (3) is given by:

=

(4)

where (FBw dyne) is the buoyant force of the water on the solid body, (FBL

dyne) is the buoyant force of the liquid on the solid body, (Ws dyne) is

the weight of the solid body in air, (WsL dyne) is the weight of the solid

body totally immersed in the liquid and (GL) is the specific gravity of the

used liquid. The specific gravity of a fluid (liquid) (GL) can be given, using

this method, as:

=

(5)

where (Wsw dyne) is the weight of the solid body totally immersed in the

water.

2 Method

2.1. Verification of Archimedes Principle

Vernier and micrometer and calculate its volume (V).

2. Weight this body in air using a balance (Ws).

3. Put a beaker filled with a liquid of known density (L) on a

bridge on the base of the balance does not touch the balance pan.

4. Calculate the weight of the replaced liquid (WL = V L).

5. Hang the solid body in the balance cope to be totally immersed

in the liquid in the beaker and measure the weight (WsL).

6. Calculate the liquid buoyant force (FB =Ws WsL).

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Page 21

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

7. Repeat the steps (1-6) for different regular shape solid bodies

and different liquids with known densities.

8. Note that the results verify Archimedes's principle (FB = WL).

2.2. Determination of the Specific Gravity of a liquid

1. Use a solid body that does not solved with the used liquid and

the water and the body totally submerged in both of them.

2. Using a balance, measure the weight of the solid body in air

(Ws).

3. Put a beaker filled with this liquid on a bridge on the base of the

balance does not touch the pan.

4. Hang the body with weightless wire in the cope of the balance

totally immersed in the liquid and does not touch the walls or the

base of the beaker. Measure the weight of the solid body

immersed in the liquid (WsL).

5. Repeat steps (3 and 4) for a beaker filled with water and

measure the weight of the solid body totally immersed in the

water (Wsw).

6. Using Eq (5) calculate the specific gravity of the liquid

=

(Ws).

2. Use a liquid with known density (L) that does not solve the

solid body material and the body totally submerged in it.

3. Put a beaker filled with this liquid on a bridge on the base of the

balance does not touch the pan.

4. Hang the body with weightless wire in the cope of the balance

totally immersed in the liquid and does not touch the walls or the

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Page 22

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

immersed in the liquid (WsL).

5. Using Eq (4), the specific gravity of the solid body =

is calculated, where =

in air (Ws).

2. Use a liquid with known density (L) that does not solve the

floating solid body material and the body totally submerged in it.

3. Use a solid body that is totally immersed in the used liquid and

dissolved in it.

4. Put a beaker filled with this liquid on a bridge on the base of the

balance does not touch the pan.

5. Hang the immersing body with weightless wire in the cope of

the balance totally immersed in the liquid and does not touch the

walls or the base of the beaker. Measure the weight of the

immersing body immersed in the liquid (WsL1).

6. Tie the floating solid body with the immersing body and

measure the weight of both immersed totally in the liquid as in

step (5) to be (WsL2).

7. Calculate the weight of the floating solid body immersed in the

liquid as (WsL = WsL2 WsL1).

8. Using Eq (4), the specific gravity of the solid body =

is calculated, where =

Page 23

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3. Results

3.1. Verification of Archimedes's Principle

The used liquid density (L) =

The weight of the replaced liquid (WL = V L) =

The weight of the solid body totally immersed in the liquid (WsL) =

The liquid buoyant force (FB =Ws WsL) =

The weight of the solid body immersed in the liquid (WsL) =

The weight of the solid body totally immersed in the water (Wsw) =

The specific gravity of the liquid =

The density of the used liquid (L) =

The weight of the solid body immersed in the liquid (WsL) =

The specific gravity of the used liquid (GL) =

The specific gravity of the solid =

Page 24

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

The density of the used liquid (L) =

The weight of the immersing body immersed in the liquid (WsL1) =

The weight of both immersed totally in the liquid (WsL2) =

The weight of the floating solid body immersed in the liquid (WsL = WsL2

WsL1) =

=

The specific gravity of the used liquid (GL) =

The specific gravity of the solid =

Page 25

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

Bottle

1. Theory

then it is fully filled with water and the mass of the water is measured to

be (Mw = M1 - M gm) and the bottle is again fully filled with the required

liquid and the mass of this liquid is measured to be (ML = M2 - M gm),

the gravity density of the liquid (GL), using Eq (1), is given by:

=

=

/

(1)

density bottle we must use a liquid which does not solve this solid

powder. [If the water does not solve the required solid powder, we can

use the water directly.] As the specific gravity of the solid powder, using

Eq (1), is given by:

=

/ 1 /

1

=

=

/ 1 / / 1 1

(2)

V1 cm3), (Mw gm) is the mass of a quantity of water of volume (V cm3),

(ML1 gm) is the mass of a quantity of the used liquid of volume (V1 cm3)

and (GL) is the specific gravity of the used liquid.

2. Method

1. Measure the mass of the empty, drayed density bottle with its

cover (M).

2. Fully fill the density bottle with water, put its cover slowly and

dray it from outside. Measure the mass of the bottle fully filled

with water (M1).

3. Calculate the mass of the water fully filled the bottle (Mw) = M1

M.

4. Empty the bottle from water and dray it from inside and

outside.

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[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

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5. Fully fill the density bottle with the liquid, put its cover slowly

and dray it from outside. Measure the mass of the bottle fully

filled with the liquid (M2).

6. Calculate the mass of the liquid fully filled the bottle (M) = ML2

M.

7. Empty the bottle from the liquid and dray it from inside and

outside.

8. Calculate the specific gravity of the liquid (GL)

9. Put a quantity of the solid powder in the density bottle (about

its third) and measure the mass of the bottle with its cover and

the quantity of solid powder (M3).

10. Calculate the mass of the solid powder inside the bottle (Ms) =

M3 M.

11. Complete the bottle with the used liquid to be fully filled and

put the cover slowly. Dray the bottle from outside. Measure the

mass of the bottle with its cover, the solid powder and the liquid

(M4).

12. Calculate the mass of the liquid that completed the bottle (M5)

= M4 M3.

13. Calculate the mass of the liquid that has the same volume of

the solid powder (ML1) = M ML5.

14. Calculate the specific gravity of the solid powder material and

the specific gravity of the used liquid (GL). [If the water is used as

the liquid in this part, the specific gravity of the water = 1]

3. Results

The mass of the empty, drayed density bottle with its cover (M) =

The mass of the bottle with its cover fully filled with water (M1) =

The mass of the water fully filled the bottle (M) = Mw1 M =

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Page 27

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

The mass of the bottle with its cover fully filled with liquid (M2) =

The mass of the liquid fully filled the bottle (M) = ML2 M = The

specific density of the liquid =

The mass of the bottle with its cover with some of solid powder

(M3) =

The mass of the solid powder putted in the bottle (Ms) = M3 M =

Page 28

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Theory:

Fall 2012

relaxations.

- If there's a reflecting surface (like water), the waves reflects on

themselves forming standing waves.

- Standing waves consists of nodes and anti-node.

- For air columns closed from one of its ends, the length of the

tube at resonance when the tube is making the primary note is

L = / 4 = 4L

- Since speed of sound is given by V =

- Then, V = 4L

V 1

L =

4

distance = 0.6R, where is the inner radius of the tube.

V 1

- Then L = 0.6 R

4

intersects L-Axis at -0.6R and has slope = V/4

Apparatus:

Tuning Forks with different frequencies, resonance tube, waterfilled Beaker and a rubber Pad.

Method:

2. Strike the first fork (512 Hz) on the rubber pad and put it near

the resonance tube.

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Page 29

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3. Move the tube up slowly until you get the first resonance. Then

record the length of the tube from the water surface to the

end of the tube. (L1)

4. For the same fork obtain the resonance three times and record

the three lengths (L1, L2, L3) and calculate their average. (L).

5. Repeat steps [2] to [4] for different frequencies.

6. Plot a relation between (1/) and (L) which ) is a straight line

which intersects L-Axis at -0.6R and has slope = V/4

7. From the slope calculate V = 4 Slope

Results:

1/

0.6 R = -------

Measured Lengths

L1

L2

L3

R = -------------------- Cm

Vo = ---------------------------------- Cm/Sec

Error =

V Vo

100% = ----------------------------------Vo

Page 30

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

Apparatus

Theory

For the simple pendulum , if it left to oscillate it will give a simple harmonic motion,

this motion can be described by the newton's second law .

F=M

d2x

dt 2

(1)

L

.

g

(2)

4 2

T =

L,

g

(3)

T = 2

2

4 2

Slope =

,

g

(4)

Method

1. take a certain length L , Displace the pendulum a small angle () from the

vertical and release it to oscillate.

2. Measure the time (t sec) for (10) complete periods of motion, then calculate the

periodic time (T = t/10 sec).

3. Repeat the above steps for different pendulum lengths.

4. Plot a graph between (L cm) and (T2 sec2) as shown Fig .

5. Calculate the slope of the resultant straight line, which will be used to calculate

the acceleration of gravity (g).

Page 31

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

5. Results

The number of complete oscillations =

L (cm)

T10 (sec)

T2 (sec2)

sec2.cm-1,

The acceleration of gravity (g) =

T (sec)

4 2

=

slope

Page 32

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

Mixing

Objective

mixing method

Apparatus

1.

material,

2.

3.

4.

5.

Heater, and

6.

A boiler.

Page 33

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

2. Theory

The quantity of heat that is required to raise the temperature of the

whole quantity of the material by one degree is known as the heat

capacity of the material. But the specific heat of a material is defined as

the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of

the material one temperature degree. The specific heat of a material

(solid or liquid) can be measured experimentally as follows. Suppose (ms

gm) grams of a solid material of specific heat (Ss cal gm-1 0C-1) at

temperature (Os C) is added to (mw gm) of water at temperature (O C)

in a calorimeter whose water equivalent is (Wc = mcSc cal 0C-1). The final

temperature reached is (Of oC). Applying the principle that:

Heat gained = Heat lost.

(1)

(2)

Heat lost by the solid = ms Ss (s f), (cal)

(3)

(mw + Wc) (f i) = ms Ss (s f)

(4)

Ss =

( + )( )

( )

(5)

N. B.: Used units are cgs units, so the specific heat of water = 1 cal. gm-1.

o -1

3. Method

1.

Take two Celsius thermometers. See that both show the same

temperature when immersed in water.

2.

Take a boiler and place it on a heater. Start heating the boiler with

the heater. Put some quantity of the solid into the tube of the boiler

and fix the thermometer so that the bulb is inside the solid. The

bulb should not break. Adjust carefully.

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3.

Take the calorimeter with the stirrer and find its mass (mc).

4.

third of its volume. Find the whole mass (m1).

5.

6.

temperature, read the temperature, which is that of the hot solid

0).

7.

Transfer the hot solid into the calorimeter immediately and stir the

contents.

8.

minute, read the final temperature (0)

9.

the thermometer.

10. Weigh the calorimeter and its contents. Find the whole mass (m2).

Precautions

1.

weighed.

2.

3.

water.

4.

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[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

5.

Fall 2012

calorimeter is stirred.

4.1. Results

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer (mc) =

Specific heat of calorimeter (from constants' tables) (Sc) =

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + cold water (m1) =

Temperature of cold water and calorimeter (00) =

Temperature of hot solid 0) =

Final temperature (0) =

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + cold water + solid (m2) =

Mass of cold water (mw) = mj - mc =

Mass of solid (ms) = m2 - mj =

Water equivalent of calorimeter (Wc) = mc Sc =

Specific heat of solid (Ss) =

( + )( )

( )

*

+

)(

Error % =

( 0 )

0

100 % =

100 % =

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Liquid by Stokes Law

Objective

To determine the viscosity of a liquid using the Stokes law

Apparatus

1. Measuring cylinder (a long glass tube),

2. The liquid,

3. Stop-watch,

4. Small steel ball-bearings of varying diameter,

5. Micrometer, and

6. Meter rule.

2. Theory

The term viscosity is commonly used in the description of fluid flow to

characterize the degree of internal friction in the fluid. This internal

friction, or viscous force, is associated with the resistance that two

adjacent layers of fluid have to moving relative to each other. The

coefficient of viscosity (n) is defined as the ratio of the shearing

stress to the rate of change of the shear strain.

According to Stokes law a small spherical ball of radius (r cm) falling

through a fluid of viscosity coefficient ( Dyne sec cm-2) acquires a

terminal velocity (v0 cm sec-1) and affected with a viscous force given by

Fv = 6v0 r.

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

(Dyne)

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[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

(1)

In the steady state, when the spherical ball falls with constant velocity,

the viscosity force (Fv dyne) is equal to the downward force

Fd =

r 3 (s - L )g (Dyne)

(2)

of the balls material and (L gm cm-3) is the density of the liquid.

Therefore, the viscosity coefficient is given by

=

2 2

(gm.cm-1.sec-1= Poise)

(s L )g

(3)

viscous fluid in a cylindrical tube of radius (R cm), there is a

correction due to wall effects of the tube. This correction is

given by Landenberg as

0 = (1 + )

(cm. sec-1)

(4)

and (v0 cm sec-1) is the true terminal velocity for an infinite extent of

the fluid.

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3. Method

2. Fill the measuring cylinder with the liquid,

3. Fix two marks (X) and (Y) near the top and the bottom of the tube.

4. Measure the distance between the two marks (X) and (Y), (L).

5.

micrometer.

6. Drop in the ball-bearing and measure the time (t) of falling

of the ball between the two marks (X) and (Y).

7. Calculate the average velocity of dropping the ball (v =

L/t). Then, calculate the corrected velocity (v0).

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9. Plot the relation between the ball square radius (r2) as abscissa and

the corrected velocity (v0) as ordinate

4. Results

The radius of the measuring

cylinder (long tube) (R) = The

distance XY (L) =

Zero error of micrometer gauge =

The density of the liquid (L) =

The density of the ball-bearings material (s) =

r(

r2 (

t(

v (L/t) (

v0 (

Slope ( 02) =

The

2

viscosity

s L g =

coefficient

2

()

) 981 =

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Error % =

0

0

100 % =

100 % =

Notes:

1. Fix the first mark (X) below the top of the liquid with

sufficient distance, so the ball-bearing reaches a steady

velocity by the time it reaches (X). Fix the second mark (Y)

with sufficient distance from the bottom of the cylinder.

2.

3. Note the zero error of the micrometer.

4. Measure the density of the liquid (L) and its temperature ().

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