Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 42

DELTA UNIVERSITY FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

FACULTY OF PHARMACY

Practical Physics I
Fall 2012

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

Contents

(1) Fine Measurement Apparatuses --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2


(2) Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat (Joule's Law) by Electrical Method 12
(3) Determination of the Melting Point of a Solid Material ------------------------------------------ 15
(4) Determination of the Specific Gravity using Archimedes Principle and Density Bottle --- 18
(5) Speed of Sound in Air -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29
(6) The Simple Pendulum ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31
(7) Specific Heat by the Method of Mixing --------------------------------------------------------------- 33
(8) Measurement of Viscosity of a Liquid by Stokes Law ---------------------------------------------- 37

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 1

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

(1) Fine Measurement Apparatuses

0. Objective

It is to measure the dimensions of a solid object using fine measuring


instruments like:
1. Vernier caliper,
2. Micrometer Screw Gauge and
3. Spherometer Screw.

1. Vernier caliper
1.1. Apparatus

1. Vernier caliper, and


2. Parallelepiped solid object.
1.2. Theory

A very ingenious device for obtaining accuracy of a greater order than that
obtainable by eye-estimation was invented by (Pierre Vernier), and is
known by his name.

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 2

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

The vernier is a convenient attachment for determining accurately a


fraction of the finest division on the main scale of a measuring
instrument.

The simplest vernier scale has (10 divisions) that correspond in length to (9
divisions) on the main scale. Each vernier division is therefore shorter than
a main scale division by ( 1 ) of a main scale division. The first vernier
10

division is ( 1 ) main-scale division short of a mark on the main scale,


10

the second division is (

2
) short of the next mark on the main scale, and
10

so on until the tenth vernier division is ( 10 ), or a whole division, short of a


10

mark on the main scale. It therefore, coincides with a mark on the main
scale.
If the vernier scale is moved to the right until one mark, say the third,
coincides with some mark of the main scale the number of tenths of a
main-scale division that the vernier scale is moved is the number of the
vernier division that coincides with any main-scale division. The third
vernier division coincides with a main-scale mark, therefore the vernier
scale has moved (3/10) of a main scale division to the right of its zero
position. The vernier scale thus tells the fraction of a main-scale division
that the zero of the vernier scale has moved beyond any main-scale mark.

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 3

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

The term "least count" is applied to the smallest value that can be read
directly from a vernier scale. It is equal to the difference between a mainscale and a vernier division.
Least account =

S
n

where (n) is the number of divisions on the vernier scale and (S) is the
length of the smallest main-scale division.
In order to make a measurement with the instrument, first determine its
least count, then read the number of divisions on the main scale before
the zero of the vernier scale and note which vernier division coincides with
a mark of the main scale. Multiply the number of the coinciding vernier
mark by the least count to obtain the fractional part of a main-scale
division to be added to the main-scale reading.
1.3. Method

1. Use the vernier caliper to measure the three dimensions of the


parallelepiped body, the length (L cm), the width (W cm) and the
depth (D cm).
2. Calculate the volume (V cm3) of the body.

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 4

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

1.4. Results

The dimensions of the object:


Length (L) =
Width (W) =
Depth (D) =
Volume (V) = L * W * D = *

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 5

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

2. Micrometer Screw Gauge


2.1. Apparatus

1. Micrometer screw gauge, and


2. Spherical body.

2.2. Theory

A micrometer screw gauge is a device for measuring very small distances.


It consists essentially of a carefully machined screw to which is attached a
circular scale.

Fig (4): The micrometer screw


In general, there is a circular head of a large diameter fitted to the screw
and moving past a scale fixed parallel to the axis. The head is subdivided
into a definite number of equal divisions, so that the screw can be turned
through fractions of a revolution and these fractions read on the
micrometer head.

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 6

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

In one complete revolution the point of the screw advances a distance


equal to the "pitch" of the screw, this being the distance between
similar points on consecutive turns of the thread.
The circular scale enables one to read the fractions of turns, and the
linear scale enables one to record the whole number of turns. The
least count of a micrometer screw is the pitch of the screw divided by
the number of divisions on the circular scale. One type of metric
micrometer has the linear scale graduated in mms, a screw having a pitch
of (1 mm), and (100 divisions) on the circular scale. The least count of this
instrument is (

1mm
= 0.01mm ).
100

Fig (5): The micrometer screw reading


2.3. Method

1. Use the micrometer to measure the radius (R cm) of the spherical


body.
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 7

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

2. Calculate the volume of the sphere (V cm3).


2.4. Results

The diameter of the sphere (D) =


The radius of the sphere (R = D/2) =
The volume of the sphere (V) = (4/3) R3 = 4/3*3.14*()3 =

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 8

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3. Spherometer Screw
3.1. Apparatus

1. Spherometer, and
2. Spherical peace.
3.2. Theory

The spherometer is an instrument used for measuring the radius of


curvature of a spherical surface. In many cases as, for example when
dealing with a lens the surface is only a small portion of a sphere. In such
a case the radius of curvature is the radius of the sphere of which the
surface forms a part.

Fig (6): The Spherometer

Fig (7): The measurement of lens


height

The instrument consists of a small table supported by three legs, placed


as nearly as possible at the corners of an equilateral triangle. Through the
centre of the table passes a screw of fine pitch forming a fourth leg. The
Faculty of Pharmacy| Delta University

Page 9

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

position of this leg can be read by means of a scale fixed at right angles
to the table and a circular scale attached to the head of the screw.
Measurement of the radius of curvature of a spherical surface

Place the spehrometer with the fixed feet resting on the surface,
and adjust the central foot till it just touches the surface. Read the circular
scale.
Replace the instrument on the plane surface and find how many whole
turns have to be made to bring the central foot back to the plane of the
other three feet. Using this reading with the readings of the circular
head in the two adjustments calculate the distance through which the
screw was moved.
Take the mean of several adjustments and let the height be (h cm).
Measure the distance between the two fixed feet carefully to (0.1 mm)
with a millimeter scale for each side of the triangle and take the mean
of the results: let it be (a cm). Then the radius of curvature is given by
the expression

a2 h
R=
+
6h 2

(cm)

(2)

3.3. Method

1. Put the spherometer on the spherical surface and adjust


its four legs and define the reading of the spherometer.
2. Put the spherometer on the plane surface and adjust
its four legs and define the reading to give the height
(h).
3. Calculate the radius of curvature (R) using Eq (2).
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 10

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3.4. Results

Reading of the spherometer on spherical surface (h1) =


Reading of the spherometer on plane surface (h2) =
The height of the spherical peace (h = h2 - h1) =
The triangle length (a) =
a2 h
+ =
The radius of the spherical peace (R ) =
6h 2

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

)2
6

Page 11

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

(2) Determination of the Mechanical


Equivalent of Heat (Joule's Law) by
Electrical Method

0. Objective

To determine the mechanical equivalent of heat (Joule's coefficient) by


electrical method
1. Apparatus

The experiment apparatus consists of:


1. Voltmeter and/or Ameter, (AC or DC)
2. Rheostat,
3. Power supply, (AC or DC)
4. Heating conductor,
5. Calorimeter within wooden box,
6. Thermometer, and
7. Stop watch
2. Theory

If (V volt) is the potential difference developed due to the flow of


current of intensity (I ampere) in a conductor of resistance (R Ohm),
then the amount of electrical energy(E Joule) used in time (t sec) is given
by:
E=VIt

(Joules)

(1)

If the conductor is immersed into a quantity of water of mass (mw gm)


putted in a calorimeter of mass (mc gm) and specific heat (Sc cal gm-1 oC1
), the amount of energy of Eq (1) is changed into heat (H calorie) given
by:

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 12

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

H = (mw + Wc) ( 2 - 1)

Fall 2012

(calorie)

(2)

where [Wc = (mc Sc) cal oC-1] is the water equivalent of the calorimeter, (
1 and 2 oC) are the initial and final temperatures of the system. The
equation of equivalent between electrical (mechanical) energy and heat
transformed is given by:
J (mw + Wc) ( 2 - 1) = V I t =RV 2 t,

(Joule)

(3)

where (J Joule Cal-1) is the mechanical equivalent of heat (Joule's


coefficient) that is given by
2 /
=
( + )(2 1)

( 1 )

Figure (1)
3. Method

1. Make the connections as shown in Fig (1). Adjust the value of the
rheostat so that the potential (V) can be read accurately. Then switch off
the transformer.
2. Find the mass of the calorimeter (mc), and water (mw) and note down
the temperature of calorimeter and its contents (i)
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 13

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3. Now switch on the transformer and start the stop watch. Keep on
stirring the water, so that the temperature may be kept uniform.
4. Switch off the transformer when the rise in temperature becomes (5
o
C or 6 oC). Note down the final temperature ( f). Also stop the stop
watch and record the time for which the current was passed (t).
5. The readings of voltmeter (V) and ammeter (I) must be taken at an
interval of (30 sec) [nearly constants]. The average values should be
substituted in the formula.
4. Results

The potential difference across the conductor (V) =


The current passes through the conductor (I) =
Mass of water taken (mw) =
Mass of calorimeter (mc) =
Specific heat of calorimeter (Sc) =
Water equivalent of calorimeter (Wc) = mc Sc =

Initial temperature of water (i) =


Final temperature of water (f) =
Time for which current was passed (t) =
The mechanical equivalent of heat (J) = 4.18 Joule/cal.
The resistance of the heater coil (R) = (

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

2 /

+ )(2 1)

Page 14

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

(3) Determination of the Melting


Point of a Solid Material

0. Objective

To determine the melting point temperature of a solid material like wax.


1. Apparatus

The apparatus consists of:


1. Beaker containing water,
2. Test tube fitted with a cork,
3. A thermometer passing through the cork,
4. Heating arrangement, and
5. Stop watch.

2. Theory

A material often has a change in temperature when energy is


transferred between it and its surroundings. There are some cases in
which the transfer of energy does not result a change in temperature.
This is the cases whenever the substance changes from one state to
another; such as change from solid to liquid (melting) and from liquid to
gas (boiling). This is called phase change. All such phase changes
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 15

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

involve a change in internal energy but no change in temperature. The


amount of energy required during a phase change depends on the
amount of the used substance.
The quantity of energy required for changing the phase of a unit of
mass of a substance is called the Latent Heat (L cal gm-1).
The value of the Latent Heat for a substance depends on the nature of
the phase change, as well as on the properties of the substance.
Latent heat of fusion (Lf cal gm-1) is the term used when the phase
change is from solid to liquid (to fuse means to combine by melting).
3. Method

1. Take sufficient quantity of the solid material in a test tube and


fix the cork along with the thermometer.
2. Adjust the test tube in a beaker containing water to do not
contact the beaker body.
3. Heat water to its boiling point. The solid material in the test
tube has melted and is in the liquid state.
4. Extinguish the heater and allow water and solid material to
cool.
5. Record the temperature of the solid material each half a
minute.
6. Plot a graph between time (t minutes) as abscissa and
temperature ( oC) as ordinate.
7. The temperature corresponding to the horizontal line in the
graph gives the melting point of the solid material (m oC). At this
temperature, liquid material is converted into solid material
without change of temperature, Fig (2). The temperature at the
horizontal line in Fig (2) gives the melting.

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 16

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

4. Results

(T
min)

( )

(T
min)

( )

(T
min)

( )

(T
min)

( )

Melting point of the used material (m) =

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 17

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

(4) Determination of the Specific


Gravity using Archimedes Principle
and Density Bottle

0. Objective

To determine the specific gravity of different liquids and solid materials


using the density bottle and Archimedes principle
1. Apparatus

1. Sensitive balance,
2. Density bottle,
3. Set of weights,
4. Beaker,
5. Liquid, and
6. Heavy body and light body.
Theory

The specific gravity (G) of a material is defined as the ratio between the
weight (mass) (Mm gm) of a specific volume (V cm3) of this material to
the weight (mass) (Mw gm) of the same volume of water at the same
temperature. Also, the specific gravity (G) of a material can be defined
as the ratio between the density of this material (m gm cm-3) and the
density of the water (w gm cm-3) at the same temperature. Therefore;
=


=
=

where (g cm sec-2) is the acceleration of gravity.

Faculty of Pharmacy| Delta University

(1)

Page 18

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

(A) Archimedes Principle


1. Theory

The upward force exerted by a fluid on any immersed object is called a


buoyant force. The buoyant force is the resultant force due to all forces
applied by the fluid surrounding the immersed object. Archimedes
principle states that the magnitude of the buoyant force always equals
the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. The buoyant force acts
vertically upward through the point that was the center of gravity of the
displaced fluid. Note that Archimedess principle does not refer to the
makeup of the object experiencing the buoyant force. The objects
composition is not a factor in the buoyant force because the buoyant
force is exerted by the fluid. We can verify this as follows:

Fig (1): The buoyant force exerted by the fluid.


Suppose we focus our attention on the indicated cube of a solid material
in the container illustrated in Fig (1.1). This cube is affected by two
forces. One of these forces is the gravitational force (Fg dyne) that is
acting down and is given by:
= =
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

()

(1)
Page 19

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

where (Ms gm) is the mass of the solid material cube, (s gm cm-3) is the
solid material density, (V cm3) is the cube volume and (g cm sec-2) is the
acceleration of gravity. The other force is the buoyant force (FB Dyne)
that is acting upward and it is due to the difference of the fluid pressure
on the upper and lower faces of the solid cube.
The pressure at the bottom of the cube is greater than the pressure at
the top by:
=

where (f gm cm-3) is the density of the fluid, and (h cm) is the height of
the cube. The pressure difference (P Dyne cm-2) between the bottom
and top faces of the cube is equal to the buoyant force per unit area of
those faces that is:
=

( 2 )

where (A cm2) is the area of the upper or lower faces of the cube.
Therefore, the buoyant force is given by:
FB = P A = f g h A = f V g,

(Dyne)

where (V cm3) is the volume of the cube.


Because the mass of the fluid in the cube is (Mf = f V) we see that
FB = Mf g = f V g

(Dyne)

(2)

Thus, the buoyant force is a result of the pressure differential on a


submerged or partly submerged object.
Using Eqs (1) and (2), the net force (F dyne) acts on the body immersed
in the fluid is given by:
F = Fg FB = (Ms - Mf) g = (s - f) V g

(Dyne)

(3)

This force (F dyne) equals the weight of the body totally immersed in the
fluid (Wsf dyne) while the gravitational force (Fg dyne) is the weight of
the body in air (Ws dyne). Therefore, we have for submerged body in the
fluid the following:
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 20

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

1. If the gravitational force (Fg dyne) is greater than the buoyant force (FB
dyne), the body will be totally submerged in the fluid.
2. If the gravitational force (Fg dyne) is equal to the buoyant force (FB
dyne), the body will be partially submerged in the fluid.
The specific gravity of the body (GS), defined in Eq (1), and using Eqs (1)
and (3) is given by:
=

(4)

where (FBw dyne) is the buoyant force of the water on the solid body, (FBL
dyne) is the buoyant force of the liquid on the solid body, (Ws dyne) is
the weight of the solid body in air, (WsL dyne) is the weight of the solid
body totally immersed in the liquid and (GL) is the specific gravity of the
used liquid. The specific gravity of a fluid (liquid) (GL) can be given, using
this method, as:
=

(5)

where (Wsw dyne) is the weight of the solid body totally immersed in the
water.
2 Method
2.1. Verification of Archimedes Principle

1. Measure the dimensions of regular shape solid body using


Vernier and micrometer and calculate its volume (V).
2. Weight this body in air using a balance (Ws).
3. Put a beaker filled with a liquid of known density (L) on a
bridge on the base of the balance does not touch the balance pan.
4. Calculate the weight of the replaced liquid (WL = V L).
5. Hang the solid body in the balance cope to be totally immersed
in the liquid in the beaker and measure the weight (WsL).
6. Calculate the liquid buoyant force (FB =Ws WsL).
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 21

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

7. Repeat the steps (1-6) for different regular shape solid bodies
and different liquids with known densities.
8. Note that the results verify Archimedes's principle (FB = WL).
2.2. Determination of the Specific Gravity of a liquid

1. Use a solid body that does not solved with the used liquid and
the water and the body totally submerged in both of them.
2. Using a balance, measure the weight of the solid body in air
(Ws).
3. Put a beaker filled with this liquid on a bridge on the base of the
balance does not touch the pan.
4. Hang the body with weightless wire in the cope of the balance
totally immersed in the liquid and does not touch the walls or the
base of the beaker. Measure the weight of the solid body
immersed in the liquid (WsL).
5. Repeat steps (3 and 4) for a beaker filled with water and
measure the weight of the solid body totally immersed in the
water (Wsw).
6. Using Eq (5) calculate the specific gravity of the liquid
=

2.3. Determination of the Specific Gravity of a solid body

1. Using a balance, measure the weight of the solid body in air


(Ws).
2. Use a liquid with known density (L) that does not solve the
solid body material and the body totally submerged in it.
3. Put a beaker filled with this liquid on a bridge on the base of the
balance does not touch the pan.
4. Hang the body with weightless wire in the cope of the balance
totally immersed in the liquid and does not touch the walls or the
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 22

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

base of the beaker. Measure the weight of the solid body


immersed in the liquid (WsL).
5. Using Eq (4), the specific gravity of the solid body =

is calculated, where =

and (w) is the water

density at the same temperature of the experiment.

2.4. Determination of the Specific Gravity of a solid floating on water

1. Using a balance, measure the weight of the floating solid body


in air (Ws).
2. Use a liquid with known density (L) that does not solve the
floating solid body material and the body totally submerged in it.
3. Use a solid body that is totally immersed in the used liquid and
dissolved in it.
4. Put a beaker filled with this liquid on a bridge on the base of the
balance does not touch the pan.
5. Hang the immersing body with weightless wire in the cope of
the balance totally immersed in the liquid and does not touch the
walls or the base of the beaker. Measure the weight of the
immersing body immersed in the liquid (WsL1).
6. Tie the floating solid body with the immersing body and
measure the weight of both immersed totally in the liquid as in
step (5) to be (WsL2).
7. Calculate the weight of the floating solid body immersed in the
liquid as (WsL = WsL2 WsL1).
8. Using Eq (4), the specific gravity of the solid body =

is calculated, where =

and (w) is the water

density at the same temperature of the experiment.

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 23

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3. Results
3.1. Verification of Archimedes's Principle

The volume of the solid body (V) =

The weight of the body in air (Ws) =


The used liquid density (L) =
The weight of the replaced liquid (WL = V L) =
The weight of the solid body totally immersed in the liquid (WsL) =
The liquid buoyant force (FB =Ws WsL) =

Note that the results verify Archimedes's principle (FB = WL)

3.2. Determination of the Specific Gravity of a liquid

The weight of the solid body in air (Ws) =


The weight of the solid body immersed in the liquid (WsL) =
The weight of the solid body totally immersed in the water (Wsw) =
The specific gravity of the liquid =

3.3. Determination of the Specific Gravity of a solid body

The weight of the solid body in air (Ws) =


The density of the used liquid (L) =
The weight of the solid body immersed in the liquid (WsL) =
The specific gravity of the used liquid (GL) =
The specific gravity of the solid =

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 24

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3.4. Determination of the Specific Gravity of a solid floating on water

The weight of the floating solid body in air (Ws) =


The density of the used liquid (L) =
The weight of the immersing body immersed in the liquid (WsL1) =
The weight of both immersed totally in the liquid (WsL2) =
The weight of the floating solid body immersed in the liquid (WsL = WsL2
WsL1) =
=
The specific gravity of the used liquid (GL) =
The specific gravity of the solid =

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 25

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

(B) Determination of Specific Gravity using Density


Bottle
1. Theory

If the empty, drayed density bottle is weighted to have mass (M gm)


then it is fully filled with water and the mass of the water is measured to
be (Mw = M1 - M gm) and the bottle is again fully filled with the required
liquid and the mass of this liquid is measured to be (ML = M2 - M gm),
the gravity density of the liquid (GL), using Eq (1), is given by:
=


=
/

(1)

To determine the gravity density of a solid powder (GS) using the


density bottle we must use a liquid which does not solve this solid
powder. [If the water does not solve the required solid powder, we can
use the water directly.] As the specific gravity of the solid powder, using
Eq (1), is given by:
=


/ 1 /
1

=
=

/ 1 / / 1 1

(2)

where (Ms gm) is the mass of a quantity of solid powder of volume (V or


V1 cm3), (Mw gm) is the mass of a quantity of water of volume (V cm3),
(ML1 gm) is the mass of a quantity of the used liquid of volume (V1 cm3)
and (GL) is the specific gravity of the used liquid.
2. Method

1. Measure the mass of the empty, drayed density bottle with its
cover (M).
2. Fully fill the density bottle with water, put its cover slowly and
dray it from outside. Measure the mass of the bottle fully filled
with water (M1).
3. Calculate the mass of the water fully filled the bottle (Mw) = M1
M.
4. Empty the bottle from water and dray it from inside and
outside.
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 26

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

5. Fully fill the density bottle with the liquid, put its cover slowly
and dray it from outside. Measure the mass of the bottle fully
filled with the liquid (M2).
6. Calculate the mass of the liquid fully filled the bottle (M) = ML2
M.
7. Empty the bottle from the liquid and dray it from inside and
outside.
8. Calculate the specific gravity of the liquid (GL)
9. Put a quantity of the solid powder in the density bottle (about
its third) and measure the mass of the bottle with its cover and
the quantity of solid powder (M3).
10. Calculate the mass of the solid powder inside the bottle (Ms) =
M3 M.
11. Complete the bottle with the used liquid to be fully filled and
put the cover slowly. Dray the bottle from outside. Measure the
mass of the bottle with its cover, the solid powder and the liquid
(M4).
12. Calculate the mass of the liquid that completed the bottle (M5)
= M4 M3.
13. Calculate the mass of the liquid that has the same volume of
the solid powder (ML1) = M ML5.
14. Calculate the specific gravity of the solid powder material and
the specific gravity of the used liquid (GL). [If the water is used as
the liquid in this part, the specific gravity of the water = 1]
3. Results

The mass of the empty, drayed density bottle with its cover (M) =
The mass of the bottle with its cover fully filled with water (M1) =
The mass of the water fully filled the bottle (M) = Mw1 M =
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 27

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

The mass of the bottle with its cover fully filled with liquid (M2) =
The mass of the liquid fully filled the bottle (M) = ML2 M = The
specific density of the liquid =

The mass of the bottle with its cover with some of solid powder
(M3) =
The mass of the solid powder putted in the bottle (Ms) = M3 M =

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 28

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Theory:

Fall 2012

(5) Speed of Sound in Air

- Sound is a longitudinal wave consists of compressions and


relaxations.
- If there's a reflecting surface (like water), the waves reflects on
themselves forming standing waves.
- Standing waves consists of nodes and anti-node.
- For air columns closed from one of its ends, the length of the
tube at resonance when the tube is making the primary note is
L = / 4 = 4L
- Since speed of sound is given by V =
- Then, V = 4L

V 1
L =
4

- Since the anti-node is formed above the air column by a


distance = 0.6R, where is the inner radius of the tube.
V 1
- Then L = 0.6 R
4

- So the relation between L and (1/) is a straight line which


intersects L-Axis at -0.6R and has slope = V/4

Apparatus:

Tuning Forks with different frequencies, resonance tube, waterfilled Beaker and a rubber Pad.

Method:

1. Arrange the forks from the higher to the lower frequencies.


2. Strike the first fork (512 Hz) on the rubber pad and put it near
the resonance tube.
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 29

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3. Move the tube up slowly until you get the first resonance. Then
record the length of the tube from the water surface to the
end of the tube. (L1)
4. For the same fork obtain the resonance three times and record
the three lengths (L1, L2, L3) and calculate their average. (L).
5. Repeat steps [2] to [4] for different frequencies.
6. Plot a relation between (1/) and (L) which ) is a straight line
which intersects L-Axis at -0.6R and has slope = V/4
7. From the slope calculate V = 4 Slope

Results:

1/

0.6 R = -------

Measured Lengths
L1
L2
L3

Average Length (L)

R = -------------------- Cm

V = 4 Slope = ----------------- Cm/Sec


Vo = ---------------------------------- Cm/Sec
Error =

V Vo
100% = ----------------------------------Vo

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 30

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

(6) The Simple Pendulum

Apparatus

Simple pendulum , Meter rule, and Stop watch.

Theory
For the simple pendulum , if it left to oscillate it will give a simple harmonic motion,
this motion can be described by the newton's second law .

F=M

d2x
dt 2

(1)

The periodic time of this motion given by

L
.
g

(2)

4 2
T =
L,
g

(3)

T = 2
2

Relation between T2 and L is a straight line

4 2
Slope =
,
g

(4)

that can be used to calculate the acceleration of gravity (g).

Method
1. take a certain length L , Displace the pendulum a small angle () from the
vertical and release it to oscillate.
2. Measure the time (t sec) for (10) complete periods of motion, then calculate the
periodic time (T = t/10 sec).
3. Repeat the above steps for different pendulum lengths.
4. Plot a graph between (L cm) and (T2 sec2) as shown Fig .
5. Calculate the slope of the resultant straight line, which will be used to calculate
the acceleration of gravity (g).

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 31

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

5. Results
The number of complete oscillations =
L (cm)

T10 (sec)

T2 (sec2)

sec2.cm-1,

The slope of the straight line =


The acceleration of gravity (g) =

T (sec)

4 2
=
slope

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 32

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

(7) Specific Heat by the Method of


Mixing

Objective

To calculate the specific heat of a liquid or solid substance using the


mixing method
Apparatus

The apparatus of the experiment consists of:

1.

Solid material (lead shots or sands or copper chips) and liquid

material,

2.

A calorimeter with stirrer,

3.

Heat insulating box,

4.

Two Celsius thermometers,

5.

Heater, and

6.

A boiler.

Fig (1): Specific heat using mixing method

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 33

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

2. Theory
The quantity of heat that is required to raise the temperature of the
whole quantity of the material by one degree is known as the heat
capacity of the material. But the specific heat of a material is defined as
the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of
the material one temperature degree. The specific heat of a material
(solid or liquid) can be measured experimentally as follows. Suppose (ms
gm) grams of a solid material of specific heat (Ss cal gm-1 0C-1) at
temperature (Os C) is added to (mw gm) of water at temperature (O C)
in a calorimeter whose water equivalent is (Wc = mcSc cal 0C-1). The final
temperature reached is (Of oC). Applying the principle that:
Heat gained = Heat lost.

(1)

Heat gained by water and calorimeter =

(2)

(mw + Wc) (Of - O), (cal.)


Heat lost by the solid = ms Ss (s f), (cal)

(3)

(mw + Wc) (f i) = ms Ss (s f)

(4)

Ss =

( + )( )
( )

(cal. gm-1. oC-1)

(5)

N. B.: Used units are cgs units, so the specific heat of water = 1 cal. gm-1.
o -1

3. Method

1.

Take two Celsius thermometers. See that both show the same
temperature when immersed in water.

2.

Take a boiler and place it on a heater. Start heating the boiler with
the heater. Put some quantity of the solid into the tube of the boiler
and fix the thermometer so that the bulb is inside the solid. The
bulb should not break. Adjust carefully.

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 34

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3.

Take the calorimeter with the stirrer and find its mass (mc).

4.

Put water at room temperature in the calorimeter approximately to


third of its volume. Find the whole mass (m1).

5.

Record the temperature of water and calorimeter (0).

6.

When the thermometer in the tube of the boiler shows constant


temperature, read the temperature, which is that of the hot solid
0).

7.

Transfer the hot solid into the calorimeter immediately and stir the

contents.

8.

When the thermometer shows constant temperature for nearly a


minute, read the final temperature (0)

9.

Remove the thermometer and notice that no water drop sticks to

the thermometer.

10. Weigh the calorimeter and its contents. Find the whole mass (m2).

Precautions

1.

The calorimeter should be kept in the wooden box except when it is

weighed.

2.

The hot solid should be quickly transferred into the calorimeter.

3.

The final temperature should be recorded just after stirring the

water.

4.

Temperature should be correctly recorded.

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 35

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

5.

Fall 2012

The calorimeter should be covered with a lid when water in the

calorimeter is stirred.

1. Determination of the Specific Heat of a Solid


4.1. Results
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer (mc) =
Specific heat of calorimeter (from constants' tables) (Sc) =
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + cold water (m1) =
Temperature of cold water and calorimeter (00) =
Temperature of hot solid 0) =
Final temperature (0) =
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + cold water + solid (m2) =
Mass of cold water (mw) = mj - mc =
Mass of solid (ms) = m2 - mj =
Water equivalent of calorimeter (Wc) = mc Sc =
Specific heat of solid (Ss) =

( + )( )
( )

*
+

)(

Specific heat of the solid (form constant tables) (S0) =


Error % =

( 0 )
0

100 % =

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

100 % =

Page 36

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

(8) Measurement of Viscosity of a


Liquid by Stokes Law

Objective
To determine the viscosity of a liquid using the Stokes law
Apparatus
1. Measuring cylinder (a long glass tube),
2. The liquid,
3. Stop-watch,
4. Small steel ball-bearings of varying diameter,
5. Micrometer, and
6. Meter rule.

2. Theory
The term viscosity is commonly used in the description of fluid flow to
characterize the degree of internal friction in the fluid. This internal
friction, or viscous force, is associated with the resistance that two
adjacent layers of fluid have to moving relative to each other. The
coefficient of viscosity (n) is defined as the ratio of the shearing
stress to the rate of change of the shear strain.
According to Stokes law a small spherical ball of radius (r cm) falling
through a fluid of viscosity coefficient ( Dyne sec cm-2) acquires a
terminal velocity (v0 cm sec-1) and affected with a viscous force given by
Fv = 6v0 r.
Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

(Dyne)
Page 37

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

(1)
In the steady state, when the spherical ball falls with constant velocity,
the viscosity force (Fv dyne) is equal to the downward force
Fd =

r 3 (s - L )g (Dyne)

(2)

where (g cm sec-2) is the acceleration of gravity, (s gm cm-3) is the density


of the balls material and (L gm cm-3) is the density of the liquid.
Therefore, the viscosity coefficient is given by
=

2 2

(gm.cm-1.sec-1= Poise)

(s L )g

(3)

This relation is applied only for terminal velocity (v0 cm sec1

) of a spherical ball falling through an infinite extent of

liquid. For a spherical ball of radius (r cm) falls axially in a


viscous fluid in a cylindrical tube of radius (R cm), there is a
correction due to wall effects of the tube. This correction is
given by Landenberg as

0 = (1 + )

(cm. sec-1)

(4)

where (k) is a constant, (v cm sec-1) is the observed terminal velocity,


and (v0 cm sec-1) is the true terminal velocity for an infinite extent of
the fluid.

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 38

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

3. Method

1. Measure the radius of the measuring cylinder (long tube) (R).


2. Fill the measuring cylinder with the liquid,
3. Fix two marks (X) and (Y) near the top and the bottom of the tube.
4. Measure the distance between the two marks (X) and (Y), (L).
5.

Measure the radius of the largest ball-bearing (r) using the

micrometer.
6. Drop in the ball-bearing and measure the time (t) of falling
of the ball between the two marks (X) and (Y).
7. Calculate the average velocity of dropping the ball (v =
L/t). Then, calculate the corrected velocity (v0).

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 39

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

8. Repeat the steps (4-7) for different ball-bearings.


9. Plot the relation between the ball square radius (r2) as abscissa and
the corrected velocity (v0) as ordinate
4. Results

The temperature of the liquid () =


The radius of the measuring
cylinder (long tube) (R) = The
distance XY (L) =
Zero error of micrometer gauge =
The density of the liquid (L) =
The density of the ball-bearings material (s) =

r(

r2 (

t(

v (L/t) (

v0 (

Slope ( 02) =

The
2

viscosity

s L g =

coefficient
2

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

()

) 981 =
Page 40

[PRACTICAL PHYSICS I]

Fall 2012

The viscosity coefficient at temperature ( 0C) from tables (0) =


Error % =

0
0

100 % =

100 % =

Notes:
1. Fix the first mark (X) below the top of the liquid with
sufficient distance, so the ball-bearing reaches a steady
velocity by the time it reaches (X). Fix the second mark (Y)
with sufficient distance from the bottom of the cylinder.
2.

Measure the diameter of each ball-bearing in two

perpendicular directions using the micrometer.


3. Note the zero error of the micrometer.
4. Measure the density of the liquid (L) and its temperature ().

Faculty of Pharmacy | Delta University

Page 41