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BIOLOGICAL

CLASSIFICATION

BY: S.RATH
P.G.T BIO
K.V III BBSR
http://students-learn.blogspot.com

BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION-CLASS XI
BIOLOGY

CONTENTS

Five kingdom classification


Merits of classification
Monera
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
Virus
Viroids
Lichens
BIOLOGICAL CLAS

FIVE KINGDOM
CLASSIFICATION

LIVING ORGANISMS

MONERA PROTISTA
PLANTAE

FUNGI

ANIMALIA

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

FIVE KIGDOM
CLASSIFICATION
MONERA

BACTERIA

PROTISTA

MUSHROOM

DIANOFLAGELETS FUNGI

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

MERITS OF
CLASSIFICATION
Prokaryotes are separated from
eukaryots
All unicellular eukaryotic
organisms are put in one group.
Differentiate heterotrophic fungi
from autotrophic green plants.
Based on evolutionary relationship.

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

MONERA
(BACTERIA,MYCOPLASMA)
BACTERIA
ARCHAEBACTERIA

EUBACTERIA

AUTOTROPHIC
PHOTOSYNTHEIC

HETEROTROPHIC
CHEMOSYNTHEIC

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

PROTISTA(SINGLE-CELLED EUKARYOTS)
CHRYSOPHYTES

(diatoms , golden
algae)
DINOFLAGELLATES (gonyaulaux)
EUGLENOIDS

(euglena)

SLIME

(plasmodium)

MOULDS

PROTOZOAN

(amoeba,
paramecium,
euglena)

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

FUNGI(Heterotrophic
Eucaryots)
Phycomycetes-(rhizopus,albugo)

Asccomycetes-(yeast,penicillium)

Basideomycetes-

9aspergillus,claviceps,neurospora0
Deuteromycetes-

(alternaria,trichoderma,colletotrichum)
BIOLOGICAL CLAS

PLANTAE
Chlorophyll containing multcellular
eukaryots.
Cell wall made of cellulose.
Life cycle shows alternation of
generation having gametophytic (n)
and sporophytic(2n) phase.

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

ANIMALIA

Heterotrophic
multicellular eukaryots.
Lack cell wall.
Depend on plants
directly or indirectly.
Stores food reserves as
fat or glycogen.
Holozoic nutrition.
Capable of locomotion.
Follow a definite growth
pattern.
Reproduction is sexual .

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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VIRUS

Noncellular organism.
Obligate parasites.
Body has protein coat called capsid and
genetic material is DNA or RNA.
plant viruses have single stranded RNA.
animal viruses have double stranded DNA
or RNA.
Animal disease-mumps,herpes,chicken
pox,influenza,aids.
Plant diseases-mosaic,leaf
rolling,curling,yellowing of leaves.

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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STRUCTURE OF VIRUS

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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BEARD LICHEN
Lichens, which are commonly found on rocks,
bark, or poor soil, are composite organisms made
up of a fungus and an alga. The beard lichen seen
here growing on a tree, is one of the stalked
lichens. It is made up of a central zone of loose
fungal filaments, an intermediate zone of algal
cells, and an outer zone of compressed fungal
filaments.

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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VIROID
Discovered by T O Diener.
Smaller than virus.
Lacks protein coat.
Has a free RNA of low molecular
weight.
Disease :potato spindle tube
BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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LICHEN

Symbiotic association of algae and fungi.


Algal part is called phycobiont and
fungal part is called mycobiont.
Phycobiont is autotrophic and prepares
food.
Mycobiont is heterotrophic.It provides
shelter and absorbs mineral and water.
It acts as pollution indicator i.e it does
not grow in polluted area.
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BACTERIA CELL

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BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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PROKARYAOTIC CELL

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REPRODUCTION IN
FUNGI
R E P R O D U C T IO N
V E G IT A T IV E

ASEXUAL

F R A G M E N T A T IO N
F IS S IO N
B U D D IN G

SEXUAL

C O N ID IA

OOSPORES

S P O R A N G IS P O R E S
ZOOSPORES

ASCOSPORES
B A S ID E O S P O R E S

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN
FUNGI

Plasmogamy-fusion between two


motile or non-motile
gametes.sometimes two haploid
hyphae come together and fuse.
Karyogamy- fusion of two nuclei.in
some fungi two haploid cells
immediately fuse & form diploid
cells.in some a dikaryotic (n+n)occurs
which later become diploid.such phase
is called dikaryophase.
BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN
FUNGI

Meiosis-fungi form fruiting


bodies,zygote undergoes reduction
division forming haploid spores.

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CLASSIFICATION OF FUNGI
(spore formation,morphology of mycelium&fruiting bodies)

fu n g i
p h ycom ycet e s ascom ycet e s b asi d eom ycet e s d u t e r o m ycet e s
BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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RHIZOPUS

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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RHIZOPUS

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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ASPERGILLUS

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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ASPERGILLUS

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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ASCOSPORES IN ASCUS

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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ASCUS

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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AGARICUS

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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BASIDIUM CARRYING
BASIDIOSPORES

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BASIDIUM

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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COMPARISON OF ASCUS AND


BASIDIUM

BIOLOGICAL CLAS

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