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CHEM 15 Fundamentals of Chemistry

Problem Set 1

A. Nature of Matter
Trace the progression from the formulation of a problem, to the establishment of a theory.
1.
Differentiate between a theory and a law.
2.
Is it possible to predict how many experiments are required to verify a law? Explain.
3.
What are the principal reasons why one theory might be adapted over a conflicting one?
4.
Classify each of the following properties as intensive or extensive:
5.
solubility
volume
a.
e.
color
combustibility
b.
f.
boiling point
malleability
c.
g.
temperature
melting point
d.
h.
Classify each of the following as pure substance, homogeneous mixture or heterogeneous
6.
mixture:
ink
gasoline
lambanog
a.
d.
g.
air
concrete
mineral water
b.
e.
h.
blood
fruit salad
dry ice
c.
f.
i.
7.

8.

9.

10.

Classify each of the following changes as physical or chemical:


change in color of pared potato exposed to air
a.
burning of gasoline
b.
sparkling of sapphire stone
c.
souring of milk
d.
ripening of mango
e.
sublimation of dry ice
f.
Write the chemical symbols of the following elements:
gold
copper
a.
e.
silver
cobalt
b.
f.
soldium
mercury
c.
g.
iron
manganese
d.
h.
Give the name of each of the following elements:
Se
Pt
a.
e.
Fr
Pd
b.
f.
Ne
W
c.
g.
Cr
Sn
d.
h.
Supply the names of the following compounds:
CsCl
XeF6
a.
f.
N2O5
PCl3
b.
g.
CCl4
FeCl3
c.
h.
SO3
Cr(IO3)3
d.
i.
MgI2
H2CO3
e.
j.

i.
j.
k.
l.

i.
j.
k.
l.

k.
l.
m.
n.
o.

fluorine
argon
lead
carbon
Sb
Ge
As
Sr
HI
HIO4
H3PO4
Ca3(PO4)2
CoCO3

B. Atomic Structure
Which of the postulates forwarded by Dalton in his atomic theory are still considered valid today?
1.
What is the source of cathode rays in a discharge tube? What is the evidence that these are
2.
negatively charged particles
Explain why Rutherford concluded that the positive charge must be concentrated in a very dense
3.
nucleus within the atom?
When an atom loses an electron, what is the charge of the resulting particle? What are such
4.
particles called?
Complete the table below by supplying the missing information:
5.
Nuclear Symbol (AZX)
Number of protons
Number of electrons
Number of neutrons
21
10

Ne

General Chemistry and Chemical Education Division, Institute of Chemistry, CAS, UPLB

CHEM 15 Fundamentals of Chemistry


41
___
__
29

Problem Set 1

Ca

20

Cu

35
58

140
25

40

6.

7.
8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

30

19

Supply the nuclear charge, number of protons and number of electrons of each of the following:
Hg2+
As3+
a.
d.
Xe
Mo2+
b.
e.
2O
Au3+
c.
f.
What is the difference between mass number and atomic mass?
What is the frequency of radiation whose wavelength is:
134 cm
371 cm
1.7 m
a.
b.
c.
The two naturally occurring isotopes of copper, 63Cu and 65Cu, have masses fo 62.9296 and
64.9278 atomic mass units (amu) respectively. The atomic mass of copper is 63.546 amu.
Calculate the percentage of each isotope in a piece of copper.
Calculate the atomic mass of chlorine using the following data:
Isotope
Mass (amu)
% abundance
Cl-35
34.9789
75.77
Cl-37
36.9659
24.23
Complete the following table by filling in the missing information;
Sublevel Designation
n
l
ml values
# of orbitals in
the sublevel
2s
3
2
4d
5f
6s
7
1

# of e- in the
sublevel

Which of the following is a legitimate set of n, l, m and s quantum numbers?


a.
4
-2
-1
-1/2
b.
5
3
4
+1/2
c.
6
0
0
1
d.
2
2
-2
+1/2
e.
3
2
+2
-1/2
f.
3
1
0
+1/2
How many electrons can be accommodated in each of the following types of subshells:
s, p, d, f, g
Which of the following set of orbitals is arranged in the order of increasing energy?
3d<4s<4p<5s<4d
a.
3d<4s<4p<4d<5s
b.
4d<5s<5p<6s<4f
c.
4d<5p<6s<4f<5d
d.
General Chemistry and Chemical Education Division, Institute of Chemistry, CAS, UPLB

CHEM 15 Fundamentals of Chemistry


4f<5d<6p<7s<5f
4s<3d<4p<4d<5s

e.
f.

15.

16.

Problem Set 1

Using complete subshell notation (1s22s22p6 etc.), predict the electronic configuration and
orbital diagram of each of the following atom:
a.

14
7

e.

106
46

Pd

b.

40
18

Ar

f.

73
32

Ge

c.

40
19

Ca

g.

122
51

d.

51
23

h.

184
74

Sb
W

Name an atom and three ions with an electronic configuration of 1s 22s22p63s23p6 .

C. Laws of Chemical Combination


When an iron rusts, its mass increases. When a match burns, its mass decreases. Do these
1.
observations violate the law of conservation of mass?
In one experiment, 2.18 g sodium was allowed to react with 16.2 g chlorine. All the sodium was
2.
used up and 5.54 g sodium chloride was produced. In a second experiment, 2.10 g chlorine was
allowed to react with 10.0 g sodium. All the chlorine was used up and 3.46 g sodium chloride was
produced. Show that these results are consistent with the law of constant composition. The
reaction between sodium and chlorine has the following equation:
2Na (g)
3.

4.

+ Cl2(g) 2 NaCl (s)

In one experiment, the burning of 0.312 g sulfur produced 0.623 g sulfur dioxide as the sole
product. In a second experiment, 0.842 g sulfur dioxide was obtained. What mass of sulfur must
have been burned in the second experiment?
By analysis, a compound of sulfur and oxygen was found to have a mass ratio of 2.0 sulfur to 3.0
oxygen.
How many grams of oxygen are needed to react with 26 g of sulfur?
a.
In 60.0 g of compound, how many grams of oxygen are there? How many grams of sulfur?
b.
How many g of the compound can be obtained from the reaction of 15 g each of sulfur and
c.
oxygen/

D. The Periodic Table:


What factors affect the size of the atom? Account for how each factor influence atomic size.
1.
Is it possible for two different atoms to be isoelectronic? Two different cations? Two different
2.
anions? A cation and an anion? Explain.
Which of the following elements are representative elements, transition elements, inner
3.
transition elements, halogens, alkali metals and alkaline earth metals?
Cu, Ba, Rb, At, As, Au, Nb, Cf, Se
Given the following elements; Be, B, N, Mg
4.
choose the element with the largest atomic radius
a.
choose th element with the highest ionization energy
b.
choose the element with the lowest electron affinity
c.
choose the element with the greatest tendency to form cations.
d.

General Chemistry and Chemical Education Division, Institute of Chemistry, CAS, UPLB

CHEM 15 Fundamentals of Chemistry


5.

6.

7.
8.

Problem Set 1

To what group of the main block (representative) elements would an element belong if its atom
has;
3 valence electrons
b. 6 valence electrons
c. 8 valence electrons
a.
Arrange the following in the expected order of increasing radius:
Br, Li+, Se, Ib. Ca, Ba, Sr, Mg
c. Sn, Rb, I, Cd
a.
Explain answer in No. 6.
Which of the following will have higher ionization energy?
Na or Mg
O or F
a.
d.
Rb or Cs
I or F
b.
e.
P
or
Al
Cs or Se
c.
f.
g.

9.

Choose the species with the more exothermic affinity.


Se or Br
a.
Na or K
b.

c.
d.

P or As
O or S

E. Chemical Arithmetic
Supply the missing information (name or formula) for each ion
1.
Lead
(II), _____________
Hydrogen carbonate , ___________
a.
e.
______________, Ba2+
______________, Co3+
b.
f.
Periodate, __________
______________, ClO2c.
g.
Gold (III) _________
Cyanide ________________
d.
h.
Name the binary compounds: a) KBr-; b) SrCl2; c) ClF3; d) N2O4 ; e) PCl6
2.
Name the ternary compounds: a) KCN; b) HClO; c) KIO 3
3.
Write the correct formulas of the compounds;
4.
magnesium bromide
barium oxide
iron (iii) oxalate
a.
c.
e.
strontium
perchlorate
mercury
(II)
acetate
bromine pentafluoride
b.
d.
f.
Calculate the total number of:
5.
atoms in I molecule of nitroglycerine, C3H6(NO3)3
a.
atoms in 0.00102 mol C2H6
b.
F atoms in 12.51 mol C2HBrClF3
c.
Determine the mass in grams of 1 mol of : a) N atoms; b) NaCl; c) CH 4; d) O2; e) C2H5OH
6.
The amino acid methionine is essential in human diet. It has a molecular formula C 5H11NO2S.
7.
Determine: a) its molecular mass;
b) the number of moles of H atoms or H atoms per mol of methionine
c) the number of grams of C per mol methionine;
d) the number of C atoms in 9.07 mol of methionine
Determine the number of moles of Br2 in a sample consisting of:
8.
8.08 x 1027 Br2 molecules
a.
2.17 x 1024 Br atoms
b.
11.3 kg of bromine gas
c.
2.65 L bromine water (d= 3.1 g/mL)
d.
Determine
the mass percent H in the hydrocarbon decane C 10H22
9.
Determine the percent mass composition of the elements in the anti malarial drug, quinine,
10.
C20H24,N2O2.
The food flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate (MSG) has the composition 13.6% Na, 35.5 %
11.
C, 4.8 % H, 8.3% N 37.8 % O by mass. What is the empirical formula of MSG?
A compound of C, H, and O known as terephthalic acid is used in the manufacture of Dacron
12.
(polyethylene terephthalate). Its molecular mass is 166.1 u, and by combustion analysis, it is
found to have 57.83% C and 3.64% H by mass. What is its empirical formula? What is the
molecular formula of terephthalic acid?

General Chemistry and Chemical Education Division, Institute of Chemistry, CAS, UPLB