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10.1INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2

10.2TRAVELINGWAVEANTENNAS.............................................................................................................................................................................................................3

10.2.1LongWire................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

10.2.2VAntenna...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

10.2.3RhombicAntenna...................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

10.3BROADBANDANTENNAS...................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

10.3.1HelicalAntenna.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

10.3.3YagiUdaArrayofLinearElements.........................................................................................................................................................................................66

PROBLEMS.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................81

10.1INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapters we have presented the details of classical methods

that are used to analyze the radiation characteristics of some of the simplest and

most common forms of antennas (i.e., infinitely thin linear and circular wires,

broadband dipoles, and arrays). In practice there is a myriad of antenna

configurations, and it would be almost impossible to consider all of them in this

book. The general performance behavior of some of them will be presented in this

chapter with a minimum of analytical formulations.

10.2TRAVELINGWAVEANTENNAS

In Chapter 4, centerfed linear wire antennas were discussed whose

amplitude current distribution was

1. constant for infinitesimal dipoles (

/50)

3. sinusoidal for long dipoles (

/10)

/10)

The sinusoidal current distribution of long openended linear antennas is a

standing wave constructed by two waves of equal amplitude and 180o phase

difference at the open end traveling in opposite directions along its length.

similar to the standing wave patterns on openended transmission lines.

Linear antennas that exhibit current and voltage standing wave

patterns formed by reflections from the open end of the wire are

referred to as standing wave or resonant antennas.

current and voltage. This can be achieved by properly terminating the antenna

wire so that the reflections are minimized if not completely eliminated.

An example of such an antenna is a long wire that runs horizontal to the

earth, as shown in Figure 10.1.

F

Figure 10.1

1 Beverage (longwire)) antenna ab

bove ground

d

ound and one end

d of the wire.

w

This

cconfiguraation is kn

nown as B

Beverage or wave antenna. There are

m

many other configu

urations o

of traveling wave a

antennas.

be represented by one or more traveling waves, usually in the same

direction, are referred to as traveling wave or nonresonant antennas. A

progressive phase pattern is usually associated with the current and

voltage distributions.

Standing wave antennas, such as the dipole, can be analyzed as traveling

wave antennas with waves propagating in opposite directions and represented

by traveling wave currents

and

in Figure 10.1(a).

Besides the long wire antenna there are many examples of traveling wave

antennas such as dielectric rod, helix, and various surface wave antennas.

Aperture antennas, such as reflectors and horns, can also be treated as traveling

wave antennas. In addition, arrays of closely spaced radiators (usually less than

/2 apart) can also be analyzed as traveling wave antennas by approximating

their current or field distribution by a continuous traveling wave. YagiUda,

logperiodic, and slots and holes in a waveguide are some examples of

discreteelement traveling wave antennas.

radiation from a continuous source.

A traveling wave may be classified as a slow wave if its phase velocity

(

1).

A fast wave is one whose phase velocity is greater than the speed of light

( /c

1).

1

1. Surface wave a

antenna

urface w

wave antenna defin

ned as aan antenna which

h radiates

One is the su

p

power flo

ow from d

discontinu

uities in tthe structture that interrupt a bound

d wave on

n

tthe antenna surfacce.A surface wavee antenna

a is, in gen

neral, a sllow wavee structure

w

whose ph

hase veloccity of th

he travelin

ng wave is equal to or

t

lesss than thee speed of

o

llight in freeespace (

1).

diation ta

akes placce only at

a nonuniiformitiess,

ccurvaturees, and discontin

nuities. D

Discontin

nuities caan be either

e

disscrete or

d

distributeed.

On

ne type of

o discrette discontinuity on a surfaace

w

wave anttenna is a

a transm

mission lin

ne termin

nated in an

u

unmatcheed load.

A distribu

uted surfface wav

ve antenna can be

aanalyzed in terms of the vaariation o

of the amplitude aand

p

phase of tthe curren

nt along its structu

ure.

In geeneral, power flow

ws parallel to the

e structu

ure,

eexcept wh

hen losses are present, and for plane

e structurres

tthe fieldss decay exponenti

e

ially away

y from th

he antenn

na.

M

Most of the surfface wav

ve antenn

nas are endfire or

n

nearendfire radiaators. Praactical co

onfigurations inclu

ude

lline, planaar surfacee, curved,, and mod

dulated sttructures..

2

2. Leakywave an

ntenna

Anotther trav

veling waave anten

nna is a leakywav

l

ve anten

nna defineed as an

n

aantenna that cou

uples po

ower in small in

ncrementss per unit lengtth, either

ccontinuou

usly or discretely

d

y, from a traveliing wavee structu

ure to frreespacee

L

Leakywaave anten

nnas conttinuously

y lose ene

ergy due to radiaation, as shown in

n

F

Figure 10

0.2 by a slotted rectangu

ular wave

eguide. The

T

fieldss decay along the

sstructure in the dirrection off wave traavel and iincrease iin others.

Figu

ure 10.2 Le

eakywave w

waveguide

e slots; upper (broad) and side ((narrow) w

walls.

1

10.2.1 Lo

ong Wire

An aantenna is

i usually

y classifieed as a long wiree antennaa if it is a straigh

ht

cconductorr with a leength from one to many wa

avelength

hs.

The long wirre of Figgure 10.1(a), in th

he presen

nce of th

he ground, can be

aanalyzed approxim

mately b

by introd

ducing an

n image to take into acccount the

p

presence of the grround. Th

he magnittude and phase off the image are deetermined

d

u

using the reflection

n coefficieent for ho

orizontal polarizattion as giv

ven by

1

for

(4129)

0 , 180 plane

90 , 270 plane

The angles

and

for

and

The height of the antenna above the ground must be chosen so that the

reflected wave is in phase with the direct wave at the angles of desired maximum

radiation. The total field can be found by multiplying the field radiated by the

wire in free space by the array factor of a twoelement array.

source to

oward thee load, it ccontinuou

usly leakss energy.

Thiss can bee repressented b

by an atttenuation

n

coefficien

nt. Therefore the current distributiion of thee

forward travelingg wave aalong thee structurre can bee

nted by

represen

z

Figure 1

10.3 Longw

wire antennaa

(101)

z : th

he propagaation coeffiicient.

The atttenuation

n factor

hmic lossees of the w

wire as welll

as gro

ound lossess, which arre very sm

mall and are

e neglected

d.

When the radiatting mediu

um is air, tthe loss of energy in a long wirre due to

o leakage iis

very ssmall, and iit can also be neglectted.

z

where

(101)

(101a)

0 (102a);

0

sin

102c

102b

is used to represent the ratio of the phase constant of the wave along the

transmission line ( ) to that of freespace ( ), or

Assuming a perfect electric conductor for the ground, the total field for

Figure 10.1(a) is obtained by multiplying each of (102a)(102c) by the array

factor sin

For

sin

k K

.

1 the timeaverage power density can be written as

| |

| |

1 (104)

1 (105)

length is a multilobe pattern whose number of lobes depends upon its length.

Assuming that is very large such that the variations in the sine function of

(105) are more rapid than those of the cotangent, the peaks of the lobes occur

approximately when

sin

cos

1;

cos

1

2

, m

0,1,2, (106)

cos

1 ,

0,1,2, (107)

The angle where the maximum of the major lobe occurs is given by m = 0.

major lobe approaches zero degrees and the structure becomes a

nearendfire array.

In finding the values of the maxima, the variations of the cotangent term in

(105) were negligible. If the effects of the cotangent term were to be included,

the values of the 2m

2

1

In a similar manner, the nulls of the pattern can be found and occur when

sin

cos

0 ,

cos

1,2,3, (109)

1,2,3,4 1010

The total radiated power can be found by integrating (105) over a closed

sphere of radius and reduces to

where

| | 1.415

1011

found to be

| |

1.415

(1012)

.

(1013)

A

A. Amplittude Pattterns, Ma

axima, an

nd Nulls

Fig 10.4

4(a): the 3D patteern of a trraveling w

wire anten

nna with

Fig 10.4

4(b): the 3D patteern of a sttanding w

wave wiree antenna with

5 .

The corrresponding 2D p

patterns aare shown

n in Figuree 10.5.

90

0

120

0

60

-10

-20

30

150

-30

-40 180

-30

-20

330

210

-10

0

300

240

0

270

Figure 10.4

4 Threedim

mensional freespace

e amplitude

e patterns for travelin

ng and stan

nding wave

e

wire an

ntennas of

The paattern fo

ormed by

y the fo

orward

ttraveling wave cu

urrent

has

m

maximum

m radiattion in the fo

orward

d

direction

The p

pattern formed

. when

w

by staanding

There

iis maximu

um radiaation in th

he forwarrd and

b

backward

d directions.

Figure 10

0.5 Twodim

mensional frreespace

amplitude p

pattern for ttraveling an

nd standing

wave wire anten

nnas of

5

The llobe nearr the axis of the wire in the directions of traveel is the laargest.

w

antenna is ussed

when it is dessired to radiate or

minantly from o

one

receivee predom

directio

on.

As the length off the wire increasses,

n lobe shiifts

the maxximum off the main

closer toward the axiis and tthe

number of lobess increasee.

Figu

ure 10.6 Frreespace p

pattern for traveling

wave wire a

w

antenna of

an

nd

he first fou

ur lobes, computed using (108), are

p

plotted in

n Figure 10.7(a)

1

fo

or 0.5

10

0 . The correspon

c

nding anggles of the

c

d using (1010), are sho

own in Figure

F

10

0.7(b) for

0

0.5

effectively

y to desiggn long w

wires when

n

um or null is desire

ed.

Figu

ure 10.7 An

ngles versu

us length off wire ante

enna where

e maxima a

and nulls occcur

B

B. Inputt Impedance

For travelingg wave w

wire anten

nnas the radiation

n in the opposite direction

n

ffrom the maximum

m is suppressed by

y reducin

ng the currrent refleected from

m the end

d

o

of the wirre. This is accomplished by

In

ncreasing the diameter of th

he wire

Orr terminaating it to the groun

nd, as sho

own in Figgure 10.1.

Ideaally a com

mplete eliimination

n of the

reflection

ns (perfeect match

h) can o

only be

accompliished if the

t

anten

nna is ellevated

only at small heeights (co

ompared to the

ve the grround, an

nd it is

wavelenggth) abov

terminatted by a reesistive lo

oad.

The value of the load resistor is equal to the characteristic impedance of the

wire near the ground (which is found using image theory). For a wire with

diameter and height

138 log

(1014)

created. Therefore the input impedance of the line is not equal to the load

impedance. The transmission line impedance transfer equation can be used to

calculate the impedance at the input terminals

(1015)

C. Polarization

A longwire antenna is linearly polarized, and it is always parallel to the

plane formed by the wire and radial vector from the center of the wire to the

observation point.

The direction of the linear polarization is not the same in all parts of the

pattern, but it is perpendicular to the radial vector (and parallel to the plane

formed by it and the wire). Thus the wire antenna is not an effective element for

horizontal polarization. Instead it is usually used to transmit or receive waves

that have an appreciable vector component in the vertical plane. This is what is

known as a Beverage antenna which is used more as a receiving rather than a

transmitting element because of its poor radiation efficiency due to power

absorbed in the load resistor.

D. Resonant Wires

Resonant wire antennas are formed when the load impedance of Figure

10.1(a) is not matched to the characteristic impedance of the line. This causes

reflections which with the incident wave form a standing wave. Resonant

antennas, including the dipole, were examined in Chapter 4.

Resonant antennas can also be formed by long wires. For resonant long

wires with lengths odd multiple of half wavelength (

73

69 log

(1016)

(1017)

This formula is more accurate for small values of , although it gives good

results even for large values of . It can also be shown that the maximum

directivity is related to the radiation resistance by

(1018)

10.2.2 V A

Antenna

For ssome app

plications a single llongwire

e antenna is not practical beecause

(1) iits directiivity may

y be low

(2) iits side lo

obes may be high

(3) iits main b

beam is in

nclined att an angle

e, which iss controlled by its length.

One very practical arrray of long wires iss

ntenna fo

ormed by

y using ttwo wiress

the V an

each with

h one of iits ends cconnected

d to a feed

d

line as sh

hown in F

Figure 10..8(a).

In m

most app

plications,, the plan

ne formed

d

by the leegs of the V is paraallel to th

he ground

d,

whose p

principal polarizattion is p

parallel to

o

the groun

nd and th

he plane o

of the V.

Becaause of in

ncreased side lobees, the directivity

y of ordin

nary lineaar dipoles

b

begins to diminish

h for lengtths greateer than ab

bout 1.25 . Howev

ver by adjusting the

iincluded aangle of aa Vdipolee, its direectivity ca

an be mad

de greaterr and its side lobes

ssmaller th

han thosee of a corrrespondin

ng linear d

dipole.

Desiggns for m

maximum directivitty usually

y require smaller iincluded angles for

llonger Vss. Most V antennass are symm

metrical (

and

d

o

). Also

V

V antenn

nas can be

b design

ned to haave unidiirectionall or bidirrectional radiation

n

p

patterns, as shown

n in Figures 10.8(b

b) and (c),, respectiv

vely.

To aachieve th

he unidirrectional characte

eristics, th

he wires of the V

V antennaa

m

must be n

nonresonaant. The rreflected w

waves can be redu

uced by

M

Make the inclined wires of tthe V rela

atively thiick

P

Properly terminatte the opeen ends off the V

One way to terminatte the V antenna

a is to

aattach a lo

oad, usuaally a resisstor equaal in value

e to the

o

open end

d characteristic im

mpedancee of the Vwire

V

ttransmisssion line, as shown

n in Figuree 10.9(a)..

The terminatiing resisttance can also be d

divided

iin half aand each half con

nnected to the ground

g

lleading to

o the term

mination o

of Figure 10.9(b).

Figure 10.9 Termiinated V

antennas..

5 ), there will

be sufficient leakage of the field along each leg that when the wave reaches the

end of the V it will be sufficiently reduced that there will not necessarily be a need

for a termination.

The patterns of the individual wires of the V antenna are conical and inclined

at an angle from their corresponding axes. The angle of inclination is determined

by the length of each wire.

The patterns of each leg of a symmetrical V antenna will add in the direction

of the line bisecting the angle of the V and form one major lobe, the total included

angle 2 of the V should be equal to 2

of maximum radiation of each wire makes with its axis. When this is done, beams

2 and 3 of Figure 10.8(b) are aligned and add constructively.

Similarly forr Figure 10.8(c),, beams 2 and 3 are aligned and add

d

cconstructtively in the forward directiion, while

e beams 5

5 and 8 are aligned and add

d

cconstructtively in th

he backw

ward direcction.

If 2

2

2

be is split into two distinct b

beams.

If (2

2

m

lobe is still along the

p

plane that bisects the V butt it is tilteed upwarrd from th

he plane of the V d

due to the

eexistence of GND.

included angle which leads to the largest directivity. The polynomials for

optimum included angles and maximum directivities are given by

149 /

603.4 /

13.39 /

78.27 /

2.94 /

1.15,

809.5 /

443.6 10

0.5

/

1.5

169.77 10

1.5

/

3

1.5

19a

19b

3 (1020)

those of straight dipoles.

Anotther form

m of a V an

ntenna is shown in

n Figure 1

10.11(a). T

The V is fformed by

y

aa monopo

ole wire, bent at aan angle o

over a gro

ound plan

ne, and b

by its imaage shown

n

d

dashed. T

The includ

ded angle as well as the leng

gth can bee used to tune the antenna.

For 2

p

primarily

y

120 , the an

ntenna eexhibits

verticcal

polaarization

with

rradiation pattern

ns almosst identiical to

tthose of straight diipoles.

As 2

120 , a horizontally po

olarized

ffield com

mponent iss excited which teends to

ffill the pattern toward the horrizontal

d

direction,, makingg it a v

very atttractive

ccommunication an

ntenna forr aircraft.

of the ground plane and

a

freespace V

V

cconfiguraations obttained by the MoM is shown

n plotted iin Figure 10.11(a).

Anotther practtical form

m of a dipo

ole antenna, particcularly useful for airplane or

gground pllane applications, is the 90

0 bent w

wire configguration of Figuree 10.11(b)).

T

The comp

puted imp

pedance o

of the anteenna is sh

hown plottted in Figgure 10.1

11(b).

This antennaa can b

be tuned by

aadjusting its perpeendicularr and parallel

llengths

and

.Th

he radiaation

p

pattern in

n the plaane of the antenn

na is

n

nearly om

mnidirecttional fo

or h

F

For h

n approacches

tthat of vertical /2

2 dipole.

0

0.1 .

1

10.2.3 Rh

hombic A

Antenna

A

A. Geome

etry and Radiatio

on Characcteristicss

Two V antenn

nas can b

be conneccted at th

heir open ends to fform a diamond or

rrhombic aantenna, as shown

n in Figurre 10.12((a). To acchieve thee single main

m

lobee,

b

beams 2, 3, 6, and 7 are aligned and

d add con

nstructively. The otther end is used to

o

ffeed the aantenna.

The anttenna is u

usually teerminated

d at one e

end in a reesistor off 600800

0 ohms, in

n

order tto reduce if not elim

minate reeflections..

If each leg is lon

ng enough

h (>5) su

ufficient le

eakage occcurs alon

ng each leeg that the

hat reach

hes the farr end of th

he rhomb

bus is suffficiently rreduced th

hat it may

y

wave th

not be n

necessary

y to terminate the rhombuss.

Anotther conffiguration

n of a rh

hombus is that off Figure 10.12(b) which is

fformed by

y an inverrted V and its imagge (shown

n dashed)).

antennas, the pattern of rhombic antennas can be controlled by varying the

element lengths, angles between elements, and the plane of the rhombus.

Rhombic antennas are usually preferred over Vs for nonresonant and

unidirectional pattern applications because they are less difficult to terminate.

Additional directivity and reduction in side lobes can be obtained by

stacking, vertically or horizontally, a number of rhombic and/or V antennas to

form arrays.

10.3BROADBANDANTENNAS

In Chapter 9 broadband dipole antennas were discussed. There are

numerous other antenna designs that exhibit greater broadband characteristics

than those of the dipoles. Some of these antennas can also provide circular

polarization, a desired extra feature for many applications.

10.3.1 Helical Antenna

Another basic, simple, and practical configuration of an electromagnetic

radiator is that of a conducting wire wound in the form of a screw thread forming

a helix.

In most cases the helix is used with a ground plane. The ground plane can

O

One is for the groun

nd to be fflat, as sho

own

in Figuree 10.13. Typically

y the diam

meter of the

ground p

plane shou

uld be at least 3 //4.

The groun

nd plane ccan also b

be cuppe

ed in

ndrical caavity or in

n the form

m of

the form of a cylin

a frustrum cavity.

The helix is usually cconnected

d to the

onductor of a coaxxial transm

mission

center co

line at the feed

d point w

with thee outer

or of thee line aattached to the

conducto

ground p

plane.

: turns,

: diameter

: the total length of the wire

(1024)

The radiation characteristics of the antenna can be varied by controlling the

size of its geometrical properties compared to the wavelength.

The input impedance is critically dependent upon

The geeneral po

olarization

n of the antenna is elliptiical. How

wever circular and

d

linear p

polarizatiions can b

be achieveed over d

different fr

frequency

y ranges.

The helical an

ntenna caan operatte in many modes;; howeverr the two

o principaal

o

ones are tthe normal (broad

dside) and

d the axiall (endfiree) modess.

Figure 10

0.14 Threed

dimensional normalized amplitude linear powerr patterns for normal and

d endfire

mode

es helical designs.

plane normal to the axis and is nearly null along the axis. The pattern is similar in

shape to that of a small dipole or circular loop.

Figure 10.14(b), representative of the axial mode, has its maximum along

the axis of the helix, and it is similar to that of an endfire array. The axial

(endfire) mode is usually the most practical because it can achieve circular

polarization over a wider bandwidth (usually 2:1) and it is more efficient.

A helix can always receive a signal transmitted from a rotating linearly

polarized antenna. Therefore helices are usually positioned on the ground for

space telemetry applications of satellites, space probes, and ballistic missiles to

transmit or receive signals.

A. Normal Mode

To achieve the normal mode of operation, the dimensions of the helix are

usually small compared to the wavelength (i.e.,

to a loop of diameter

0

90 .

Since the limiting geometries of the helix are a loop and a dipole, the far field

radiated by a small helix in the normal mode can be described in terms of

components of the dipole and loop, respectively.

and

approximately by

the fields from these elemental radiators.

d

dimension

ns are sm

mall,

the currrent throughout its length

h can be

assumeed to be constant

its reelative farfield

f

pattern to be

independent of the num

mber of lo

oops and

dipoles.

short d

Figure 1

10.15 Norma

al (broadside

e) mode for

helical antenna and its equivalent.

n be desccribed by

y the sum

m of the fiields radiiated by a

a

ssmall loop

p of radiu

us

and

d a short d

dipole of length , with its

,

axis perp

pendiculaar

d each witth the sam

me constaant curren

nt distribution.

constant current

is

(426a/1025)

radiated by a loop is

/

(10-26)

A comparison of (1025) and (1026) indicates that the two components are in

timephase quadrature, a necessary but not sufficient condition for circular or

elliptical polarization.

The ratio of the magnitudes of the

axial ratio (AR), and it is given by

and

By varying the

(1027)

AR = 0 occurs when

AR

AR

AR = 1, the radiated field is circularly polarized in all directions other than

2

/ 2

To achieve the normal mode of operation, it has been assumed that the

current throughout the length of the helix is of constant magnitude and phase.

The total length of the helix wire

wavelength (

Because of the critical dependence of its radiation characteristics on its

geometrical dimensions, which must be very small compared to the wavelength,

this mode of operation is very narrow in bandwidth and its radiation efficiency is

very small. Practically this mode of operation is limited, and it is seldom utilized.

B. Axial Mode

A more practical mode of operation, which can be generated with great ease,

is the axial or endfire mode. In this mode of operation,

There is only one major lobe and its maximum radiation intensity is along

the axis of the helix.

The minor lobes are at oblique angles to the axis.

To excite this mode, the diameter

the circumference of the helix must be in the

near optimum), and the spacing about S

12

14 .

range (with / = 1

/4. The pitch angle is usually

Most often the antenna is used in conjunction with a ground plane, whose

diameter is at least

microwave frequencies.

The dimensions of the helix for this mode of operation are not as

critical, thus resulting in a greater bandwidth.

C. Design Procedure

The terminal impedance of a helix radiating in the axial mode is nearly

resistive with values between 100 and 200 ohms. Smaller values, even near 50

ohms, can be obtained by properly designing the feed. Empirical expressions,

based on a large number of measurements, have been derived. The input

impedance (purely resistive) is obtained by

140

(1030)

HPBW degree

the beamwidth between nulls by

(1031)

FNBW degree

dimensionless

15

(1032)

(1033)

(1034)

and the normalized farfield pattern by

/

/

cos

1035

/ (1035a)

/

14 , 3/4

The farfield pattern of the helix, as given by (1035), has been developed by

assuming that the helix consists of an array of

spacing between them, and the elements are placed along the zaxis.

The cos term in (1035) represents the field pattern of a single turn,

The last term

/

/

elements.

The total field is obtained by multiplying the field from one turn with the array

factor.

The value of p is the ratio of the velocity with which the wave travels along

the helix wire, and it is selected according to (1035b) for ordinary endfire

radiation or (1035c) for HansenWoodyard endfire radiation.

(1) For ordinary endfire

The relative phase among the various turns of the helix (elements of the

array) is given by (67a), or

(1036)

where

For an endfire design, the radiation from each one of the turns along

must be in phase. Since the wave along the helix wire between turns travels a

distance

( <1 where

0 , then (1036)

cos

0,1,2, (1037)

/

(1038)

For

0 and

1, 0

. This corresponds to a straight

1, and it

wire ( 90 ), and not a helix. Therefore the next value is

corresponds to the first transmission mode for a helix. Substituting

1 in

(1038) leads to

/

(1038a)

In a similar manner, it can be shown that for HansenWoodyard endfire

radiation (1037) is equal to

cos

0,1,2, (1039)

/

(1040)

Example 10.1

Design a 10turn helix to operate in the axial mode. For an optimum design,

1. Determine the:

a. Circumference (in

b. Relative (to free space) wave velocity along the wire of the helix for:

i. Ordinary endfire design

ii. HansenWoodyard endfire design

c. Halfpower beamwidth of the mainlobe (in degrees)

d. Directivity (in dB) using:

i. A formula

e. Axial ratio (dimensionless and in dB)

2. Plot the normalized threedimensional linear power pattern for the ordinary and

HansenWoodyard designs.

Solution:

1. a. For an optimum design

Condition: 12

14 , 3/4

13 S

Ctan

tan13

i.

Ordinary endfire:

1.0263

0.231

ii.

1.0263

0.231 1

/

/ 1

HansenWoodyard endfire:

/

.

.

0.8337

=0.8012

52

HPBW degree

52

10 0.231

34.21o

i.

Using (1033):

dimensionless

15

15 10 0.231

34.65

15.397

AR

2N

1 /2N

21/20

1.05 dimensionless

0.21 dB

patterns fo

or the two endfire d

designs, orrdinary and

d

HansenWoodyard

d, are show

wn in Figure 10.16

Figure 10

0.16 Threed

dimensional normalized amplitude liinear powerr patterns forr helical ord

dinary (p =

HansenWo

0

0.8337) and

oodyard (p = 0.8012) end

dfire design

ns

D. Feed Design

The nominal impedance of a helical antenna operating in the axial mode,

computed using (1030)

140

impedance of about 50. The input impedance of the helix must be reduced to

near that value. There may be a number of ways by which this can be

accomplished. One way to properly design the first 1/4 turn of the helix which is

next to the feed.

To bring the input impedance of the helix from nearly 150 down to 50,

tthe wire o

of the first 1/4 turn

n should be flat in the form of a strip

p and the transition

n

iinto a heliix should be very ggradual.

14

140

150

50

This is accom

mplished b

by makin

ng the wirre from th

he feed, aat the begginning o

of

by flattening it and

nearly touching the ground plane which is covered with a dielectric slab of height

(1041)

where

= width of strip conductor of the helix starting at the feed

= dielectric constant of the dielectric slab covering the ground plane

= characteristic impedance of the input transmission line

Typically the strip configuration of the helix transitions from the strip to the

regular circular wire and the designed pitch angle of the helix very gradually

within the first 1/41/2 turn.

conductorground plane effective transmission line, and it provides a lower

impedance over a substantial but reduced bandwidth.

For example, a 50 helix has a VSWR of less than 2:1 over a 40%

bandwidth compared to a 70% bandwidth for a 140 helix.

In addition, the 50 helix has a VSWR of less than 1.2:1 over a 12%

bandwidth as contrasted to a 20% bandwidth for one of 140 .

A simple and effective way of increasing the thickness of the conductor near the

feed point will be to bond a thin metal strip to the helix conductor. For example, a

metal strip 70mm wide was used to provide a 50 impedance in a helix whose

conducting wire was 13mm in diameter and it was operating at 230.77 MHz.

1

10.3.3 Ya

agiUda A

Array of L

Linear Ellements

Anotther very

y practical radiatorr in the HF

H (330 MHz), VHF (303

300 MHz)),

aand UHF ((3003,000 MHz) ranges is the YagiUda anteenna.

This antennaa consistts of a n

number of

o

llinear dip

pole elem

ments, ass shown in Figurre

1

10.19, one of whicch is enerrgized dirrectly by a

ffeed transsmission line whille the oth

hers act as

a

p

parasitic radiato

ors or reflectorr, whosse

ccurrents aare inducced by mu

utual coup

pling.

dfire arrray, Yagi d

designateed the row

w of direectors as aa

wave can

nal.

T

To achiev

ve the end

dfire beam

m formattion,

The parasiticc elementts in the direction

n of the beam

b

aree smaller in length

h

tthan the ffeed elem

ment.

The d

driven eleement is resonant with its llength sligghtly lesss than //2

The lengths of

o the dirrectors sh

hould be about 0.4~0.45. The direectors are

n

not necessarily of tthe same length an

nd/or dia

ameter.

uniform.

The gain was independent of the radii of the directors up to ~0.024 .

The length of the reflector is greater than that of the feed. In addition, the

separation is smaller than the spacing between the driven element and the

nearest director, and it is ~0.25 .

Since the length of each director is smaller than its corresponding resonant

length, the impedance of each is capacitive and its current leads the induced emf.

Similarly the impedance of the reflector is inductive and the phases of the

currents lag those of the induced emfs.

The phase of the currents in the directors and reflectors is not determined

solely by their lengths but also by their spacing to the adjacent elements.

Thus, properly spaced elements with lengths slightly less than their

corresponding resonant lengths (less than /2) act as directors because they

form an array with currents approximately equal in magnitude and with equal

progressive phase shifts which will reinforce the field of the energized element

toward the directors.

Similarly, a properly spaced element with a length of /2 or slightly

greater will act as a reflector.

Thus a YagiUda array may be regarded as a structure supporting a traveling

wave. Higher resonances are available near lengths of , 3 /2, and so forth, but

are seldom used.

Figure 10.23 Directivity

y and frontttoback ratio

o, as a Figu

ure 10.24 Directivity and

d fronttoba

ack ratio, as a

function of director spa

ffunction of reflector spaccing, of a 15element Yag

giUda

acing, for 15element

a

array.

YagiUda array.

1065

1065a

The input impedance of a YagiUda array, measured at the center of the

driven element,

Usually small

Strongly influenced by the spacing between the reflector and feed

element.

Some of these values are low for matching to a 50, 78, or 300ohm

transmission lines.

There are many techniques that can be used to match a YagiUda array to a

transmission line and eventually to the receiver, which in many cases is a

television set which has a large impedance (on the order of 300 ohms). Two

common matching techniques are the use of the folded dipole, of Section 9.5, as a

driven element and simultaneously as an impedance transformer, and the

Gammamatch of Section 9.7.4.

3. Design Procedure

A stepbystep design procedure has been established in determining the

geometrical parameters of a YagiUda array for a desired directivity. The included

graphs can only be used to design arrays with overall lengths (from reflector

element to last director) of 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, and 4.2 with corresponding

directivities of 7.1, 9.2, 10.2, 12.25, 13.4, and 14.2 dB, respectively, and with a

diametertowavelength ratio of 0.001

0.04.

for all other designs at frequencies where included data can accommodate the

specifications.

The basis of the design is the data included in

1. Table 10.6 which represents optimized antenna parameters for six

different lengths and for a /

0.0085

lengths for 0.001

0.04

Example 10.3

Designa YagiUda array with a directivity (relative to a /2 dipole at

the same height above ground) of 9.2 dB at 50.1

. The desired

diameter of the parasitic elements is 2.54 cm and of the metal supporting

boom 5.1 cm. Find the element spacings, lengths, and total array length.

Solution:

a. At

50.1

the wavelength is

2.54/598.8

4.24

10 ;

598.8

/

5.1/598.8

8.52

10

b. From Table 10.6, the array with desired gain would have five elements.

For a / = 0.0085 ratio the optimum uncompensated lengths would be

0.428 ,

0.424 ,

0.482 .

The spacing between directors=0.2 . The reflector spacing 0.2 .The overall

antenna length=0.8 .

ptimum llengths o

of the parasitic eleements

f

for a

/ = 0.004

424.

c Plot th

c.

he optim

mized len

ngths fro

om Table 10.6 (

0

0.424

,

0.428 ,

k them by

y a dot ().

d. In Figu

d

ure 10.27

7 draw a vertical lline throu

ugh / = 0.0042

24 interssecting

c

curves

(

(B)

at director

d

uncomp

pensated lengths

0.442 and

r

reflector

length

0.485

5 . Mark these points by an

n x.

ee. With a

a dividerr, measu

ure the distance

d

( ) alo

ong direcctor curv

ve (B)

b

between

points

0.428 and

0.4

424 . Transpose

T

e this

d

distance

ownward along

from thee point

0.442 on curvee (B), do

t

the curve

e and deteermine th

he uncom

mpensated length

0.43

38 .

u

uncompe

ensated lengths

l

o

of

thee array

y at

50..1

are

a

0.44

42

0.438

0.485

ment lengths to compensaate for the boom d

diameter.. From

Figure 10.28, a boom diaametertowaveleength ratiio of 0.00

0852 requ

uires a

fractional lengtth increaase in eaach elemeent of ab

bout 0.00

05. Thu

us the

final leengths of the elements shou

uld be

0.442

5

0.005

0.4

447 ,

0.485

0.005

0.438

8

0.005

5

0.490

0

0.443

PROBLEMS

10.6. It is desired to place the first maximum of a long wire traveling wave

antenna at an angle of 25 from the axis of the wire. For the wire

antenna, find the

(a) exact required length

(b) radiation resistance

(c) directivity (in dB)

The wire is radiating into free space.

10.7. Compute the directivity of a long wire with lengths of

2 and 3 .

10.8. A long wire of diameter d is placed (in the air) at a height h above the

ground.

(a) Find its characteristic impedance assuming

(b) Compare this value with (1014).

dB. Find the lengths of each leg (in ) and the total included angle of the V

(in degrees).

10.17. Design a fiveturn helical antenna which at 400 MHz operates in the

normal mode. The spacing between turns is /50. It is desired that the

antenna possesses circular polarization. Determine the

(a) circumference of the helix (in

(b) length of a single turn (in

and in meters)

and in meters)

and in meters)

10.20. Design a nineturn helical antenna operating in the axial mode so

that the input impedance is about 110 ohms. The required directivity is 10

dB (above isotropic). For the helix, determine the approximate:

(a) circumference (in

).

).

10.36. Design a YagiUda array of linear dipoles to cover all the VHF TV

channels. Perform the design at 216 MHz. Since the gain is not

affected appreciably at

, as Figure 10.26 indicates, this design should

accommodate all frequencies below 216 MHz. The gain of the antenna

should be 14.4 dB (above isotropic). The elements and the supporting boom

should be made of aluminum tubing with outside diameters of 38 in.( 0.95

cm) and 34 in.(1.90 cm), respectively. Find the number of elements, their

lengths and spacings, and the total length of the array (in , meters, and

feet).

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