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# Year

Jan 2003
June 2003
Jan 2004
June 2004
Jan 2005
June 2005
Jan 2006
June 2006
Jan 2007
June 2007

Test
t test
Correlation
t test
Correlation
.
U test
Correlation
..
W test
t test

Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
Q8
Q9
Q10

Year
Jan 2008
June 2008
Jan 2009
June 2009
Specimen
June 2010
Jan 2011
Jan 2012

Q11
Q12
Q13
Q14
Q15
Q16
Q17
Q18

Correlation
t test
t test
U test

t test
Correlation
Correlation

## June 2012 ??????????????

Jan 2003
Q1. Auxins are plant growth substances which can cause elongation in developing
plant tissues. A student formed the hypothesis that an increase in the concentration
of auxins would increase the elongation of seedling tissue. To test this idea he cut
twenty 15 mm lengths from identical oat seedlings and immersed ten of them in a
solution of 1 g dm3 auxin and ten in a solution of 10 g dm3 auxin.
These samples were left in controlled conditions for 12 hours, after which they were
removed and their lengths re-measured. An extract from his laboratory notebook is
shown below.
1g dm 3
all 15 mm
remeasured lengths
22 25 24 23 22
20

25

24

23

24

10g dm 3
all 15 mm
Remeasured lengths
25 28 26 27 25
26

29

24

26

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

23

(a) Prepare a table and organise the data in a suitable way so that the increase in
length in each concentration can be compared.
(4)
(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.
(c) State a suitable null hypothesis for this investigation.
(1)
(d) The student applied a t-test to his data to test his hypothesis. He calculated the
value of t to be 3.68. The table below shows the critical value of t with 18 degrees of
freedom for various significance levels.
Significance level (%) 20
10
5
2
1
Critical value of t
1.33 1.73 2.10 2.55 2.80
What conclusions can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information
(3) (Total 11 marks)
.
June 2003
Q2. Mayfly nymphs are immature insects that live in freshwater streams. In a pilot
study of their distribution, a student noticed that she could distinguish two types,
because they possessed structural differences. One type, which she described as
flattened mayfly nymphs, appeared to be more abundant in fast-moving water than
in still water. Using this observation, she formed the hypothesis that the number of
flattened mayfly nymphs would increase as the speed of the current increased. In
order to test this idea, she counted the flattened mayfly nymphs at 13 sites on the
same stretch of river. Each site had an area of 1 m2. She repeated this at the same
sites one week later. At each site, the speed of the water was measured in metres
per second. It was measured on the first occasion only, since the stream was
running at the same level when sampling was undertaken on the second occasion.
The record of her fieldwork data is shown below.
First sample

Site
number

Number of
flattened
nymphs

Second sample
Speed of
water
metres per
second

Number of
flattened
nymphs

14

0.80

12

0.55

11

11

0.40

0.22

0.25

0.24

10

0.35

14

0.21

0.20

10

0.15

11

0.10

12

0.11

13

0.13

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

(a) Prepare a table and organise the data in a suitable way to show the relationship
between flow rate and the number of flattened mayfly nymphs.
(4)
(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.
(c) State a suitable null hypothesis for this investigation.
(1)
(d) The student applied a correlation test to the data to find out whether they
supported her hypothesis. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.797.
The table below shows critical values for correlation coefficients at the p = 0.05 and
0.01 levels.
Number of pairs Critical value Critical value
of measurements at
at
p = 0.05
p = 0.01
8

0.738

0.881

0.683

0.833

10

0.648

0.794

11

0.620

0.785

12

0.591

0.777

13

0.567

0.746

14

0.544

0.715

15

0.525

0.691

What conclusions can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information
(3) (Total 11 marks)
.

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

Jan 2004
Q3. A student noticed that on two fields, one with horses grazing and the other with
cattle, differences were apparent between the number of elder seedlings growing in
each field. She thought that there were more elder seedlings growing in the field
grazed by horses than in the field grazed by cattle. To test this hypothesis, she
counted the numbers of elder seedlings at 20 random sites in each field using a
0.25 m2 quadrat. A record of her field studies is shown below
Numbers of elder seedlings in
areas of 0.25 m2 where
horses graze
18

12

16

22

21

17

15

17

23

13

14

10

14

14

16

18

14

## Numbers of elder seedlings in

areas of 0.25 m2 where cattle
graze
10

8
5
10 2
12 13 7
17 9
11
(a) Organise these data into two tally charts, one for each field. Group the data into
suitable size classes to enable you to compare the numbers of seedlings in each
field.
(4)
(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in suitable graphical form.
(c) State a suitable null hypothesis for this investigation.
(1)
(d) In order to determine if her data supported her hypothesis, the student applied a
t-test. This statistical test determines whether the difference between two means is
significant. A t-value of 3.71 was calculated. The table below shows critical values
for t with 38 degrees of freedom for various significance levels.
Significance level % 20
10
5
2
1
Critical value of t

1.30

1.68

2.02

2.42

2.70

What conclusions can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information
(3) (Total 11 marks)
.

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

June 2004
Q4. Whilst investigating the distribution of plants on coastal sand dunes, a student
noticed that reeds only seemed to grow in the low-lying areas where the soil was
wet. He formed the hypothesis that the number of reeds growing in the area
increased as the water content of the soil increased. To test his hypothesis, he
selected an area of wet soil where there were many reeds growing. Using a 0.25 m2
quadrat, he laid out a belt transect from this area into the surrounding drier soil. He
placed 8 quadrats along the transect and counted the number of separate reed
plants in each quadrat. He also took a small sample of soil from exactly the same
depth from the centre of each quadrat. To find the water content, he weighed each
soil sample, then dried it in an oven and reweighed it. An extract from his field
records is shown below.
1

14 13 10 11 7

1
81.7g

2
80.2g

3
80.5g

6
80.1g

7
80.4g

8
80.3g

4
81.9g

5
79.9g

## Mass after drying in the oven

1
58.2g

2
57.0g

3
57.8g

4
60.1g

5
61.2g

6
7
8
68.7g 72.1g 74.5g
(a) Calculate the percentage water content of each of the soil samples. Then
prepare a table and organise the data in a suitable way so that the percentage
water content of the soil can be related to the number of reed plants.
(4)
(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.
(c) To test the relationship between soil water content and the number of reed
plants, the student used a rank correlation coefficient.
Calculate the rank correlation coefficient (rs) for these data using the information
rs = 1

D
n n 1
2

Where
D2 = 6 and n = the number of samples

(2)

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

(d) The critical value of rs at p = 0.05 for this investigation is 0.738. Using your
calculated value of rs, what conclusion concerning the relationship between soil
water and number of reed plants can be drawn from this investigation? (1)
(Total 11 marks)

## Q5. Jan 2005 no paper available

.

June 2005
Q6. Lichens are plant-like organisms that may grow on the surface of tree trunks.
After a pilot study of their distribution on trees, a student produced the hypothesis
that one type of lichen grew larger on birch trees than on oak trees. For the main
study, the student selected eleven trees of each species. She placed a
50 cm 50 cm quadrat one metre from the ground on the south facing side of one
of them. She then selected the largest lichen of her chosen type inside the quadrat,
and measured its width at its widest point. This technique was repeated for each of
the selected trees. An extract from the students field record is shown below.
Width of lichens on birch
55mm 24mm 21mm 18 mm 60mm 8 mm
35mm 22mm 33mm 16 mm 28mm
Width of lichens on
oak
15mm 20mm 6 mm
33mm 9 mm

14 mm 16mm

## 13mm 19 mm 45mm 12mm

(a) Prepare a table of the raw data and organise it in such a way that the median
width of these lichens on each species of tree can be identified.
(4)
(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.
(c) State a null hypothesis for this investigation.
(1)
(d) The student decided to apply the Mann-Whitney U test to the data. This
statistical test determines if the difference between the medians is significant. The
calculations produced two U values, U1 = 92 and U2 = 29. In order to support her
hypothesis, the smaller U value is required to be the same as, or less than, the
critical value. The table below shows the critical values for the Mann-Whitney U test
at the p = 0.05 level.

Sample size n2
8

10 11 12 13

13
15
17
19
22
24

15
17
20
23
26
28

17
20
23
26
29
33

Sample
size n1
8
9
10
11
12
13

19
23
26
30
33
37

22
26
29
33
37
41

24
28
33
37
41
45

## Use the information above to draw conclusions from this investigation.

(3)
(Total 11 marks)
.
Jan 2006
Q7. Hawthorn is a common shrub found in hedgerows. Its leaves have many
indentations as shown in the photograph below.

A student formed the hypothesis that the larger leaves would have deeper
indentations. To test this hypothesis she collected twelve leaves from a single
branch of the shrub. Then she obtained the surface area of one side of each leaf by
drawing its outline on graph paper and counting the number of squares it covered.
Finally she measured the depth of each indentation as shown below.

## The results of her investigation are shown below.

271 mm2

Leaf 2

Indentation depths

16, 5, 7, 14 mm

## Indentation depths 20, 6, 7, 17, 4 mm

Leaf 3

245

Leaf 4

Leaf 1

Area

Area

Area

Area

306 mm2
184

Indentation depths

## 4, 13, 5, 5, 13, 4 Indentation depths 9, 10

Leaf 5

277

Leaf 6

Indentation depths

15, 5, 5, 15

## Indentation depths 10, 5, 6, 10

Leaf 7

194

Leaf 8

Area
Area

Area
Area

211
213

Indentation depths

## 3, 10, 3, 3, 11, 3 Indentation depths 3, 10, 12, 3

Leaf 9

278

Leaf 10 Area

Indentation depths

10, 6, 2, 5, 13

Leaf 11

193

Leaf 12 Area

9, 8, 3

## Indentation depths 10, 4, 2, 7

Area
Area

Indentation depths

198
173

(a) Calculate the total indentation depth for each leaf. Then prepare a table and
present the results in a suitable way so that the surface area of each leaf can be
compared with its total indentation.
(4)
(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.
(c) To test the relationship between the leaf surface area and the total indentation
depth, the student used a rank correlation coefficient. Calculate the rank correlation
coefficient (rs) for these data using the information given below. Show your working.

rs 1

n3 n

Where D2 = 44
n = the number of samples

(2)

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

(d) The critical value of rs at p = 0.05 for this investigation is 0.54. Using your
calculated value of rs, what conclusion concerning the relationship between leaf
surface area and total indentation depth can be drawn from this investigation? (1)
(Total 11 marks)
.
Q8. June 2006 no question available
.
JANUARY 2007
Q9. Skylarks are birds in the British Isles that are in serious decline. A sixth form
student assisted in a piece of research to determine if the height or wheat stems left
after harvesting affected the number of skylarks. The study was conducted between
October and March. Ten separate fields, numbered 1-10, were used on different
farms. An area of two hectares in each field was fenced. This area was divided into
two plots, each of one hectare. In late October, one plot in each field was randomly
selected and the wheat stems were cut to reduce their height. The other plot
contained uncut stems and acted as a control. Five visits were made to each field in
a randomly selected sequence. Each time, the numbers of skylarks were estimated
by walking parallel transects across cut and uncut plots and counting the number of
birds that flew out from each of them. An extract from the students field record is
shown below.

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

(a) For each field. Calculate the mean number of skylarks in the plot with cut wheat
stems and the mean number of skylarks in the plot with uncut wheat stems. Prepare a
table that includes the raw data, so that the means for each field can be compared. (4)
(b) Use the data in your table to present the data in a suitable graphical form.
(3)
(c) State the null hypothesis for this investigation.
(1)
(d) The student decided to apply the wilcoxon signed rank test to the paired data. This
statistical test uses the differences between paired samples and is equivalent to a t-test
for paired data. The calculations produced a w value of 7. In order to support the
student's hypothesis, the w value is required to be less than the critical value. The table
below shows the critical values for the wilcoxon signed rank test at the p = 0.05 level.

Use the information in the table to draw conclusions from this investigation. (3)
(Total 11 marks)
...
JUNE 2007
Q10. Marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) is a grass-like plant which grows in the soft
sand of dunes close to the sea. It grows through the sand by means of horizontal
underground stems. These stems have swellings at intervals which are called nodes.
The distance between two nodes is called an internode as shown in the drawing below.

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

10

Sand dunes are affected by strong winds which move the sand and bury the stems of
Marram grass. Where the effect of wind is stronger the stems are buried deeper and
they grow faster, making the internodes longer. A student formed the hypothesis that
the first internodes on the stems of Marram grass would be longer on the windward
(exposed) side of dunes, compared to those on the sheltered side. To test this
hypothesis she measured the length of the first internodes on underground stems from
carefully controlled samples on each side of two dunes. An extract from her field note
book is shown below.
First internode length in mm
Dune 1
Sheltered
70, 36, 90, 10, 50, 90, 40, 52
Windward
80, 107, 82, 97, 70, 74, 115, 60
Dune 2
Sheltered
41, 84, 29, 31, 37, 56, 41, 62
Windward
108, 110, 79, 71, 50, 92, 82, 61
(a) Prepare a table of raw data and organise it in such a way that the distribution of size
classes of first internode lengths on the windward side of the dune can be compared
with those on the sheltered side.
(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.
(c) Comment on the variability shown by these data.
(1)
(d) The student applied a t-test to her data in order to test this hypothesis.
She calculated the value of t to be 4.09.
The table below shows the critical values of t with 30 degrees of freedom at different

What conclusions can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information provided
(3)(Total 11 marks)

JANUARY 2008
Q11. Dogwhelks (Nucella Iapil!us.a are carnivorous snails that live on rocky shores.
Barnacles. Which are small filter-feeding crustaceans, are their main prey. The
barnacles
fix
themselves
permanently
to
rocks
on
these
shores.
A student formed the hypothesis that the distribution of dogwhelks was determined by
thce availability of their main food source. To test this hypothesis. She placed a 1 m2
quadrat at eight random points at one level along a rocky shore. The number of
dogwhelks inside each quadrat was counted. However, the student decided that.
Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

11

Barnacles were small and too numerous to count accurately in such a large area.
Therefore, she counted their numbers in five separate 5 cm x 5 cm quadrats placed
randomly inside the 1 m2 quadrat at each of the eight sites. The results of her
investigation are shown below.

(a) Use the barnacle counts to estimate the total number of barnacles in each 1 m 2
quadrat. Prepare a table and present the results in a suitable way so the number of
dogwhelks And the number of barnacles in each 1 m2 quadrat can be compared.
(c) Use the data in your table to present the information in suitable graphical form.
(c) To test the relationship between numbers of dogwhelks and barnacles, the student
used a rank correlation coefficient. Calculate the rank correlation coefficient (rs) for
these data using the information given below. Show your working.

## n = the number of samples

(2)
(d) The critical value of rs, at p = 0.05, for this investigation is 0.738. Using your
calculated value of rs, what conclusion concerning the relationship between the number
of dogwhelks and number of barnacles can be drawn from this Investigation?
(Total 11 marks)
...
Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

12

JUNE 2008
Q12. Wood sorrel is a common plant of woodland. Its leaves respond to decreasing
light intensity by showing sleep movements, in which leaflets fold towards the leaf
stalk. Increasing light intensity causes these movements to be reversed. A student
investigated these movements by using plants from two different woodland habitats,
one that was more shaded than the other. He took ten samples from each of these
habitats and placed their leaf stalk in tubes containing water. These were left in the dark
until the leaflets were fully folded towards the stalk. He then exposed the samples to the
same light intensity for twenty minutes. After this time he measured the angle between
the stalk and one of the leaflets for each of the twenty samples using a special
protractor as shown in the diagram below. The opening angle was recorded in degrees
and minutes. One degree is divided into 60 minutes.

A copy of the students notebook, with the opening angles of wood sorrel from the two
habitats, is shown below.

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

13

(a) Calculate the opening angles in decimal format (e.g. 70 45 mins = 70.75) and
prepare a table to show these angles, together with the mean opening angle of leaflets,
for each of the two habitats.
(b) Use the information in your table to present the data in a suitable graphical form.
(c) State a suitable null hypothesis for this investigation.
(1)
(d) A t-test was applied to these data to determine whether the means of each group
were significantly different. A t-value of 3.62 was calculated.
The table below shows critical values for t with 18 degrees of freedom for various
levels of significance.

What conclusion can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information provided
(2)
(e) Describe three limitations of this method that could affect the reliability of the
results.
(3) (Total 11 marks)
...

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

14

JANUARY 2009
Q13. Daisies are flowering plants frequently found growing amongst grasses on lawns.
A student earned money by cutting the grass on the lawns of his neighbours. Each
neighbour supplied a lawn mower. These were of two types: those that had a box to
collect Grass cuttings and those that did not. He noticed that there appeared to be more
daisies plants on lawns where the grass cuttings were left on the surface.
He set up a controlled investigation to test whether this observation was significant. He
Took a random selection of four lawns which were cut using a grass box and four which
were cut without a grass box. On each lawn he used a randomly placed 0.5 0.5 metre
quadrat divided into 25 smaller squares. He counted the number of smaller squares in
which daisies were present. This Was then repeated ten times for each lawn. The raw
data from his investigation are shown below.

(a) Prepare a table that summarises both the number of daisies in the squares in each
law and the mean number in each type of lawn.
(3)
Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

15

(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in suitable graphical form so
that the distribution of daisies can be compared.
(c) A t-test was applied to determine whether the mean numbers of daisies on lawns cut
with the two types of mower were significantly different. A t value of 3.81 was
calculated. The table below shows the critical value for t with 78 degrees of freedom for
various levels of significance.

What conclusion can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information in the table
(2)
(d) Use the information in your table and graph to comment on the variability of the data
collected and how this may affect the reliability of this investigation. (3)(Total 11 marks)
..

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

16

JUNE 2009
q14. Catclaw mimosa (Mimosa pigra) is a plant which may form dense thorny thickets
as high as 6 metres. It is an invasive weed in Northern Australia, where it is a hazard to
livestock. One method used to control it is by the use of stem-mining moths. Plants
infected by moths produce fewer seeds, but this may not be effective in all habitats.
A group of students tested the effectiveness of this method of biological control in two
habitats: a floodplain and a woodland. Both habitats had catclaw mimosa plants
growing in them. The students selected two sites in each habitat. In each habitat, one
site had mimosa plants that were infected with stem-mining moths and the other had no
infection. At all four sites, eleven permanent 0.5 0.5 m quadrats had been prepared
and the students collected the top 2 cm of soil from each. They sieved the soil and
counted the total number of mimosa seeds they found in each sample.
The raw data table compiled by the students is shown below.

(a) Prepare a table of the raw data and organise it in such a way that the median
number of seeds with and without stem-mining moths in each of the habitats can be
identified.
(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form so
that the effects of the moths in the two habitats can be compared.
(c) State a suitable null hypothesis for this investigation.
(1)
(d) The students decided to apply the Mann-Whitney U test to the data. This statistical
test determines if the differences between the medians is significant.
The calculations produced two U values for each set of data. In order to support a
difference between the numbers of seeds produced by infected and non-infected plants
Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

17

in each habitat, the smaller U value is required to be the same as, or less than, the
critical value. For the floodplain sites these values were U1= 119 and U2= 2 and for the
woodland sites these values were U1= 36 and U2= 85. The table below shows the
critical values for the Mann-Whitney U test at the p = 0.05 level.

What conclusion can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information in the table
(2)
(e) What other conclusion, concerning the effectiveness of this type of biological control
in different habitats, can be made from these data?
(1)(Total 11 marks)
...
Specimen paper
Q15. The diagram below shows some limpets. Limpets are cone-shaped molluscs
which are found attached to rocks on many seashores.

## Some students carried out an investigation to compare the shape of limpets on a

sheltered shore with their shape on a shore exposed to the action of waves. They
measured the height (H) and length (L) of 15 limpets on each shore. They then
used the ratio of height to length to describe the overall shape of the limpets.

18

## An extract from their field records is shown below.

(a) Prepare a table and organise the data in a suitable way so that the range of
shapes of limpets on the two shores can be compared.
(4)
(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.
(c) Name the statistical test you would use to analyse your data.
(1)
(d) What conclusions can you draw from this investigation?

(2)
(Total 11 marks)

JUNE 2010
Q16. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) transport oxygen from the alveolar surface in
the lungs to the respiring tissues. A group of nine athletes (A to I) wanted to see if
training for two weeks at a mountain camp, 2000 m above sea level, had an effect
on the number of red blood cells in their blood. Samples of blood were taken from
each of the athletes at their normal training camp at sea level. Blood samples were
taken again after two weeks of training at the mountain camp. A copy of the raw
data collected is given below:

## Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

19

Number of red blood cells x1012 per dm3 blood before mountain training
A 5.0
B 5.1
C 4.9
D 5.3
E 5.4
F 5.0
G 4.8
H 5.1
I 5.5
Number of red blood cells x1012 per dm3 blood after mountain training
A 4.9
B 5.3
C 5.7
D 5.5
E 5.6
F 5.4
G 5.3
H 5.6
I 5.1
(a) Write a null hypothesis for this investigation.
(1)
(b) Calculate the difference in the number of red blood cells before and after the
mountain training for each athlete. Prepare a table to display the raw data and your
calculated values.
(4)
(c) Identify an anomalous result in the data from the athletes.
(2)
(d) Calculate the mean number of red blood cells per dm3 of blood for the group of
athletes before and after mountain training.
(2)
Mean number of red blood cells before training .........................................................
Mean number of red blood cells after two weeks training at 2000 m........................
(e) Present the calculated mean red blood cell counts in a suitable graphical form.
(f) A t-test was applied to the data to test the null hypothesis. The calculated value
of t was 2.24. The table below shows the critical values of t with 16 degrees of
freedom, at different significance levels.

What conclusion can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information in the
(3)
(Total for Question 2 = 15 marks)
.
Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

20

JAN 2011
Q17. Rennin is an enzyme, found in the stomach of mammals, that can form solid
clots in milk. Rennin is often used in the first stage of cheese production. A student
was interested in discovering which conditions would be ideal for making cheese.
She wanted to determine which concentration of rennin was likely to give her
suitable rates of clotting of milk.
She prepared the following test tubes:
Fourteen test tubes with 5 cm3 milk
Twelve test tubes, each containing 5 cm3 of different concentrations of rennin
Two test tubes with 5 cm3 distilled water
She placed these test tubes in a water bath at 30C and left them for 10 minutes.
The content of each test tube containing milk was added to a test tube containing
either rennin or distilled water. These were mixed and returned to the water bath.
The time taken for the milk to clot (thicken) was recorded.
A copy of the students raw results are below.

(a) Explain why the test tubes containing milk, rennin and distilled water were left in
the water bath for 10 minutes before they were mixed.
(1)
(b) Convert the times recorded into the SI units of seconds and prepare a suitable
table to display these raw results and each of the following.
(i) The mean time for clotting for each concentration of rennin.
(ii) The mean rate of milk clotting, calculated using the equation below

(5)
(c) Show the effect of changing the rennin concentration on the mean rate of milk
clotting, in a suitable graphical form.
(3)
(d) Identify an anomalous result in the data for the different rennin concentrations.
(e) The student applied a Spearman rank correlation to explore the relationship
between the rate of clotting and the rennin concentration. From her calculation, she
obtained a Spearman rank correlation of 1.0. Table of significance levels for
Spearman rank correlation.

What conclusion can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information in the
(2)
Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

21

(f ) Give an explanation for the relationship between rennin concentration and the
rate of clotting of milk.
(2)
(Total for Question 2 = 15 marks)

JAN 2012
Q18. A student investigated the effect of caffeine concentration on the heart rate of
animals. He selected five Daphnia (A to E), and measured the heart rate, in beats
per minute, of each of them in water. This was repeated using six concentrations of
caffeine solution (0.01%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 5.0%).
A copy of his raw results (starting from water (0%) on the left increasing to 5%
caffeine solution on the right) for each Daphnia is shown below.

## (a) Write a suitable null hypothesis for this investigation.

(1)
(b) State and explain one ethical reason why the student chose to use Daphnia for
this investigation.
(2)
(c) Calculate the mean heart rates for each concentration of caffeine.
(3)
Mean heart rate at 0.0% caffeine concentration .........................................................
Mean heart rate at 0.01% caffeine concentration ........................................................
Mean heart rate at 0.1% caffeine concentration ........................................................
Mean heart rate at 0.5% caffeine concentration .......................................................
Mean heart rate at 1.0% caffeine concentration .......................................................
Mean heart rate at 2.0% caffeine concentration ........................................................
Mean heart rate at 5.0% caffeine concentration ........................................................
(d) Prepare a table to display the raw data and your calculated values for the mean
heart rates.
(3)
(e) On the graph paper below, draw a suitable graph to illustrate the effect of
caffeine concentration on the mean heart rate of Daphnia.
(3)
(f ) The student used a statistical test to investigate the significance of the
correlation between the mean heart rates and the caffeine concentrations. His
calculation gave a correlation value of 1.00. The table below shows significance
levels and correlation values for this statistical test.

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## What conclusions can be drawn from this investigation?

Use the information provided in the table above and in the graph you have drawn,