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Statistics Unit 4 Questions 1-45

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Jan 2003

June 2003

Jan 2004

June 2004

Jan 2005

June 2005

Jan 2006

June 2006

Jan 2007

June 2007

Test

t test

Correlation

t test

Correlation

.

U test

Correlation

..

W test

t test

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6

Q7

Q8

Q9

Q10

Year

Jan 2008

June 2008

Jan 2009

June 2009

Specimen

June 2010

Jan 2011

Jan 2012

Q11

Q12

Q13

Q14

Q15

Q16

Q17

Q18

Correlation

t test

t test

U test

t test

Correlation

Correlation

Jan 2003

Q1. Auxins are plant growth substances which can cause elongation in developing

plant tissues. A student formed the hypothesis that an increase in the concentration

of auxins would increase the elongation of seedling tissue. To test this idea he cut

twenty 15 mm lengths from identical oat seedlings and immersed ten of them in a

solution of 1 g dm3 auxin and ten in a solution of 10 g dm3 auxin.

These samples were left in controlled conditions for 12 hours, after which they were

removed and their lengths re-measured. An extract from his laboratory notebook is

shown below.

1g dm 3

all 15 mm

remeasured lengths

22 25 24 23 22

20

25

24

23

24

10g dm 3

all 15 mm

Remeasured lengths

25 28 26 27 25

26

29

24

26

23

(a) Prepare a table and organise the data in a suitable way so that the increase in

length in each concentration can be compared.

(4)

(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.

(c) State a suitable null hypothesis for this investigation.

(1)

(d) The student applied a t-test to his data to test his hypothesis. He calculated the

value of t to be 3.68. The table below shows the critical value of t with 18 degrees of

freedom for various significance levels.

Significance level (%) 20

10

5

2

1

Critical value of t

1.33 1.73 2.10 2.55 2.80

What conclusions can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information

provided to explain your answer.

(3) (Total 11 marks)

.

June 2003

Q2. Mayfly nymphs are immature insects that live in freshwater streams. In a pilot

study of their distribution, a student noticed that she could distinguish two types,

because they possessed structural differences. One type, which she described as

flattened mayfly nymphs, appeared to be more abundant in fast-moving water than

in still water. Using this observation, she formed the hypothesis that the number of

flattened mayfly nymphs would increase as the speed of the current increased. In

order to test this idea, she counted the flattened mayfly nymphs at 13 sites on the

same stretch of river. Each site had an area of 1 m2. She repeated this at the same

sites one week later. At each site, the speed of the water was measured in metres

per second. It was measured on the first occasion only, since the stream was

running at the same level when sampling was undertaken on the second occasion.

The record of her fieldwork data is shown below.

First sample

Site

number

Number of

flattened

nymphs

Second sample

Speed of

water

metres per

second

Number of

flattened

nymphs

14

0.80

12

0.55

11

11

0.40

0.22

0.25

0.24

10

0.35

14

0.21

0.20

10

0.15

11

0.10

12

0.11

13

0.13

(a) Prepare a table and organise the data in a suitable way to show the relationship

between flow rate and the number of flattened mayfly nymphs.

(4)

(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.

(c) State a suitable null hypothesis for this investigation.

(1)

(d) The student applied a correlation test to the data to find out whether they

supported her hypothesis. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.797.

The table below shows critical values for correlation coefficients at the p = 0.05 and

0.01 levels.

Number of pairs Critical value Critical value

of measurements at

at

p = 0.05

p = 0.01

8

0.738

0.881

0.683

0.833

10

0.648

0.794

11

0.620

0.785

12

0.591

0.777

13

0.567

0.746

14

0.544

0.715

15

0.525

0.691

What conclusions can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information

provided to explain your answer.

(3) (Total 11 marks)

.

Jan 2004

Q3. A student noticed that on two fields, one with horses grazing and the other with

cattle, differences were apparent between the number of elder seedlings growing in

each field. She thought that there were more elder seedlings growing in the field

grazed by horses than in the field grazed by cattle. To test this hypothesis, she

counted the numbers of elder seedlings at 20 random sites in each field using a

0.25 m2 quadrat. A record of her field studies is shown below

Numbers of elder seedlings in

areas of 0.25 m2 where

horses graze

18

12

16

22

21

17

15

17

23

13

14

10

14

14

16

18

14

areas of 0.25 m2 where cattle

graze

10

8

5

10 2

12 13 7

17 9

11

(a) Organise these data into two tally charts, one for each field. Group the data into

suitable size classes to enable you to compare the numbers of seedlings in each

field.

(4)

(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in suitable graphical form.

(c) State a suitable null hypothesis for this investigation.

(1)

(d) In order to determine if her data supported her hypothesis, the student applied a

t-test. This statistical test determines whether the difference between two means is

significant. A t-value of 3.71 was calculated. The table below shows critical values

for t with 38 degrees of freedom for various significance levels.

Significance level % 20

10

5

2

1

Critical value of t

1.30

1.68

2.02

2.42

2.70

What conclusions can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information

provided to explain your answer.

(3) (Total 11 marks)

.

June 2004

Q4. Whilst investigating the distribution of plants on coastal sand dunes, a student

noticed that reeds only seemed to grow in the low-lying areas where the soil was

wet. He formed the hypothesis that the number of reeds growing in the area

increased as the water content of the soil increased. To test his hypothesis, he

selected an area of wet soil where there were many reeds growing. Using a 0.25 m2

quadrat, he laid out a belt transect from this area into the surrounding drier soil. He

placed 8 quadrats along the transect and counted the number of separate reed

plants in each quadrat. He also took a small sample of soil from exactly the same

depth from the centre of each quadrat. To find the water content, he weighed each

soil sample, then dried it in an oven and reweighed it. An extract from his field

records is shown below.

Reed plants in each quadrat

1

14 13 10 11 7

1

81.7g

2

80.2g

3

80.5g

6

80.1g

7

80.4g

8

80.3g

4

81.9g

5

79.9g

1

58.2g

2

57.0g

3

57.8g

4

60.1g

5

61.2g

6

7

8

68.7g 72.1g 74.5g

(a) Calculate the percentage water content of each of the soil samples. Then

prepare a table and organise the data in a suitable way so that the percentage

water content of the soil can be related to the number of reed plants.

(4)

(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.

(c) To test the relationship between soil water content and the number of reed

plants, the student used a rank correlation coefficient.

Calculate the rank correlation coefficient (rs) for these data using the information

given below. Show your working.

rs = 1

D

n n 1

2

Where

D2 = 6 and n = the number of samples

(2)

(d) The critical value of rs at p = 0.05 for this investigation is 0.738. Using your

calculated value of rs, what conclusion concerning the relationship between soil

water and number of reed plants can be drawn from this investigation? (1)

(Total 11 marks)

.

June 2005

Q6. Lichens are plant-like organisms that may grow on the surface of tree trunks.

After a pilot study of their distribution on trees, a student produced the hypothesis

that one type of lichen grew larger on birch trees than on oak trees. For the main

study, the student selected eleven trees of each species. She placed a

50 cm 50 cm quadrat one metre from the ground on the south facing side of one

of them. She then selected the largest lichen of her chosen type inside the quadrat,

and measured its width at its widest point. This technique was repeated for each of

the selected trees. An extract from the students field record is shown below.

Width of lichens on birch

55mm 24mm 21mm 18 mm 60mm 8 mm

35mm 22mm 33mm 16 mm 28mm

Width of lichens on

oak

15mm 20mm 6 mm

33mm 9 mm

14 mm 16mm

(a) Prepare a table of the raw data and organise it in such a way that the median

width of these lichens on each species of tree can be identified.

(4)

(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.

(c) State a null hypothesis for this investigation.

(1)

(d) The student decided to apply the Mann-Whitney U test to the data. This

statistical test determines if the difference between the medians is significant. The

calculations produced two U values, U1 = 92 and U2 = 29. In order to support her

hypothesis, the smaller U value is required to be the same as, or less than, the

critical value. The table below shows the critical values for the Mann-Whitney U test

at the p = 0.05 level.

Sample size n2

8

10 11 12 13

13

15

17

19

22

24

15

17

20

23

26

28

17

20

23

26

29

33

Sample

size n1

8

9

10

11

12

13

19

23

26

30

33

37

22

26

29

33

37

41

24

28

33

37

41

45

(3)

(Total 11 marks)

.

Jan 2006

Q7. Hawthorn is a common shrub found in hedgerows. Its leaves have many

indentations as shown in the photograph below.

A student formed the hypothesis that the larger leaves would have deeper

indentations. To test this hypothesis she collected twelve leaves from a single

branch of the shrub. Then she obtained the surface area of one side of each leaf by

drawing its outline on graph paper and counting the number of squares it covered.

Finally she measured the depth of each indentation as shown below.

271 mm2

Leaf 2

Indentation depths

16, 5, 7, 14 mm

Leaf 3

245

Leaf 4

Leaf 1

Area

Area

Area

Area

306 mm2

184

Indentation depths

Leaf 5

277

Leaf 6

Indentation depths

15, 5, 5, 15

Leaf 7

194

Leaf 8

Area

Area

Area

Area

211

213

Indentation depths

Leaf 9

278

Leaf 10 Area

Indentation depths

10, 6, 2, 5, 13

Leaf 11

193

Leaf 12 Area

9, 8, 3

Area

Area

Indentation depths

198

173

(a) Calculate the total indentation depth for each leaf. Then prepare a table and

present the results in a suitable way so that the surface area of each leaf can be

compared with its total indentation.

(4)

(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.

(c) To test the relationship between the leaf surface area and the total indentation

depth, the student used a rank correlation coefficient. Calculate the rank correlation

coefficient (rs) for these data using the information given below. Show your working.

rs 1

n3 n

Where D2 = 44

n = the number of samples

(2)

(d) The critical value of rs at p = 0.05 for this investigation is 0.54. Using your

calculated value of rs, what conclusion concerning the relationship between leaf

surface area and total indentation depth can be drawn from this investigation? (1)

(Total 11 marks)

.

Q8. June 2006 no question available

.

JANUARY 2007

Q9. Skylarks are birds in the British Isles that are in serious decline. A sixth form

student assisted in a piece of research to determine if the height or wheat stems left

after harvesting affected the number of skylarks. The study was conducted between

October and March. Ten separate fields, numbered 1-10, were used on different

farms. An area of two hectares in each field was fenced. This area was divided into

two plots, each of one hectare. In late October, one plot in each field was randomly

selected and the wheat stems were cut to reduce their height. The other plot

contained uncut stems and acted as a control. Five visits were made to each field in

a randomly selected sequence. Each time, the numbers of skylarks were estimated

by walking parallel transects across cut and uncut plots and counting the number of

birds that flew out from each of them. An extract from the students field record is

shown below.

(a) For each field. Calculate the mean number of skylarks in the plot with cut wheat

stems and the mean number of skylarks in the plot with uncut wheat stems. Prepare a

table that includes the raw data, so that the means for each field can be compared. (4)

(b) Use the data in your table to present the data in a suitable graphical form.

(3)

(c) State the null hypothesis for this investigation.

(1)

(d) The student decided to apply the wilcoxon signed rank test to the paired data. This

statistical test uses the differences between paired samples and is equivalent to a t-test

for paired data. The calculations produced a w value of 7. In order to support the

student's hypothesis, the w value is required to be less than the critical value. The table

below shows the critical values for the wilcoxon signed rank test at the p = 0.05 level.

Use the information in the table to draw conclusions from this investigation. (3)

(Total 11 marks)

...

JUNE 2007

Q10. Marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) is a grass-like plant which grows in the soft

sand of dunes close to the sea. It grows through the sand by means of horizontal

underground stems. These stems have swellings at intervals which are called nodes.

The distance between two nodes is called an internode as shown in the drawing below.

10

Sand dunes are affected by strong winds which move the sand and bury the stems of

Marram grass. Where the effect of wind is stronger the stems are buried deeper and

they grow faster, making the internodes longer. A student formed the hypothesis that

the first internodes on the stems of Marram grass would be longer on the windward

(exposed) side of dunes, compared to those on the sheltered side. To test this

hypothesis she measured the length of the first internodes on underground stems from

carefully controlled samples on each side of two dunes. An extract from her field note

book is shown below.

First internode length in mm

Dune 1

Sheltered

70, 36, 90, 10, 50, 90, 40, 52

Windward

80, 107, 82, 97, 70, 74, 115, 60

Dune 2

Sheltered

41, 84, 29, 31, 37, 56, 41, 62

Windward

108, 110, 79, 71, 50, 92, 82, 61

(a) Prepare a table of raw data and organise it in such a way that the distribution of size

classes of first internode lengths on the windward side of the dune can be compared

with those on the sheltered side.

(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.

(c) Comment on the variability shown by these data.

(1)

(d) The student applied a t-test to her data in order to test this hypothesis.

She calculated the value of t to be 4.09.

The table below shows the critical values of t with 30 degrees of freedom at different

What conclusions can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information provided

to explain your answer.

(3)(Total 11 marks)

JANUARY 2008

Q11. Dogwhelks (Nucella Iapil!us.a are carnivorous snails that live on rocky shores.

Barnacles. Which are small filter-feeding crustaceans, are their main prey. The

barnacles

fix

themselves

permanently

to

rocks

on

these

shores.

A student formed the hypothesis that the distribution of dogwhelks was determined by

thce availability of their main food source. To test this hypothesis. She placed a 1 m2

quadrat at eight random points at one level along a rocky shore. The number of

dogwhelks inside each quadrat was counted. However, the student decided that.

Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

11

Barnacles were small and too numerous to count accurately in such a large area.

Therefore, she counted their numbers in five separate 5 cm x 5 cm quadrats placed

randomly inside the 1 m2 quadrat at each of the eight sites. The results of her

investigation are shown below.

(a) Use the barnacle counts to estimate the total number of barnacles in each 1 m 2

quadrat. Prepare a table and present the results in a suitable way so the number of

dogwhelks And the number of barnacles in each 1 m2 quadrat can be compared.

(c) Use the data in your table to present the information in suitable graphical form.

(c) To test the relationship between numbers of dogwhelks and barnacles, the student

used a rank correlation coefficient. Calculate the rank correlation coefficient (rs) for

these data using the information given below. Show your working.

(2)

(d) The critical value of rs, at p = 0.05, for this investigation is 0.738. Using your

calculated value of rs, what conclusion concerning the relationship between the number

of dogwhelks and number of barnacles can be drawn from this Investigation?

(Total 11 marks)

...

Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

12

JUNE 2008

Q12. Wood sorrel is a common plant of woodland. Its leaves respond to decreasing

light intensity by showing sleep movements, in which leaflets fold towards the leaf

stalk. Increasing light intensity causes these movements to be reversed. A student

investigated these movements by using plants from two different woodland habitats,

one that was more shaded than the other. He took ten samples from each of these

habitats and placed their leaf stalk in tubes containing water. These were left in the dark

until the leaflets were fully folded towards the stalk. He then exposed the samples to the

same light intensity for twenty minutes. After this time he measured the angle between

the stalk and one of the leaflets for each of the twenty samples using a special

protractor as shown in the diagram below. The opening angle was recorded in degrees

and minutes. One degree is divided into 60 minutes.

A copy of the students notebook, with the opening angles of wood sorrel from the two

habitats, is shown below.

13

(a) Calculate the opening angles in decimal format (e.g. 70 45 mins = 70.75) and

prepare a table to show these angles, together with the mean opening angle of leaflets,

for each of the two habitats.

(b) Use the information in your table to present the data in a suitable graphical form.

(c) State a suitable null hypothesis for this investigation.

(1)

(d) A t-test was applied to these data to determine whether the means of each group

were significantly different. A t-value of 3.62 was calculated.

The table below shows critical values for t with 18 degrees of freedom for various

levels of significance.

What conclusion can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information provided

in the table to explain your answer.

(2)

(e) Describe three limitations of this method that could affect the reliability of the

results.

(3) (Total 11 marks)

...

14

JANUARY 2009

Q13. Daisies are flowering plants frequently found growing amongst grasses on lawns.

A student earned money by cutting the grass on the lawns of his neighbours. Each

neighbour supplied a lawn mower. These were of two types: those that had a box to

collect Grass cuttings and those that did not. He noticed that there appeared to be more

daisies plants on lawns where the grass cuttings were left on the surface.

He set up a controlled investigation to test whether this observation was significant. He

Took a random selection of four lawns which were cut using a grass box and four which

were cut without a grass box. On each lawn he used a randomly placed 0.5 0.5 metre

quadrat divided into 25 smaller squares. He counted the number of smaller squares in

which daisies were present. This Was then repeated ten times for each lawn. The raw

data from his investigation are shown below.

(a) Prepare a table that summarises both the number of daisies in the squares in each

law and the mean number in each type of lawn.

(3)

Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

15

(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in suitable graphical form so

that the distribution of daisies can be compared.

(c) A t-test was applied to determine whether the mean numbers of daisies on lawns cut

with the two types of mower were significantly different. A t value of 3.81 was

calculated. The table below shows the critical value for t with 78 degrees of freedom for

various levels of significance.

What conclusion can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information in the table

to explain your answer.

(2)

(d) Use the information in your table and graph to comment on the variability of the data

collected and how this may affect the reliability of this investigation. (3)(Total 11 marks)

..

16

JUNE 2009

q14. Catclaw mimosa (Mimosa pigra) is a plant which may form dense thorny thickets

as high as 6 metres. It is an invasive weed in Northern Australia, where it is a hazard to

livestock. One method used to control it is by the use of stem-mining moths. Plants

infected by moths produce fewer seeds, but this may not be effective in all habitats.

A group of students tested the effectiveness of this method of biological control in two

habitats: a floodplain and a woodland. Both habitats had catclaw mimosa plants

growing in them. The students selected two sites in each habitat. In each habitat, one

site had mimosa plants that were infected with stem-mining moths and the other had no

infection. At all four sites, eleven permanent 0.5 0.5 m quadrats had been prepared

and the students collected the top 2 cm of soil from each. They sieved the soil and

counted the total number of mimosa seeds they found in each sample.

The raw data table compiled by the students is shown below.

(a) Prepare a table of the raw data and organise it in such a way that the median

number of seeds with and without stem-mining moths in each of the habitats can be

identified.

(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form so

that the effects of the moths in the two habitats can be compared.

(c) State a suitable null hypothesis for this investigation.

(1)

(d) The students decided to apply the Mann-Whitney U test to the data. This statistical

test determines if the differences between the medians is significant.

The calculations produced two U values for each set of data. In order to support a

difference between the numbers of seeds produced by infected and non-infected plants

Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

17

in each habitat, the smaller U value is required to be the same as, or less than, the

critical value. For the floodplain sites these values were U1= 119 and U2= 2 and for the

woodland sites these values were U1= 36 and U2= 85. The table below shows the

critical values for the Mann-Whitney U test at the p = 0.05 level.

What conclusion can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information in the table

to explain your answer.

(2)

(e) What other conclusion, concerning the effectiveness of this type of biological control

in different habitats, can be made from these data?

(1)(Total 11 marks)

...

Specimen paper

Q15. The diagram below shows some limpets. Limpets are cone-shaped molluscs

which are found attached to rocks on many seashores.

sheltered shore with their shape on a shore exposed to the action of waves. They

measured the height (H) and length (L) of 15 limpets on each shore. They then

used the ratio of height to length to describe the overall shape of the limpets.

18

(a) Prepare a table and organise the data in a suitable way so that the range of

shapes of limpets on the two shores can be compared.

(4)

(b) Use the data in your table to present the information in a suitable graphical form.

(c) Name the statistical test you would use to analyse your data.

(1)

(d) What conclusions can you draw from this investigation?

(2)

(Total 11 marks)

JUNE 2010

Q16. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) transport oxygen from the alveolar surface in

the lungs to the respiring tissues. A group of nine athletes (A to I) wanted to see if

training for two weeks at a mountain camp, 2000 m above sea level, had an effect

on the number of red blood cells in their blood. Samples of blood were taken from

each of the athletes at their normal training camp at sea level. Blood samples were

taken again after two weeks of training at the mountain camp. A copy of the raw

data collected is given below:

19

Number of red blood cells x1012 per dm3 blood before mountain training

A 5.0

B 5.1

C 4.9

D 5.3

E 5.4

F 5.0

G 4.8

H 5.1

I 5.5

Number of red blood cells x1012 per dm3 blood after mountain training

A 4.9

B 5.3

C 5.7

D 5.5

E 5.6

F 5.4

G 5.3

H 5.6

I 5.1

(a) Write a null hypothesis for this investigation.

(1)

(b) Calculate the difference in the number of red blood cells before and after the

mountain training for each athlete. Prepare a table to display the raw data and your

calculated values.

(4)

(c) Identify an anomalous result in the data from the athletes.

(2)

Give one reason for your answer.

(d) Calculate the mean number of red blood cells per dm3 of blood for the group of

athletes before and after mountain training.

(2)

Mean number of red blood cells before training .........................................................

Mean number of red blood cells after two weeks training at 2000 m........................

(e) Present the calculated mean red blood cell counts in a suitable graphical form.

(f) A t-test was applied to the data to test the null hypothesis. The calculated value

of t was 2.24. The table below shows the critical values of t with 16 degrees of

freedom, at different significance levels.

What conclusion can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information in the

table to explain your answer.

(3)

(Total for Question 2 = 15 marks)

.

Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

20

JAN 2011

Q17. Rennin is an enzyme, found in the stomach of mammals, that can form solid

clots in milk. Rennin is often used in the first stage of cheese production. A student

was interested in discovering which conditions would be ideal for making cheese.

She wanted to determine which concentration of rennin was likely to give her

suitable rates of clotting of milk.

She prepared the following test tubes:

Fourteen test tubes with 5 cm3 milk

Twelve test tubes, each containing 5 cm3 of different concentrations of rennin

Two test tubes with 5 cm3 distilled water

She placed these test tubes in a water bath at 30C and left them for 10 minutes.

The content of each test tube containing milk was added to a test tube containing

either rennin or distilled water. These were mixed and returned to the water bath.

The time taken for the milk to clot (thicken) was recorded.

A copy of the students raw results are below.

(a) Explain why the test tubes containing milk, rennin and distilled water were left in

the water bath for 10 minutes before they were mixed.

(1)

(b) Convert the times recorded into the SI units of seconds and prepare a suitable

table to display these raw results and each of the following.

(i) The mean time for clotting for each concentration of rennin.

(ii) The mean rate of milk clotting, calculated using the equation below

(5)

(c) Show the effect of changing the rennin concentration on the mean rate of milk

clotting, in a suitable graphical form.

(3)

(d) Identify an anomalous result in the data for the different rennin concentrations.

Give one reason for your answer.

(e) The student applied a Spearman rank correlation to explore the relationship

between the rate of clotting and the rennin concentration. From her calculation, she

obtained a Spearman rank correlation of 1.0. Table of significance levels for

Spearman rank correlation.

What conclusion can be drawn from this investigation? Use the information in the

table to explain your answer.

(2)

Practice for Statistics / VIHS / Department of Biology

21

(f ) Give an explanation for the relationship between rennin concentration and the

rate of clotting of milk.

(2)

(Total for Question 2 = 15 marks)

JAN 2012

Q18. A student investigated the effect of caffeine concentration on the heart rate of

animals. He selected five Daphnia (A to E), and measured the heart rate, in beats

per minute, of each of them in water. This was repeated using six concentrations of

caffeine solution (0.01%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 5.0%).

A copy of his raw results (starting from water (0%) on the left increasing to 5%

caffeine solution on the right) for each Daphnia is shown below.

(1)

(b) State and explain one ethical reason why the student chose to use Daphnia for

this investigation.

(2)

(c) Calculate the mean heart rates for each concentration of caffeine.

(3)

Mean heart rate at 0.0% caffeine concentration .........................................................

Mean heart rate at 0.01% caffeine concentration ........................................................

Mean heart rate at 0.1% caffeine concentration ........................................................

Mean heart rate at 0.5% caffeine concentration .......................................................

Mean heart rate at 1.0% caffeine concentration .......................................................

Mean heart rate at 2.0% caffeine concentration ........................................................

Mean heart rate at 5.0% caffeine concentration ........................................................

(d) Prepare a table to display the raw data and your calculated values for the mean

heart rates.

(3)

(e) On the graph paper below, draw a suitable graph to illustrate the effect of

caffeine concentration on the mean heart rate of Daphnia.

(3)

(f ) The student used a statistical test to investigate the significance of the

correlation between the mean heart rates and the caffeine concentrations. His

calculation gave a correlation value of 1.00. The table below shows significance

levels and correlation values for this statistical test.

22

Use the information provided in the table above and in the graph you have drawn,

together with your knowledge and understanding, to explain your answer.

(4)

(Total for Question 2 = 16 marks)

23

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