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c

XII

33-

orum
XII Media F
al Film Festival

of 33 Moscow Internation

Expanded
Cinema
-
Research Catalogue

c
Expanded Cinema
-
Research Catalogue

/ Moscow
2011

EXPANDED CINEMA
Research Catalogue

Published by MediaArtLab Centre for Art and Culture,


Moscow Museum of Modern Art, the Garage Centre for
Contemporary Culture

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(), Japan Foundation
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With the support of: Goethe Institute in Moscow,


Royal Netherlands Embassy,
Mondriaan Foundation, Japan Foundation
Idea: Olga Shishko
Editor: Alina Ignatova

Compiled by Olga Shishko, Alina Ignatova, Asya Silaeva,


Elena Rumyantseva

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Design and layout: Armen Arutyunian


Russian proofreading: Tatiana Loshkareva
Prepress: Legein Project Bureau
Printing: Art Guide
ISBN 978-5-905110-07-8

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ISBN 978-5-905110-07-8

Curator of the exhibition projects: Olga Shishko


Co-curator: Kirill Razlogov
Producer of the exhibition projects:
Elena Rumyantseva

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Translated by Alexandra Litvina, Dilshat Harman,


Asya Pasternak, Kirill Melamud

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Under the general editorship of Alexandra Litvina


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Media Forum would like to thank Ursula Frohne,


Trond Lundemo, Peter Weibel, rik Bullot,
Raymond Bellour, Lev Manovich, Arthur and
Marilouise Kroker, Kirill Razlogov and Olesya Turkina.
"Media mentality, media culture,
media technology" series edition
Chief editor of the series Alexei Isaev , Olga Shisko

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Technical partner:

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Media Forum TV Channel:

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Media partners:

The artist releases himself today for ever


from an immobility human
in continuous movement.
Dziga Vertov


1.
8 .......... . . 1
18........ . :
34 ....... .
40 ....... .
46 ....... .
50 ....... .
62 ....... .
70........ .
76........ . ,
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98 ....... . . 2
2.
112 ..... /
126 ..... /
140 ..... /
156 .....C /
168 .....-
172 .....
3.
188 .....
195 .....

Content
1. Theory
8 ..........Olga Shishko. Expanded Art. Part 1
18........Ursula Frohne. Dissolution of the Frame: Immersion nd Participation in Video Installations
34 .......Lev Manovich. Understanding Hybrid Media
40 .......rthur and Marilouise Kroker. Video Drift
46 .......Trond Lundemo. Th Resistance Of Cinema
50 .......Raymond Bellour. Of An Other Cinema
62 .......Olesya Turkina. The Expanding Universe of the Expanded Cinema
70........rik Bullot. In the Place of Cinema
76........Peter Weibel. Expanded Cinema, Video and Virtual Environments
92 .......Kirill Razlogov: This is Great Art, Part of he Cinematographic Culture
Interviewed by Alina Ignatova
98 .......Olga Shishko. Expanded Art. Part 2
2. Projects
112 .....Spaces of Memory / Symbolic Journeys
126 .....Moving Image / Poetics of Language and Space
140 .....The Third Cinema / Video Art as a Cast from Reality
156 .....Simulated Reality / ther Hero
168 .....Sound Performance
172 .....Video Effect Competition
3. Reference Information
188 .....Catalogue Participants
195 .....Plans


Theory

Olga Shishko

Expanded Art
Part 1


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Thevery concept ofvideo art was initially linked


with animpossibility ofediting and conformed toinstallation requirements with its multiple repetitions of
thesame thing. Forty years ago, in1970s theproblem
ofmontage could be solved only by several parallel recordings, each demonstrated on aseparate
monitor, and toedit them one had toswitch over from
one monitor toanother. This was thesituation as
encountered by video art pioneers. Thetraditional film
montage has driven them tocinema, but many artists
realized even at thetime that they didnt want just
toshoot afilm, and their mission was tocreate new
means ofexpression. Amultichannel performance
with linear presentation ofmaterial within theboundaries ofone screen gave theartists anopportunity
tostep out ofcinematic boundaries.

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I recognize video as animage both within aframe and


free from it. Digital video makes itpossible tomove
theimage out of theframe and work with itas with
anobject. With animage freed from theframe you could
manipulate itas asheet ofpaper on avideo screen or
give objects anew form.

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Woody Vasulka, TheArt ofMemory, USA, 1987, 36 00

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Reality captured onfilm was splintered while


reality captured by avideo camera was continuous...
Unlike thecinematographic camera, video
recorded sound and image simultaneously. If cinefilm had adissociation effect, video made itpossible
tomake acast from reality, torecover unity and
entirety in thesynthesis ofimage and sound.

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TheGlobal Groove holds aspecial place invideo art


history. This radical manifesto ofglobal communication in amedia-infiltrated world turned into afrantic
digital collage, anaudio-visual medley deconstructing thelanguage ofTV. Nam June Paik introduces
transcultural, intertextual content into astream
ofconsciousness, with anonslaught ofdestructive
editing and technological means including audio and
video synthesis, colour and ironic juxtapositions. By its
postmodern content, form and conceptual strategies
theGlobal Groove had aprofound influence onvideo,
television and contemporary art.

, . (Global Groove), 1973, 8 30

(Nam June Paik, Korea-USA. Global Groove, 1973, 830)

1. Woody Vasulka, The Art of


Memory, 1987
2. Nam June Paik. Global
Groove, 1973
3. Christian Marclay. The Clock,
2010
4. Douglas Gordon. 24-Hour
Psycho, 1993

Video art which isfrequently taken by non-professional audience as cinemas younger brother actually exists in aquite different reference frame. Thereference frame inwhich itworks is infact theunited
territories of1960-1970s performance and tosome
degree ofvisual art.
With Wiener Aktionismus aperformance was always acontinuation ofpainting, blood equaled paint.
Ichanged therules ofthis game, joining actionism with
cinema and new media I was thefirst toproject films
onto my own naked body thestills ofsurgeries. I had
alot ofphysically tortuous actions, but their meaning was not infreeing thebody but infreedom from
thebody through technologies which are anexpansion
ofour bodies. Itwas then I heard theterms Expanded
Art and Expanded Cinema for thefirst time and understood this was what Ive been doing long before
Ilearned these terms.
(ARetired Gengster, Irina Kuliks interview with Peter Weibel,
Art-Chronica, http://www.artchronika.ru / item.asp?id=2240).

Asignificant difference in themorphology ofcinema and video art languages lies intheir understanding of thecategories ofmovement, time and space.
Anaspiration towards narrativity and rhetoric was
thecinemas meaning, aim and all cinematic means
ofexpression. Video artist consciously detaches himself from themethods ofconventional narrative cinema.
He frequently renounces thesynchronization ofsound
and image; he ismore interested in theinconsistencies
ofrhythm, transformations ofcolour, shades, reflexes
and forms. Thescreen isused by anartist alternately
as acanvas or anundercoat, or ascrap ofpaper used
for asketch, ithas no boundaries, taking any shape
and filling thesurrounding space. Inthis space one
can create amoving image that will last aminute or
24hours. Thespace ofvideo isexpanding and its time
isunfolding, creating anew dimension. Aviewer, anignorant viewer, isfrequently uncomfortable inthis video
space where we are overcome by thefeelings ofdiscomfort, insecurity and anxiety from thefirst minute.

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Thereference frame-videoart within


contemporary art indialogue with
alternative cinema

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Thefuture ofcinema lies invirtual reality and


interactivity. This is thedevelopment ofscreen culture
anticipated by Sergey Eisenstein:
Thefourth dimension? Einstein? Mysticism?
Its time for us not tobe afraid of thebogey
ofthefourth dimension anymore.
Possessing such awonderful device ofknowledge
as cinema that even theprimitive ofits own phenomenon thefeeling of movement solved by thefourth
dimension, we will soon learn tofind our way in
theforth dimension as we do athome inour night
slippers. And we will have topose thequestion
of thefifth dimension!
(Sergey Eisenstein. TheFourth Dimension inCinema. Selected
works insix volumes. Moscow, 1964. V.2, pp.4950)

Many things brought and are still bringing experimental film and video art together. Existing indifferent
frames ofreference they both demonstrate apower
ofobservation and imagination. Resisting theHollywood advertisement machine experimental film and
video art provide theaudience with awider range
ofpoints ofview and perception positions. Theauthors treat thevery idea of ascreening as asocial ritual ironically. Acritical attitude towards thefilm industry
appears, creating new emotional and psychological
means ofinfluence ofcinematic and video production.

Cracking Space
Virtual space
Information space
Visual space
Social space
Artists work with thevery meanings destroying
thecinema stereotypes. Two basic strategies emerge:
1) Anelement ofplay, anintellectual action
isbrought into work after Marcel Duchamp;
2)experimental, utopian potential ofmedia
isdeveloped according toSergey Eisensteins theory
ofmontage ofattractions.
Another dimension appears anopportunity
tosee things not usually perceived ineveryday life.
Inhis 24-Hour Psycho video (1993, Alfred Hitchcocks masterpiece slowed down to2 frames asecond) Douglas Gordon switched theviewers attention
over from theplot to thelanguage of theanimated
art. Increasing thefilms duration to24 hours he
allowed theviewer anopportunity tofeel theclassic
inall its details. In thegallery space where thework
was screened Gordon created anew reality, making
thespectator forget thefilms familiar construction.
Thecinema has anticipated video in thefilms ofFrench
and especially German new wave cinema. Wim Wenders
isone of theadvocates oflengthy, long, specially constructed plans, he strived to thelimits together with the
cinema toward its borders, inorder toreflect thecharacteristics of awished-for reality. At thesame time
avideo camera does itcruelly easy in thehands
of ababy or anold man.
(Interview with Boris Yukhananov, theauthor ofslow video
concept in theTV-show From Cinema Avant-Garde toVideo
Art, Lets Kick theBox issue, December 3, 2001).

Christian Marclay still continues tosplinter


cinema reality. He seems tosearch for alost time,

Ursula Frohne

Dissolution Of The Frame:


Immersion And
Participation In Video
Installations

Vast as thedark ofnight and as thelight ofday


Charles Baudelaire

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But inside, no more limits!


Jean Tardieu


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American Action Painters, Art News, December 1952, p.76; Regine Prange, Die mythische Geste,
Jackson Pollock. Number 32, 1950, Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Verlag, 1996, pp.2936.

In anearly Sam Taylor-Wood photograph,


theBritish artist appears in therole ofJackson Pollock, imitating thelegendary pose ofher historic
colleague painting inhis studio onLong Island. Barely
recognisable as afemale, Taylor-Wood restages
Pollocks dance-like rhetoric, familiar from theHans
Namuth photographs that have become world-famous
icons of themodern artist-subject. In AGesture
Towards Action Painting (1992), Taylor-Wood directs
attention tothis key moment inart and media history
themoment inwhich theartist-subject enters thepicture via thephysical act ofpainting (action painting),
and thus bursts through theboundary separating self
and representation, art and life. All this isindexed and
inscribed on thecanvas as moving traces ofcolour1.
Taylor-Woods appropriation of anartistic gesture that
has crystallised into amyth can be taken as thestarting point for areflection upon theeffects ofcontemporary video installation. InPollocks gesture and its
replication, anumber ofcategories circulate, such
as those of thetheatrical, thenotion ofperformance,
mise-en-scne, repetition and thetransformation
oftheimage (thescreen) into atheatrical space
or mise-enabyme, as well as thetransformation of
theobservers perspective to arange ofexperiences
made up ofdiffering (art) historical perspectives.
Pollocks working method marked aturning
point in thedevelopment ofart, dissolving thetraditional notion of theartwork into structures ofaction
and performance. Film, photography and video
thenew media whose history isinseparable from
that of thedark room, thetechnical and metaphorical
1 On therelationship between work and artistic action, Harold
Rosenberg wrote: On thescreen, apicture should not be
manufactured, but anevent should occur. See Harold Rosenberg,
TheAmerican Action Painters, Art News, December 1952, p.76; and
Regine Prange, Die mythische Geste, Jackson Pollock. Number 32,
1950, Frankfurt amMain: Fischer Verlag, 1996, pp.2936.

1. Sam Taylor-wood. AGestureTowards ActionPainting.


c-print. 1992. Courtesy Jay
Jopling / white cube, London
2. Dan Graham, BodyPress,
197072. Black-and-white
production still, 16 mm colour
film, 20. courtesy Marian
goodman gallery, New York

2 On thespatial relations between cinema and museum see Giuliana


Bruno, Collection and Recollection: OnFilm Itineraries and Museum
Walks, Public Intimacy: Architecture and TheVisual Arts,
Cambridge, Mass.: TheMIT Press, 2007, p.41.

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18 19

transparency of theblack box made theconcepts


ofsuch work accessible to awider public. Pollocks
drip technique anact ofpainting liberated from
thecontrol of reason eliminated theboundaries
of thepictures surface, and smoothed thepath for
amultiplicity ofconcepts ofexperience-oriented
artistic pursuit, which steadily withdrew into dark
environments as successive generations ofartists increasingly improved their aptitude in therealm ofnew
media. Taking theform oftheatrical scenes and kaleidoscopic, large-format projections, these projects
added theparameter oftime to thespace-defined
visual parameter of theclassical museum; indeed,
themechanical means ofrepresentation increasingly
shifted thefocus ofvisual perception from theexperience ofspace to theexperience oftime. Pollocks colour diffusion aseismograph for theartists ecstatic
osmosis (practising akind ofauto-immersion), which
also visually dissolved thematerial basis of thepainting was aharbinger ofthis transformation ofartistic
practice. During thedecades that were tofollow, and
aided by new technologies, artists perfected ways
tostimulate theobserver by creating spatial settings
that engrossed him or her entirely. If theall-over effect
ofaction painting triggered thepotential dematerialisation of thesupport and included thephysical
presence of thebody in theprocess ofrepresentation
to thepoint atwhich, according toPollock himself,
theartist literally stepped into thepicture, then so,
too, does theviewer today experience therealityaltering maelstrom ofprojected images inspaces
ofcinematic illusion2. Such images inscribe themselves in theviewers mind either as emotional overkill
or as detached moments ofreflection, triggered not

2 .: Giuliana Bruno, Collection and


Recollection: On Film Itineraries and Museum Walks, Public Intimacy: Architecture and The Visual Arts,
Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2007, p.41.

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( Dont Panic Coldplay,
2001, The Inside, Imaginary
Forces, 2005).
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Denali Holes, Imaginary Forces, 2005).
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Lev Manovich

Understanding
Hybrid Media
TheInvisible Revolution

In thesecond part of the1990s, moving-image


culture went through afundamental transformation.
Previously separate media live-action cinematography, graphics, still photography, animation, 3D
computer animation, and typography started tobe
combined innumerous ways. By theend of thedecade, thepure moving-image media became anexception and hybrid media became thenorm.
Here are afew examples1. Amusic video may
use live action while also employing typography and
avariety oftransitions done with computer graphics (video for Go by Common, directed by Convert / MK12 / Kanye West, 2005). Or itmay embed
thesinger within ananimated painterly space (video
for Sheryl Crows Good IsGood, directed by Psyop,
2005). Ashort film may mix typography, stylized 3D
graphics, moving design elements, and video (Itsu for
Plaid, directed by thePleix collective, 20022).
Insome cases, thejuxtaposition ofdifferent
media isclearly visible (video for Dont Panic by
Coldplay, 2001; main title for thetelevision show
TheInside by Imaginary Forces, 2005). Inother cases, asequence may move between different media so
quickly that theshifts are barely noticeable (GMC Denali Holes commercial by Imaginary Forces, 2005).
Yet inother cases, acommercial or amovie title may
feature continuous action shot onvideo or film, with
theimage periodically changing from amore natural
to ahighly stylized look.
Such media hybridity does not necessary manifest itself in acollage-like aesthetics that foregrounds
thejuxtaposition ofdifferent media and different me-

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DVD- I Love Music Videos, 2002, 40
1990- 2000-. DVD-
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2005 DVD- Imaginary Forces,
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1 I have drawn these examples from three published sources so


they are easy to trace. The first is a DVD, I Love Music Videos, which
contains a selection of forty music videos for well-known bands
from the 1990s and early 2000s, published in 2002. The second is
a onedotzero_select DVD, a selection of sixteen independent short
films, commercial work, and a live cinema performance presented by
the onedotzero festival in London and published in 2003. The third is
a fall 2005 sample work DVD from Imaginary Forces, which is among
most well-known motion-graphics production houses today. The DVD
includes titles and teasers for feature films, TV show titles, television
station IDs, and graphics packages for cable channels. Most of the
videos I am referring to can be also found on the Internet

2 onedotzero_select DVD 1. - http://www.pleix.net/films.html,


08.04. 2007.

2 Included ononedotzero_select DVD 1. Online version


athttp://www.pleix.net / films.html, accessed April 8, 2007.

3 Invisible effect is thestandard industry term. For instance, thefilm


Contact, directed by Robert Zemeck, was nominated for 1997
VFX HQ Awards in thefollowing categories: Best Visual Effects,
Best Sequence (TheRide), Best Shot (Powers ofTen), Best
Invisible Effects (Dish Restoration), and Best Compositing. See
www.vfxhq.com / 1997 / contact.html.

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34 35

dia techniques. If in the1990s computers were used


tocreate highly spectacular special effects or invisible effects,3 toward theend ofthat decade we see
something else emerging: anew visual aesthetics that
goes beyond effects. Inthis aesthetics, thewhole
project whether amusic video, aTV commercial,
ashort film, or alarge segment of afeature film
displays ahyper-real look inwhich theenhancement
oflive-action material isnot completely invisible but
at thesame time itdoes not call attention toitself
theway special effects usually tended todo (examples: Reebok I-Pump Basketball Black commercial
and TheLegend ofZorro main title, both by Imaginary
Forces, 2005).
Although theparticular aesthetic solutions vary
from one video to thenext and from one designer
toanother, they all share thesame logic: thesimultaneous appearance ofmultiple media within thesame
frame. Whether these media are openly juxtaposed or
almost seamlessly blended together isless important
than thefact ofthis copresence itself.
Incontrast toother computer revolutions, such
as thefast growth ofWorld Wide Web in thesecond
part of the1990s, therevolution inmoving-image
culture that took place around thesame time was not
acknowledged by thepopular media or by cultural
critics. What received attention were thedevelopments that affected narrative filmmaking theuse
ofcomputer-produced special effects inHollywood
feature films or theinexpensive digital video and
editing tools outside ofit. But another process that
happened on alarger scale thetransformation of
thevisual language used by most forms ofmoving
images outside ofnarrative films has not been critically analyzed. Infact, although theresults ofthese
transformations were fully visible by about 1998, at
thetime ofthis writing (spring 2007), I amnot aware
of asingle theoretical article discussing them.
One reason isthat inthis revolution no new
media per se were created. Designers were making
still images and moving images just as they had in
theprevious decade, but thevisual language ofthese
images was now very different.
Since theend of the1990s, thenew hybrid
visual language has dominated global visual culture.
While narrative features still mostly use live-action
footage, and videos shot by consumers with commerical video cameras and cell phones are similarly
usually left as is(atleast, for now), almost everything
else ishybrid. This includes commercials, music videos, motion graphics, TV graphics, dynamic menus,
graphics for mobile media content, and other types
ofanimated, short nonnarrative films and movingimage sequences being produced around theworld
today by media professionals, including companies,
individual designers and artists, and students. I believe that atleast 80 percent ofsuch sequences and
films follow theaesthetics ofhybridity.
Matrix, Sin City, 300, and other films shot on
adigital backlot combine multiple media tocreate
anew stylized aesthetics that cannot be reduced to

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Arthur and Marilouise Kroker

VIDEO DRIFT
Video Drift is theeye of thefuture infast motion accelerating across thedeep space of themedia archive.
Saturated by images, augmented by mobile devices,
with remix for perception and information overload for
abrain, theeye of thefuture blinks open to thespace
travel ofeveryday life that isvideo drift.

That we live in aculture ofproliferating screens


cinema, television, computers, medical imaging, airport
surveillance screens isalready atruism: technology
as clich. What isless evident is thesilent, but very
real, impact ofscreen culture onour psychogeography:
thepsychological territory ofhuman imagination and
perception, identity and truth-saying, indeed truthseeing. Inways complex, often misunderstood, and
mysterious, we may already be theinvisible environment ofscreens in thewires, exhausted media travelers
into whose bodies and minds thepsychic surgery
ofelectronic technologies ofcommunication puts
down its hooks: radically altering thedeepest language
ofhuman perception, shape-shifting theboundaries
of thereal, speeding up themeaning oftime itself, and
transforming virtual space into anartificial horizon. Living
in aculture dominated by screens in thewires means
that without our consent and certainly in theabsence
ofconscious deliberation, we have committed ourselves tolife as acontinuously altered reality. When
thescreens ofmedia culture go inside thehuman mind,
we suddenly find ourselves thevery first pilgrims of
aculture ofvideo drift.

Video as theSkin of theNew Cinema:


With video for eyes and drift as its elemental motion,
thedata body isfinally able toexplore thedeep space,
strange galaxies, powerful galactic currents, and intergalactic tidal belts ofinformation streaming through
themedia archive that islife in theimage lane today.

Video iseverywhere, from thevisual skin of


thenew cinema tothose desolate images recorded by
all thesurveillance cameras of theworld.
Impatient with thevisual constraints ofcinematic
language, bored with thestatic image, breaking free
of thenarrative constructions oftelevision, video drift
isincreasingly thevisual cloud within which we circulate
and onaccount ofwhich theeye of(digital) perception

Video is theIris ofSocial Networking


Technologies:
Video Drift ishow theposthuman body sets out every
day, every hour, every minute on adeep space voyage
into themedia archive ofmemories, events, communica-

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has finally opened to themultiple, theheterogeneous,


thegranular, theimmediate, theslow, theintense. With
no definitive purpose, no overall trajectory, no necessary
narratives, thesounds and images of thevideo matrix
literally drift across theelectronic horizon, crystallizing
now and again decisive moments in thecontemporary
human condition, ceaselessly recording thespace
ofeveryday life, remixing thecomic, thebanal, thetragic, thecruel. Today, as accepted certainties fade away
video drift isomnipresent, simultaneously thetangible
sign of thepurely unpredictable, delightfully accidental
character of theimage-matrix and thealways accumulating archive, theceaseless mnenomic, of thesurveillance camera that isonly interested in themomentary
trace, thepassing glimpse, thevisual patterns ofhuman
activity, once reduced toits surface appearances.
Dont think for amoment that there isany cultural
link between video drift and those once celebrated
technologies ofvisualization that preceded it. While
cinema might have terminated as adream machine
for mass vision and television may have repurposed
itself as anincreasingly banal world ofreality shows,
theworld ofvideo drift has nothing todo with cathartic
dreams and fantasy simulations. Video drift isabout
theeclipse ofsimulation and theend ofconstructed
visual narratives infavor of thevisual circulation of
theculture ofabjection inits totality. When any person
with acell phone is apotential video artist, any camera
aninstant interface to aYouTube video gone viral, any
subject-position apossible witness to history accidents, protests, crashes, events large and small from
thetedious to theecstatic then video drift isincreasingly how we live, imagine, communicate, and desire.
And, if thats thecase, it isalso futile toattempt anostalgic return to thecanons ofvisual orthodoxy by mapping previous knowledges ofvisuality onto thecomplex
universe ofvideo drift. And why? Because video drift
represents theend ofvisualization, that very tangible
post-historical moment inwhich visualization fades
away before thespeed of thecirculating image.
We always knew this would happen. Theinvention ofphotography was met with considerable cultural resistance on thepart indigenous persons who
resisted being brought into political intelligibility by
canonical powers. Thethen much ridiculed assertion
that photography had about it thepower tocapture
theessence of thesoul, toevacuate human spirit,
was, infact, ahaunting prologue to thetriumph of
thecirculating image. From photography tocinema
totelevision, thedomination of theimage and with it
theliquidation of thesocial, theevacuation of thecultural, underwent afatal increase inits speed ofcirculation, in therelentless hegemony of thecode. Everywhere thetriumph of theimage was accompanied by
thecanonization ofcodes ofvisualization. Everywhere
therise oftechnologies ofvisualization was marked by
theeclipse of thecomplexities ofhuman vision. Substitute vision machines were everywhere, heterogeneous all-too-human perspectives nowhere.

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Trond Lundemo

The Resistance
of Cinema
Seemingly, one has always spoken of theend
ofcinema. Even one of themain inventors of theapparatus, Louis Lumire, saw that itwas without afuture, and with theadvent oftelevision, and later VCRs
and computers, theend ofcinema has increasingly
become acommon notion. Thedeath ofcinema
was never as imminent as with thebreakthrough of
themultimedia PC in themid-1990s. Nor is itacoincidence that this was also thetime of theproliferation ofmoving-image installations ingalleries and art
museums.
Yet cinema, irrespective ofhow we define it,
persists. Thenumber oftheaters projecting 35mm film
has risen considerably since thelow mark of themid1990s. Cinema attendance isrising inmost countries,
and thefilm festival boom, which has provided anew
circuit ofexhibition for productions outside wide-scale
theatrical distribution, isstill gaining momentum. Inart
exhibitions, parallel to thecome-and-go-as-youplease mode ofmulti-channel moving-image installations, there has been awidespread return ofprojections in acinematic dispositif.
Held in2007, Documenta 12 was aclear indication ofthis return. Theexhibitions film curation
was assigned to afilm archivist, Alexander Horwath of theVienna Film Museum, who scheduled
afilm program in aKassel cinema for every day of
the100-day event. Thenumber offilm installations
in theexhibition venues, on theother hand, was relatively sparse. Another example of asimilar strategy
was provided by the2009 Istanbul Biennial, where
theIsraeli filmmaker Avi Moghrabis feature-length
Z32 (2008) was shown in aclassroom inone of
thebiennial venues, with fixed screening times and
aclosed door to therest of theart space. Athird
example, which nonetheless ishard todefine as
acinematic dispositif as itconsists ofonly of asuccession ofintertitles and theflash of animage,
isAlfredo Jaars captivating TheSound ofSilence
(2006), which was recently presented in theInternational Festival for Arts and Media Yokohama
2009. Each screening of theinstallation concludes
with ared light turning togreen, after which new
spectators are allowed toenter. This format secures thelinear progression of theinstallation from
beginning toend.

Navigability

Thereception ofmoving images inart exhibitions has over thelast 15 years often been informed
by concepts ofviewer participation and interactivity. These discourses have inpart migrated from
thecomputer to theart field. Just as computer
navigation is atthehand of theuser, thegallery
spectator isoften portrayed as being engaged in
thenavigation between screens and installations, experimenting with positions and movements through
space as well as with theduration of thevisit toeach
single installation. Some art critics have talked about
thespectators cut in thegallery, incontrast to
thedirectors cut ofcinema, todescribe theextent
towhich these choices inreception are subject to
theindividual visitor. If computer discourses tend
todisregard thefact that navigation follows aprogrammed pathway, art criticism inits turn often
forgets that thegallery isdeeply embedded inpower
structures that program thebehavior of thevisitors.
Thespaces ofart institutions are strictly regulated
mastered by some and not by others.
Thefreedom of thespectator, and his or her active role inrelation to theartwork, has always been at
thecore oftraditional art discourses. Yet, when coming toterms with theexperience of themoving-image
installation, this emphasis on thefree participation,
interaction and co-production of thevisitors becomes
problematic. Theidea of theactive visitor isoften contrasted with thepassive viewer ofclassical
cinema. One can find this rhetorical figure also infilm
theory at theend ofWorld War II, when theFrench
film critic Andr Bazin criticized thecinema ofmontage for leading and directing spectators, instead
ofsetting them free infront of theopen and ambiguous image. This phenomenological notion isbased in
animage that deploys depth-of-field and long takes,
which would allow thespectators eyes toroam freely
around thecomposition of theimage. Theimage was
for this reason prescribed tobe modelled on theambiguity ofreality, where theviewers free choices and
individual navigation inspace were identified with
ahigher artistic quality.
Thenew spectator who moves around in
theexhibition space todiscover and explore theimage isfor this reason not atall new, but part of
atraditional dichotomy between what ishigh art
and what isnot. Inspite of thepressing need for
anindexing of theforms ofpresentation of themoving image within theexhibition, any systematic
circumscription ofthis heterotopical practice seems
difficult. Theproblems with defining therole of
thevisitor become evident from therecurrent problems with agreeing upon aname for this position.
This iswhy there isno consensus on theright
term for thegallery visitor, spectator, user, receiver,
experiencer or flneur.

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46 47

Itseems possible toconclude that thereturn of thecinema-like dispositif inart exhibitions is


aconsequence of theresistance of themoving image
toindividual navigation and interaction.

Raymond Bellour

Of An Other Cinema

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(1992)?

How can one make two incompatible scenes


offog merge into one another? How can one even
imagine doing it? InAntonioni's Identification of
aWoman (1982), two human beings, both victims
ofsome vague, fin-de-siecle torment, drift through
thefog on aroad and become nearly invisible.
Thefilm's alternating shots, which up to thepoint
that they get out oftheir car have brought them
toconfront themselves as much as theforces ofnature, become more intangible and dangerous. For
as their melancholic bodies seem increasingly close
todisappearing into thefog, so too does thecamera
more often seem toenter alone (as is theintention
of thecinematic reverse shot1 into this white mass,
which inturn alters therepresentation in aslyer,
stealthier manner than any attempt ever made by
painting torepresent clouds. Affected, as if initself,
by theoff-screen gazes of theman and thewoman
(whose gazes also become those of thespectators),
or by enveloping theheroes of theformless drama,
theblinding fog becomes (by fixing theimage ofits
fluid substance) thekind ofsymbol of theabandonment ofsouls that fascinated Antonioni. Incontrast,
inAnn Veronica Janssens' untitled installation for
theBelgian Pavilion at the48th Venice Biennial
in1999, thevisitor isled towander errantly and endlessly in areal fog. This fog isnot. however, any more
real than that of thefilm, since ittoo becomes material for awork ofart; but unlike thefog of thefilm,
itpermits no fiction other than thevery event ofits
strange incarnation that every visitor experiences.
There are indeed some images and photographs
present onevanescent walls. But these images bear
witness to thegaze as much as they differ from it.
They belong to theregime ofaffective impression,
which transforms theleast significant elements of
therooms' setting (elements like theskirting boards
and thedoors) into spectacular and intimate material ofwhich thevisitor becomes apart, progressively displacing itthrough arbitrary and involuntary
movements. So it iswith every visitor tothis opaque,
transparent, milky space acting onone's own, yet
publicly and with respect toother visitors. From one
fog toanother, from one device toanother, one obviously thus senses that aradical separation persists.
But it ismodulated according toits own motif by
theinsistence of agrowing indecidability ofhuman
affect.

1 As theexhibition conceived by Dominique Paini titled 'Projections,


les transports de l'image' testifies. Theexhibition was installed from
November 1997 toJanuary 1998 atLe Fresnoy, Studio National des
arts contemporains (catalogue by Hazan/Le Fresnoy/AFAA).

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50 51

Let's look atthings from another side. Why did


Bill Viola choose tocall one ofhis most powerful installations Slowly Turning Narrative (1992)? In itone
sees alarge, rotating screen, one side ofwhich is
amirror; on theother side we see aclose-up shot
of aman looking straight ahead and arandom series
ofimages of theworld behind him. As thescreen
turns, we hear several hundred verbal phrases.
Thevirtual relations between thetwo sources ofimages are thus marked as eventful. Thespectator
isincorporated into theplan ofaction, isreflected in
themirror-screen and, due to theprogressive movement of themirror-screen, isvaguely projected onto
thewalls with fragments ofimages. Why this very
strong term, narrative-. narration, story, fable, tale?
And why arevolving story? Why so slow? Is itinorder todifferentiate itself from cinema, or that, inits
own way, this device shows that film is anarration
inimages that does not revolve like this?
Itseems time for anew inventory (necessarily
modest, random and subjective), theoccasion for
which has already been provided by therichness
ofinstallations ofevery kind at the1999 Venice Biennial. Tofix theterms of itisadelicate task. Ineffect,
one would have todescribe theexplosion and dispersal by which that which one thought tobe or have
been cinema (if one accepts tosee things through
its eyes) now finds itself redistributed, transformed,
mimicked and reinstalled. These particular devices
belong less to atypology that would permit areassuring classifying ofthem; rather, they show thedifferences from and similarities tocinema's devices,
which inspire them or which they approximate.
One must therefore evaluate them as they present
themselves, without discarding any grouping that
appears justified, but also without imposing merely
illusory identities onthem. And two things atleast are
certain. While remaining conceptual intheir own way,
by means of theattention with which they multiply
and vary their devices, these installations inherit from
cinema its premiere double vocation ofrecounting
and documenting, and ofthus being linked to thesocalled realities of theworld. On theother hand, these
installations more or less rework thefigures from
which films have drawn their forms ofexpression.
By both duplicating cinema and differentiating itself
from it, theinstallations thus also make cinema enter
into ahistory that exceeds it. Thehistory ofinstallations begins with theinvention of thecamera obscura
and projection, and unfolds through its many different devices (from phantasmagoria to thediorama)
throughout thenineteenth century. Cinema can thus
be viewed (retrospectively and probably too simply)
as aninstallation that succeeded incapturing for
itself alone theenergy appropriate to theanimated
image, dominating itfor half acentury until theadvent
of thecompetition ofwhat television has been for so
long, namely, a'projection-without-projection'.
Thethrong ofinstallations today isdefined
mostly along thelines ofvideo art or of thesomewhat
forgotten history offilm-installations are now beginning toreassert themselves1. These installations,
and theforces that animate them, may seem tobe

1 , , 'Projections, les
transports de l'image. 1997 1998
( //AFAA).


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1950- , .
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1 Movie-Drom , , , 1960- Expanded Cinema
: Gene Youngblood.
Expanded Cinema. Introduction by R.Buckminster Fuller. R.Dutton&Co., Inc., New York, 1970.
- .: . .
. // . ., 2011.
2 . : (1964).
extension - , expansion . ,
extension
, expansion ,
.

Olesya Turkina

The Expanding Universe


of the Expanded
Cinema
Inorder todescribe theunknown one can
compare itwith thefamiliar. Thats what thedemon
ofanalogy, created by Stphane Mallarm, tempts
us todo. Thats what thegreat explorers used todo.
Herodotus considered theDanube tobe amirror
image of theNile, Marco Polo wrote about aLand
ofDarkness that never sees any light. This is theway
ofmetaphor, ofcondensing themeaning. When does
cinema become expanded? From themoment that
thefilm projection isshown not at acinema theatre but
at aplanetarium or adisco, when theviewer finds himself in amoviedrome instead of acinema house, where
one needs tobe all eyes like atraveler in astrange
country? Expanded cinema isconnected tothose
avant-garde film experiments conceived in theUSA in
the1950s that involved theviewer into anactive process ofwatching. Polyscreen projections and inclusion
of alive performance into thefilm screening process,
themeditative poem-films ofStan Brakhage and Jordan Belsons cosmic abstractions of theVortex Concerts all these and many other works were theindication ofexpanded cinema that fell outside thelimits of
thetraditional film theatre, film show and film narrative.
However, theconcept ofexpanded cinema1 could
only appear in theera of thethree expansions: expanded consciousness, expansions ofman2 with new
media, and finally, theexpanding universe.

1 Movie-Drom was created by Stan Vanderbeek, anavant-garde


American filmmaker and inventor. Inspired by R.Buckminster Fullers
ideas, it isaspherical studio with film projected onto its dome. Vanderbeek also coined thephrase expanded cinema in themiddle of
the1960s.Theconcept become awidely used one after thepublication ofGene Youngbloods book of thesame title: Gene Youngblood.
Expanded Cinema. Introduction by R.Buckminster Fuller. R.Dutton
& Co., Inc., New York, 1970. On thephenomenon ofexpanded
cinema see inRussian: . .
. ., 2011.
. (Andrey Khrenov. Magicians and Radicals: aCentury
ofAmerican Avant-garde. M., 2011. NLO (theNew Literary Review).
2 Marshall McLuhan. Understanding Media: TheExtensions ofMan
(1964). Theterm extension used by McLuhan istranslated into
Russian exactly thesame way as expansion rasshirenye. However,
thecharacteristic nuance ofextension as going out into space by
means ofgrowing technoprostheses islost in theRussian translation,
while expansion suggests annexation and takeover.

1. A still from "The Space


Sonata" colour music film
(1981). Directed by Bulat
Galeev, camera N. Morozov,
soundman A. Korablev, with
the participation of Prometheus Special Design Bureau.
A photograph from B.M.
Galeev and I.L. Vanechkina
archives.
2. Dziga Vertov, The Eleventh,
1928

3 Gene Youngblood. Expanded Cinema. P. 41

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: 2001 ,

62 63

In thepreface tohis famous Expanded Cinema


(1970) Gene Youngblood wrote: When we say
expanded cinema we actually mean expanded consciousness. Expanded cinema does not mean computer films, video phosphors, atomic light, or spherical projections. Expanded cinema isnt amovie atall:
like life its aprocess ofbecoming, mans ongoing
historical drive tomanifest his consciousness outside
ofhis mind, infront ofhis eyes3. Expanded cinema
isrelated to thefilm experiments of thepsychedelic
revolution era when artists created anew space with
new media amultidimensional, illogical space with
orientation and cause-and-effect relations dislodged.
With new technology ahallucinatory effect inart could
be achieved, and thereal psychedelic effects and
mystic experience could feed new art works. Expanded cinema is thecinema of atime ofmans expansion
through new technologies, theexpansion that made
avirtual step over thelimits of theterrestrial space
possible. And finally expanded cinema is thecinema
of theera ofBig Bang, thenew cosmological model
that became amass culture artifact4.
Expanded cinema isrelated not only to
thesearch for new spirituality, to theattempts toopen
thedoors ofperception 5 and tofind away ofcommunication in thecosmic era, but also to therejection
of thefilm screen totality, of thesingle view-point
and ultimately of themonocularity ofvision. Inorder toachieve this, artists had toget off theEarth.
Cosmic space as mythology and thereal space flights
both became animportant subject for theexpanded
cinema. R.Buckminster Fullers introduction toYoungbloods book begins with theflight ofour spaceship

3 Gene Youngblood. Expanded Cinema. P.41

4 Theexpanding universe concept was first suggested as early as


1920s by themathematician Alexander Friedmann who predicted
it onthebasis of thegeneral relativity theory. In1946 thephysicist
George Gamow formulated thehot model for creation of theuniverse that was later confirmed inArno Penzias and Robert Wilsons
discovery ofcosmic background radiation in1965. This theory was
named theBig Bang theory by Fred Hoyle in1949 and since 1960s
ithas become not only adominating scientific paradigm, but also
aphenomenon ofmass culture.

4 1920- , .
1946 ,
1965 . , 1949 (Big Bang),
1960- , ,
.

5 Thename of abook by Aldous Huxley (TheDoors ofPerception,


1954) that influenced thedevelopment ofpsychedelic culture.

6 : 2001 : Part Three: Toward Cosmic


Consciousness. Gene Youngblood. Expanded Cinema.

5 (The Doors of Perception, 1954),


Erik Bullot

In The Place Of Cinema

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One cannot but notice thedisplacement ofcinema. Themedium went off its orbit. Itdeserted thecinema halls for thescreens ofTVs, computers, mobile
phones, museums and galleries. This multiplication
ofviewing places deprived cinema theatres oftheir
ownership ofcinema. In theplace of thecinema can
be understood both as asubstitute (instead ofcinema)
and as situation (in thesame environment as cinema
used tobe). Adecent number offilm objects today,
not including commercial production, participates
inthis double movement, one may even say inthis
double pressure. Cinema without aplace tolive,
invarious modes ofpresentation, projected in thecinema halls, displayed or installed inplaces dedicated
to thecontemporary art. Thedispersal ofcategories
and approaches, which isoften accused in thequick
proliferation ofart objects, corresponds to theplasticity
ofmodes ofbroadcasting or exhibition. Thegenre distinction becomes even more indistinct, thedemarcation
ofthis corpus promises tobe colossal. It isdifficult,
even impossible, toimagine thenumber ofpossible
practices in thefuture. Curiously, themotifs ofdesert,
ruins, refugees and illegal immigrants are emphatically
repeated inmany contemporary films: this is thevery
problem ofplace and territory. Witnesses draw plans
tomake thestory heard; refugees map theitinerary
oftheir loss. Is itpossible that observing these efforts
toposition oneself, listening tothese fragile stories,
describing these un-places, films suggest tous aplan
ofground navigation, achance tobetter understand
these movements inartistic categories? Is itsome
allegory oftheir own situation? Frequently thecontemporary place, anobject of adetailed and exhaustive
survey, ischaracterized at thesame time by its full
depletion (feeling ofruins, deserted areas, wastelands)
and its promise (thewaiting horizon, harbingers, visions, even disasters). Can we see anend tothose
experiments beyond these historical trends, can
we explore this territory and its mutations? Actually,
experimental tradition assumes that thecinema sphere
isstructured indichotomies: art vs. industry, narrative
vs. plastic art, commerce vs. avant-garde, amateurs vs.
professionals. When this game ofpolarities gradually
disappears due totransition to themore open and
versatile territory, exposed toconstant metamorphoses,
thecategory isalso transformed. How then can one
follow up thegenealogical thread from theexperimental
tradition to thecontemporary practices?

1. Michael Snow, La Region


centrale, 1970
2. Bouchra Khalili,Circle line,
2007
3. Till Roeskens Videocartographies: Aida, Palestine, 2009

TheCentral Region (La Rgion centrale)

(La Rgion centrale)

1970 ,
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1 La Rgion centrale (1969), Des crits 19582001, M.Snow,


Paris, Ensba, 2002, c. 32.

1 La Rgion centrale (1969), in Des crits 19582001, M.Snow, trad. J. F.Cornu, Paris, Ensba, 2002, p.
32.

70 71

In1970, theCanadian artist Michael Snow asked


theengineer Pierre Abbeloos tohelp him toconstruct
ahinged device which would allow thecamera totrace
movements atevery plan of asphere. Filmed north
of theQuebec, La Rgion centrale is therecording ofprogrammed arabesques by acamera viewing
thesurrounding landscape. This project isboth theoretical (as itexplores in asystematic way therotations
of abody inmotion), autobiographic (thefilm ismade in
thenative region of theartists mother) and metaphysical (awakens acosmic conscience). Michael Snow
creates afilm where thepoint ofview isdecentralized;
it isfloating, situated inweightlessness, unattached to
theplot. Ultimately theeffect produced by mechanized
movement will be equivalent towhat I imagine tobe
thefirst pictures of themoon surface shot methodically. Its not just arecording of thelast wild landscape
of theEarth, its afilm which well send into thespace
inmemory ofwhat was nature. I want topass on
afeeling ofabsolute loneliness, akind ofgoodbye with
theplanet Earth, something, as itseems tome, we are
experiencing now. 1 La Rgion centrale represents
adecisive stage, at thesame time it isanew vision of
thelandscape, subjected to theexhaustion of ablind
stare, inseparable from its coming termination or deprivation, and anew experience offered to thespectator,
who isconfronted with aremotely operated recording
device. Although thefilm has never been exhibited
in themuseums (it isexclusively intended for cinema
halls), itoffers thespectator anexperience comparable
with thecycles of theexhibition cinema. Dissociating thelandscape and movements, programmed by
thecamera, itmakes theviewer uneasy (theaudience
often left during its screening). Acquired in1972 by
theNational Gallery ofCanada (Ottawa), thedevice
was displayed inaction, with video output ontwo
monitors making it avideo art work inits own right,

Peter Weibel

Expanded Cinema, Video


and Virtual Environments
Avant-garde Film


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1960- ,
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-, . .
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2.

Inmost histories ofcinema theavant-garde film


occupies aminor and marginal position. In theinterwar period of thetwentieth century, avant-garde film
was initially seen as aspin-off or by-product ofvisual
art movements like Cubism, Futurism, Suprematism, Constructivism, Dadaism or Surrealism. Linked
tothese movements were abstract or pictorial animations as well as montage and kinetic films by artists
like Fernand Leger, Bruno Corra, Kasimir Malevich1,
Viking Eggeling, Hans Richter, Lszl Moholy-Nagy,
Oskar Fischinger, Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp, Len
Lye, Lotte Reininger, Berthold Bartosch, Alexander
Alexeieff and Claire Parker. These films constituted
abody ofwork that served as thesource for theinnovative and autonomous post-WWII motion picture
that was variously termed art or experimental film.
This new movement differed from its historical predecessor (few artists, small audiences, no media presence, no theaters, no organization, no distributors)
inthat itwas at acertain moment inhistory amass
movement (with its own distributive organizations,
with large audiences inconjunction with thestudent
and pop-music revolutions, alarge number offilmmakers, its own theaters and magazines).
Theindependent or experimental film of
the1960s was very conscious ofbeing anew branch
ofart, anew medium and form ofart as opposed
tomerely abyproduct of thevisual arts, even if some
major filmmakers like Andy Warhol, Guy Debord or
Yoko Ono could be linked toPop Art, theSituationist
International or Fluxus. This awareness offilm as new
art medium led to acomplete deconstruction ofclassical cinema. Theapparatus ofclassical cinema,
from thecamera to theprojector, from thescreen to
thecelluloid, was radically transformed, annihilated
and expanded. Thehistory ofavant-garde film is
ahistory ofinterpellations in thesense ofAlthusser (see my preface) on thebasis of theapparatus
itself2. Thedeficit of thecinematic apparatus theory

1 , , , 78, 1929.

1 Kasimir Malevich, Painterly Laws in theProblems ofCinema,


inCinema and Culture (Kino i Kultura), nos. 78, 1929.

2 : Sheldon Renan, An Introduction


to the American Underground Film, Dutton, New York, 1967; P.Adams Sitney (ed.), Film Culture
Reader, Praeger, New York, 1970; Gene Youngblood, Expanded Cinema, Dutton, New York, 1970;
Parker Taylor, Underground Film (1969), Secker & Warburg, London, 1971; David Curtis, Experimental
Cinema, A Fifty-Year Evolution, Universe Books, New York, 1971; P.Adams Sitney, Visionary Films,

2 This history isdescribed and documented in thefollowing books:


Sheldon Renan, AnIntroduction to theAmerican Underground Film,
Dutton, New York, 1967; P.Adams Sitney (ed.), Film Culture Reader,
Praeger, New York, 1970; Gene Youngblood, Expanded Cinema,

1. Frank Fietzek, Tafel [Black


Board], 1993, interactive
installation mixed media,
dimensions variable, installation view: ZKM | Center for
Art and Media Karlsruhe,
Frank Fietzek
2. Barry Spinello, Soundtrack,
1970, 16mm film, b/w, parts
handcolored, sound, 11 min,
film strips, courtesy Barry
Spinello. Both sound and
image are produced with
handmade graphic effects

Dutton, New York, 1970; Parker Taylor, Underground Film (1969),


Secker & Warburg, London, 1971; David Curtis, Experimental Cinema,
AFifty-Year Evolution, Universe Books, New York, 1971; P.Adams
Sitney, Visionary Films, Oxford University Press, New York, 1974; Hans
Scheugl, Ernst Schmidt jr., Eine Subgeschichte des Films. Lexikon des
Avantgarde-, Experimental- und Undergroundfilms, vols. 1, 2, Suhrkamp,
Frankfurt, 1974; Amos Vogel, Film as Subversive Art, Random House,
New York, 1974; Stephen Dwoskin, Film Is TheInternational Free
Cinema, Peter Owen, London, 1975; Structural Film Anthology, Peter
Gidal (ed.), BFI Publishing, London, 1976; Film als Film 1910 bis heute,
Birgit Hein, Wulf Herzogenrath (eds), Klnischer Kunstverein, Cologne,
1977; Malcolm Le Grice, Abstract Film and Beyond, TheMIT Press,
Cambridge, MA / London, 1977; Deke Dusinberre, A. L.Rees, Film
as Film, Formal Experiment inFilm 191075, Arts Council ofGreat
Britain / Hayward Gallery, London, 1979; Peter Gidal, Materialist Film,
Routledge, London, 1989; DavidE.James (ed.), ToFree theCinema.
Jonas Mekas & TheNew York Underground, Princeton University
Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1992; Kerry Brougher, Art and Film
Since 1945: Hall ofMirrors, Monacelli Press, New York, 1996;
Spellbound: Art and Film, Ian Christie, Philip Dodd (eds), BFI Publishing,
London, 1996; Jack Sargeant, Naked Lens: Beat Cinema, Creation
Books, London, 1997; A. L.Rees, AHistory ofExperimental Film and
Video. From theCanonical Avant-Garde toContemporary British
Practice, BFI Publishing, London, 1999; Garrett Stewart, Between Film
and Screen. Modernisms Photo Synthesis, TheUniversity ofChicago
Press, Chicago and London, 1999; Into theLight. TheProjected Image
inAmerican Art 19641977, Chrissie Iles (ed.), exhib. cat., Whitney
Museum ofAmerican Art, New York / HarryN.Abrams, New York,
2001; Malcolm Le Grice, Experimental Cinema in theDigital Age, BFI
Publishing, London, 2001; Hans Scheugl, Erweitertes Kino. Die Wiener
Filme der 60er Jahre, Triton, Wien, 2002; Martin Rieser, Andrea Zapp
(eds), New Screen Media. Cinema / Art / Narrative, BFI Publishing,
London, 2002, book and DVD; Margot Lovejoy, Digital Currents: Art in
theElectronic Age, Routledge, London, 2003.

1970- ,
, , 60-

,
.
, , ,
. , ,
.

, , .
. 1960- ,
. , , .
,
1970-, 1980- . 1990-
Oxford University Press, New York, 1974; Hans Scheugl, Ernst Schmidt jr., Eine Subgeschichte des
Films. Lexikon des Avantgarde-, Experimental- und Undergroundfilms, vols. 1, 2, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt,
1974; Amos Vogel, Film as Subversive Art, Random House, New York, 1974; Stephen Dwoskin, Film
Is The International Free Cinema, Peter Owen, London, 1975; Structural Film Anthology, Peter Gidal
(ed.), BFI Publishing, London, 1976; Film als Film 1910 bis heute, Birgit Hein, Wulf Herzogenrath (eds),
Klnischer Kunstverein, Cologne, 1977; Malcolm Le Grice, Abstract Film and Beyond, The MIT Press,
Cambridge, MA/London, 1977; Deke Dusinberre, A. L.Rees, Film as Film, Formal Experiment in Film
191075, Arts Council of Great Britain/ Hayward Gallery, London, 1979; Peter Gidal, Materialist Film,
Routledge, London, 1989; DavidE.James (ed.), To Free the Cinema. Jonas Mekas & The New York
Underground, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1992; Kerry Brougher, Art and Film
Since 1945: Hall of Mirrors, Monacelli Press, New York, 1996; Spellbound: Art and Film, Ian Christie,
Philip Dodd (eds), BFI Publishing, London, 1996; Jack Sargeant, Naked Lens: Beat Cinema, Creation
Books, London, 1997; A. L.Rees, A History of Experimental Film and Video. From the Canonical AvantGarde to Contemporary British Practice, BFI Publishing, London, 1999; Garrett Stewart, Between Film
and Screen. Modernisms Photo Synthesis, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1999;
Into the Light. The Projected Image in American Art 19641977, Chrissie Iles (ed.), exhib. cat., Whitney
Museum of American Art, New York/HarryN.Abrams, New York, 2001; Malcolm Le Grice, Experimental
Cinema in the Digital Age, BFI Publishing, London, 2001; Hans Scheugl, Erweitertes Kino. Die Wiener
Filme der 60er Jahre, Triton, Wien, 2002; Martin Rieser, Andrea Zapp (eds), New Screen Media. Cinema/
Art/ Narrative, BFI Publishing, London, 2002, book and DVD; Margot Lovejoy, Digital Currents: Art in the
Electronic Age, Routledge, London, 2003.

76 77

of the1970s was that itshowed us only theideology inherent toHollywood films, just as in the1960s
Umberto Eco used semiotics toexplain James Bond
films and today Slavoj Zizek uses Lacan toexplain
Hitchcock. Neither theorist used theapparatus theory
radically inorder todemonstrate that thecinematic
apparatus and theinscribed ideology can be transformed by making different films with different technologies in theway done by avant-garde filmmakers.
They therefore missed avital point, and fell behind
their own theoretical premises. Their theoretical work
insofar paradoxically supported thehegemony ofHollywood and dismissed theavant-garde movement
from film tovideo, from video todigital, as representing atransformation of thecinematic apparatus.
This transformation took place inthree phases.
In the1960s, thecinematic code was extended with

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Kirill Razlogov

this is great art,


a part of
the cinematographic
culture
Alina Ignatova: Video art ismost often distinguished from cinema inthat it isfundamentally
non-narrative, while cinema usually has anarrative
structure. But there also exist theso called alternative, experimental or art house cinema, also of anonnarrative nature. How should they be told apart from
video art?
Kirill Razlogov: Thesuggested distinction
isbased upon different foundations. Narrative and
non-narrative cinema isstill ofone species, just as
prose and poetry. There is, so tosay, apoetic cinema
and aprosaic one. Yes, thestructure ofvideo art isas
arule closer topoetry than to thenarrative literature.
And incinema due tocertain socio-cultural reasons thestructure of1.5 hour film telling astory has
prevailed. Itdoes not mean that within these 1.5 hour
films only narrative structures are possible. For example, Luis Buuel's Un chien andalou which is animportant work in thehistory ofcinema isnon-narrative,
there isno story. I can name another 50 films, quite
famous, which were demonstrated incinema theatres,
where anarrative isnot themain form ofstructuring
thematerial. But still it isevident that inmost films
thenarrative prevails. Invideo art it istheother way
round. I can also name video art works which possess
anarrative structure or include narrative elements. But
again it is5 % ofnarrative and 95 % ofnon-narrative
elements.
A. I.: Some works ofvideo art are shown incinema theatres, their popularity isdictated by themajor
cinema festivals, where they are presented as something super important and most fashionable today.
This is thesituation of theVenetian Horizons, which
place great emphasis onartists joining thecinema
environment. What do you think about this?
K. R.This isright, for this is thesame environment ofscreen culture, where video art de facto
belongs. Infact for me cinema is ageneral definition
ofall moving images. This means video art ispart
ofcinema, strictly speaking cinematography isrecording ofmovement. Anotion ofscreen culture
also works, itincludes all ofthis. There are special
festivals ofvideo art or experimental films. There are

1. Luis Buuel, Un chien


andalou, 1929
2. Jean-Luc Godard, Film
socialisme, 2010
3. Matthew Barney, Drawing
Restraint 9, 2005

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92 93

festivals offull-length feature films. There are festivals


ofdocumentaries and festivals offeature films. In
thepresent situation documentaries may be included
in theprogram of aregular festival, where feature
films constitute themost part ofscreenings. Animation films may also be included. We can see interaction between documentary and non-documentary,
animation and feature films. There are also combined
variants, where animation and fiction are combined,
as inRoger Rabbit. There are poetic structures,
like 1.5 rooms inwhich Brodskys poems, invented
episodes, and also documentary and animation
episodes are mixed together. Theborders are being
transgressed, and Marco Mueller followed anexample
of theMoscow Film Festival, ofour Media Forum, and
aparallel program of theSundance festival (which
was introduced 5 years after theMedia Forum).
However as theVenetian festival ismuch more
influential in theworld cultural milieu, itwas noticed.
Our Media Forum ismuch older, but itwas known
only to thenarrow circle. Infact we were thepioneers, well, perhaps not thefirst inhistory. There was
also theCongress ofExperimental Cinema in1929
inwhich Eisenstein took part, and also theFrench
cinema avant-garde of the1920s, and also what
isdescribed inmy series From Cinema Avant-Garde
toVideo Art, where thedevelopment ofavant-garde
forms isrepresented, which in thecontemporary
world isconcentrated invideo art, but before itwas
present incinema avant-garde and American underground. We should also remember thetheory of
theexpanded cinema, which is thebasis for thebook
we are now working on. Itwas formulated by Gene
Youngblood in1970, when people understood that
theterrain ofcinematography ismuch broader than
theterrain of thefeature film which tells stories of1.5
hour length. And also there was atransition from
1.5-hour stories tomany-hour stories ofsoap operas,
which expanded thelimits of thenarrative cinema in
acompletely unexpected direction due totheir connection with thepress, radio and television. Awhole

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Olga Shishko

Expanded Art.
Part 2
TheExpanded Cinema exhibition isnot retrospective incharacter, itattempts toanalyze current
situation in themoving images art. All works presented inthis project were created in thelast few years,
and some ofthem especially for this exhibition. We
tried todraw theviewers attention tovisual properties ofvideo art (composition, rhythm, textures and
scale) and toconceptual aspects of thelanguage.
24projects by authors from 12 countries explore various aspects ofmutual overflow ofideas and images.
Have meanings replaced things, or things replaced meanings?
Rhetoric or poetry what awaits us tomorrow?

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Spaces ofMemory / Symbolic Journeys


(Ground floor Yermolaevsky)
Fiona Tan (Netherlands/Indonesia) Rise and Fall
Keren Cytter (Germany / Israel) Four Seasons
Doug Aitken (USA) House
Bluesoup group (Russia) Blizzard
Leslie Thornton (USA) Binocular
(Garage)
Isaac Julien (UK) Derek

Themultilayered films by Fiona Tan explore


thestructure ofmemory, singling out images deeply
private and poetical.
Twenty years have passed since theartist created Stolen
Words awork ofvideo poetry, presented at thefirst
Media Forum. Poetry-like, this private monologue that
theauthor set against themass media indifference and
cynicism, theStolen Words uses fragments ofTV footage as anarchive ofcollective unconsciousness, consisting ofclose-ups ofvarious people.

Theauthor creates her own card index ofimages


inwhich theres no place for indifference tolife. She
works thesubject ofmemory, closing and opening
thecabinets ofthis index.
Place into asafe place all images of thelanguage and
use them, as they are in adesert where one needs
tosearch for them.
Phrase by Jean Genet inJean-Luc Godards Nos Humanits

In atwo-channel Rise and Fall installation


Fiona Tan (Netherlands / Indonesia) tells astory

All words are stolen,


insilence and quiet there isworth.
(Fiona Tan)

Fiona Tan works with memory, she think that


being saved today ondigital media, our memory
iskept indigital archives getting more and more estranged (thedigital and thereal oppose each other
just as theinner and theouter).
Thetenuous relationship between sight, memory
and knowledge, theunreliability ofvisual memories,
issomething I have been concentrating on inrecent
works. I amstill exploring these ideas inthis new
work, as I continue toexperiment and develop afilmic
language that could perhaps be described as simultaneously constructing and deconstructing employing
thetricks of thetrade and at thesame time exposing
them, laying them bare. I aminterested in thejuxtaposition ofword and image, inconflicting and contradictory
relationships between thetwo and between fact and
fiction, in thedisplacement oftext and image.
I do not think that documentary, archival footage istrue
life. Itis, as any image is, atake onlife, asubjective
view, alimited and manipulating viewpoint. Nevertheless, like any viewer, I make snap judgments as to
thetruth of afilm or aphotograph, as tohow realistic
arepresentation we sense it tobe. I amall for thestimulation ofcreative archival techniques I mean this also
in apoetic way. For fresh approaches towhere and how
we file away theimages inour memory, inour mind,
inour view of theworld.

Other Facets of theSame Globe: Aconversation between Fiona


Tan and SaskiaBos. Text from Fiona Tan Disorient. Catalogue
Publication. Dutch Pavilion, Venice Biennale.

Thework ofDoug Aitken (USA) speaks


ofisolation within society, ofloneliness and death.
Theauthor draws theviewers attention inmany
ofhis works to thepassage oftime which isdifferent from theordinary. In theexhibited work, House
we see theartists parents sitting opposite each
other, gaze locked. They dont notice that thehouse
inwhich they are sitting isdestroyed.
Theframe, thestructure, theabsence ofaction
and its replacement with thephysical feeling ofsomething really happening. Theterrible iswhat we really
dont see, while we understand it isgoing on. We become witnesses of thesilent dialogue oftwo elderly
people and thevoid in thefinal scenes.

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. : Kehrer, . 2009.

98 99

of anold woman: onone screen we see her and her


memories, on theother stills ofher youth. Inevery
movement we live through rises and falls, inevery
meeting we come closer and part. Thenarrative
loops between past and present, alternating with
metaphorical images offlowing water. Theimage
ofwater plays therole of amemory metaphor inthis
work thepassage oftime and theflowing of ariver
merging in asingle rhythm.
Theartist creates her video painting with bold
brush strokes, uniting and opposing images iopn two
vertical screens, She achieves this by using thedrifts
effect, atechnology inwhich video frame isfree form
thescreen borders (by means ofchanging thetemporal pulse of thevideo signal) and has anopportunity
toflow now vertically, now horizontally.
Thescreens vertical format reminds us
ofanopen book with video text scrolling instead
ofwords.

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Inmany ways theprocess ofmy work is anongoing


experiment tosee how I can open myself to alarger field
ofexperience and information. Attimes I live nomadically,
wandering, going from project toproject and city tocity.
I find myself moving through space and responding
toexperiences in away that's very different from theway
you do if you stay inone place. Amoment that might
ordinarily just flash by now makes adeep impression
onyou. Your sense oftime expands or contracts, and
you become extremely sensitized tothings you might
not have noticed before. As I found myself inconstant
motion, I became increasingly attracted toin-between
places, places that were not destinations, places that
were somehow inlimbo or were outcast and passed by
(ATHOUSAND WORDS: Doug Aitken. Artforum International,
May 1, 2000)

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Ajourney into your own expectations and fears


in theBlizzard video installation by theBluesoup
group (Russia). Theauthors create afeeling of
aconstant wait for something tohappen, this expectation haunts us inreal life. Thework is amystical
winter landscape with adark forest, hills and gloomy
skies; people are running somewhere driven by
asnow storm. They emerge in theempty space where
there are no trees (maybe afrozen river enveloped
infog) and quickly run across to theother side where
theforest is. Thenumber ofpeople gradually grows
until acertain moment when also gradually itstarts
todecrease. And then again there are only trees and
thewind on ascreen. Thevoid.
Thework ismade in3D technology as most
ofBluesoup works. Increasing thetechnology ofdigital images creation they erase theborder between
thereal and unreal.

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Awhite screen as white as acinema screen islike


amurk ofrain, flakes of asmog washed by windscreen
wipers. Or, more precisely, as if by windscreen wipers, because we dont actually see them. We see how
thewhite colour partially disappears form thescreen
surface and in theresulting gap instead of theBluesoup customary coloured applique living people
appear aduo inbowlers and coats, acouple ofbored
gentlemen from classic spy films. When thegentlemen
are once again hidden by thecinescreen fog, memory
plays out cinematic situations inwhich those men
inbowlers might appear while we dont see them. According to thecinematic morphology laws of theaction genre theviewers imagination iseager tomeet
decisive nouns linked with fast-acting verbs. But yet
again thewhite square of thescreen iswashed off,
and thetwo spies watch theaudience furtively calm,
inscrutable, inno hurry, immobile. Therell be no film!
People, bowlers, coats, spies can also be just colour and
form on aBluesoup white canvas.

( , . , . 138, , , 2000)

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(AnAnthology ofRussian Video Art. Milena Musinas article


At thejuncture ofcinema and video art. Autopia ofslow video.
Moscow, MAL, 2000).

Leslie Thornton (USA) presents her new work


Binocular. Two circular screens enter adialogue.
Asnapped up detail oflife (brief, mostly close-up
views of ablack parrot, some zebras, apython,
anorangutan, theeye of aGabon viper and aswarm
ofants), natural life on theleft screen becomes surreal and turns into anabstract flare of thekaleidoscopic pattern on theright screen.
What happens is adrop-out from one reality and
atransfer toanother one. Theauthor splits theworld

Even amost insignificant change resonated visually


in theabstract pattern. It issort of agimmick and sort
ofnot. Thetransformation, while purely technical, creates
theillusion ofseeing through tosome underlying layer
ofnatural beauty and order. Nature isdevoid ofugliness,
these works seem tosay. As if toprove thepoint, thefinal work here is afilm of adead baby bird whose head
isteeming with maggots, presented onits own, straight
up, without thebenefit of thedigital prism
(Roberta Smith, NY Times, January 27, 2011)

Isaac Julien (UK) has initially become famous


as afilmmaker. After his films of thelate 1980s early
1990s Julien has included multiscreen video installations into his practice, thus opening new composition
possibilities for thegallery context. Thetitle ofone
ofhis exhibitions, TheFilm Art ofIsaac Julien manifests another facet ofvideo art, close to thevideocinema term, most frequently found recently while mapping theterritory ofhybrid video art and cinematic art.
InMoscow Julien will present thecentral part ofhis
Derek project inlive and work ofDerek Jarman
thewell-known filmmaker. Julien decided toshow his
character in thecontact ofvisual art, making theviewer analyze itthrough art forms.
theres anice crossover between theart world and
cinema with this project. And, you know, I think there are
still so many misunderstandings between theart and
film worlds because of thedifferent languages they use.
But with therise ofdigital everything, theyre becoming
more closely linked because theyre both being invaded
by new economies.
(Issac Julien, ArtForum. Crossover Appeal, 01.24.08)

Derek iscomposed of aday-long interview


ofits protagonist with theauthor, scenes from Jarmans films and voice over by Tilda Swinton reading Aletter to anangel. Jarmans favorite actress
and friend read her letter tohim which was written
in2002, eight years after his death.
Keren Cytter (Israel / Germany) follows anunrealistic poetic manner, inher films thecentral place
isgiven to theuse of aninconsequential narrative.
She works with our perceptions offact and fiction,
employs non-professional actors and frequently uses
ahand-held video camera.
Inher Four Seasons video various cinematic
styles cross, quotations from famous films are laid
inlayers: late Hitchcock, Hollywood glamour, 80s
kitsch, echoes ofTennessee Williams AStreetcar
Named Desire.
TheFour Seasons film is ananthem ofeverything false, supplying theviewer with visual clichs
and dead-pan actors action. Theartist presents
social reality through anarrative, consciously working with aprimitive filming and editing technique.
Her dilettante video diaries remind us of the1970s
video experiments.
Together they make up awitty and complicatedly structures narrative on theverge ofperformance,
cinema and theatre. Theresult ismoving, not cynical.

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100 101

ofimages by first rendering them ingreat detail and


then transforming colours, shadows, specks and
forms as itwas done by thebeginning of theXXth
century painters.

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Cytters work emphasizes only multiple fragmented moments offeeling. As theman inFour Seasons explains
toStella, I loved you then and I love you. Stella replies
you pushed me. Head hit thefloor so hard and my skull
cracked wide open [] You broke my back. My knees. My
heart. Clearly he wasnt inlove with Stella atthat point.
Cytter flouts her style clashes home-movie Hitchcock,
lo-fi Hollywood glamour, soap-opera Samuel Beckett,
soft-core feminism manipulating these cultural tools
with results that range from thebanal to thesublime,
from theembarrassingly comic to thevulgarly surreal.
Kathy Noble inFrieze Magazine, Issue 123, May 2009

Moving Image /
Poetics ofLanguage and Space

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(Yermolaevsky, 1st floor)


Gary Hill (USA) Is aBell Ringing in theEmpty
Sky?, Loop Through
Yuri Kalendarev, Evgeny Ufit (Russia) TheSilent Horizon
Anri Sala (Albania / Germany) Answer me
Yuri Albert (Russia) Imagines
TOTART (Russia) Four Columns ofVigilance
Ilya Permyakov (Russia) Translations

Following conceptual art of thelate 1960s video


art draws in theword inside its space, inside video
works word / text / language gain another meaning.
Video art seeks tobecome anew narrative form,
inventing alanguage different from thewritten one.
Murder of theliterary matrix creates amedia art talking
image where thesame chemistry or better tosay alchemy actually happens, creating both word and image.
(John Hanhardt)

Gary Hill (USA) during forty-year long experiments with thevisual language ofdigital technology
explores theprocesses connecting language and
moving images. Among all classics ofAmerican
video art he isprobably themost poetic. This artist
doesnt put great value upon technical innovations;
inany case, he doesnt make technological works
for thesake oftechnology itself. Video art for him is
away ofthinking out loud.
Im rather in thein-between spaces than part of
astream something like theresonating membranes
where thetension isextreme. This threshold isnot
connected tophysical suffering as with Chris Burden
or Marina Abramovic. Thebody for me is aconductor
between ideas, language and thematerial world, but
themachinery ofinteraction between them isviolated by
in aninvasion ofdigital media, which intheir very nature
go against physicality.
(Gary Hill)

Perceiving theworld through text Hill isvery


close toMoscow conceptualism, theirony ofhis
works isderived from thepotential threat ofdestruction of thelanguage coming from new computer technologies which he himself uses increating
these works.
At theExpanded Cinema exhibition intwo
video works: Loop Through and Is aBell Ringing
in theEmpty Sky? thelegendary Isabelle Huppert
appears. Amoving portrait of thefilm actress consist
oftwo projections, each ofthem presenting Huppert

invarious emotional states. Exasperated, exited, shy,


and playful or bored, she looks at aninvisible point
between two cameras.
This creates aspecial unity of aviewer, Huppert and in asense her double. Inhis videos and
installations theauthor tries todefine theprocess
ofcognition. Hills art changes traditional cinematic
sequence offrames order, changing itinto astream
oftime and space.
Theartists place in thecontext of anart work is aresult
ofcomplex cognition. Aphysical pose of anartist before
acanvas, awriter bend over asheet ofpaper, asculptor contemplating his material reflects thequestion of
anartists position from thepoint ofview ofhis work,
and also thespatial and temporal and ideological positions, when anartists work isviewed in asocial contest.
Hill inhis works constructs amultitude ofmetaphorical
strategies, by means ofwhich he depicts body positions
within society. He achieves this by transforming video
into atechnology that can be used as ameans ofexpressing individual creativity.
(John Hanhardt Between language and moving image//
NewMediaLogia / NewMediaTopia, ed. by Irina Alpatova,
compiled by Olga Shishko, design and idea by Aleksey Isaev.
oscow, 1994).

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Theplace inart for each work isdefined by its interrelationship with other works (Yuri Tynyanov calls this function). So I try todraw thelines right away, and not toput
points inpositions. My recent works are just directional
in theart space and have no value outside it.
(Yuri Albert)

. ., 1994)

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102 103

Theworks ofYuri Albert (Russia) lay bare


theessential connection between language and
theprocess ofimage generation, explore thematerial essence ofwriting.
Western theorists remark that Russian video
artists are intermediaries between theexcessive
materialism of theWestern art practice and theRussian characteristic conceptualism. They introduce
intellectual traditions, atotalitarian accent, avisual
individuality of theXXth century and at thesame time
continue theavant-garde experiments of the1910s1920s. (Lev Manovich, USA).
Art isnot for tolook atitbut tothink atit!
was theslogan of anexhibition by theKupidon
(Cupid) Creative Union at theProject Fabrika, with
Yuri Albert as one ofits members. Inhis work Imagines at theExpanded Cinema exhibition there are
no imahes. Instead of ascreen thres scrolling text
with a5hour-long description of64 paintings form
themoving text of abook of thesame title (Imagines)
by Philostratus theElder (170-247).
Quietly sitting onchairs in aspace made tolook
like amovie theater, theviewer isoffered anopportunity todraw or film his own painting inhis imagination,
whether itbe astatic painting or not.

( )

Avideo project as atransformer isone of


theprinciples ofvideo work construction which allows theviewer tolook in ontheTOTARTs kitchen
(or ontheir film set). Afew key motifs are footprint,
text, hands and bars are fundamental for theartists
Natalya Abalakova and Anatoly Zhigalov (Russia).
For more than thirty years they have been realizing their
Researches inEssence ofArt Regarding Life and Art
project.

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Thepolyscreen version of theFour Columns


ofVigilance video performance of theTOTART duo
(Russia) was created specially for theExpanded Cinema project. These pioneers ofRussian video art are
making awork on thesubject of awords visualization with literary examples ofeleven irregular Russian
verbs. Theaesthetic explorations of theauthors are
based on thephilosophy oflanguage expressivity. They use itas ameans ofdecoding technology
through thelanguage ofimagery. As aresult theauthors transform technology into language and space
poetics.
such asituation results increating various texts
by means ofmedia (if we are speaking of thelanguage
of thenew media) which are describing the process theshape-shifter texts with everything mixed
up inthem: thedepletion oflanguage, its destruction
to thepoint ofits complete disappearance, its changes,
its mutations by means ofwhich it isagain enriched
inshort, all these contradictory and sometimes overlapping processes could not but apply toart.
(Natalya Abalakova, Anatoly Zhigalov).

Invideo (media) art thecorrelation of thevisual


and theaudio are reconsidered sometimes sound
fills thespace of aninstallation.
TheSilent Horizon is ajoint work by thesculptor Yuri Kalendarev (Russia / Italy) and thefilmmaker
Evgeny Ufit. Itconsists of a30-minites sound projection, aresonant (sounding) screen and two opposing
seemingly reverberating black-an-white projections
between themonitor and theresonant screen.
Usually inconventional cinema animage
isfilmed first and only after that acomposer isinvited
tocreate asoundtrack for theprepared visual material. Silent Horizon is anattempt tofundamentally
revise this process, placing thespace ofsound into
thecentre of thecomposition, while theimage seen
as alight projection isprojected onto thesounding
screen.
First thesculptor Kalendarev creates a30-minite
soundtrack complied from field recordings ofnight
sea sounds, Arno river sounds (Tuscany, Italy), anaudio recording ofsounds within theauthors heart and
thesounds ofSounding Screens themselves.
Probably thebasic feature ofthese interactive sound
sculptures by Yuri Kalendarev isthat they transport us
beyond thegenre limits. Beyond themusic, beyond
thesculpture, beyond thelanguage, beyond everything
(Mikhail Ryklin. Beyond theMusic. Yuri Kalendarevs sound
sculptures, 2006).

Theauthors works are meditative and are inessence atransformation oftechnology into apoetic
tool. Theviewer istuned inwith theartwork and reverberates, becoming apart ofit, experiencing sound
and rhythm as his own process ofliving.
Than thesound track passed tofilmmaker Evgeny Ufit and he made a30-minute black-and-white
video. Inthis video thepriority ofcinemas visual nature over theplot and meaning unity dominates. Inthis
case theauthor didnt edit theimage as afilm, there
isno beginning and no end here, no dramatic development traditional tofilms. Articulating thesubject
ofdeath ofcinema he uses theblack comedy devices

I ammore interested in thecinema of thedistant past.


Im afraid nothing can be changed. Thetechnological
advancement isunavoidable; with every year better
video equipment will appear. This technical accessibility
of theillusion ofreality with its primitive direct impact on
theorgans ofperception tears homo sapiens from his
natural roots, immersing him ever deeper into avirtual
cyber helmet.
(Evgeny Ufit)

Yuri Kalendarev and Evgeny Ufits work Silent


Horizon is awork ofpoetry, creating aunique audiovisual space.
Theshort film by Anri Sala (Albania / France)
allows theviewer tolook into adialogue ofassumed
lovers, when her question isdrowned inhis drumming, or maybe thedrum beat was his answer.
Anri Sala isinterested in thedissonance ofwhat
issaid and what isleft unsaid. What ishidden behind
aword, asound, amovement? Inhis work Intervista finding thewords (1998) theauthor turns toarchive footage ofhis mother. She gives aninterview
at aCommunist party congress. There was one thing
lacking in thefilm its sound. Sala wanted toknow
what was his mother talking about. Nobody form
thecongress could help him, so he decided togo to
adeaf-mute school. There thestudents with thehelp
oftheir teacher watch thevideo and lip-read and then
decipher thewords.
Some places have no buildings or dates tobe remembered, but they produce their own soundtrack.
These words, taken from Anri Salas notes onhis
work Air Cushioned Ride (2007), highlight thegrowing importance that sound occupies in theAlbanian
artists practice. AtChantal Crousel, videos such as
Mixed Behaviour (2003), Now I See (2004) and
Long Sorrow (2005) that feature, respectively, aDJ
on arooftop inNew York during theNew Years Eves
fireworks, Icelandic rock band Tranbant onstage and
free jazz saxophonist Jemeel Moondoc suspended from
thefacade of abuilding in asuburb of Berlin see Sala
continuing his exploration of therelation between sound
and space.
Anri Sala, Freeze, 09.04. 2008 by Christophe Gallois

InIlya Permyakov (Russia) video work


Translations aprojectionist, reflected in theglass
of theprojection window, isbusy rewinding thefilm.
Beyond thewindow in theauditorium afilm isshown
which remains invisible for theviewer. Upon theglass
thescenes of thefilm are reflected inshapeless
patterns. Anindistinct hum isheard, muffled by
theprojection equipments chirp. Theonly thing heard
distinctly is asynchronic translation of thefilm.
Theviewer tries on theexperts costume, and thecritical
bathos ofperception isheightened inhim (sometimes it
isbrought tocomic mechanicality). All these processes
are developing thesystem offeedback between awork,
its author and theaudience, they define and refine its
rules offunctioning, mark some exceptions form those
rules as acceptable and some as taboo.
(Ilya Permyakov)

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and alow-tech aesthetics offilm production on8millimiter and 16-millimiter film as aspecial device.

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TheThird Cinema / Video Art as aCast


ofReality
(Yermolaevsky, 3rd floor)
Ranbir Kaleka (India) He was aGood Man,
Sweet Unease
Almagul Menlibaeva (Kazakhstan) Milk for
Lambs
Taus Machacheva (Russia) Rekhyen
Elena Kovalina (Russia) Sons of a Bitch
Harun Farocki (Germany) Feasting or Flying
Johanna Billing (Sweden) Im Lost without your
Rhythm
(TheGarage Centre)
Eija-Liisa Ahtila (Finland) Annunciation
Some think that video art relevance is intheartists strategy. This iscontemporary arts and artists
strategy ofsurvival in thespace ofmass-media and
new information technologies. Inthis section of
theexhibition video art is atechnology for construction of theartists identity. Thequestion as tohow
ideologically infused technology isremains one of
thefundamental problems.
After Marcel Duchamp thequestion ofwhat isart and
what isnt isrelevant no more. Today we are in theterritory ofpolitics aesthetization. Theleft and theright,
official or informal everybody ispainstakingly creating
their own image. Where does thepoliticization ofart
turn into aesthetization ofpolitics nobody could say
definitely. This isinitially anunstable zone.
(Boris Groys)

One may say that video artists have as early as


1960s become chroniclers of analternative culture and
history. This isyet another direwction through which
video art defines its role in theworld achronicle
ofart as anopposition movement. This includes documenting social realities by artistic means by radical
performances, often with audience participation.
Authors became interested inmedia and artifacts
processes connected with media material as such.
Inits first incarnation thevideo camera revolution
brought with it anincredibly potent vengeance weapon. Among thedozens ofcases where household
media helped theinvestigation were theRodney King
beating, attacks onhomosexuals, instances ofpolice
brutality and neo-Nazi pogroms. Itseemed that home
video has become thegreat equalizer. Wherever aninjustice occured, avideo camera buzzed. Nobody could
get away with anything.
(Douglas Rashkoff, author of theMedia Virus! Hidden Agendas
inPopular Culture)

Video culture with its communicative potential


allows theuse ofvideo devices as atool ofsocial
interaction. Media art begins tomediate between society and state, environment and power, working with
language and means accessible to themajority.
Theavant-garde filmmaker Harun Faroki
(Germany) has long ago left cinema for video and
multimedia art. Inhis Feasting or Flying six-screen
installation theviewer sees arange oftragic characters. Deconstructing films by Antonioni, Fassbinder,
Wenders and Altman theauthor studies thenature
ofsuicide and deconstructs theimage of ahero. Each
projection isinteresting onits own but it istogether

Theshots and sequences we collected were onone


subject: theman who kills himself. When itcomes
tosuicide, thefilm-man might be said tomake up for
everything he lacks indepth ofemotion and expressiveness compared with thefilm-woman. Motifs from wholly
dissimilar films are distributed over several screens in
thespace. For instance, theres theman walking into
aroom because he wants tobe alone, or theman walking insilence and being followed by acamera determined topick up ananswer scarcely surrendered if indeed thefilm narrative isposing aquestion. Thecultural
technique ofdistributing over space inorder toanchor
something in theconsciousness was already cultivated
by theancient Greeks. We use itwith theintention ofarriving at anew film: one about theman who has used
up any further freedom ofaction.
(Harun Faroki and Antje Ehmann, 2008)

Annunciation (2010) is thelatest work by EijaLiisa Ahtila (Finland). Onthree screens Ahtila plays
out thehistory of awoman staging anamateur play
about theAnnunciation. This work could be anexample of afine auteur cinema, if not for Ahtilas drawing
theviewers attention to thedestruction ofclassic
narrative properties inher work. This polyscreen film
demands adeep viewer concentration on themany
voices and plots overlaying one another. Eija-Liisa
Ahtila explores inher work such human manifestations as love, sexuality, envy, anger, vulnerability and
reconciliation.
Aviewer isoffered alook inside theminds ofpeople caught at themoments ofpsychological instability
(for example, in thefilm Anne, Aki, and God themind
of thementally unstable Aki creates afictitious reality,
gradually theborder between fact and fiction disappears and thefantastic characters go out ofAkis head
into theworld They tell theprotagonist that his future
mission is totake Hollywood under control, because
Hollywood controls all human fantasies).
For something toget started, one must merely begin
and connect with athing that isnt yet as far as one
knows, atleast. And towrite more about it. How does
one know what things are, unless theyre already
familiar? What does one know ofthem atthat stage?
How do such things exist? How toget next tothem and
engage in dialogue onwhat and inwhose language?
One instinctively approaches such things through
thefamiliar, the known attimes with such precision
and force that one can see from asingle angle only,
inone direction, all things in aclear order one thing
infront, another just behind it, and so on inperspective. Can something already familiar fulfill thecriteria
for amiracle? Can one be shaken with surprise by
something one knows through and through? What does
one see then? Perhaps one encounters aquestion,
which one cannot understand. Or animage ofsomething that begins topuzzle themind. They are displayed
somewhere, where they can be discovered, and then
one waits tosee who comes tolook atthem. And how
they look atthem.
(TheAnnunciation, narrators voice over)

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106 107

that they create aunique image and sound symphony.


Faroki edits theselection offilm footage on thesubject ofsuicide, analyzing theprocess of acinematic
works birth. Some dissect abird inorder toeat it,
others inorder todiscover how tofly.
Thefilmmaker presents his material insuch
away as toinduce apersonal reading in theviewer.

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Elena Kovylina (Russia) is aperformance artist;


she organizes radical actions with herself as themain
character: now suggesting that everybody hits her in
theface, now standing with anoose around her neck
on astool, appealing tovisitors tokick thestool from
under her.
Unlike anactress Kovylina isnot acting she
performs absolutely real actions which do not portray
anything beside themselves. Just alist ofher projects
reminds one of apolice report: arson, adisruptive dinner
at atable suspended from abridge. Inthis unsafe way
she attracts mass media attention tocertain social signs
which she cares about. Following thetraditions offeminist Western art theartist explores problems ofgender
and body.
I myself construct anunpredictable outcome; my performances initially have abinary system: its either yes or no.
Either I drown or I will be rescued. Either they beat me up, or
I beat them up. Knowing theMoscow audiences I consciously prepare myself for asacrifice beforehand. Theproximity
ofdanger isnot thecentral emotion, what ismore important
is agraphic illustration ofsocial and political ideas that I put
in awork. Theworks connected with risk and pain are practically best, themost straightforward media. Theaim isfor
theviewer who isplaced in anunpleasant situation tomake
aright choice. For him tosay decisively: no, Im not going
tofight, I wont kick that chair from under her, I wont take
this gun. Tokill and tohurt isevil; Im not rising toit. Thats
anideal audience, theone Ive not met yet.
(Elena Kovylina)

Taus Makhacheva (Russia) films her own performances. Inher videos Carpet, Astrakhan, Run,
Reklen, TheSpace ofCelebration Makhacheva
visits Makhachkalas wedding halls (dressed in awhite
cocoon) or rides ahorse through vast steppe (dressed
as anunidentifiable fur-covered creature). Taus Makhachevas Reklen video (from theAvar word for herd)
dramatizes therelation ofus and them in theframework
of anational culture. Toinsinuate himself into aflock
ofsheep astranger has toput on aDagestan herdsman
fur coat and stand anall fours. Why ishe doing this and
what ishe ready todo tobe included into this society?
I amnot interested atall inart that speaks from thepoint
oftruth and I never had laid any claims totruth. Ofcourse
my works are born out of thecontext inwhich I work
today, out ofmy cultural identity and itwas not clear how
topresent this otherness in anabsolutely different environment. There are many subjects inmy works that imitate
animals in anattempt toestablish communication. Many
subjects hide, disguise themselves intheir attempts tobe
accepted by another community, as in theRehlen video
(from theAvar word for herd, 2009) where aperformer
covered by anold Dagestan sheepskin coat (timug) crawls
through asnow-covered field in aflock ofsheep.
(Taus Makhacheva)

He was aGood Man by Ranbir Kaleka (India)


is aclassic painting which doesnt want tostay as it
isintheera ofmoving images, but will not get acinematic
form either. Aman treads a needle another moment and
he will succeed; upon this painting its video double isprojected. Thedigital image gradually transforms theoriginal,
viewers silhouettes and historical scenes are glimpsed,
and thelighting ischanged.
Inthis case one of theartists functions is tomake
visible something invisible. Theauthor transforms thecanvas of apainting in aninteraction with history. He projects

pulsing video images upon his own canvases, theimages that carry traumas of ahard history ofDiaspora
and migration. Thehistory isnot fixed nor does itremain unchanged. Thedialogue with history allows us
tolook differently onour present.
Between projection and painting, inKalekas work,
theimage-surface becomes thesite of anacute, electrically unstable presencing. Inattending to theprecariousness of theimage, its ontological indeterminacy,
theprobabilism attendant onits address tous and our
reading ofit, Kaleka invites us toreflect onstartling
questions about thenature of theindividual subjectivity
and thenature ofeveryday experience, with its notalways registered densities ofchoice, dream, reverie
and delusion

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(Ranjit Hoskote)

When you look into thecamera you watch everything


who turned where, how people are dressed, how they
look atyou, thestyle oftheir clothing, unspoken emotions and feelings. All these you record, edit, combine
and create anew reality.
(Almagul Menlibaeva)

Its hard tosay what interests Johanna Billing (Sweden) more experimental music or dance,
performance arts or social studies. For one ofher
projects she invited graduates from theStockholm Art
College, young people ofvarious professions, often
clumsy and awkward. They rehearsed anexperimental
dance together and Johanna Billing watched theresults. For another work she sent Edinburg musicians
and green-horn sailors ontheir first sea voyage accompanied by anironic commentary ofThis ishow
we walk on themoon soundtrack. Inmost ofher
works theartists emphasizes events that are separate
from lifes everyday and proper flow, awkward situations and situations ofdiscord.
At theExpanded Cinema exhibition in theIm
Lost Without Your Rhythm video thevery process ofpreparation for adance performance filmed
inseveral days ispresented. Theaudience was invited
towatch rehearsals and itwas suggested theviewers
get involved into thecontext ofthis dance performance.
As theemergence ofdocumentary film produced
theeffect ofapproaching reality infeature film, so
did theemergence ofvideo demand areturn toreal-

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Thevideo artist Almagul Menlibaeva (Kazakhstan) isinterested inall national and distinctive,
not only Kazakh but also symbols from various other
cultures which encounter each other. Theartist puts
onnational costumes ofvarious peoples invarious
situations. InVenice she went around injacket and
high heels and felt her body and mind were very tired.
InKazakhstan she put aUyghur dress onand instantly
felt better (itrelaxes your head). Now she dresses
inconspicuously when you are not seen itgives you
anopportunity towatch theothers.
Milk for Lambs (2010) is anartistic rendering
ofone of theTengriism (sky religion) myths. This religion peculiar feature was division of theuniverse into
three zones: theheavens, theearth, thesubterranean,
each perceived inturn as visible or invisible. Almagul
defines her genre as apunk-romantic Shamanism.
She has created acertain concept which gives her
freedom ofthinking.

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ity from thetelevision. Thefirst documentary filmmakers (Flaherty, Grierson) have discovered apossibility
tovisit thehidden nooks of theworld and show life
as is, and so did thefirst video activists by shooting
atrembling chronicle off-shoulder create aDIY
fashion and infect TV newsreels, advertisements, MTV
and auteur cinema with it(for instance, theDogma).

Simulated Reality / Another Hero


(Yermolaevsky, 3d floor)
Arev Manoukian (Canada) Nuit Blanche
Boris Eldaksen (Germany) No Cure
Provmyza (Russia) Enthusiasm
Viktor Alimpiev (Russia) Vot
(TheGarage Centre)
Yang Fudong (China) Fifth Night

Social reality isfrequently compared to aclosedcircuit interactive installation. As any artistic avantgarde, video art, too, tries toovercome theexisting stereotypes and clichs, tobreak through toreality, tolife
itself. Gradually thenew hero emerges, creating new
events at thecrossroads ofimage and sound, and new
simulated reality appears. In theworks ofmedia artists
time itself doesnt stand still, itunfolds and expands.
Galina Myznikova and Sergey Provorov Provmyza (Russia) erase theborder between thought,
experience and contemplation intheir works (Despair, Enthusiasm and Snowdrop). Theartists
create their own method ofnature personification.
They try tostop thetime altogether or atleast toslow
itdown, especially for atired man. Theauthors create
another dimension hidden from theeye for their viewer: thecontemporary generation ofviewers isnot
ready for repose, but isfilled with anunconscious
yearning for avital necessity toshut down.
Snowdrop theduos new work explores
theway inwhich aman sees and perceives thesurrounding world. This work isabout distancing and
detachment as methods.
White walls reflecting adominant snow-white
authors projection
Images reflected in thewhite rays
Ahelicopter as ametaphor of theoppressive
technology
Montage attractions can prove tobe hostile. Action
becomes unimportant; theimage opens to theinner eye. Talking ofEnthusiasm we were inspired by
thePre-Raphaelite paintings. InDespair you can trace
theBreughel visuality and catch glimpses ofearly Mikls Jancs film aesthetics.
(Galina Myznikova and Sergey Provorov)

Playing with thecategories ofartistic, cinematic


and technological Arev Manoukian (Canada) challenges theimagination. His Nuit Blanche video isstylized tolook like theblack-and-white films of the1950s,
but thestory of asudden infatuation of thetwo strangers
istold using thestate-of-art digital technology.
Thefilm fascinates by its ultra-slow reproduction ofmovement, thecharacters situated in anunreal
space are drawn toeach other with such amagnetism
that nothing around them nor theglass breaking,
nor thespeed of thetraffic can hold them apart.
I wanted totake that moment ofattraction and stretch
it inahyper-real fantasy where things unfold like slow

(Arev Manoukian)

Based on thestructure ofkaraoke, No Cure by


Boris Eldagsen (Germany) features people singing
thelyrics ofthree songs by TheCure. Thecomposer
who wrote thescore used leitmotifs ofRichard Wagners opera Gtterdmmerung (Twilight of theGods)
toaccompany thelyrics. Boris Eldagsen has 80-yearold Germans singing these songs. Aword-play on
thetitle, thework refers to theproblems oflife and
decline, greatness and memory.
I consider myself tobe abridge between thegenerations. With each overkill ofvisual information you will
have arise ofmeditative strategies against it. Extremes
will always be followed by their opposites. As anartist it
isbetter tolook into yourself than tolook out for aparticular audience. Be timeless and you will be current.
(From aninterview with Boris Eldagsen, MediaArtLab, 2011)

For Viktor Alimpiev (Russia) his videos are like


miniature literary works. InVot agroup offive actors
performs avocalise, amusical composition composed
ofvowels only. Atsome point aviewer reads clearly
avocalise analogue to theword vot, emphasized
by themusical and compositional logic thevoices
synchronize and sound inaccord. Theactors restrain
and support each other. Theater companies, according to theauthor, are anamazing kind ofteam. This
isnot friendship, nor love or hate It issomething abit
artificial, abit simulatedThis issomething special.
Like ascore is inmusic.
We touch anartwork with our gaze just as much as we
can and take thememory back with us. Inother words,
we try tocommit it tomemory. You dont have tocommit
afilm to memory we are inits power as we watch it,
thequality ofour memory of itisnot our job.
(Viktor Alimpiev)

Films by Yang Fudong (China) are visually beautiful meditations on thephilosophic questions ofexistence, transferring viewers attention from theouter
world ofhis characters totheir inner world. Theseven-screen Fifth Night inmade in afilm-noir style.
Theauthor recreates its atmosphere so that theviewers could enjoy theaesthetic frames, thevintage
Shanghai exotics and thesophisticated philosophical
problems, thevague and rippled combinations oflight
and shadows which hide more than they reveal.
Thefilming was realized using three horizontally directed cameras tocreate animpression
of anobjects movement through space (thefirst
camera isfocused on thelandscape, thesecond on
themoving frame, the third on theobject itself).
Yang Fudong calls this amulti-angled vision he
introduces new elements, thepicture becomes more
and more multi-layered and deep, theimage revolves
inside another image.
Where, before me, are theages that have gone?
And where, behind me, are thecoming generations?
I think ofheaven and earth, without limit, without end,
And I amall alone and my tears fall down.
Chen Ziang. On agate-tower atYuzhou

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moving photographs. I wanted tocreate something


beautiful within theclich. It isadaydream put onfilm
that turned out exactly how we imagined it.

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Projects

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Spaces of Memory / Simbolic Journeys

Courtesy of the artist, Frith Street Gallery, London and Wako Works of Art, Tokyo. Intstallation photos: Per Kristiansen

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Fiona Tan

Rise and Fall

Memory is afold in thefabric oftime says


theartist. Born inIndonesia, she grew up inAustralia
and now lives in theNetherlands, where she became
so famous that she represented this once strange
country at the53 Venice biennale. For this major port
ofcommerce of themedieval Europe she created
avideo story of aboy who went east and travelled
there for twenty five years theVenetian merchant
Marco Polo. Her colorful videos with many stage sets
become ameditation onher own identity of aprofessional alien and adeclaration of apermanent
subject centuries-long history ofrelations between
West and East. Inher conversations with art critics
she talks of theunstable interrelations between vision,
memory and knowledge, of theuntrustworthy eye,
ofcontradictory relations between word and image,
fact and fiction.

InRise and Fall theartist examines memory


theretrospective gaze and its relationship to theimages we carry within ourselves. Adouble projection,
thework shows us anolder woman who isreminiscing about her life when she was still young. Memories
ofparticular scenes or situations are triggered by
everyday activities: bathing, walking innature, getting
dressed. Theimages move back and forth between
present and past. Inbetween these impressions we
are confronted with footage offlowing, frothing, whirling water as ametaphor for theflow ofmemory, for
becoming and passing.

114 115

Courtesy of the artist, Frith Street Gallery, London and Wako Works of Art, Tokyo. Intstallation photos: Per Kristiansen

Netherlands/Indonesia, 2009
HD installation,two channel, colour, stereo, 21'

Courtesy of SCHAU ORT

/ , 2009
16:9,
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123, 2009

Keren Cytter

Four Seasons

Four Seasons opens with aneo-noir celebration oflate-Hitchcock-meets-1980s-kitsch: arecord


plays dramatic music by Ferrante & Teicher; thick
fake blood drips onto white tiles; snow whirls through
theapartment and alone woman climbs adark, smoky
staircase. Artist Lucy Stein plays thefemale lead as
awayward Hollywood beauty, clothed in aleopard
print dress, teamed with apink jumper, red lips pouting
nonchalantly. Excuse me, my name isLucy, Im living
next door, second floor. I wanted tocomplain about
themusic, its stopped now but Lucy isconfronted
by atall naked man, rising out of thebath as bubbles
float across his upper thighs. Softcore porn enthusiasts
might feel momentarily athome as this scene unfolds,
but rather than afast-track to theact oflove, confused,
theman starts calling for awoman named Stella.
As thefilm unravels, conflicting narratives are
revealed, switching between thestories ofStella,
atragic tale ofheart-break and domestic murder, echoing Tennessee Williams AStreetcar Named Desire
(1947), and Lucy. Avoice-over describes thebuilding
using its architectural elements as metaphors for human behaviour. Climaxing with aseries ofspontaneously combusting objects birthday cake, Christmas

tree, record player Four Seasons is ahomage toall


that isfake, showcasing visual clich's, lo-fi special
effects and deadpan delivery. Yet, somehow, Cytter
creates asense ofpoignancy rather than ofcynicism.
Cytters work emphasizes only multiple fragmented
moments offeeling. As theman inFour Seasons explains toStella, I loved you then and I love you. Stella
replies you pushed me. Head hit thefloor so hard
and my skull cracked wide open [] You broke my
back. My knees. My heart. Clearly he wasnt inlove
with Stella atthat point.
Cytter flouts her style clashes home-movie
Hitchcock, lo-fi Hollywood glamour, soap-opera
Samuel Beckett, soft-core feminism manipulating these cultural tools with results that range from
thebanal to thesublime, from theembarrassingly
comic to thevulgarly surreal.
Kathy Noble inFrieze Magazine,
Issue 123, May 2009

116 117

Courtesy of SCHAU ORT

Israel / Germany, 2009


16:9, digital video
colour, sound, 12'

Courtesy of 303 Gallery, New York; Galerie Eva Presenhuber, Zrich; Victoria Miro Gallery,
London; and Regen Projects, Los Angeles.

, 2010

4:3, 9'

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Doug Aitken

House

House depicts theartist's parents stoically


seated at atable in ahouse, Aitken's own, infact.
Facing one another, his parents' gaze locked, debris
and fragments of thehouse fall around them. Thetwo
protagonists remain untouched as thehouse crumbles and disappears, leaving only thedemarcation
ofits shape in anempty lot that fades in theclosing
scene. Throughout thefilm, theapparatus ofdestruction isnever shown. These devices become part of
thefilm's expanded narrative, implicating what happens outside theframed image.

House isexhibited as aninstallation shown


ondouble monitors set in themidst ofrubble and
detritus. Thespectator views thefilm surrounded by
remains, becoming immersed in thefragments ofwhat
was once ahome. Exploring themes ofurban isolation
and emotional alienation, House is aslow moving film
that plays with memory and temporality.

118 119

Courtesy of 303 Gallery, New York; Galerie Eva Presenhuber, Zrich; Victoria Miro Gallery, London; and Regen Projects, Los Angeles.

USA, 2010
single channel video
4:3, 9'

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Courtesy of the artists

, 20082009
, 13'


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The Bluesoup (Siniy Sup) Group

Alexei Dobrov, Daniil Lebedev, Valery Patkonen,


Alexander Lobanov

Blizzard

Blizzard is afinal part of thevideo triptych


(theother two are Echelon and Defence). These
three works are united by aquasi-military subject and
acommon way ofaddressing theviewer. He isseemingly involved into what ishappening onscreen,
its suggested tohim towatch theaction through
theeyes of acasual witness of acertain mysterious operation or aspy who has totrace movements
ofcargo or manpower.
Essentially nothing isclear after the screening
theviewer / spy cannot guess thecargos quantity

or its contents, or thedirection ofits movement


(theEchelon), thedisposition offorces conducting
some kind of amilitary operation in thefog isalso
uncertain (Defence). Watching thepeople moving around in thesnow (Blizzard) also poses more
questions than itgives answers: who are all these
people? Are they soldiers? Refugees? Sportsmen?
Saboteurs? Where are they from and where are they
going? Is itadeployment offorces? Is itawar atall?

120 121

Courtesy of the artists

Russia, 2008-2009
Video installation, 13'
Sound: James Welburn

Courtesy of Leslie Thornton and Winkleman Gallery

, 2010
HD-,
, 8'

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Leslie Thornton

Binocular

Binocular consists of aseries offlat-screen


monitors. Oneach screen two circular fields appear:
on theleft, images of animals birds, reptiles, fish,
mammals, some exotic, others familiar and commonplace beautifully captured, filmed in thewild; on
theright, theimage isfolded back onitself in acentripetal pattern, reminiscent of akaleidoscope. Thetwo
circular fields are intimately connected: themovements
of theanimals on theleft are remapped into theelegant
mathematical abstraction on theright.
Theeffect isunexpected and profound: theviewer
notices minute tremors and shifts (asmall heart beating, for example) in theleft sphere, by catching thevery
same resonant motion, multiplied, recast, and folded
into itself in thepattern on theright. There isno anthropomorphism here, no Disneyfied cuteness, no identification or domestication. Thornton gives us aglimpse of
aworld prior tolanguage and exterior toconsumption,
mute, opaque, and absolutely other.
Leslie Thorntons beautiful, meditative, camerawork locates themovements ofpredator / prey
relations in themost subtle fragments and configura-

tions ofbehavior and morphology. All ofher work


shares this intensity, analmost painfully precise focus
on thefundamental minutiae ofbeing in theworld.
InThorntons magnum opus, Peggy and Fred inHell,
for example, thetumultuous cacophony ofpost-apocalyptic litter surrounding her protagonists (two small
children) was animate, threatening, epiphanic, and
itwas inescapable, because as viewers we were carried along into their world. There was just enough for
us tomake our way without being totally consumed
(their own eventual heroic disposition saves Peggy
and Fred, and rescues us). We are similarly transported by thesuccession ofanimal / animate spaces
inBinocular.
Nature isnot subsumed or (re) produced, circumscribed or contained, so much as it isreflected,
in astrange and elegant mirroring that acknowledges that thespace ofotherness traced in theimage of theanimal isfilled by anabstract artifactuality,
that infact, there was nothing but anartifactuality
present tobegin with.

122 123

Courtesy of Leslie Thornton and Winkleman Gallery

USA, 2010
HD video, three edited loops
derived from the Binocular series, 8'

Isaac Julien is represented by Victoria Miro Gallery, London; Metro Pictures, New York; Galere Helga De Alvear, Madrid;
Roslyn Oxley9 Gallery, Sydney; Two Rooms Gallery, Auckland; ShanghART Gallery, Shanghai; Almine Rech Gallery,
Brussels.

, 2008
16 ,
DVD/HD, 5.1 , 76'

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Isaac Julien

Derek

Derek is aunique collaboration between Tilda


Swinton and Isaac Julien, inwhich British artist and
filmmaker Derek Jarman isremembered and celebrated. Derek is afilm ofJarmans life, as well as thestory
ofEngland from the1960s to theearly 1990s.
Atits centre is aday-long interview Jarman
recorded in1990 with film producer and author Colin
MacCabe. Amessage in abottle, itsurveys Jarmans
life from thepoint ofview ofhis death. Tilda Swinton is thefilms narrator, reading aletter she wrote
toJarman adecade after his death. Clips ofJarmans
feature-length and Super-8 films are juxtaposed with
news and current affairs footage of thetimes that his
life illuminated, from sixties swinging London through
toThatcherite nationalism of theeighties and its
repression ofdifference.
From Sebastiane (1976) toBlue (1992), Derek
Jarmans films constantly interrogated time and art,
and epitomised his own era. He was apainter, part
ofthat moment that made sixties London acapital of
theart world. He was afilmmaker, perhaps thesingle

most crucial figure ofBritish independent cinema


through theseventies, eighties and nineties. He
lived as agay man surfing thejoys ofGay Liberation
and thesorrows ofAids. He lived as aparticipant
observer, noting with pen or camera all that passed
before him from punk toThatcher, from Hampstead
Heath cruising tofilm premiere.
Influenced by him as afriend and co-conspirator, Isaac Julien is acentral part ofJarmans legacy.
His film, Derek, is atthesame time thedream of
alost past and ademonstration of theimmediacy
ofJarmans work and example. Jarman left astartlingly original legacy, seemingly part ofevery significant artistic movement ofhis time, he epitomised
what Jordan, acharacter from Jubilee says: Dont
dream it, be it.

124 125

Isaac Julien is represented by Victoria Miro Gallery, London; Metro Pictures, New York; Galere Helga De Alvear,
Madrid; Roslyn Oxley9 Gallery, Sydney; Two Rooms Gallery, Auckland; ShanghART Gallery, Shanghai; Almine Rech
Gallery, Brussels.

UK, 2008
super 16 film, digital video
DVD/HD transfer, 5.1 surround sound, 76'


Projects

/
Moving Image/ Poetics of Language and Space

1. ?
2.
2. , 2005
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Is a Bell Ringing in the Empty Sky. Tom Van Eynde, Courtesy of the artist and Donald Young Gallery, Chicago

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Gary Hill

1. Is a Bell Ringing in the Empty Sky?


2. Loop Through
2. USA, 2005
Two-channel video installation
color, silent, loop

Loop Through. Courtesy of the artist and Donald Young Gallery, Chicago

1. USA, 2005
Two-channel video, sound installation,
color, stereo sound, loop

2. Thework was recorded inhigh-definition video using avertical format


(thecameras were rotated 90 degrees), and isshown ontwo vertically mounted
40-inch (size variable) LCD monitors, reflecting thefact that Isabelle Huppert
isfilmed only from thewaist up, rather than theentire standing figure. Themonitors are positioned considerably apart toreflect theposition of thecameras
during therecording (inwhich theposition ofHuppert and thetwo cameras
roughly formed anequilateral triangle). Theperson / actress isalways looking
atone or theother camera, sometimes turning her head todo so and other
times simply shifting her eyes. This creates atriadic relationship between
theviewer, Huppert, and, in asense, her double. (Inthis respect, this piece
isquite similar to aprevious work entitled Standing Apart / Facing Faces,
1996.) As in IsABell Ringing in theEmpty Sky?, there are fluctuations between theperson and theactress; however, thesubtle presence of theactress reveals itself to agreater extent inthis work through facial expressions,
inparticular theeyes.

128 129

1.Together with thework entitled Loop Through,


2005, Is aBell Ringing in theEmpty Sky? was
originally produced for aretrospective tribute for
theactress Isabelle Huppert. Thework was recorded inhigh-definition video using avertical format
(thecameras were rotated 90 degrees). Two screens,
each measuring approximately 96 h. x 54 w. inches,
lean against thewall, one almost up against itand
theother with alittle more angle suggesting something like alarge dressing room in aphoto or dance
studio. Thetwo full-bodied images were recorded
simultaneously and consist ofIsabelle Huppert
standing and looking at aninvisible point positioned
between thecameras. One camera looks down from
aposition slightly above thehead and theother looks
up from about thigh high. Huppert becomes aportrait
inmotion, fluctuating between herself and acting, where arush ofsubtle changes ofbehavior and
emotions are revealed: discomfort, intensity, boredom,
playfulness, annoyance, agitation, coyness, etc.

Silent Horizon

Courtesy of the artists

/, , 2011
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Beyond music, beyond sculpture, beyond movie, beyond
language, beyond everything

Yuri Kalendarev, Evgeni Yufit

The Silent Horizon

Inconventional cinema it isthesequence


ofimages that isusually completed first. After this
acomposer isinvited tomake asound track. Incontrast tothis for theSilent Horizon project a30 sound
track was created first. This sound track consists of
thefield recordings of thenight sounds at thesea
and at themouth of theriver Arno, thephonogram
of thesounds of theheart of theauthor, detected
with theecho Doppler at theCNR, Pisa, which were
after that overlayed with thesounds of theSounding
Screens.This sound track was then given to theSt.
Petersburgs film-maker E.Yufit and a30' black &
white video was produced by him.
Aninstallation isbased on thesound track,
sounding screen and thecontraposition oftwo
echoed black & white light projections inbetween
themonitor and thesounding screen. TheSound
Plates Sounding Screens by Yuri Kalendarev, naturally generate sounds of alarge range offrequency
oscillations that allow multiple interactions with our
being, through thephenomenon known as sonic
entrainment.
TheSounding Screen does not continually
generate sound. Itexists as asculpture, sort ofobject, aninstrument, silent until played by thewind
or aperson. Inthis manner itrequires, and possibly

invites anaction on thepart of theviewer. In away,


those Sounding Screens are devices tolisten to
thesilence. When anobserver touches and moves
theSounding Screen, its starts tovibrate and oscillate, more and more and its producing adeep
sounds which are growing, reverberating and reciprocally amplifying. What isexciting about these natural
sounds isnot only their remarkable sonic quality but
also theenduring length of thesound which ranges
from 1.5 to5 minutes following asingle hit given to
thesound plate. Thelight projection of theimage on
theSounding Screen begins tovibrate and rhythmically pulsate creating analmost hypnotic effect.
Inredefining theconcept ofsculpture inpure
sound terms, thework ofYuri Kalendarev extends
and explores anew aural experience that goes beyond thesound itself, aninvestigation into therealm
ofpure acoustic. Perhaps themain feature
ofthese sounding sculptures isthat they take us
beyond thelimits ofgenre.
Beyond music, beyond sculpture, beyond movie,
beyond language, beyond everything

130 131

Courtesy of the artists

Russia /Italy, Russia, 2011


Light, sound and the sounding screen projection, 30'

Courtesy of the artist, Marian Goodman, New York; Hauser & Wirth Zrich London; Johnen/Schttle, Berlin, Cologne,
Munich; Galerie Chantal Crousel, Paris

/, 2008
HD-, , 4' 51"

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Anri Sala

Answer Me

Answer Me was shot inTeufelsberg, which


means Devils mountain inGerman. Its avery singular place, atop ahill made from therubble ofpostwar
Berlin, under which another building, amilitarytechnical college designed by Albert Speer, isburied.
During thecold war, alistening station was built
ontop of thehill tomonitor Soviet and East German
communications.
Thefilm isbased on adialogue from anote that
Michelangelo Antonioni wrote on thebreakdown of
acouple, where he wanted toshoot not their conversation but their silences, silence as anegative dimension ofspeech. Awoman tries toend arelationship:
Its over, admit it. That way everything will be out in
theopen and well know what todo. Her companion
refuses tolisten and plays thedrums fiercely. She
keeps onasking: Answer me! Attimes we hear it,
attimes we only see her lips phrasing it, her voice
silenced by his drumming. Due to theecho produced
by thegeodesic dome designed by Buckminster
Fuller, drumsticks resting on avacant drum next
toher, play to theecho ofhis drumming. Theskin of

thevacant drum vibrates and responds to thefrequencies ofhis playing. Amplified by thedome, those
frequencies cause thedrumsticks tobounce creating
not only anaudible but also avisible echo. He refuses
tolisten and plays thedrums blocking her voice
from reaching him while at thesame time crossing thespace and coming close toher via those
frequencies. InAnswer Me, I was interested tobring
Antonionis exchange under thephysical influence of
thebuilding. Is itamonologue? Or ishis drumming
theother half of adialogue, ofwhich we only understand thepart made ofwords?
Text:
Its over, admit it. That way everything will
be out in theopen and well know what todo.
Its enough toknow what we want. Isnt that so?
Answer me. Isnt that right?
Anri Sala

132 133

Courtesy of the artist, Marian Goodman, New York; Hauser & Wirth Zrich London; Johnen/Schttle, Berlin, Cologne,
Munich; Galerie Chantal Crousel, Paris

Albania/ France, 2008


HD video, stereo sound, 4' 51"

Direction Signs I 1997, monument on the street of Cetinje, Montenegro. Courtesy of the artist
My Height, March 21, 2007 inscription on a door frame in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Courtesy of the artist

, 2008
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Yuri Albert

Paintings

Theinstallations look like asmall cinema hall


with afew rows ofchairs, and arunning letters panel
instead of ascreen. For more than five hours thetext
ofElder Philostratuss book, Imagines isdisplayed by
running letters. Thebook is adescription of64 paintings from aprivate collection inNaples, infact thebasic source onancient painting. Thescholars today are
not sure if thepaintings described have really existed
or are just fictions. Artists from theRenaissance
to19th century academic art have used thecompositions and subjects described inthis book.
Running letters (scrolling text):
Whosoever scorns painting isunjust totruth;
and he isalso unjust toall thewisdom that has
been bestowed upon poets for poets and painters make equal contribution toour knowledge
of thedeeds and thelooks of heroes and he
withholds his praise from symmetry ofpropor-

tion, whereby art partakes ofreason. For one who


wishes aclever theory, theinvention ofpainting belongs to thegods witness onearth
all thedesigns with which theSeasons paint
themeadows, and themanifestations we see in
theheavens but for one who ismerely seeking
theorigin ofart, imitation is aninvention most
ancient and most akin tonature; and wise men
invented it, calling itnow painting, now plastic
art. <>Thepresent discussion, however, isnot
todeal with painters nor yet with their lives; rather
we propose todescribe examples ofpaintings in
theform ofaddresses which we have composed
for theyoung, that by this means they may learn
tointerpret paintings and toappreciate what
isesteemed inthem.
Elder Philostratus. Paintings,
translated by Arthur Fairbanks

134 135

One minute 2010, a project during which the Louvre was opened one minute earlier for five days. Courtesy of the artist

Russia, 2008
Running letters (scrolling text), 210 ( 6 cm, chairs
timeless

Courtesy of the artists

, 2010/2011
, 15'



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TOTART

Natalia Abalakova and Anatoly Zhigalov

Four Columns of Vigilance

136 137

Courtesy of the artists

Russia, 2010/2011
Six-channel installation,15'

Specially created for theExpanded Cinema


project, this is apolyscreen version of thevideo performance Four Columns ofVigilance. This remakeresearch of acertain language adventure isunfolding
onseveral levels. Itre-actualizes theinitial event,
enriching itwith real historical events connected with
TOTARTs media projects and video performances.
Thevoice-leading here issupported by word
visualization, aspecial video poetry based on themain
theme life and development ofliterary examples for

the11 irregular verbs of theRussian language. Video


project as atransformer isone of theprinciples
ofvideo work construction which allows theviewer
totake alook inside TOTARTs kitchen (or thefilm
set) and become aparticipant ofthis self-developing
creative process.

Courtesy of the artist

, 2011

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Translations

Courtesy of the artist

Russia, 2011
an audio-visual installation
looped image, linear sound, 24' 20"
the sound was recorded and edited at the Boson Higgs Studio, Moscow
music: Mikhail Kharitonov
female voice: Elena Liubarskaya
male voice: Ilya Permyakov

Two adjacent rooms bounded from each other.


Two non-self-sufficient spaces. Screened video
where thesound ismuffled by noise, and text crystallizes and melts; and aninvisible cinema from which
only story, sound and characters remain perceptible.
Translations between them, passing from one room
toanother. What is theresult ofthese movements?
Alost melodramatic thriller or its own travesty?
Ascript telling us about theafter-effects of amimetic
imitation ofmartyrs? Anexcuse tocensure thenarrative and toedit subtitles as avers libre?
This audio-visual installation issomething inbetween afilm and abook, but itsets itself thelimits ofits
own pretensions tototality and wholeness. Theimage
and sound in thework are not synchronized. Thevideo
islooped, closed upon itself. And thestory isopened
into aline with points oforigin and finish. Finding
oneself in thedark, putting onearphones theinstallations visitor gets anopportunity toturn on thedisk with
theimageless film and listen through this story.

INT. AMOVIE THEATRE.


PROJECTIONISTS BOOTH. NIGHT
Theprojectionist, reflected in theprojection
windows glass isbusy rewinding film from
one bobbin toanother. Beyond thewindow
in theauditorium thefilm isshown. Upon
theglass vague shapes reflect thescenes
of thefilm. Thefragmentary subtitles
float and disappear almost immediately.
Only therhythm of thecut transitions
remains from thevisual component of
thefilm beyond glass. From thesound
track only anindistinct hum (female voice)
can be heard muffled by thechirping of
theprojector
MAN, shrugs his shoulders and opens
abook.
FEMALE VOICE
What has itopened at?
MALE VOICE
(grins, reads aloud)
St. Bartholomew.
FEMALE VOICE
Ishe being skinned*?
MALE VOICE
Violently decorticated, Id say.

* All words with an asterisk sound the same (to


film, to shoot) in Russian

FEMALE VOICE
No, skinned. Cut, skinned and taken off. Just
like afilm.
MALE VOICE
These are just your language hallucinations,
nothing more.
FEMALE VOICE
Do you remember how Bertolucci has linked
cinema topsychoanalysis? By theword
camera itmeans abedroom inItalian.
And what about Russian? Camera means
cell, imprisonment. Toframe animage
is thesame as toput someone behind
bars, into anisolation ward.
MALE VOICE
Theres also another camera in
Russian astorage-room. Can
also be very crowded. And one
can also take off clothes. Scrub off
theunnecessary, peel off thetruth
layer by layer, perform anontological
striptease.
FEMALE VOICE
Yes, but this striptease isgoing tobe
somewhat punitive, with purges and
exposures

138 139

ANEXCERPT FROM THESCRIPT


Projects

/
The Third Cinema/ Video Art as a Cast from Reality

1.
2.
2. , 2008
, 5' 03"

Sweet Unease. Courtesy of Volte Gallery Mumbai, India

1. , 2010
, 11' 11"

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Ranbir Kaleka

1. Sweet Unease
2. He was a Good Man
2. India, 2008
video projection on painted image, 5' 03"

He was a Good Man. Courtesy of Volte Gallery Mumbai, India

1. India, 2010
video projection on painted image, 11' 11"

2.InHe Was AGood Man, Kaleka revisits thepatience, futility, stillness and
wonder ofMan Threading ANeedle, made adecade before. Inthis recursion of
acompelling psychic situation theattempt tothread aneedle ischarged with
theneed toassert agency and suture thewounds of aharrowing inheritance
theartist gives himself thelatitude tobathe thepainted surface, not only with
acorresponding if fluctuating portrait, but also with projected images that
bear thefreight of atraumatic history ofmigration and diaspora. Atintervals,
also, thepainting iswashed in theimageless light of theprojector, harsh and
inexorable as aninquisitors gaze.
Between projection and painting, inKalekas work, theimage-surface
becomes thesite of anacute, electrically unstable presencing. Inattending
to theprecariousness of theimage, its ontological indeterminacy, theprobabilism attendant onits address tous and our reading ofit, Kaleka invites us
toreflect onstartling questions about thenature of theindividual subjectivity
and thenature ofeveryday experience, with its not-always registered densities
ofchoice, dream, reverie and delusion.

142 143

1.Two men who are almost areplica ofeach


other eat non-stop at thetable and occasionally
get up leaving behind them their painted selves on
thecanvas and meet on thewall where they engage
inperpetual wrestling while taking ondifferent
personas, vacillating between genders and types,
erotic touch and aggressive intrusion, engaging
theself and theother.
Simply put, food sustains life, and inthis installation eating is ametaphor for itand wrestling
thestruggle with lifes questions.

Ranjit Hoskote

Courtesy of Priska C. Juschka Fine Art

, 2010

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Almagul Menlibayeva

Milk for Lambs

Menlibayeva stages and films complex


mythological narratives in thesteppes ofher
native Kazakhstan, with references toher own
nomadic heritage and theShamanistic traditions
of thecultures ofCentral Asia.
Her video, Milk for Lambs, explores
theemotional, spiritual and cultural residues of
anancient belief system, still resonating among
thepeoples ofCentral Asia today theTengriism (sky religion) of theTurkic tribes, reaching
from Eurasia to thePacific Ocean.

Themythological nurturing Earth Goddess Umai and favorite wife ofTengri, thegod
of thesky, symbolizes theclose relationship
of thepeople to theland and its given riches,
by animals and humans feeding off her body
and drinking her milk. Thefemale descendants
ofUmai invoke and continue aprecarious symbiosis today between themothers who nurture
achild and their insatiable, adolescent men.

144 145

Courtesy of Priska C. Juschka Fine Art

Kazakhstan, 2010
digital video
color, sound, 11' 35"

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, 2009
HD-
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Taus Makhacheva

Rehlen (Avar Language Flock)

Thesocial dimension ofmy works resonates with personal history. Belonging to aDagestan family Im deeply familiar with habitual social reactions towards representatives ofanother
culture. Understanding thedifficulty ofovercoming those differences continues toform theessence ofmy artistic practice. I often utilize irony
and sarcasm inmy works as I challenge thenotion ofnormality within social life and reveal
thehidden controversies and fiction of thepublic politics towards cultural minorities.
I do not claim todocument some kind
ofsocial crisis. Whilst capturing routine and ordinary situations my art manifests anobsessive
symbolic element that subverts these seemingly
innocuous moments and makes them available
for anindividual social response.
Rehlen isshot inbetween mountain villages
Tsada and Ahalchi, Republic ofDagestan, ithas
asimple narrative: young man iswearing atra-

ditional sheepskin coat timug, that was usually


worn by shepherds and attempts toscramble as
close as possible to theflock ofsheep. Literal
interpretation ofthis work concerned with local nature or traditional cultural symbols, has
asupportive function towards thecontent of
thework-aquestion What is thegoal behind
performers actions?
Rehlen deals with problematics ofsocial
relations, that demand consent with certain rules
and regulations for social and cultural integration. This work isabout what we are ready todo
inorder tobecome apart ofcommunity? What
choices do we need tomake this happen!? Are
we ready towear heavy and highly uncomfortable, from theperspective ofmodern man,
clothes and get down onall fours?
Taus Makhacheva

146 147

Courtesy of the artist

Russia, 2009
HD video
colour, silent, 7' 21"

Swan on the Verge of Extinction, 2008 performance. Courtesy of the artist

, 2011

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Elena Kovylina

Sons of the Bitch

For centuries theactors trade was


considered tobe shameful and actors were
not interred incemeteries along with therest
ofcommunity. Itlooks like thestatus and position of aHollywood star today have to alarge
extent exonerated this ancient profession.
Consider that thepopularity ofactors issuch
that themasses not only adopt them, discussing
their private lives, but also imitate them! Inmy
view themost curious change is intheaspect
ofmeaning ofthis phenomenon. Toact is toimitate life, reproduce its forms authentically, todissemble, transferring theemphasis from thereal
content into theformal sphere (theactors technique, well-done make-up, grand costumes).
Imitating theactors, theaudience atlarge
has given up living its own life, started toplayact it, cast as itself, tocopy thepermanently
changing idols, reproducing dead images.
Thereality of ablue screen ismixed
with everyday life, infusing itwith thecolours
of afestive cake or awhore. Having filmed
absolutely all moments in theeverymans lavatory life, leaving no intimate human sphere out
ofmass-media reach, theinteractive television
and reality shows have crowned this intervention. Now every manager, realtor or salesperson

can imagine themselves ahero onscreen. This


is thewidescreen cinema that has consumed
and transferred all thegreatness ofhuman soul
into theflatness of theTV plasma.
Thecriterion ofauthenticity was long
ago removed from theglobal scene, as Jean
Baudrillard has stated many years ago inhis
definition of asimulacrum.
Anactor isnot aself-sufficient figure.
Apuppet, beloved by thepeople, subject to
thewill ofhis director, producer and sponsor,
she frequently makes excuses for herself in interviews sorry, but thats our profession: we play
(well) bad guys in(bad quality) soap operas.
What joy for theclerks ofall kinds employed for
life atalienating jobs toread this confessions!
Theplayacting technique today issimply
indispensable inorder torealize life-long dissimilation, that turns from self-deceit toself-destruction. It isno coincidence that every training
course inachieving success primarily includes
acting skills Its not entirely clear, though, who
was itthat ordered this global apocalypse called
widescreen cinema?!
Elena Kovylina

148 149

Red Pomegranates, 2009 performance. Courtesy of the artist


phany, 2009 performance. Courtesy of the artist

Russia, 2011
performance

Feasting or Flying, Harun Farocki/Antje Ehmann in Hebbel am


Ufer Berlin MuTphoto/Barbara Braun 2008

, 2008
, 24'

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Harun Faroki, Antje Ehmann

Feasting or Flying

Thework Feasting or Flying refers to abasic


statement that anticipates and explains thefundamental principle behind Farockis entire method ofworking with films: Some dissect abird inorder toeat
it, others inorder todiscover how tofly. Farocki
and Ehmann made their video installation about film
by putting together aselection offilm sequences
that present theact ofsuicide. Here they examine
theshot / countershot technique, excerpt particular
scenes and camera angels, and then edit them,
compile them, and show them simultaenously on
akind ofsemicircular stage. Inthis way they construct
asetting for projecting theindividual and thesociety,
ideology and aesthetics, ficition and documentary.
One after theother, carefully chosen and precisely
identified sequences ofselected suicides appear
on thebig screen, juxtaposing specific strategies
ofvisualization or theaestheticization ofsuicide and
its effects, or emphazising thepart offilms where
suicide becomes thecentral theme of themoving
image. Theselected film narratives about suicide thus
becomes thequalitative material for researching and
constructing acomplex social mosaic that offers us
acomprehensive experience offilm and suicide, ofart
and death.
Igor Spanjol
For our exhibition Kino wie noch nie (Cinema like never before, Vienna, 2006; Berlin, 2007),
we broke down film sequences. For instance, we
presented ashot from acertain sequence onone
monitor and thereverse shot on asecond monitor

next to thefirst. This juxtaposition revealed that montage retains its function, its effect, even after this act
ofseparation and distribution, and gives us ananalytic
method that neither makes theobject incomprehensible nor stops its motion. That iswhat itcomes down
to: theability toanalyse abird insuch away that we
come tounderstand its flight without dissecting itas if
itwere going tobe eaten.
People tend toanalyse montage on thebasis
of thecollision between two shots; all too seldom
isconsideration given todistanced montage. Theappearance ofone shot in afilm refers to aprevious
shot, often to several similar or strikingly dissimilar shots far back in thechronological sequence.
Theshots and sequences we collected were onone
subject: theman who kills himself. When itcomes
tosuicide, thefilm-man might be said tomake up for
everything he lacks indepth ofemotion and expressiveness compared with thefilm-woman. Motifs from
wholly dissimilar films are distributed over several
screens in thespace. For instance, theres theman
walking into aroom because he wants tobe alone,
or theman walking insilence and being followed by
acamera determined topick up ananswer scarcely
surrendered if indeed thefilm narrative isposing
aquestion. Thecultural technique ofdistributing over
space inorder toanchor something in theconsciousness was already cultivated by theancient Greeks.
We use itwith theintention ofarriving at anew film:
one about theman who has used up any further
freedom ofaction.
Harun Farocki and Antje Ehmann

150 151

Feasting or Flying, Harun Farocki/Antje Ehmann in Hebbel am


Ufer Berlin MuTphoto/Barbara Braun 2008

Germany, 2008
6-Chanel video, 24'

Photo Lavinia German, courtesy of the artist and Hollybush Gardens, London

, 2009
DVD, , 13' 29''


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Johanna Billing

I'm Lost Without Your Rhythm

Johanna Billing's videos reflect onroutine, choreography and ritual, with anemphasis on thefragility ofindividual performance within collective experience. Obsessed by circularity and retrospection, she
stages specific situations where something isabout
totake place, theartist herself remaining invisible during theperformances and actions that are
recorded. Billing's skill lies incombining thechoreography ofindividuals with facilitating their freedom
toperform naturally, bringing thewhole together in
theediting process.
I'm Lost Without Your Rhythm isbased on
therecording of alive performance ofdance

learned' or performed by amateur Romanian dancers inIasi, Romania, during thePeriferic 8 Biennial
ofContemporary Art inOct 2008. Thefilm links several days' activity into acontinuous process, inwhich
dancers were watched by anaudience who were
free tocome and go as they pleased. There isno
final performance as such and so thework is aresult
ofcollaboration between choreographer, musicians,
dancers and audience.

152 153

Photo Lavinia German, courtesy of the artist and Hollybush Gardens, London

Sweden, 2009
DVD, loop, 13' 29''

-
The Annunciation. Fra Angelico fresco, 1438-45, Museo di San Marco, Florence
The Annunciation. Eija-Liisa Ahtila. Courtesy of Marian Goodman Gallery, New York and Paris
2010 Crystal Eye Kristallisilm Oy

, 2010
HD-, 33'

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Eija-Liisa Ahtila

Finland, 2010
3-channel projected HD installation, 33'

TheAnnunciation is aninstallation inwhich one


of thecentral motifs ofChristian iconography isconstructed and re-enacted through themoving image.
It isbased on thenarrative from theGospel ofLuke
(1:26-38) and paintings of theAnnunciation inwhich
artists have, invarious periods, depicted their visions
of thegospels events.
Inthis Annunciation theevents are set in
thepresent. Theinstallation, ofthree projected
images, consists ofmaterial made during thefilms
preparation and theactual reconstruction of
theevent. Thefilm material was shot mainly during thefrosty winter season of2010 in thesnowy
Aulanko nature reserve insouthern Finland and on
aset depicting theartists studio and thescene of
theAnnunciation. All theactors, apart from two, are
non-professionals and attend theHelsinki Deaconess Institute for womens support services. Although
based on anexisting script, theevents, roles and
dialogue were adapted during filming inaccordance
with each actors individual presence.
Aviewpoint to TheAnnunciation isJacob von
Uexkulls idea that living beings different worlds exist
simultaneously. This idea provides anapproach to
thenature of amiracle and thepossibilities ofperception and knowledge.
We are easily deluded into assuming that
therelationship between aforeign subject and
theobjects inhis world exists on thesame spa-

tial and temporal plane as our own relations with


theobjects inour human world. This fallacy isfed by
abelief in theexistence of asingle world, into which
all living creatures are pigeonholed. This gives rise
to thewidespread conviction that there isonly one
space and one time for all living things. Only recently
have physicists begun todoubt theexistence of auniverse with aspace that isvalid for all beings.
Extract from AStroll through theWorlds ofAnimals and Men, Jakob von Uexkll (1957)
How does one know what things are, unless
they're already familiar? What does one know ofthem
atthat stage? How do such things exist? How toget
next tothem and engage in dialogue onwhat and
inwhose language? One instinctively approaches
such things through thefamiliar, the known attimes
with such precision and force that one can see
from asingle angle only, inone direction, all things
in aclear order one thing infront, another just
behind it, and so on inperspective. Can something
already familiar fulfill thecriteria for amiracle? Can
one be shaken with surprise by something one knows
through and through? What does one see then?
Extract from TheAnnunciation, thenarrators
voice over

154 155

The Annunciation. Eija-Liisa Ahtila. Courtesy of Marian Goodman Gallery, New York and Paris
2010 Crystal Eye Kristallisilm Oy

The Annunciation


Projects

C /
Simulated Reality/ The Other Hero

Courtesy of Stellar Scene and SpyFilms

, 2010
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Arev Manoukian

Nuit Blanche

Adramatic short film, Nuit Blanche explores


anexperience many ofus have lived before
afleeting yet powerful connection with aperfect
stranger. Set in adark cobblestone street in
the1950s, aman catches thegaze of awoman in
acafe across thestreet. This split-second moment
becomes suspended intime, as thetwo gravitate
towards each other in ahyper real fantasy where
nothing can hold them back.
Anunforgettable moment with astranger happens toeveryone, especially in alarge metropolitan
city. Itlasts for asplit second and then things get
awkward so we turn away. I wanted totake that
moment ofattraction and stretch it inahyper-real
fantasy where things unfold like slow moving photographs. I wanted tocreate something beautiful within
theclich. It isadaydream put onfilm that turned out
exactly how we imagined it.
Theactors inNuit Blanche were shot in agreen
screen studio inToronto. All thestreet environments
and sets were created digitally inpost-production

with matte paintings ofstill photographs taken inParis


and Toronto. Pre-production took afew months
ofpart-time work as we created ananimated pre-viz
and did numerous visual effects tests.
Thechallenging part was that we had tocreate
almost everything. There was ahuge volume ofassets, from wet streets to3d leaves and cars tomake.
But thehardest was trying tofigure out how themain
effects should look. After breaking real glass atover
2000 frames per second onset we realized that itwill
never look theway we want. We had tocreate and
animate theglass in3d. Thevisual effects took about
8 months ofwork with Marc-Andre Gray as themain
visual effects artist. Itwas agrueling process but
itwas apleasure todo because we were very passionate about theproject.

Arev Manoukian

158 159

Courtesy of Stellar Scene and SpyFilms

Canada, 2010
digital video, colour, sound, 4' 41"

ure /
, 2007
4-
4:3 Pal DVD, , 14' 15''

Courtesy of the artist


: , ,
Fiction Song Ltd., Musik-Edition Discoton GmbH
BMG Music Publishing,

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The Cure Cold,
One Hundred Years Sinking ,

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Boris Eldagsen

No Cure

Germany, 2007
4-Channel Video Installation
4:3 Pal DVD, loop, 14' 15''

160 161

Courtesy of the artist

Score by David Chisholm


lyrics: Robert Smith/ Laurence Tolhurst/ Simon Gallup
by Fiction Song Ltd., Musik-Edition Discoton GmbH
Courtesy of BMG Music Publishing Germany

Based on thestructure ofkaraoke, No Cure


features four 80-year-old Germans, singing thelyrics
ofthree TheCure songs: Cold, One Hundred Years
and Sinking. As theelectronic score composed by
Melbourne composer David Chisholm uses leitmotifs
ofRichard Wagners opera Gtterdmmerung (Twilight
of theGods) toaccompany thelyrics, thework drifts
into apoetic and eerie comment on thetransience
oflife and memory.

I see myself being 75, sitting in anursing home


and having 3D movie-like virtual cybersex around
theworld. My avatar will be avisual blueprint ofmy
mind, while my body isrotting in awheelchair. This will
be thefuture version of ThePicture ofDorian Gray.
Boris Eldagsen

Courtesy of the artists

, 2011
HD-, /, , 30' 50''


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PROVMYZA Duo

Galina Myznikova & Sergey Provorov

Snowdrop

Human beings are able todistance themselves


from their immediate environment and perceive
theworld as something bigger than self. Aman has
been gifted with vision as anact connected toremoteness, todistance, as thepoint ofview turns from
multiple and close to aunited remote world view like
painting ofpacked space turns gradually into painting of theempty space.
It isimportant tosquint inorder tosee better
thedemonstrated tragic picture of theworld. Thethin
line of theleash, connecting dog and man, appears
and disappears from view, defining thefragility oftheir
relationship and preceding their break-up.
Thehelicopter jarring with nature in asplit
second tears apart theconnection between thedog

and theman. Its powerful energy field isvested


with aspecific performative task todestroy
theharmonious architectonics of thenatural
state. Formally itforms theindividualized space of
asnowstorm as some special place with its own
history and simultaneously creates aspecial and
temporal border between thecalm ofnature and
anartificial chaos (blizzard).
Thepolyphonic interweaving ofnatural, human
and technological images creates theprinciple ofdefamiliarization (ostranenie), ofcombining theincongruous, ofincommensurability oflogical, sensual and
chaotic thinking.
Galina Myznikova & Sergey Provorov

162 163

Courtesy of the artists

Russia, 2011
digital video, b&w, stereo sound, 30' 50''

Courtesy of the artist

, 2010
HD-, , , 5' 24''

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Viktor Alimpiev

Vot (So)

Agroup offive actors performs avocalise,


formed by speech. Synchronization amoment ofharmony inthis speech happens when
theRussian word vot ispronounced, or its vocalise
double alength ofsinging similar inmusical and
compositional logic tovot. Thework was realized
inToulouse with French actors.

164 165

Courtesy of the artist

Russia, 2010
HD video, colour, sound, 5' 24''

Courtesy of Yang Fudong, ShanghART Gallery and Marian Goodman Gallery

, 2010
7-
35 / HD, 10' 37''

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Yang Fudong

Fifth Night

TheFifth Night is avideo installation composed ofseven synchronized projections. Thevideos


feature old Shanghai scenes, as alarge dcor with
carriages, rickshaws and vintage cars. In themiddle
of thescene astage has been built, afew jars with
fishes have been placed on atable and atramway
isbeing frenetically repaired, illuminating theplace.
Vague views ofpeople without any relationship are
shown, anxious, hesitating men and women here and
there attend totheir own duties, ascenes foreground
can become next scenes background.
Ashot iswide and narrative, while theother
depicts some characters, this long screen ofseven
projections has more relief than if itwas in3D, and
ismore complete. Facing seven cameras, actors expressions ineach objective and shot are uncontrolla-

ble; this kind ofrandomness presents acertain subtle


and unpredictable aesthetic.
Theidea behind this work came from areflection onfilm production, and anew filming method
was used for this video installation: seven projections,
going far beyond our visual field and habits, Yang Fudong calls itmultiple views film. Themost important
in theproduction ofthis work was theinspiration of
theactors, as well as viewers feelings of thespace,
theartist unified this work by maneuvering its inner
and external feelings.

166 167

Courtesy of Yang Fudong, ShanghART Gallery and Marian Goodman Gallery

China, 2010
7-Channel 35mm b&w film
transferred to HD, 10' 37''


Projects

-
Sound Performance

Test Pattern [ ]

photo by Liz Hingley

, 2008

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Ryoji Ikeda

Test Pattern [live set]

Test pattern is asystem that converts any


type ofdata (text, sounds, photos and movies) into
barcode patterns and binary patterns of0s and 1s.
Through its application, theproject aims toexamine
therelationship between critical points ofdevice
performance and thethreshold ofhuman perception.
Theproject varies indifferent formats; audiovisual
performance, installation, CD release etc.
This latest audiovisual work from Ryoji Ikeda,
presents intense flickering black and white imagery,
which floats and convulses indarkness to astark and
powerful, highly synchronized soundtrack.
Through a real time computer programme, test pattern converts Ikeda's audio signal patterns into tightly
synchronized barcode patterns onscreen. Thevelocity
of themoving images is ultra fast, some hundreds
offrames per second, so that thework provides aperformance test for theaudio and visual devices, as well
as aresponse test for theaudience's perceptions.

Test Pattern is thethird audiovisual concert


inIkeda's datamatics series, anart project that
explores thepotential toperceive theinvisible multi
substance ofdata that permeates our world.
Taking various forms installations, live performance
and recordings test pattern acts as asystem that
converts any type ofdata (text, sounds, photos and
movies) into barcode patterns and binary patterns
of0s and 1s. Theproject aims toexamine therelationship between critical points ofdevice performance
and thethreshold ofhuman perception, pushing both
totheir absolute limits.

170 171

photo by Liz Hingley

Japan, 2008
audiovisual performance
concept, composition: Ryoji Ikeda
computer graphics, programming: Tomonaga Tokuyama

ompetition

Video Effect

Video Effect

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Video art as acorrespondence system ofvarious kinds


ofutterance in agiven frame plays therole of anadditional
element. Acontemporary Russian artist abandons thesequential image and creates amedia collage out ofimage.
This system ofvisual utterance lacks descriptiveness per
se, as itdissolves in thepolyscreen nature of anexploration. Invisual expansion (P.Zhukov), postmodern illusion
(V.Marchenkova), national identity (D.Zinchenko), historical
unconsciousness (V.Khromenko), pseudo-documentary
evidence (Bombily group), naive functionality (P.Kuznetsov),
theintimate-political (A.Khodorkovskaya), geopolitical activity (E.Zhigalova), formal examination (A.Soldatov), cinematic
minimalism (M.Kharitonova) inall these therelevance ofvideo effect isexpressed.
Inany case, theartists explore medial and
visual distortions, which invideo space turn into
amanifesto oncontemporary state ofmind as
concerned with image definitions. Here anunderstandable confrontation between theliteral
image and its interpretation occurs. As theartist
already goes beyond thelimits of alinear picture,
he seeks meaning in asupplementary image.
Inthis sense theprogramme develops like automated
text. Arepresentation exists without theconventions of
thething represented and can be both anobject and
asubject ofinterpretation. Inmy opinion this situation
isshown most actively in theworks of thefuture artists,
whose films constitute this programme.

174 175

Karina Karaeva

Courtesy of the artist

2011, 13' 11''


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Daniil Zinchenko

Izvol (Will)
2011, 13' 11''

Izvol is aword for will inOld Slavonic language,


but I found itout later. In thebeginning itimplied
exhaustion of awill, as itdissolves inspace. Thefilm
isfull ofwhite and contrasting scenes toshow
aneternity ofspace, asnowy hollow field where
somebody islost. Exhaustion does not mean wearing thin, it isabout asingle weak being that cannot
comprehend and handle space. Off-screen commentaries in thefilm are thequotes from ThePhilosophy of theCommon Task by Nikolai Fedorov. These
quotes give theclue for solving theproblem ofunderstanding, or rather acceptance ofspace. Fedorov's
philosophy, based onunification ofpeople for thesalvation isunfortunately utopian, as well as thewhole
cosmist ideology, and it isillustrated with theimage
of aperson alone infront ofeternity. There is atheme
ofdeath inthis video, aperson trying tounravel its
mystery and incomprehensibility by thesimple means
ofeating soil from agrave. And itnaturally cannot give
asingle hint tothis man, leading instead to adeadlock. In theend he falls wearily, unable toaccept
space and todisappear inside space.
Daniil Zinchenko

Courtesy of the artist

?
2010, 1' 08''

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Eva Zhigalova

Im here?
2010, 1' 08''

Im here?
And I amnot here. But I amnot there either
Where then?
Not tosee my new homeland with tourists eyes.
Tofix everything through thecommunication ofthree
cultures: Russian, Israeli and Arab. Tofind ones own
self at theintersection ofthese cultures. Isthis aconflict or adialogue ofthese three cultures?
Toerase thedistinction and end up between
Yes&No, between Here&Now, between I&They.
Toinhale new reality and tolet itpass
through you without turning back.
There I amnot; here all has been just
beginning

176 177

Courtesy of the artist

Bombily (Gypsy Cab Drivers) art-group

An Outing to a Gallery

2010, 4' 00''

2010, 4' 00''

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Directed by Madman and Superhero


Starring: Madman, Hashish, Minor, Furface,
Superhero, Aidan Salakhova, Elena Selina,
Serezha Croaker Music: AHH MSZ,
Alexander Zalupin.

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, , .

Verbitsky often writes that thesovrisk crowd


isall punks. TheBombily have always considered
this just awitty metaphor. But once they had come
into acool Moscow gallery with their friends young
provincial artists and found this tobe no metaphor
but thesimple truth.

Courtesy of the artist

Russian Online Tube


()
20082010, 11' 56''
YouTube,

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Pyotr Zhukov

Russian Online Tube


(Media painting)
20082010, 11' 56''
Thework presents videos from Russian YouTube
significantly slowed and manipulated incolor and
contrast tolook like expressionistic paintings. It
isakind of anew documentary work realized through
aneffect ofpersonal perception inretelling (like
indocumental paintings of theXIXth century) rather
than anevidence ofdirect documenting, as its not
possible any more. And YouTube videos represent
amedia face of thecountry.

178 179

Courtesy of the artist

2011, 4' 00''


,
,
.
. , ,
, :
Kom.post
, . , ,
, . , , , .

Viktoria Marchenkova

Scene

2011, 4' 00''


Video isbased on alecture about Deleuze and
his concept ofdispositif incorrelation toSamuel
Beckett theatre practice. Theauthor transformed
thespoken lecture into graphic images. Arandomly
formed square, inwhich Becketts characters interact,
has been turned into aframe fragmenting thefigures
of themain characters Camille Louis, aphilosopher,
participant of theKom.post project and theartist Anna
Antonova, who translates her speech. Inthis optics
itbecomes evident that theheroines unconsciously
make gestures connected with thematters discussed.
Themethod employed inthis video reflects asituation
where anartist interprets aphilosopher.

Courtesy of the artist

Melting Utopias
2010. 3' 10''
, ,
. ,
.

Vlad Khromenko

Melting Utopias
2010, two-channel video, 3' 10''
Ice casts ofmummified communist leaders
busts melt down before theviewer, losing familiar
shapes, being erased from memory. Thegreat utopian
dream isleft behind further and further away and its
becoming increasingly hard todistinguish it.

180 181

Courtesy of the artist

2010, 32''


. ,
. , .

Pavel Kuznetsov

Snowdrop
2010, 32''

In thetotality of theunpredictable world around


us theres nothing simple. And if you are filled with
areverent attention to itand forget about thenames,
you can find new aspects of themost ordinary
phenomena. And theworld will change, and you will
change next.

Courtesy of the artist

2011, 3' 36''



.
.
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. , .

Albert Soldatov

Alenka

2011, 3' 36''


In thevideo anexperiment isconducted with
afoil wrapper from Alyonka sweet as anobject.
Aneffect accidentally found while folding thewrapper
becomes abasis for themanipulations with it. Plastic
and visual deformations and distortions result from
thenature ofits material folds, cracks and splits
which modify thefamiliar form. Thevisual distortions
of theoriginal image make agrotesque effect and
themultiplicity ofpictures and their displacement
intime create variability.

182 183

Courtesy of the artist

2011, 1' 34''

, Photobooth , . , YouTube ,
, .
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, .
,
.

Anna Khodorkovskaya

Bears

2011, 1' 34''


This video was recorded by aPhotobooth
camera built into my computer. I have recorded my
reaction to thevideo Nanomedvedev which fascinated me. Uploaded toYouTube by unknown persons
ithas theNew Years eve president speech set to
theBeethovens Moonlight Sonata and thevoice
distorted. I also maintained anintensive online correspondence at thetime ofrecording. Thework
ispersonal and son its difficult for me toanalyze it.
One ofits components I would call sadness and at
thesame time anunderstanding of apathological
dis-unity ofour society, thelack ofperspectives for
theyear that has just begun.

Courtesy of the artist

2011, 3' 58''


, , . ,
, , : ,
.

Maria Kharitonova

Swimming Pool
2011, 3' 58''
This video is aplastic metaphor oflosing control,
ofborders visible and invisible, which are sometimes
very hard toovercome. By afew simple editing tricks
and by using different filming methods I achieve avery
important effect, which isonly possible inmy view
invideo and cinema acommunication ofsubjective inner state of acharacter through thestate ofhis
environment.

184 185


Information

Partisipants


-. , ,
1999,
. , .
: 26
, ,
99 .

Doug Aitken
Aitken lives and works inLos Angeles. Aitken has had
numerous screenings, solo and group exhibitions around
theworld including the1999 Venice Biennale, where he won
theInternational Prize for his acclaimed installation electric
earth. Hes exhibited work ininstitutions such as theWhitney
Museum ofAmerican Art, theMuseum ofModern Art and
thePompidou Center inParis. Aitken also recently produced
two books, Broken Screen, abook ofinterviews with 26
artists pushing thelimits oflinear narrative and 99 Cent
Dreams, acollection ofphotographs. Theprojects inspired
happening events inNew York and Los Angeles.


1973.
.1905, ,
. . , , (2008), ,
( , , 2007). 1- 2-
, 4- , (2005) .

Yuri Albert
Born 1959 inMoscow, Albert studied with theartist
Ekaterina Arnold in19741977. In1977 entered theArts and
Graphics Faculty of theMoscow State Lenin Pedagogical Institute. In1983 he became amember of theGraphics Gorkom
(City Committee) atMalaya Gruzinskaya, 28, where permitted informal art exhibitions took place. Albert is arepresentative of theso called second wave ofMoscow conceptualism.
In theearly 1980 was anactivist of theAPTART movement.
Among themost well-known works ofhis early period are
paintings in thestyle offamous Western artists with Cyrillic
inscriptions such as Im no Jasper Jones, Im no Baselitz
and so on.


1959. 19741977
. 1977- - . 1983 ,
, 28
.
. 1980- . , , ,
. .
-
. , (UCLA), -. 1990
, .
, AVEK
(1997),
(1998), DAAD (1999),

Victor Alimpiev
Born in in1973. Graduated from then. a. theyear 1905,
finished theschool TheNew Strategies ofContemporary
Art under theauspices of theInstitute of theproblems
ofContemporary Art, and also did atwo-month course in
theVeland. Lives and works in. Solo exhibitions inMoscow,
England, Italy (2008), Belgium, Germany and France (Le
Centre Pompidou, Paris, 2007). Participant of the1st and 2nd
Moscow Biennales, the4th Berlin Biennale, theVenetian Biennale (2005) and others.
Eija-Liisa Ahtila
Lives and works inHelsinki. Eija-Liisa Ahtila studied
filmmaking at theLondon College ofPrinting, UCLA, and
at theAmerican Film Institute inLos Angeles. In1990 she
received theYoung Artist of theYear Award, Tampere, Finland.
Since then, she has received numerous grants and awards, including anAVEK-award for important achievements in thefield
ofaudio-visual culture (1997), theEdstrand Art Price (1998),
aDAAD fellowship (1999), honorary mention at the48th

Raymond Bellour
Critic and theorist ofliterature and film, asenior
researcher at theCNRS (National Center for Scientific
Research) and conducts aseminar at theUniversity ofParis.
He was one of thefounders of theFrench film review Trafic. He
has edited several key film anthologies, including Le cinema
americain (1980) and Le Western (1966). His study L'EntreImages: Photo, Cinma, Vido (1990) analyzes thepassages
between images and thevideo image's power oftransformation. Bellour also served as co-curator with Christine Van
Assche and Catherine David of thewell-known Passages de
l'image exhibition at theCentre Georges Pompidou in1990.
His most recent work is anessai onChris Marker's CD-ROM
Imemory (1997).
Johanna Billing
Johanna Billing's videos reflect onroutine, choreography and ritual, with anemphasis on thefragility ofindividual
performance within collective experience. Obsessed by
circularity and retrospection, she stages specific situations
where something isabout totake place, theartist herself
remaining invisible during theperformances and actions that
are recorded. Billing's skill lies incombining thechoreography
ofindividuals with facilitating their freedom toperform naturally,
bringing thewhole together in theediting process.
BlueSoup Group
BlueSoup group was founded in, in1996 by Alex Dobrov, Daniel Lebedev and Valery Patkonen. Since 2002 group
works incooperation with Alexander Lobanov. Participated
in1st and 2nd biennale ofcontemporary art and other exhibitions inand abroad. Finalist 2008 in theMedia Art Project of
theYear Nomination
rik Bullot
Parallel to awriter and photographers career, rik Bullot
taught inart schools (Fresnoy, Marseilles, Avignon and currently inBourges), collaborates inseveral magazines (Trafic,
Cinma) and takes anactive part inpointligneplan association.
As ascenario writer, rik Bullot carried out many films halfway
between theauthor cinema and artists artist. His reflexion
goes from cinema tovisual arts. He had made aretrospective
ofits films atJeu de Paume inParis and, recently, inEnana
Marrn (Madrid) or theBiennal de lImage en Mouvement
(Geneva).
Keren Cytter
Keren Cytter went on tostudy visual art inAvni Institute
for Art, Tel Aviv. After her success invarious galleries inher
home country, she moved toAmsterdam on ascholarship
from De Ateliers.Today, she lives and works inBerlin. Recalling amateur home-movies and video diaries, her films and
videos are made ofre-composed elements of theeveryday,
ofimpressions, memories, imaginings, desires and dreams.
Thescripts are part of thestories themselves, and thestory
inturn isalways astory of theclash between a(perfect) script
and an(imperfect) reality.
Boris Eldagsen
He revolves around theidea oflosing yourself as
aredemptive mode tobeing human. Boris work has been
shown internationally ininstitutions such as Fridericianum
Kassel, Deichtorhallen Hamburg and Australian Centre for
Photography Sydney to arange offestivals and biennales such
as theEdinburgh Art Festival, European Media Art Festival
Osnabrck, Videonale Bonn, Athens Video Art Festival, Kuyre
Istanbul, Media Forum Moscow, Media Art Biennale Wroclaw,
Biennale Le Havre and Biennale ofElectronic Arts Perth.

48 (1999),
. (2000),
(2001), Artes Mundi (2006). Documenta
XI (2002) 50 (2005).

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1990.( ).

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Documenta
XI (2002). Kunst
(2003) ,
2005.
(2005), (MoCA, 2005), (2006) Metro Pictures -
(2007). , , .

188 189

Venice Biennale (1999), theVincent Van Gogh Bi-annual


Award for Contemporary Art inEurope (2000), and afive-year
grant from theCentral Committee for theArts (2001), as well
as theArtes Mundi Prize (2006). She also exhibited inDocumenta XI (2002) and the50th Venice Biennale (2005).


(1970-75), 1987. ,
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Ursula Anna Frohne


is anart historian and cultural theorist. She has been
curator at theZKM Center for Art and Media inKarlsruhe
(Germany) from 19952002 and has taught art history, visual
studies, cultural studies, and media theory at theAcademy for
Design inKarlsruhe since 1997. She was Visiting Professor at
theDepartment ofModern Culture and Media, Brown University in2001/2002 and iscurrently Professor for Art History at
theInternational University Bremen (Germany). After studying
art history she received her PhD with athesis on thesocial history of theAmerican artist at theFreie Universitt Berlin, where
she taught at theDepartment for Art History from 19881995.
Harun Farocki
Harun Farocki was born in1944 inGerman-annexed
Czechoslovakia. From 1966 to1968 he attended theDeutsche Film- und Fernsehakademie Berlin (DFFB). Inaddition
toteaching posts inBerlin, Dsseldorf, Hamburg, Manila,
Munich and Stuttgart, he has been avisiting professor at
theUniversity ofCalifornia, Berkeley. Farocki has made close
to90 films, including three feature films, essay films and
documentaries. He has worked incollaboration with other
filmmakers as ascriptwriter, actor and producer. In1976 he
staged Heiner Mller's plays TheBattle and Tractor together
with Hanns Zischler inBasel, Switzerland. Since 1966 he has
written for numerous publications, and from 1974 to1984 he
was editor and author of themagazine Filmkritik (Mnchen).
His work has shown inmany national and international exhibitions and installations ingalleries and museums.
Antje Ehmann
Is afilm theoretician, researcher, curatos and artist.
Between 1995 and 1999 she worked on theteam organizing
thefilm festivals Duisburger Filmwoche and Internationalen
Kurzfilmtage Oberhausen. Between 1999 and 2003 she
collaborated on theDFG project Geschichte des dokumentarischen Films 1895 bis 1945 (History ofDocumentary
Films 18951945). Since 2004 she has focused ondiverse
curatorial projects, mostly together with Harun Farocki. Her
recent shows include Antje Ehmann, Harun Farocki, Museum
of ModernArt. Maja Galerija, Ljubljana 2009, Central Nervous
SystemNo. 2, Galerie im Regierungsviertel, Berlin 2009.
Yang Fudong
Starting in thelate 1990s Yang Fudong embarked
on acareer in themediums offilm and video. He isamong
themost successful and influential young Chinese artists
today. Yang Fudong participated in the40th Basel International
Art Fair (2009) Switzerland Bern Museum ofArt 2009 52th
Venice Biennale (2007) First Moscow Biennale ofContemporary Art (2005) 1st International Sharjah Biennale (2005) 1st
Prague Biennale (2003) and 5th Shanghai Biennale (2004)
The5th AsiaPacific Triennial ofContmeporary Art (2006).
He has had solo-shows atmost acclaimed institutions and
Gallerys such as Marian Goodman Gallery (NewYork,2009),
Parasol Unit (London,2006) Kunsthalle Wien (2005), Stedelijk
Museum (Amsterdam, 2005), Castello di Rivoli (Torino, 2005),
TheMoore Space (Miami, 2003), and ARC/Musee dArt Moderne de la Ville de Paris (2003).
Gary Hill
Gary Hill has worked with abroad range of media
including sculpture, sound, video, installation and performance since theearly 1970s, continues toexplore anarray
ofissues ranging from thephysicality oflanguage, synesthesia
and perceptual conundrums toontological space and viewer
interactivity. Exhibitions ofhis work have been presented
atmuseums and institutions worldwide, including solo exhibitions at theFondation Cartier pour lart contemporain, Paris;
San Francisco Museum ofModern Art; Centre Georges
Pompidou, Paris; Guggenheim Museum SoHo, New York;
Museum fr Gegenwartskunst, Basel; Museu dArt Contemporani, Barcelona; and Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg, among others.
He has been therecipient ofnumerous awards and honors,
most notably theLeone dOro Prize for Sculpture at theVenice

Isaac Julien
Julien came toprominence in thefilm world with his
1989 drama-documentary Looking for Langston, gaining acult
following with this poetic exploration ofLangston Hughes
and theHarlem Renaissance. This following was expanded
in1991 when his film Young Soul Rebels won theSemaine de
la Critique prize for best film at theCannes Film Festival. He
was nominated for theTurner Prize in2001 and was therecipient ofboth theprestigious MIT Eugene McDermott Award in
theArts (2001) and theFrameline Lifetime Achievement Award
(2002). His work Paradise Omeros was presented as part
ofDocumenta XI inKassel (2002). He won theGrand Jury
Prize at theKunst filmBiennale inCologne (2003) for his single
screen version ofBaltimore, and the2005 Aurora Award. He
has had solo shows at thePompidou Centre Paris (2005),
MoCA Miami (2005), theKestner Gesellschaft Hanover
(2006) and Metro Pictures New York (2007). Julien isrepresented in theTate Modern, Centre Pompidou, Guggenheim
and Hirshhorn Collections.
Ranbir Kaleka
Ranbir Kaleka studied at theCollege ofArt inChandigarh (1970-75) and received aMasters Degree inPainting
from theRoyal College ofArt inLondon in1987. His works
have been included inmost of themuseum shows ofIndian
contemporary art that have been mounted around theworld in
thepast decade, including: Chalo! India at theMori Museum
inTokyo (2008); India Moderna at theInstitute ofModern
Art inValencia, Spain (2008); iCon: India Contemporary
at theVenice Biennale (2005); and body.city at theHouse
ofWorld Cultures inBerlin (2003);Kunsthalle Wien, Kapital
& Karma, Vienna (2003). In2007 he was commissioned
tocreate apermanent video installation for thenew Spertus
Museum inChicago and in2008 his work was included
in theSydney Biennale and in2011 his work was shown
inInTransition: New Art from India, Vancouver Biennale,.
Yuri Kalendarev
Yuri Kalendarev, sculptor, was born inSaint Petersburg, Russia. Lives and works inTuscany, Italy. He belongs
to thegeneration ofunderground non-conformist artists,
thedissidents of the70s. For thelast 25 years he has been
living and working inItaly. After working with granite, environmental art and light projects for about 25 years, he came to
adirect work with vibrations and sounds, to theart oftuning
ofmetals, to theSound Plates.
Elena Kovylina
Performance artist. winner of theInnovation All-Russian
Contemporary Art Competition award. Studied 19881991
Art School, 19931995 Art Academy, 19961998 Art
School, CH, 19981999 Center ofContemporary Art,,
20012003 UdK. Diploma. Granted: 2002 Academy Schloss
Solitude, 2004 Kuenstler Haus Boswil, CH, 2004 Kuenstler.
Inher works she develops thetraditions ofWestern feminist
art, exploring thebody and gender problematics. Theaudience often remembers her works Pick Up aGirl (2006)
when theviewers tore ofpictures ofwomen from magazines
pinned toher skin, or DIY (2000) when theartist standing with
anoose around her neck gave theaudience achance toknock
thestool from under her.
Arthur Kroker
Canada Research Chair inTechnology, Culture and
Theory, professor ofPolitical Science and Director of thePacific Centre for Technology and Culture (www.pactac.net),
University ofVictoria, Canada. He isauthor ofnumerous books
including Born Again Ideology, TheWill toTechnology and
ThePossessed Individual.

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Pistes ( , ), Biennial of Moving images ( , ), Viper ( ) .
, , Tiger Award
for Short Film of 38th International Film Festival Rotterdam, Gran Premio
for the Best Competing Film of 25th Assolo International Art Film Festival,
Best Experimental Film of 15th Chilean International Short Film Festival.
(Inspiration) Orizzonti Competition
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190 191

Biennale (1995), a JohnD. and CatherineT.MacArthur Foundation Fellowship Award (1998), theKurt-Schwitters-Preis
(2000), and anHonorary Degree ofDoctor Honoris Causa of
TheAcademy ofFine Arts Poznan, Poland (2005).


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Marilouise Kroker
Senior Research Scholar at thePacific Centre for Technology and Culture, University ofVictoria, Canada. With Arthur
Kroker she has authored and/or edited many books, including
Hacking theFuture, Digital Delirium, Body Invaders, and The
LastSex.
Trond Lundemo
Trond Lundemo, Associate Professor at theDepartment ofCinema Studies atStockholm University. He has been
avisiting Professor and visiting scholar at theSeijo University ofTokyo on anumber ofoccasions. He isco-directing
theStockholm University Graduate School ofAesthetics and
theco-editor of thebook series Film Theory inMedia History
atAmsterdam University Press. His research and publications
engage inquestions oftechnology, aesthetics and intermediality as well as thetheory of thearchive.
Taus Machacheva
Artist. Graduated fro theUniversity of theArts, London.
Studied photography at theLondon College ofCommunications, BA incontemporary art programme (studio practice
and contemporary critical studies) at theGoldsmiths College,
2007. Exhibitions include Powderlux, Red Gate Gallery, London; International Biennial ofPortrait, Drawings and Graphics-06. Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Caucasica, Scuola
Grande di S.Giovanni Evangelista, Venice; Moscow Young Art
Biennale Stop! Who goes there?.
Arev Manoukian
Raised in afamily ofartists and engineers inMontreal,
Arev Manoukian plays with art and technology totell stories
inways that challenge his imagination. After studying film inToronto, Arev soon began directing music videos for local bands
which went toair onMuch Music. Lately, he has directed
interactive jobs for clients such as Mazda, Axe, Wrigley Gum,
20th Century Fox and theNFL. Arev directed Nokia's interactive commercial ThePassenger, aCannes Cyber Lions and
One Show finalist.
Almagul Menlibayeva
Theartist from Khazahstan has gained international
recognition exhibiting at the15th Sydney Biennial; 51st,
52nd and 53rd Venice Biennale; Museum van Hedendaagse
Kunst, M HKA, Antwerp, Belgium; Queens Museum, NY;
HerbertF.Johnson Museum, Ithaca, NY; Stenersen Museum,
Oslo, Norway; University ofCalifornia, San Diego, CA; Museo
Universitario del Chopo, Mexico City; Queensland Art Gallery,
Bisbane, Australia; and more recently at theChicago Cultural
Center, Chicago, IL. Menlibayeva's videos have been shown
at theSantiago International Film Festival, Chile; International
Short Film Festival Oberhausen, Germany; International Film
Festival Rotterdam, TheNetherlands; Les Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin/Madrid; Centre Pompidou, Paris, France;
and Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France.
Ilya Permyakov
Born 1977 inVolgograd. In20042007 co-curated
theVideologia International Audio-Visual Arts Festival (Volgograd). Nominee of theInnovation Award inContemporary
Visual Art (for Regional contemporary art project nomination).
Video artist. Grand prix of theIX Media Forum of the30th
MIFF (2008) for thework Gazing Hard. Lives and works
inMoscow.
Art group PROVMYZA
Galina Myznikova
and Sergey Provorov
Theartists' works have been shown at the51st Venice
Biennale, theRussian Pavilion; theKunstFilmBiennale,
theLudwig Museum, Cologne; Hors Pistes, George Pompidou
Centre, Paris; Biennale ofMoving Images, theSaint-Gervais
Centre and others. Many ofvideos have won several awards
such as Tiger Award for Short Film of38th International Film
Festival Rotterdam, Gran Premio for theBest Competing Film

Kirill Razlogov
Doctor inarts history, Professor, director of theRussian Institute for Cultural Research. Programme director of
theMoscow International Film Festival and theAmFest Moscow Festival ofAmerican Film. Honoured art worker ofRussian
Federation, cavalier of theOrder ofFriendship. Author, head
ofpublishing projects, film critic and political writer, published
about 1000 works onart and culture inRussia and abroad.
Author and anchor ofseveral TV programmes. Professor
ofFilm Studies faculty of theRussian State University ofCinematography named after S.Gerasimov (VGIK), reads film
history atHigher Courses for Scriptwriters and Directors, gives
lectures oncontemporary film and history ofscreen culture at
theInstitute ofEuropean Cultures, inter alia.
Anri Sala
n Albanian artist living inParis and Berlin. 2001 he
received theYoung Artist Prize of the49th Venice Biennale.
His works have been widely shown internationally, atinstitutions including MAMCO, Geneva, Switzerland; Dallas Museum
ofArt, Texas; Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, England; Kunsthalle
Wien, Vienna: ARC, Mus?e d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris,
and theNew Museum ofContemporary Art, New York, among
others. He participated inUtopia Station at the50th Venice Biennale; the24th Bienal de Sao Paolo; Manifesta 4 inFrankfurt,
Germany and Uniform: Order and Disorder atP.S.1 Center for
Contemporary Art, New York.
Olga Shishko
Art expert, curator. Her research activities focus
ondifferent aspects ofcontemporary media art (Art on
theNet, Video, Cyberculture, etc.). She has curated numerous international events, festivals, and exhibitions including:
NewMediaLogia Symposium (Moscow, 1994), Da-Da-Net
Festival (Moscow, 19972000), Trash-Art Festival (Moscow,
19992000), Pro&Contra Symposium (Moscow, 2000), etc.
Editor of thecatalogues, anthologies and books oncontemporary media art issues published inRussia, among them:
NewMediaLogia NewMediaTopia (Moscow, 1996), Data
Trash (Moscow, 2000), Pro&Contra (Moscow, 2000), and
theAnthology of TheRussian Media Art (1st part: Video Art
From Russia, Moscow, 2001). Director of theMediaForum
one of theprograms of theXXX Moscow International Film
Festival (MIFF). Founder and Director of theCenter ofCulture
and Art MediaArtLab.
Fiona Tan
Born inIndonesia in1966, Fiona Tan grew up inAustralia. She received her formal art training inAmsterdam and
has been living in theNetherlands since thelate 1980s. Since
the1990s she occupies animportant place in thecontemporary art world, participating innumerous solo and group
exhibitions. Tan's contribution.to the2009 Venice Biennale at
theDutch Pavilion drew agreat deal ofattention. Inher video
pieces and photographic works Tan isconcerned with theimage of anindividual and theway inwhich this individual relates
tohis or her environment and thus to theworld. Fiona Tan
creates symbolically charged landscapes as well as moving
portraits ofpeople, subtly linking personal sentiments totheir
social and cultural context.
Leslie Thornton
Leslie Thornton has been at thevery forefront ofAmerican experimental film and media since the1980s. Her major
works include Peggy and Fred inHell (her magnum opus),

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.

192 193

of25th Assolo International Art Film Festival, Best Experimental Film of15th Chilean International Short Film Festival. Some
installations belong todifferent collections such as Center
Pompidou, National Museum for Contemporary art and numerous private collections. Their new film Inspiration has been
presented at the67th Venice International Film Festival incompetitive section Orizzonti. Winners of theNational Premium of
theontemporary Art ofS.Kuryokhin. Winners of theRegional
Premium ofulture (Volga region).


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Adynata, Another Worldy, Let Me Count TheWays: Minus 10,


9, 8, 7, TheGreat Invisible and many others. Her works have
been exhibited worldwide, atinstitutions such as theMuseum ofModern Art, theWhitney Museum, Centre Pompidou, theTate Modern, PS.1, and many others. Thornton has
received numerous prizes and accolades, including thehighest award inher field, theMaya Deren Lifetime Achievement
Award, and thefirst theAlpert Award in theArts for Media.
TOTART Duo
Natalia Abalakova
and Anatoly Zhigalov
They have been working as artists since thebeginning
of1960-s. From thelate 1970-s have been realizing their
main Project AnEnquiry into theEssence ofArt as applied
toLife and Art (TOTART). Since 1985 have been presenting
video performances and installations. Intheir latest work they
move from performances tovideo performances which they
transform then into video installations thus forging aradical
gesture into cool rationalized form trying not tolose its hot
substance. This hidden inner tension makes their apparent
esoteric thing-in-itself of thework very expressive (if not
aggressive) and dialogic (if not controversial). Artist & Political
Power, Language ofPower & Power ofLanguage, Gender
and others those are theproblems oftheir interest now. Live
and work inMoscow.
Olesia Turkina
She is theLeading Research Scholar at theDepartment
ofContemporary Art of theState Russian Museum. Curated
more than 30 conceptual art projects, including theRussian
pavilion at the48 Venice Biennale. Delivered lectures onvisual
culture theory inSaint-Peterburg, Moscow, Vienna, Berlin,
Stockhiolm, Amsterdam, Karlsruhe and Yale. Professor of
thehistory and theory ofcontemporary art at theBaltic University ofEcology, Politics and Law (BUEPL) inSaint-Petersburg.
Evgeny Ufit
One of theleaders of thenecrorealist movement.
In1984 organized aparallel cinema studio Mzhalala Film.
Trained in theCinema School under Alexander Sokurov,
worked as anassistant director onhis film Save and Protect.
Cinema critics have long considered Ufit aclassic of theworld
cinema. He isoften compared toGerman expressionist filmmakers and French surrealists, to thewidely acclaimed Anrey
Tarkovsky and George Romero, who has personally presented
Ufits films at aretrospective screening inPittsburg. There are
many monographs, dissertations and essays written about
Ufits work by both Russian and foreign film experts.
Peter Weibel
He ischairman and chief executive officer of theCenter
for Art and Media inKarlsruhe, Germany, aposition he has
held since 1999. From 1998 to1999 he served as manager
of theNew Gallery in theLandesmuseum Joanneum inGraz,
Austria. Mr. Weibel was also artistic director ofArs Electronica
inLinz, Austria, from 1986 to1996. Inaddition, he served as
director for theInstitute for New Media inFrankfurt from 1989
to1994. He was Austrias commissioner for theBiennale
inVenice from 1993 to1999. From 1984 to1989, Dr. Weibel
was associate professor for video and digital arts at theCenter
for Media Study, State University ofNew York atBuffalo, USA.

194 195

. 1
Moscow Museum of Modern Art exposition. 1 floor

. 2
Moscow Museum of Modern Art exposition. 2 floor

196 197

. 3
Moscow Museum of Modern Art exposition. 3 floor

. 4
Moscow Museum of Modern Art exposition. 4 floor

198 199


Garage Center for Contemporary Culture exposition

1. . , 2008
Isaac Julien Derek. UK, 2008
2. . , 2010
Yang Fudong Fifth Night. China, 2010
3. - . , 2010
Eija-Liisa Ahtila The Annunciation. Finland, 2010

:
ISBN 978-5-905110-07-8

Printing: Art Guide


ISBN 978-5-905110-07-8

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Media Forum at the Moscow International Film


Festival has for the last twelve years been responsible for the borderline territory between cinema and
contemporary art. According to the theorists and
practitioners of the art of moving images it is exactly
there that most interesting and promising events in
screen culture are happening: multiscreen cinema
is evolving, multimedia art works are created in real
time mode and with active audience interaction, new
strategies of distribution and contextual analysis of
video works are developing.
This XII Media Forum presents what is probably
the most ambitious project in all of its history the
Expanded Cinema exhibition chosen from the latest
and most striking works on the verge of cinema and
video art. Each of these works has its own interpretation of the moving images, its own method of working
with the time and space of the screen. This research
catalogue includes information on the works presented in two parts of the exhibition project in Moscow
Museum of Modern Art and at the Garage Centre for
Contemporary Culture, and also a selection of carefully chosen key articles on the interaction of the two
spheres of screen culture.

,

./: (495) 637 3909, 6373833
info@ legein.ru
www.legein.ru

XII


33

orum
XII MediaonF
al Film Festival

of 33 Moscow Internati

Expanded
Cinema