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FLOW THROUGH TRIANGULAR NOTCH

AIM: - To calibrate to given notch and to determine its co-efficient of discharge Cd of 600 or 900
notches.
AIM: - To determine the force exerted by the jet of water striking a fixed flat plate at right angle
to it.
AIM: To determine the co-efficient of discharge of the given venturimeter.
Instruments need
1. Venturi Apparatus
2. Collecting tank
3. U- Tube and stop watch

Based on this law the force exterted by the jet of water moving with velocity V striking
fixed plate at right angle to it can be determined as

1. e
FLOW THROUGH VENTURIMETER
AIM: To determine the co-efficient of discharge of the given venturimeter.
Instruments need
4. Venturi Apparatus
5. Collecting tank
6. U- Tube and stop watch
Theory: The discharge through Venturimeter is given by
a 1a 2
Q Cd
2g H
2
2
a1 a 2
Here:
Q = Discharge
Cd = Co-efficient of Discharge
g = Acceleration due to gravity
a1 = Inlet area of venturimeter
a2 = Area of throat

a 1a 2

Q Cd

a1 a 2

2g H

H = Difference of pressure between inlet & throat.


Here Q = K

a 1a 2

Cd

a1 a 2

2 gH

Then K
Theory:- The discharge through V-notch is given by.
Q
Putting K

= 8/15 Cd 2g tan /2 H5/2


= 8/15 Cd 2g tan /2

K
Discharge Q = KH5/2

or

Q
H5/ 2

By measuring the head of water H over the sill of the notch


If

H1
H2
H
d
t
A

= Initial reading at the sill of notch


= Final reading at the sill of notch
= Head of water over sill of notch, H=H2-H1
= Depth of collection of water in measuring tank
= Time for ..

= Area of measuring tank

Qact

Then

Ad
cm 3 sec
t

Q = KH 5/2

Q
H5/ 2

we have
k= 8/15Cd 2g tan /2

Cd

15 K
8 2 g tan / 2

For 900 notch tan Q/2 = tan 90/2 =tan 450 =1

Cd

15 K
8 2g

So
we have Q= 8/15 Cd 2g tan /2 H5/2
15 Q
Cd
8 2 g tan / 2 H 5 / 2
To get discharge equation for a given notch Q = K.Hn
By taking logarithm on both side
Log K Log K
Log Q
Log H
-----------doubt
Putting group of log Q vs log H
From equation if H=0 (means no flow takes place just at a level)
Then log Q =log K
Q = K.Hn
log Q = log K+ log Hn
n

Log Q Log K
Log H

If By
Graph

H=o
log Q = log K
K = Antilog of log K
Example = if K = 9.78
n = 2.53
Then
Q = 9.78H2.53
This is notch equation for given notch

Q 8/15 Cd 2g tananH 5/2


K 8/15 Cd 2g tan /2 H 5/2

Cd

15 K
8 2 g tan / 2

Q = KH5/2
Q
K 5/ 2
H
1. Loss of head due to sudden enlargement
The loss of energy that occurs when a pipe of certain diameter suddenly expands t large
diameter loss of energy due to sudden enlargement given by

he

V1 V2 2
2g
V1 = Volume in small pipe
V2 = Volume in large pipe

Equating the discharge in both Pipes


Q = a1 v1 = a2 v2
Q
V1
a 1 d
a1
Sudden enlargement
(1) Loss of head due to sudden contraction consider a junction of pipes having
dia of D & d D is greater thand
Let the flow be from longer dia to smaller dia pipe the water while passing through longa dia
gets contracted to a narrow neck at point. I & this expands to fill the pipe of small dia pipe.
Loss of energy due to sudden contraction is given by
2

hc KC

V1
2g

V
0.5 1
2g

Probable value of tc is Kc =0.5


Loss of energy in bend
When a pipe line has to change its direction or bend or elbow is or inserted between the
two straight portions of the pipe which make angle loss of energy due to bend.

i.e.
Procedure
1. Measure the dia of both pipes and dimension of the collecting tank.
2. Connect the manometer to the apparatus
3. The sudden enlargement and sudden contraction pipes is property connected to the
respective tapping.
4. Allow the water flow through pipes
5. Open the inlet valves.
6. When water enters the manometer carefully open the top most outlets in one action to
expel the air bubbles (if any).
7. Then immediately close the out lets in one action.
8. Gradually adjust the exit valve and when mercury becomes constant measure in.
9. Measure the discharge and loss of head using formula.
10. Measure the Discharge in collecting tank with respect to time too.
Observation
1. Area of collecting tank
2. Dia of large Pipe
3. Dia of small Pipe
4. Area of large Pipe
5. Area of small Pipe

A = 63x44
= 2772 cm2
D = 2.5 cm
d = 2 cm
a1 =
a2 =

FIRCTION THROUGH PIPE (major losses)


Aim: To determine the co-efficient of friction factor of the given Pipe
Instruments Required
Apparatus
1. Friction apparatus.
2. Mercury Manometer
3. Scale
4. Stop watch.
Theory:- Darcys equation for flow through Pipe is given by

Here

4 flV 2
2 gD

hf

hf
L
V
D

= Losses of head due to friction


= length of Pipe
= Velocity of flow in the Pipe
= Dia of Pipe

V
We have

Q
A

Where Q = AV

Substituting this value in equation


Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Measure the length of Pipe through which the friction is to measured.


Measure the Dia of Pipe
Measure the area of collecting tank A = LxB
Allow the water to flow through Pipe.
When water enters the manometer, then carefully open outlets to escape air bubbles (if
any). And lose it immediately
6. Calculate the head of mercury.
7. Multiply head of mercury by 13.6 to get head loss due to friction.
8. Measure d & t from collecting tank
9. Calculate discharge.
10. Then determine frication factor f.
11. Repeat the above steps for 5 to 6 times.
Observation
1. Length of Pipe L- 100cm
2. Dia of Pipe D- 2 cm
3. Measuring tank Area A- LxB= 65x44=2772 cm2