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STATE OF KUWAIT

MINISTRY OF PUBLIC WORKS


ROADS ADMINISTRATION

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
FOR
KUWAIT MOTORWAYS/EXPRESSWAY SYSTEM

SECTION 24

PILING

SECTION 24 : PILING
2400 - GENERAL
2400.01

DESCRIPTION

This work shall consist of furnishing and drilling for or driving foundation piles for
structures in conformance with the details shown on the plans and as specified in these
specifications and the Contract Documents.
2400.02

MATERIALS

Foundation piling for structures shall consist of timber piles, precast prestressed or cast-in
place concrete piles, steel piles or piles of such other materials as may be shown on the
plans or required by the Contract documents.
When the plans or specifications permit the use of more than one type of pile, the same
type of pile shall be used for all piles within each individual footing, unless otherwise
permitted by the Engineer.
2400.03

DETERMINATION OF LENGTH

Foundation piles of any material shall be of such length as is required to develop the
specified bearing value, to obtain the specified penetration and to extend into the cap or
footing block as shown on the plans, or specified in the Contract Documents.
At the Contractor's option, the Contractor may conduct additional foundation
investigation, including installing and axial load testing additional non-production
indicator piling. The Engineer shall approve locations of additional foundation testing.
The Contractor shall notify the Engineer at least 5 working days prior to beginning
additional foundation investigation.
Additional foundation investigation shall be completed prior to requesting revised
specified pile tip elevations or modification to the installation methods specified herein.
Modification to the specified installation methods and specified pile tip elevation will not
be considered at locations where lateral load demands control design pile tip elevations or
when the plans state that specified pile tip elevation shall not be revised.
The pile structural capacity design is based on the nominal strength as defined in
AASHTO . The nominal resistance of the pile, as shown on the plans, is the design
capacity required to resist the factored axial load demands.

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SECTION 24

PILING

Indicator compression pile load testing shall conform to the requirements in ASTM
Designation: D 1143. The pile shall sustain the first compression test load applied which
is equal to the nominal compression resistance, as shown on the plans, with no more than
13 mm total vertical movement at the top of the pile measured relative to the top of the
pile prior to the start of compression load testing.
Indicator tension pile load testing shall conform to the requirements in ASTM
Designation: D 3689. The loading apparatus described as "Load Applied to Pile by
Hydraulic Jack(s) Acting at One End of Test Beam(s) Anchored to the Pile" shall not be
used. The pile shall sustain the first tension test load applied which is equal to the
nominal tension resistance, as shown on the plans, with no more than 13 mm total
vertical movement at the top of the pile measured relative to the top of the pile prior to
the start of tension load testing.
Indicator piling shall be removed and the remaining holes shall be backfilled with earth
or other suitable material approved by the Engineer.
For driven piling, the Contractor shall furnish piling of sufficient length to obtain both the
specified tip elevation and design load shown on the plans or specified in the Contract
Documents. For cast-in-drilled-hole concrete piling, the Contractor shall construct piling
of such length to develop the compression nominal resistance and to obtain the specified
tip elevation shown on the plans or specified in the Contract Documents.
The Contractor shall be responsible for furnishing piling of sufficient length to obtain the
penetration and bearing value required.
2400.04

LOAD TEST PILES

Loading tests shall be completed before the remaining piles for that structure or specified
control location are drilled, cast, cut to length or driven.
Load test piles shall be installed with the same type of equipment that is to be used for
installation of foundation piles.
Load test piles which are shown on the plans or specified in the Contract Documents
shall conform to the requirements for piling as specified in these specifications and,
unless otherwise shown, shall be so located that they may be cut off and become a part of
the completed structure.
Load test piles which are not to be incorporated in the completed structure shall be
removed and the remaining holes shall be backfilled with earth or other suitable material
approved by the Engineer.
Load test anchorages in piles used as anchor piles shall conform to the following
requirements:

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SECTION 24

PILING

High strength threaded steel rods shall conform to AASHTO "Prestressing Steel,"
High strength steel plates shall conform to the requirements in ASTM Designation:
A 709, Grade 50.
The Contractor, at the Contractor's expense, may use additional cement or may use Type
III cement in the concrete for the load test and anchor piles.
The Contractor shall furnish labor, materials, tools, equipment, and incidentals as
required to complete load testing
2400.05

DRIVING EQUIPMENT

Driven piles shall be installed with impact hammers that are approved in writing by the
Engineer. Impact hammers shall be steam, hydraulic, air or diesel hammers. Impact
hammers shall develop sufficient energy to drive the piles at a penetration rate of not less
than 3 mm per blow at the specified bearing value.
Vibratory hammers shall not be used for installation of piles, unless otherwise shown on
the plans or specified in the Contract Documents.
Hammers with an external combustion engine that are not single action shall have a
transducer that records ram velocity.
Double acting diesel hammers with internal combustion engines shall have a transducer
that records bounce chamber pressure.
For hammers with no visual way of observing the ram stroke, a printed readout showing
hammer energy during driving operation shall be provided to the Engineer by the
Contractor.
Steam or air hammers shall be furnished with boiler or air capacity at least equal to that
specified by the manufacturers of the hammers to be used. The boiler or air compressor
shall be equipped with an accurate pressure gauge at all times. The valve mechanism and
other parts of steam, air or diesel hammers shall be maintained in first class condition so
that the length of stroke and number of blows per minute for which the hammer is
designed will be obtained. Inefficient steam, air or diesel hammers shall not be used.
When necessary to obtain the specified penetration and when authorized by the Engineer,
the Contractor may supply and operate one or more water jets and pumps, or furnish the
necessary drilling apparatus and drill holes not greater than the least dimension of the pile
to the proper depth and drive the piles therein. Jets shall not be used at locations where
the stability of embankments or other improvements would be endangered. In addition,
for steel piles or steel shells, when necessary to obtain the specified penetration or to

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SECTION 24

PILING

prevent damage to the pile during driving, the Contractor shall provide special driving
tips or heavier pile sections or take other measures as approved by the Engineer.
2400.06

PREDRILLED HOLES

Piles, to be driven through embankment constructed by the Contractor, shall be driven in


holes predrilled or spudded through the embankment when the depth of new embankment
at the pile location is in excess of 1.5 m. The hole shall have a diameter of not less than
the greatest dimension of the pile cross section plus 150 mm. After driving the pile, the
space around the pile shall be filled to ground surface with dry sand or pea gravel.
Material resulting from predrilling holes shall be disposed of at a location to be approved
by the Engineer.
2400.07

DRIVING

Driving equipment that damages the piling shall not be used. Driving heads or driving
blocks which hold the pile in position directly under the hammer during driving shall be
used.
Timber piles shall be fresh-headed and square and when permitted by the Engineer, the
heads of the piles may be protected by means of heavy steel or wrought iron rings.
During driving operations timber piling shall be restrained from lateral movement at
intervals not to exceed 6 m over the length between the driving head and the ground
surface. During driving operations, the timber pile shall be kept moving by continuous
operation of the hammer. When the blow count exceeds either 2 times the blow count
required in 300 mm, or 3 times the blow count required in 75 mm for the design bearing
load as shown on the plans, additional aids shall be used to obtain the specified
penetration. These aids may include the use of water jets or predrilling, where permitted,
or the use of a larger hammer employing a heavy ram striking with a low velocity.
The heads of concrete piles or shells shall be protected from direct impact of the hammer
by a cushion driving block. The cushion shall be maintained in good condition during the
entire driving operation. The cushion driving block shall be so arranged that any
reinforcing bars projecting above the piles will not be displaced or injured in driving.
Precast prestressed concrete piles shall not be driven until 14 days after casting.
Piles shall be driven to the position and line indicated on the plans. Piles materially out
of line will be rejected. Rejected piles which interfere with the work shall be removed.
Other rejected piles may either be removed or cut off and abandoned in place.

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SECTION 24
2400.08

PILING

BEARING VALUE AND PENETRATION

Except for piles to be load tested, driven piles shall be driven to a bearing value of not
less than the design loading shown on the plans unless otherwise specified in the Contract
Documents or permitted in writing by the Engineer. In addition, when a pile tip elevation
is specified, driven piles shall penetrate at least to the specified tip elevation, unless
otherwise permitted in writing by the Engineer. Piles to be load tested shall be driven to
the specified tip elevation.
When the pile design loading is omitted from the plans or the Contract Documents,
timber piles shall be driven to a bearing value of 400 kN, and steel and concrete piles
shall be driven to a bearing value of 625 kN.
The bearing values for driven piles shall be determined from the following formulas in
which "P" is the safe load in kilonewtons, "Er" is the manufacturer's rating for joules of
energy developed by the hammer, and "s" is the penetration per blow in millimeters,
averaged over the last few blows.
P =

Er
6(s + 2.54)

The penetration "s"


shall be measured only when there is
no appreciable rebound of the hammer and only when the last blow is struck upon a
sound pile head or driving block. The penetration per blow "s" may be measured either
during initial driving or during re-driving following a set period as determined by the
Engineer.
2400.09

CUT-OFF AND EXTENSION

Timber piles which are to be capped shall be accurately cut off so that true bearing is
obtained on every pile without the use of shims. Piles inaccurately cut off shall be
replaced. Splicing of timber piles will not be permitted, except by written permission of
the Engineer. Timber piles under concrete footings shall be cut off at the designated
elevations and anchor devices shall be installed as shown on the plans.
Concrete piles shall be cut off at the designated elevations and anchored to the structure
as shown on the plans.
When pile anchor dowels are used, at the option of the Contractor, the dowels shall be
anchored in cast or drilled holes in the concrete pile with neat cement paste. If holes are
to be drilled, they shall be drilled by methods that will not damage the concrete,
reinforcement or prestressing steel. The diameter of the holes shall be the minimum
consistent with placing the neat cement paste and dowel. The holes shall be free of dust
and other deleterious material when the neat cement paste is placed. Sufficient paste
shall be placed in the holes before the dowels are inserted so that no voids remain after
the dowels are inserted. The dowels shall be left undisturbed until the paste has
hardened.

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SECTION 24

PILING

When concrete pile extensions are constructed on driven or cast-in-place concrete piles,
the piles shall be cut off and extended with a reinforced concrete extension in
conformance with the details shown on the plans
Steel shells for cast-in-place concrete piles shall be cut off at the designated elevation.
The work of cutting off precast prestressed concrete piles shall be performed in such a
manner as to avoid spalling or damaging the pile below cut-off. In case of damage, the
pile shall be replaced or repaired by the Contractor at the Contractor's expense.
Steel piles shall be cut off at the designated elevations and anchor devices shall be
installed as shown on the plans.
All cut off lengths of piling shall become the property of the Contractor and shall be
disposed of outside the highway right of way at a location approved by the Engineer.
2401 - TIMBER PILES
2401.01

DESCRIPTION

Timber piles shall conform to the requirements in ASTM Designation: D 25 for piles
except as follows:
Butt and tip diameters shall be as specified in the following table:
Butt Diameter

Tip
Diameter

Pile Length

Minimum

Maximum

Minimum

(meters)

(millimeters)

(millimeters)

(millimeters)

Under 12

300

500

200

12 to 16

300

500

175

16 to 23

325

500

175

23 to 27

325

500

150

27 and Over

325

500

125

Butt diameters are measured approximately one meter from butt.

The width of checks in untreated timber piles shall not exceed 10 mm. The width of
checks in treated timber piles shall not exceed 10 mm after treatment or 13 mm
immediately before driving.

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SECTION 24
2401.02

PILING

INSPECTION

Treated timber piles will be inspected by the Engineer after treatment.


2401.03

REQUIREMENTS

When preservative treatment of timber piles is required by the plans or specified in the
Contract Documents, the treatment shall be creosote and shall conform to AASHTO.
Commercially treated piles from stock may be used for test piles.
Untreated and treated timber piles shall be of Douglas fir or Southern Pine timber and
shall be clean peeled.
The natural moisture content of any untreated timber foundation pile when delivered to
the jobsite shall be not less than 18 percent at 50-mm depth.
Treated timber piles shall be driven within 6 months after treatment.
The natural moisture content of any timber pile to be treated shall be not less than 18
percent at 50 mm depth immediately prior to treatment. Inspection prior to treatment
shall be by an established inspecting agency. Inspection reports shall be submitted with
each individual shipment, and each pile shall be stamped with the date of inspection.
Timber piling shall be protected with steel straps placed at not more than 3-m centers
along the pile. Five additional straps shall be placed on each pile; one each at 75 mm,
150 mm, 300 mm from the tip, and 2 within 600 mm of the butt.
Steel strapping shall be approximately 40 mm wide, 0.75-mm in nominal thickness and
shall be fabricated from cold-rolled heat-treated high tensile strapping. Strapping shall
develop a tensile strength of at least 22 kN. Straps shall be held in place with clips which
are secured by crimping twice in the clip length with a notch-type sealer. The clip shall
be approximately 65 mm long and fabricated from 0.75-mm thick steel. The clip joint
shall develop at least 75 percent of the strap tensile strength. Straps shall encircle the pile
once and shall be tensioned as tight as possible either by hand operated or pneumatic
tensioning tools.
All holes, cuts or daps in treated piles shall be treated with 2 applications of wood
preservative conforming to AASHTO.

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SECTION 24
2401.04

PILING

TREATMENT OF PILE HEADS

The heads of all treated timber piles which are not embedded in concrete shall be treated
by one of the following methods, after the piles have been driven and cut off to the proper
elevation:
An application of wood preservative conforming to the AASHTO specifications
shall first be applied to the head of the pile and a protective cap shall then be built
up by applying alternate layers of loosely woven fabric and hot asphalt or tar
similar to membrane waterproofing, using 3 layers of asphalt or tar and 2 layers of
fabric. The fabric shall measure at least 150 mm more in each direction than the
diameter of the pile and shall be turned down over the pile and the edges secured
by binding with 2 turns of No. 10 galvanized wire. The fabric shall be wired in
advance of the application of the final layer of asphalt or tar which shall extend
down over the wiring.
The sawed surface shall be covered with 3 applications of a hot mixture of 60
percent creosote and 40 percent roofing pitch, or thoroughly brushcoated with 3
applications of hot creosote and covered with hot roofing pitch. A covering of
3.50-mm nominal thickness galvanized steel sheet shall be placed over the coating
and bent down over the sides of each pile to shed water.
The method to be used shall be at the option of the Contractor, unless otherwise provided
on the plans or in the Contract Documents.
The treatment of pile heads encased in concrete will not be required.
2402 - PRECAST PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILES
2402.01

DESCRIPTION

Precast prestressed concrete piles shall be constructed in conformance with the provisions
in Section 5, Concrete Works and Section 11, Prestressed Concrete Works
When requested, the Contractor shall submit 2 sets of working drawings to the Engineer
at the jobsite for the Engineer's use in administering the contract. The drawings shall l
show the pile dimensions, materials, prestressing methods, tendon arrangement and
working stresses, including any addition or rearrangement of reinforcement from that
shown on the plans.
Precast prestressed concrete piling will be inspected at the fabrication site. The
Contractor shall notify the Engineer when materials have been delivered to the
fabrication site and shall give the Engineer at least 10 days' notice after delivery before
commencing the fabrication of the precast prestressed concrete piling. Materials to be
used shall be made available to the Engineer so they can be examined. The Engineer

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SECTION 24

PILING

shall have free access at all times to any portion of the fabrication site where the material
is stored or where work on the material is being performed.
Concrete for precast prestressed concrete piles shall be placed in smooth mortar-tight
forms, so supported as to prevent appreciable deformation or settlement during placing or
curing. Unformed surfaces shall be finished to a smooth surface. When removed from
the form, the pile shall present true, smooth, even surfaces free from honeycombs and
voids and shall be so straight that a line stretched from butt to tip on any face will not be
more than 25 mm from the face of the pile at any point.
When lifting anchors are used in precast prestressed concrete piles, the anchors shall be
not less than 25 mm clear from the reinforcement or prestressing steel in the pile.
Lifting anchors used in precast prestressed concrete piles shall be removed to a depth of
at least 25 mm below the surface of the concrete and the resulting hole shall be filled with
an approved cementitious repair mortar in accordance with the manufactures instructions
adhesive before the piles are delivered to the job site.
2402.02

HANDLING

When raising or transporting precast prestressed concrete piles, the Contractor shall
provide slings or other equipment to avoid any appreciable bending of the pile or
cracking of the concrete. Piles materially damaged in handling or driving shall be
replaced by the Contractor at the Contractor's expense. Precast prestressed concrete piles
shall be so handled at all times as to avoid breaking or chipping the edges.
2403 - CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILES
2403.01

DESCRIPTION

Cast-in-place concrete piles shall consist of one of the following:


Steel shells driven permanently to the required bearing value and penetration and
filled with concrete.
Drilled holes filled with concrete.
The drilling of holes shall conform to the provisions in these specifications. Concrete
filling for cast-in-place concrete piles is designated by compressive strength and shall
have a minimum 28-day compressive strength of 25 MPa. The combined aggregate
grading for the concrete shall be the 25-mm maximum grading. Concrete and
Reinforcement shall conform to the provisions in Section 5, "Concrete Works"
Cast-in-place concrete piles shall be constructed so that the excavation methods and the
concrete placement procedures shall provide for placing the concrete against undisturbed
material in a dry or dewatered hole.

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SECTION 24

PILING

The concrete filling for cast-in-place concrete piles shall be dense and homogeneous.
The methods used to place the concrete shall prevent segregation. Concrete placed in
steel shells, dry drilled holes or dewatered drilled holes shall not be permitted to fall from
a height greater than 2.5 m without the use of adjustable length pipes or tubes unless the
flow of concrete is directed into the center of the hole using a hopper and not allowed to
strike the reinforcement, reinforcement bracing and other objects in the hole.
Concrete filling for cast-in-place concrete piles shall be vibrated in the upper 5 m of the
pile.
After placing concrete, the temporarily exposed surfaces of the cast-in-place concrete
piles shall be cured in conformance with the provisions in Section 90-7.03, "Curing
Structures."
2403.02

DRILLED HOLES

When cast-in-place concrete piling is less than 600 mm in diameter, the Contractor may
propose to increase the diameter and revise the pile tip elevation. The Contractor may
propose to increase the diameter of cast-in-place concrete piling for soundwalls and
retaining walls, but the pile tip elevations shall not be revised. No additional
compensation or delays will be made for the Contractor's use of increased diameter
cast-in-place concrete piling.
The axis of the hole shall not deviate from plumb more than 40 mm per 3 m of length.
Care shall be taken during excavation to prevent disturbing the foundation material
surrounding the pile. Equipment or methods used for excavating holes shall not cause
quick soil conditions or cause scouring or caving of the hole. After excavation is begun,
the pile shall be constructed expeditiously in order to prevent deterioration of the
surrounding foundation material from air slaking or from the presence of water.
Deteriorated foundation material, including material that has softened, swollen or
degraded, shall be removed from the sides and the bottom of the hole and shall be
disposed of. The bottom of the drilled hole shall be cleaned just before placing
reinforcement or concrete to remove any loose sand, gravel, dirt, and drill cuttings.
After placing reinforcement and prior to placing concrete in the drilled hole, if caving
occurs or deteriorated foundation material accumulates on the bottom of the hole, as
determined by the Engineer, the reinforcement shall be removed and the bottom of the
drilled hole cleaned.
Water that has infiltrated the hole shall be removed before placing concrete therein.
Fluvial or drainage water shall not be permitted to enter the hole.
Temporary steel casings shall be furnished and placed tight in the hole where shown on
the plans and where necessary to control water or to prevent quick soil conditions or

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SECTION 24

PILING

caving of the hole. Temporary casing shall be watertight and of sufficient strength to
withstand the loads from installation, removal, lateral concrete pressures and earth
pressures. The casing shall be non-corrugated and the surfaces shall be smooth, clean
and free from hardened concrete. The casing shall be removed while the concrete is
being placed. In a dewatered hole the concrete in the casing shall be maintained at a level
at least 1.5 m above the bottom of the casing or at a level above the bottom of the casing
adequate to prevent displacement of the concrete by material from outside the casing,
whichever is greater. Casing may be vibrated or hammered when required to assist in
removal of the casing from the hole, to prevent lifting of the reinforcement and to prevent
concrete contamination. The withdrawal of casings shall not leave voids or cause
contamination of the concrete with soil or other materials.
Portions of the holes may be enlarged, backfilled with slurry cement backfill, concrete or
other material, and redrilled to the specified diameter to control caving. Backfill material
at enlarged piles shall be chemically compatible with concrete and steel, shall be drillable
and shall have the necessary strength required for the conditions.
Drill cuttings and Material resulting from placing concrete in piles shall be disposed of at
a location approved by the Engineer.
The reinforcement shall be placed and secured symmetrically about the axis of the pile
and shall be securely blocked to clear the sides of the hole.
Reinforcement for cast-in-drilled-hole concrete piling with increased diameters and
revised tip elevations shall conform to the following:
The size and number of the reinforcing bars, the percentage of bars required to
extend to the pile tip and the size and pitch of the spiral reinforcement shall
conform to the details shown on the plans for the original piles.
The required length of the spiral reinforcement and of any reinforcing bars which
do not extend to the pile tip shall be that length which would have been required
for the original specified or ordered tip elevation.
The diameter of the spiral reinforcement shall either remain the same as required
for the original pile or be increased to provide not less than the concrete cover
required for the original pile. Positive means shall be provided to ensure that the
reinforcement is centered in the pile.
2403.03

STEEL SHELLS

Steel shells shall be of sufficient strength and rigidity to permit driving, and to prevent
distortion caused by soil pressures or the driving of adjacent piles until filled with
concrete. The shells shall also be sufficiently watertight to exclude water during the
placing of concrete.
The shells may be cylindrical or tapered, step-tapered, or a combination of either, with
cylindrical sections.

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SECTION 24

PILING

Steel shells shall conform to the provisions for steel pipe piles specified herein.
2403.04

INSPECTION

After being driven and prior to placing reinforcement and concrete therein, the steel
shells shall be examined for collapse or reduced diameter at any point. Any shell which
is improperly driven or broken or shows partial collapse to such an extent as to materially
decrease its bearing value will be rejected. Rejected shells shall be removed and
replaced, or a new shell shall be driven adjacent to the rejected shell. Rejected shells
which cannot be removed shall be filled with concrete by the Contractor at the
Contractor's expense. When a new shell is driven to replace a rejected shell, the
Contractor, at the Contractor's expense, shall enlarge the footing as determined necessary
by the Engineer.
Driven shells and dewatered drilled holes shall be clean and free of water before
reinforcement and concrete are placed.
The Contractor shall have available at all times a suitable light for inspecting the entire
length of the shells or dewatered holes before placing the reinforcement and concrete.
2404 - STEEL PILES
2404.01

DESCRIPTION

Steel piles shall include structural shape piles and pipe piles.
Structural shape steel piles shall be of the rolled section shown on the plans or of the
section specified in the Contract Documents and shall be structural steel conforming to
the requirements in ASTM Designation: A 36/A 36M, or at the option of the Contractor,
structural steel conforming to the requirements in ASTM Designation: A 572/A 572M.
Steel pipe piles shall conform to the following requirements:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Steel pipe piles less than 360 mm in diameter shall conform to the
requirements in ASTM Designation: A 252, Grade 2 or 3.
Steel pipe piles 360 mm and greater in diameter shall conform to the
requirements in ASTM Designation: A 252, Grade 3.
Steel pipe piles shall be of the nominal diameter and nominal wall
thickness shown on the plans or specified in the Contract Documents.
The carbon equivalency (CE) of steel for steel pipe piles, as defined in
AWS D 1.1, Section XI5.1, shall not exceed 0.45.
The sulfur content of steel for steel pipe piles shall not exceed 0.05
percent.
Seams in steel pipe piles shall be complete penetration welds and shall
conform to the requirements in AWS D1.1 and amendments to AWS D1.1
in these specifications and the Contract Documents.
Incomplete
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SECTION 24

PILING

penetration welds and defective welds of steel pipe piles shall be repaired
or restored to achieve complete joint penetration groove welds.
Steel piles shall not be joined by welded lap splicing.
The manufacturer or fabricator of steel piles shall furnish a Certificate of Compliance
stating that the piles being supplied conform to these specifications and to the Contract
Documents. The Certificate of Compliance shall include test reports for tensile,
chemical, and any specified nondestructive tests. Samples for testing shall be taken from
the base metal, steel, coil or from the manufactured or fabricated piles .
2404.02

SPLICING

Steel pile splices shall conform to the requirements in AWS D 1.1 and the Contract
Documents. Structural shape steel piling splices shall be complete joint penetration
groove welds. Steel pipe pile splices that are made at a permanent manufacture or
fabrication facility, and that are made prior to furnishing the Certificate of Compliance,
shall be complete penetration welds. Steel pipe pile splices that are made in the field
shall be complete joint penetration groove welds.
Ends of steel pipe piling to be spliced that have been damaged during driving shall be
removed to a sound and uniform section conforming to the tolerances for diameter, edge
alignment and roundness required to meet the steel pile splice welding requirements.
Pipe ends shall be field cut using automated guided cutting equipment. Manual flame
cutting shall not be used.

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