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Chess

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Chessisatwo­playerstrategyboardgameplayedon

achessboard,acheckeredgameboardwith64squares

arrangedinaneight­by­eightgrid.Itisoneofthe

world'smostpopulargames,playedbymillionsof

peopleworldwideinhomes,urbanparks,clubs,

years,chesshasbecomepartofsomeschool

curricula.

Chess

Partofa Stauntonchessset (fromlefttoright):a white king ,ablack rook ,ablack queen ,awhite pawn ,ablack knight

PartofaStauntonchessset(fromlefttoright):a

whiteking,ablackrook,ablackqueen,awhite

pawn,ablackknight,andawhitebishop

Years

active

Players

Setuptime 1minute

c.6th­centuryIndiatopresent

2

Playing

Casualgamesusuallylast10to60

time

minutes;tournamentgameslast

anywherefromabouttenminutes

(blitzchess)tosixhoursormore.

Random

None

chance

Skill(s)

required

Synonym(s)Westernchess,internationalchess

Eachplayerbeginsthegamewith16pieces:oneking,

onequeen,tworooks,twoknights,twobishops,and

eightpawns.Eachofthesixpiecetypesmoves

differently.Theobjectiveisto'checkmate'the

opponent'skingbyplacingitunderaninescapable

threatofcapture.Tothisend,aplayer'spiecesare

usedtoattackandcapturetheopponent'spieces,while

supportingtheirown.Inadditiontocheckmate,the

gamecanbewonbyvoluntaryresignationbythe

opponent,whichtypicallyoccurswhentoomuch

materialislost,orifcheckmateappearsunavoidable.

Agamemayalsoresultinadrawinseveralways,

whereneitherplayerwins.Thecourseofthegameis

dividedintothreephases:opening,middlegame,and

ChampionistheNorwegianMagnusCarlsen.In

additiontotheWorldChampionship,therearethe

apopularcompetitionamongteamsfromdifferent

nations.Onlinechesshasopenedamateurand

professionalcompetitiontoawideandvariedgroup

games.Therearealsomanychessvariants,withdifferentrules,differentpieces,anddifferentboards.

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Sincethesecondhalfofthe20thcentury,computershavebeenprogrammedtoplaychesswith

increasingsuccess,tothepointwherethestrongesthomecomputersplaychessatahigherlevelthanthe besthumanplayers.Inthepasttwodecadescomputeranalysishascontributedsignificantlytochess theory,particularlyintheendgame.ThecomputerDeepBluewasthefirstmachinetoovercomea

reigningWorldChessChampioninamatchwhenitdefeatedGarryKasparovin1997.

Contents

1RulesContents 1.1Setup 1.2Movement 1.3Castling 1.4 Enpassant 1.5Promotion 1.6Check 1.7Endofthegame 1.7.1Win 1.7.2Draw

1.1SetupContents 1Rules 1.2Movement 1.3Castling 1.4 Enpassant 1.5Promotion 1.6Check 1.7Endofthegame 1.7.1Win 1.7.2Draw

1.2MovementContents 1Rules 1.1Setup 1.3Castling 1.4 Enpassant 1.5Promotion 1.6Check 1.7Endofthegame 1.7.1Win 1.7.2Draw 1.8Timecontrol

1.3CastlingContents 1Rules 1.1Setup 1.2Movement 1.4 Enpassant 1.5Promotion 1.6Check 1.7Endofthegame 1.7.1Win 1.7.2Draw 1.8Timecontrol

1.4Enpassant Enpassant

1.5Promotion1Rules 1.1Setup 1.2Movement 1.3Castling 1.4 Enpassant 1.6Check 1.7Endofthegame 1.7.1Win 1.7.2Draw 1.8Timecontrol

1.6Check1.1Setup 1.2Movement 1.3Castling 1.4 Enpassant 1.5Promotion 1.7Endofthegame 1.7.1Win 1.7.2Draw 1.8Timecontrol

1.7Endofthegame1.2Movement 1.3Castling 1.4 Enpassant 1.5Promotion 1.6Check 1.7.1Win 1.7.2Draw 1.8Timecontrol 2Notationforrecordingmoves

1.7.1Win1.4 Enpassant 1.5Promotion 1.6Check 1.7Endofthegame 1.7.2Draw 1.8Timecontrol 2Notationforrecordingmoves

1.7.2Draw1.4 Enpassant 1.5Promotion 1.6Check 1.7Endofthegame 1.7.1Win 1.8Timecontrol 2Notationforrecordingmoves

1.8Timecontrol1.5Promotion 1.6Check 1.7Endofthegame 1.7.1Win 1.7.2Draw 2Notationforrecordingmoves 3Strategyandtactics

2Notationforrecordingmoves

3Strategyandtactics1.7.1Win 1.7.2Draw 1.8Timecontrol 2Notationforrecordingmoves 3.1Fundamentalsoftactics 3.2Fundamentalsofstrategy 4Phases

3.1Fundamentalsoftactics

3.2Fundamentalsofstrategy

4Phases3.1Fundamentalsoftactics 3.2Fundamentalsofstrategy 4.1Opening 4.2Middlegame 4.3Endgame 5History 5.1Predecessors

4.1Opening3.1Fundamentalsoftactics 3.2Fundamentalsofstrategy 4Phases 4.2Middlegame 4.3Endgame 5History 5.1Predecessors

4.2Middlegame3.2Fundamentalsofstrategy 4Phases 4.1Opening 4.3Endgame 5History 5.1Predecessors

4.3Endgame3.2Fundamentalsofstrategy 4Phases 4.1Opening 4.2Middlegame 5History 5.1Predecessors

5History4Phases 4.1Opening 4.2Middlegame 4.3Endgame 5.1Predecessors 5.2Originsofthemoderngame(1000–1850)

5.1Predecessors4Phases 4.1Opening 4.2Middlegame 4.3Endgame 5History 5.2Originsofthemoderngame(1000–1850)

5.2Originsofthemoderngame(1000–1850)

5.3Birthofasport(1850–1945)

5.4Post­warera(1945andlater)

6Placeinculture5.3Birthofasport(1850–1945) 5.4Post­warera(1945andlater) 6.1Pre­modern 6.2Modern 7Composition 7.1Example

6.1Pre­modern5.4Post­warera(1945andlater) 6Placeinculture 6.2Modern 7Composition 7.1Example 8Competitiveplay

6.2Modern5.4Post­warera(1945andlater) 6Placeinculture 6.1Pre­modern 7Composition 7.1Example 8Competitiveplay

7Composition6Placeinculture 6.1Pre­modern 6.2Modern 7.1Example 8Competitiveplay 8.1Organizationofcompetitions

7.1Example6Placeinculture 6.1Pre­modern 6.2Modern 7Composition 8Competitiveplay 8.1Organizationofcompetitions

8Competitiveplay6Placeinculture 6.1Pre­modern 6.2Modern 7Composition 7.1Example 8.1Organizationofcompetitions

8.1Organizationofcompetitions

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8.2Titlesandrankings9Publications 10Mathematicsandcomputers 11Psychology 11.1Chessandintelligence 12Variants 13Gametheory 14Seealso

9Publications8.2Titlesandrankings 10Mathematicsandcomputers 11Psychology 11.1Chessandintelligence 12Variants 13Gametheory 14Seealso

10Mathematicsandcomputers

11Psychology8.2Titlesandrankings 9Publications 10Mathematicsandcomputers 11.1Chessandintelligence 12Variants 13Gametheory 14Seealso

11.1Chessandintelligence9Publications 10Mathematicsandcomputers 11Psychology 12Variants 13Gametheory 14Seealso 15References

12Variants11Psychology 11.1Chessandintelligence 13Gametheory 14Seealso 15References 16Furtherreading

13Gametheory11Psychology 11.1Chessandintelligence 12Variants 14Seealso 15References 16Furtherreading 17Externallinks

14Seealso11Psychology 11.1Chessandintelligence 12Variants 13Gametheory 15References 16Furtherreading 17Externallinks

15References11Psychology 11.1Chessandintelligence 12Variants 13Gametheory 14Seealso 16Furtherreading 17Externallinks

16Furtherreading11Psychology 11.1Chessandintelligence 12Variants 13Gametheory 14Seealso 15References 17Externallinks

17Externallinks11Psychology 11.1Chessandintelligence 12Variants 13Gametheory 14Seealso 15References 16Furtherreading

Rules

Setupatthestartofagame

Setupatthestartofagame

Theofficialrulesofchess aremaintainedbythe WorldChessFederation. Alongwithinformationon officialchesstournaments, therulesaredescribedin theFIDEHandbook,Laws ofChesssection. [1]

Setup

a b c d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5
a b
c
d
e
f
g
h
8
8
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
a b
c
d
e
f
g
h

Initialposition,firstrow:rook,

knight,bishop,queen,king,bishop,

knight,androok;secondrow:

pawns

Chessisplayedonasquareboardofeightrows(calledranksand

denotedwithnumbers1to8)andeightcolumns(calledfilesand

denotedwithlettersatoh)ofsquares.Thecolorsofthe64

squaresalternateandarereferredtoas"light"and"dark"squares.

Thechessboardisplacedwithalightsquareattheright­handend

oftheranknearesttoeachplayer,andthepiecesaresetoutas

showninthediagramandphoto,witheachqueenonasquareofitsowncolor.

Byconvention,thegamepiecesaredividedintowhiteandblacksets,andtheplayersarereferredtoas

"White"and"Black"respectively.Eachplayerbeginsthegamewith16piecesofthespecifiedcolor,

whichconsistofoneking,onequeen,tworooks,twobishops,twoknights,andeightpawns.

Movement

The"white"playersalwaysmovesfirst.Afterthefirstmove,playersalternatelymoveonepieceperturn

(exceptforcastling,whentwopiecesaremoved).Piecesaremovedtoeitheranunoccupiedsquareor

oneoccupiedbyanopponent'spiece,whichiscapturedandremovedfromplay.Withthesoleexception

ofenpassant,allpiecescapturebymovingtothesquarethattheopponent'spieceoccupies.Aplayer

maynotmakeanymovethatwouldputorleavehisorherkingunderattack.Aplayercannot"pass";at

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eachturntheyhavetomakealegalmove(thisisthebasisforthefinessecalledzugzwang).Iftheplayer

tomovehasnolegalmoves,thegameisover;itiseitheracheckmate(alossfortheplayerwithnolegal

moves)ifthekingisunderattack,orastalemate(adraw)ifthekingisnot.

Eachchesspiecehasitsownstyleofmoving.Inthediagrams,thedotsmarkthesquareswherethepiece

canmoveifnootherpieces(includingone'sownpiece)areonthesquaresbetweenthepiece'sinitial

positionanditsdestination.

Movesofaking

Movesofarook

Movesofabishop

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

 

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

 

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

8 8 8 8 8

8

8

8 8 8 8 8

8

8

8 8 8 8 8

8

7

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7

7

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3

3

3

3

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2

2

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1

1

1

1

1

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

a b

c

d

e

f

g

h

a b

c

d

e

f

g

h

Movesofaqueen

 

Movesofaknight

 

Movesofapawn

 

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

 

a b

c

d

e

f

g

h

 

a b

c

d

e

f

g

h

8 8 8 8 8

8

8

8 8 8 8 8

8

8

8 8 8 8 8

8

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3

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2

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1

1

1

1

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

Thekingmovesonesquareinanydirection.Thekinghasalsoaspecialmovewhichiscalled

castlingandinvolvesalsomovingarook.

Therookcanmoveanynumberofsquaresalonganyrankorfile,butmaynotleapoverother

pieces.Alongwiththeking,therookisinvolvedduringtheking'scastlingmove.

Thebishopcanmoveanynumberofsquaresdiagonally,butmaynotleapoverotherpieces.

Thequeencombinesthepoweroftherookandbishopandcanmoveanynumberofsquaresalong

rank,file,ordiagonal,butitmaynotleapoverotherpieces.

Theknightmovestoanyoftheclosestsquaresthatarenotonthesamerank,file,ordiagonal,thus

themoveformsan"L"­shape:twosquaresverticallyandonesquarehorizontally,ortwosquares

horizontallyandonesquarevertically.Theknightistheonlypiecethatcanleapoverotherpieces.

Thepawnmaymoveforwardtotheunoccupiedsquareimmediatelyinfrontofitonthesamefile,

oronitsfirstmoveitmayadvancetwosquaresalongthesamefileprovidedbothsquaresare

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unoccupied(black"●"sinthediagram);orthepawnmaycaptureanopponent'spieceonasquare

diagonallyinfrontofitonanadjacentfile,bymovingtothatsquare(black"x"s).Thepawnhas

twospecialmoves:theenpassantcaptureandpawnpromotion.

Castling

Onceineverygame,eachkingisallowedtomakeaspecialmove, knownascastling.Castlingconsistsofmovingthekingtwo squaresalongthefirstranktowardarook(whichisontheplayer's firstrank [note1] )andthenplacingtherookonthelastsquarethe kinghasjustcrossed.Castlingispermissibleunderthefollowing conditions: [2]

Examplesofcastling

Examplesofcastling

Neitherthekingnortherookmayhavebeenpreviously

movedduringthegame.

Theremustbenopiecesbetweenthekingandtherook.

Thekingmaynotbeincheck,normaythekingpassthrough

squaresthatareunderattackbyenemypieces,normovetoasquarewhereitisincheck.

Notethatcastlingispermissibleiftherookisattacked,oriftherookcrossesasquarethatisattacked.

Enpassant

Whenapawnadvancestwosquaresfromitsstartingpositionand thereisanopponent'spawnonanadjacentfilenexttoits destinationsquare,thentheopponent'spawncancaptureiten passant(inpassing),andmovetothesquarethepawnpassedover. However,thiscanonlybedoneontheverynextmove,otherwise therighttodosoisforfeit.Forexample,iftheblackpawnhasjust

advancedtwosquaresfromg7(initialstartingposition)tog5,then

thewhitepawnonf5maytakeitviaenpassantong6(butonlyon

white'snextmove).

Examplesofpawnmoves: promotion(left)and enpassant (right)

Examplesofpawnmoves:

promotion(left)andenpassant

(right)

Promotion

Whenapawnadvancestotheeighthrank,asapartofthemoveit

ispromotedandmustbeexchangedfortheplayer'schoiceof

queen,rook,bishop,orknightofthesamecolor.Usually,thepawn

ischosentobepromotedtoaqueen,butinsomecasesanother

pieceischosen;thisiscalledunderpromotion.Inthediagramontheright,thepawnonc7canbe

advancedtotheeighthrankandbepromotedtoanallowedpiece.Thereisnorestrictionplacedonthe

piecethatischosenonpromotion,soitispossibletohavemorepiecesofthesametypethanatthestart

ofthegame(forexample,twoqueens).

Check

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Whenakingisunderimmediateattackbyoneortwoofthe

opponent'spieces,itissaidtobeincheck.Aresponsetoacheck

isalegalmoveifitresultsinapositionwherethekingisno

longerunderdirectattack(thatis,notincheck).Thiscaninvolve

capturingthecheckingpiece;interposingapiecebetweenthe

checkingpieceandtheking(whichispossibleonlyifthe

attackingpieceisaqueen,rook,orbishopandthereisasquare

betweenitandtheking);ormovingthekingtoasquarewhereit

isnotunderattack.Castlingisnotapermissibleresponsetoa

check.Theobjectofthegameistocheckmatetheopponent;this

occurswhentheopponent'skingisincheck,andthereisnolegal

waytoremoveitfromattack.Itisillegalforaplayertomakea

movethatwouldputorleavehisownkingincheck.

 

a

b

c

d

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g

h

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8 8

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a

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Black'skingisincheckfromthe

 

rook.

 
 

a

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StalemateifitisBlacktomove.It

 

isnotcheckmate,andsinceBlack

cannotmove,thegameisadraw.

a b c d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5
a b
c
d
e
f
g
h
8
8
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
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3
3
2
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1
1
a b
c
d
e
f
g
h

Whiteisincheckmate,beingunable

toescapefrombeingattackedbythe

Blackkingandbishops.

Endofthegame

Win

Gamesmaybewoninthe

followingways:

CheckmateEndofthegame Win Gamesmaybewoninthe followingways: Resignation ­either playerresign, concedingthegame

Resignation ­either Resignation­either

playerresign,

concedingthegame

totheother

player. [4] Itis

usuallyconsidered

pooretiquettetoplayoninatrulyhopelessposition,andforthisreasonhighlevelgamesrarely

endwithacheckmate.

Lossontime­Ingameswithatimecontrol,aplayermayalsolosebyrunningoutoftime,even

withamuchsuperiorposition.

Forfeit­aplayerwhocheats,orviolatesthelawsofthegame,orviolatestherulesspecifiedfor

theparticulartournamentmaybeforfeited.Inhighleveltournaments,playershavebeenforfeited

forsuchthingsasarrivinglateforthegame(evenbyamatterofseconds),receivingacallortext

onone'scellphone,refusingtoundergoadrugtest,refusingtoundergoabodysearchfor

electronicdevicesandunsportingbehaviour(suchasrefusingtoshaketheopponent'shand).

Draw

Gamesmayendinadrawinseveralways:

Drawbyagreement­drawsaremostcommonlyreachedbymutualagreementbetweenthe

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players.Thecorrectprocedureistoverballyofferthedraw,makeamove,thenstartthe

opponent'sclock.Traditionallyplayershavebeenallowedtoagreeadrawatanytimeinthegame,

occasionallyevenwithoutplayingamove;inrecentyearseffortshavebeenmadetodiscourage

shortdraws,forexamplebyforbiddingdrawoffersbeforemovethirty.

Stalemate­theplayerwhoseturnitistomoveisnotincheck,buthasnolegalmove.

Threefoldrepetitionofaposition­thismostcommonlyoccurswhenneithersideisabletoavoid

repeatingmoveswithoutincurringadisadvantage.Thethreeoccurrencesofthepositionneednot

Thefifty­moverule­ifduringtheprevious50movesnopawnhasbeenmovedandnocapturehas

beenmade,eitherplayermayclaimadraw;thisrequirestheplayerstokeepavalidwrittenrecord

ofthegamesothattheclaimmaybeverifiedbythearbiterifchallenged.Thereareinfactseveral

knownendgameswhereitistheoreticallypossibletoforceamatebutwhichrequiremorethan50

endingsarerare,however,andfewplayersstudythemindetail,sothefifty­moveruleis

consideredpracticalforovertheboardplay.Somecorrespondencechessorganizationsallow

exceptionstothefifty­moverule. [note2]

Insufficientmaterial­aplayermayclaimadrawiftheiropponenthasinsufficientmaterialto

checkmate,forexampleiftheplayerhasonlythekingleftandtheopponenthasonlythekingand

abishop.Suchaclaimisonlyvalidifcheckmateisimpossible.

Timecontrol

Amoderndigitalchessclock

Amoderndigitalchessclock

Chessgamesmayalsobeplayedwithatimecontrol,mostlyby clubandprofessionalplayers.Ifaplayer'stimerunsoutbefore thegameiscompleted,thegameisautomaticallylost(provided hisopponenthasenoughpieceslefttodelivercheckmate).The durationofagamerangesfromlonggamesplayeduptoseven

hourstoshorterrapidchessgames,usuallylasting30minutesor

onehourpergame.Evenshorterisblitzchess,withatime

controlofthreeto15minutesforeachplayer,andbulletchess

(underthreeminutes).Intournamentplay,timeiscontrolled

usingagameclockthathastwodisplays,oneforeachplayer's

remainingtime.

Notationforrecordingmoves

Chessgamesandpositionsarerecordedusingaspecialnotation,mostoftenalgebraicchessnotation. [6] Abbreviated(orshort)algebraicnotationgenerallyrecordsmovesintheformat"abbreviationofthe

piecemoved–filewhereitmoved–rankwhereitmoved".Forexample,Qg5means"queenmovesto

theg­fileand5thrank"(thatis,tothesquareg5).Iftherearetwopiecesofthesametypethatcanmove

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tothesamesquare,onemoreletterornumberisaddedtoindicatethefileorrankfromwhichthepiece

moved,e.g.Ngf3means"knightfromtheg­filemovestothesquaref3".TheletterPindicatingapawn

isnotused,sothate4means"pawnmovestothesquaree4".

Ifthepiecemakesacapture,"x"isinsertedbeforethedestinationsquare.ThusBxf3means"bishop

capturesonf3".Whenapawnmakesacapture,thefilefrom

whichthepawndepartedisusedinplaceofapieceinitial,

andranksmaybeomittedifunambiguous.Forexample,exd5

(pawnonthee­filecapturesthepieceond5)orexd(pawnon

thee­filecapturesapiecesomewhereonthed­file).

Namingthesquaresinalgebraicchess notation

Namingthesquaresinalgebraicchess

notation

Ifapawnmoves toitslastrank, achieving promotion,the piecechosenis indicatedafterthe move,forexample

e1Qore1=Q.

Castlingis

indicatedbythe

specialnotations

0­0forkingside

castlingand0­0­0forqueensidecastling.Anenpassant

captureissometimesmarkedwiththenotation"e.p."Amove

thatplacestheopponent'skingincheckusuallyhasthe

notation"+"added.(Thenotation"++"foradoublecheckis

consideredobsolete).Checkmatecanbeindicatedby"#".Attheendofthegame,"1–0"means"White

won","0–1"means"Blackwon",and"½–½"indicatesadraw. [7]

Chessmovescanbeannotatedwithpunctuationmarksandothersymbols.Forexample"!"indicatesa goodmove,"!!"anexcellentmove,"?"amistake,"??"ablunder,"!?"aninterestingmovethatmaynot bebest,or"?!"adubiousmovenoteasilyrefuted. [8]

Forexample,onevariantofasimpletrapknownastheScholar'smate(seeanimateddiagram)canbe

recorded:

1.e4e5

2.Qh5?!Nc6

3.Bc4Nf6??

4.Qxf7#1–0

Strategyandtactics

Chessstrategyconsistsofsettingandachievinglong­termpositioningadvantagesduringthegame–for example,wheretoplacedifferentpieces–whiletacticsconcentrateonimmediatemaneuver.Thesetwo partsofthechess­playingprocesscannotbecompletelyseparated,becausestrategicgoalsaremostly achievedthroughtactics,whilethetacticalopportunitiesarebasedonthepreviousstrategyofplay.A

gameofchessisnormallydividedintothreephases:opening,typicallythefirst10moves,whenplayers

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movetheirpiecestousefulpositionsforthecomingbattle;thenmiddlegame;andlasttheendgame,

whenmostofthepiecesaregone,kingstypicallytakeamoreactivepartinthestruggle,andpawn

promotionisoftendecisive.

Fundamentalsoftactics

Inchess,tacticsingeneralconcentrateonshort­termactions

–soshort­termthattheycanbecalculatedinadvancebya

humanplayerorbyacomputer.Thepossibledepthof

calculationdependsontheplayer'sability.Inquietpositions

withmanypossibilitiesonbothsides,adeepcalculationis

moredifficultandmaynotbepractical,whilein"tactical"

positionswithalimitednumberofforcedvariations,strong

playerscancalculatelongsequencesofmoves.

Simpleone­moveortwo­movetacticalactions–threats, exchangesofmaterial,anddoubleattacks–canbecombined intomorecomplicatedcombinations,sequencesoftactical maneuversthatareoftenforcedfromthepointofviewofone orbothplayers. [10] Theoreticiansdescribemanyelementary tacticalmethodsandtypicalmaneuvers;forexample,pins, forks,skewers,batteries,discoveredattacks(especially discoveredchecks),zwischenzugs,deflections,decoys, sacrifices,underminings,overloadings,andinterferences. [11]

Aforcedvariationthatinvolvesasacrificeandusuallyresults inatangiblegainiscalledacombination. [10] Brilliant combinations–suchasthoseintheImmortalGame–are consideredbeautifulandareadmiredbychesslovers.A commontypeofchessexercise,aimedatdevelopingplayers' skills,isshowingplayersapositionwhereadecisive combinationisavailableandchallengingthemtofindit. [12]

Fundamentalsofstrategy

Botvinnikvs.Yudovich,1933 [9]

a b c d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5
a b
c
d
e
f
g
h
8
8
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
a b
c
d
e
f
g
h

Aftersacrificingapieceto exposeBlack'sking,Botvinnik

played1.Bh5+andYudovich

resigned,asmateisinevitable.

1.Bh5+

1 Kxh52.Ng3+Kh43.Qe4+Rf4

1

Kxh52.Ng3+Kh43.Qe4+Rf4

4.Qxf4#

1 Kf52.g4#

1 Kf52.g4#

1 Kh72.Nf6+ (doublecheck )

1 Kh72.Nf6+(doublecheck)

Kh83.Qh7#

Chessstrategyisconcernedwithevaluationofchesspositionsandwithsettingupgoalsandlong­term

plansforthefutureplay.Duringtheevaluation,playersmusttakeintoaccountnumerousfactorssuchas

thevalueofthepiecesontheboard,controlofthecenterandcentralization,thepawnstructure,king

safety,andthecontrolofkeysquaresorgroupsofsquares(forexample,diagonals,openfiles,anddark

orlightsquares).

Themostbasicstepin evaluatingapositionisto countthetotalvalueof piecesofbothsides. [14] Thepointvaluesusedfor thispurposearebasedon experience;usuallypawns areconsideredworthone point,knightsandbishops

Exampleofunderlyingpawnstructure

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aboutthreepointseach,

rooksaboutfivepoints

(thevaluedifference

betweenarookanda

bishoporknightbeing

knownastheexchange),

andqueensaboutnine

points.Thekingismore

valuablethanallofthe

otherpiecescombined,

sinceitscheckmateloses

thegame.Butinpractical

terms,intheendgamethe

kingasafightingpieceis

generallymorepowerful

thanabishoporknightbut lesspowerfulthana rook. [15] Thesebasicvaluesarethenmodifiedbyotherfactorslikepositionofthepiece(forexample, advancedpawnsareusuallymorevaluablethanthoseontheirinitialsquares),coordinationbetween pieces(forexample,apairofbishopsusuallycoordinatebetterthanabishopandaknight),orthetype ofposition(knightsaregenerallybetterinclosedpositionswithmanypawnswhilebishopsaremore powerfulinopenpositions). [16]

Blacktomove

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After12 Re8inTarrasch–

Euwe [13]

Whitetomove

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anditspawnskeleton(the"Rauzer

formation")

Anotherimportantfactorintheevaluationofchesspositionsisthepawnstructure(sometimesknownas thepawnskeleton),ortheconfigurationofpawnsonthechessboard. [17] Sincepawnsaretheleast mobileofthechesspieces,thepawnstructureisrelativelystaticandlargelydeterminesthestrategic natureoftheposition.Weaknessesinthepawnstructure,suchasisolated,doubled,orbackwardpawns andholes,oncecreated,areoftenpermanent.Caremustthereforebetakentoavoidtheseweaknesses unlesstheyarecompensatedbyanothervaluableasset(forexample,bythepossibilityofdevelopingan attack). [18]

Phases

Opening

Achessopeningisthegroupofinitialmovesofagame(the"openingmoves").Recognizedsequences ofopeningmovesarereferredtoasopeningsandhavebeengivennamessuchastheRuyLopezor SicilianDefence.TheyarecataloguedinreferenceworkssuchastheEncyclopaediaofChessOpenings. Therearedozensofdifferentopenings,varyingwidelyincharacterfromquietpositionalplay(for example,theRétiOpening)toveryaggressive(theLatvianGambit).Insomeopeninglines,theexact sequenceconsideredbestforbothsideshasbeenworkedouttomorethan30moves. [19] Professional playersspendyearsstudyingopeningsandcontinuedoingsothroughouttheircareers,asopeningtheory continuestoevolve.

Thefundamentalstrategicaimsofmostopeningsaresimilar: [20]

Development:Thisisthetechniqueofplacingthepieces(particularlybishopsandknights)on

usefulsquareswheretheywillhaveanoptimalimpactonthegame.

Controlofthecenter:Controlofthecentralsquaresallowspiecestobemovedtoanypartofthe

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boardrelativelyeasily,andcanalsohaveacrampingeffectontheopponent.

Kingsafety:Itiscriticaltokeepthekingsafefromdangerouspossibilities.Acorrectlytimed

castlingcanoftenenhancethis.

Pawnstructure:Playersstrivetoavoidthecreationofpawnweaknessessuchasisolated,doubled,

orbackwardpawns,andpawnislands–andtoforcesuchweaknessesintheopponent'sposition.

Middlegame

Themiddlegameisthepartofthegamewhichstartsaftertheopening.Thereisnoclearlinebetweenthe openingandthemiddlegame,buttypicallythemiddlegamewillstartwhenmostpieceshavebeen developed.(Similarly,thereisnocleartransitionfromthemiddlegametotheendgame;seestartofthe endgame.)Becausetheopeningtheoryhasended,playershavetoformplansbasedonthefeaturesof theposition,andatthesametimetakeintoaccountthetacticalpossibilitiesoftheposition. [22] The middlegameisthephaseinwhichmostcombinationsoccur.Combinationsareaseriesoftacticalmoves executedtoachievesomegain.Middlegamecombinationsareoftenconnectedwithanattackagainstthe opponent'sking;sometypicalpatternshavetheirownnames;forexample,theBoden'sMateorthe Lasker–Bauercombination. [23]

Specificplansorstrategicthemeswilloftenarisefromparticulargroupsofopeningswhichresultina specifictypeofpawnstructure.Anexampleistheminorityattack,whichistheattackofqueenside pawnsagainstanopponentwhohasmorepawnsonthequeenside.Thestudyofopeningsistherefore connectedtothepreparationofplansthataretypicaloftheresultingmiddlegames. [24]

Anotherimportantstrategicquestioninthemiddlegameiswhetherandhowtoreducematerialand transitionintoanendgame(i.e.simplify).Minormaterialadvantagescangenerallybetransformedinto victoryonlyinanendgame,andthereforethestrongersidemustchooseanappropriatewaytoachieve anending.Noteveryreductionofmaterialisgoodforthispurpose;forexample,ifonesidekeepsa light­squaredbishopandtheopponenthasadark­squaredone,thetransformationintoabishopsand pawnsendingisusuallyadvantageousfortheweakersideonly,becauseanendgamewithbishopson oppositecolorsislikelytobeadraw,evenwithanadvantageofapawn,orsometimesevenwithatwo­ pawnadvantage. [25]

Endgame

Theendgame(orendgameorending)isthestageofthegamewhentherearefewpiecesleftonthe board.Therearethreemainstrategicdifferencesbetweenearlierstagesofthegameandendgame: [26]

Duringtheendgame,pawnsbecomemoreimportant;endgamesoftenrevolvearoundattempting

topromoteapawnbyadvancingittotheeighthrank.

Theking,whichhastobeprotectedinthemiddlegameowingtothethreatofcheckmate,becomes

astrongpieceintheendgame.Itisoftenbroughttothecenteroftheboardwhereitcanprotectits

ownpawns,attackthepawnsofoppositecolor,andhindermovementoftheopponent'sking.

Zugzwang,adisadvantagebecausetheplayerhastomakeamove,isoftenafactorinendgames

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butrarelyinotherstagesofthegame.Forexample,the

diagramontherightiszugzwangforbothsides,aswith

Blacktomovehemustplay1 Kb7andletWhitepromote

apawnafter2.Kd7;andwithWhitetomovehemustallow

adrawby1.Kc6stalemateorlosehislastpawnbyany

otherlegalmove.

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Anexampleofzugzwang:theside

havingtomoveisatadisadvantage.

Endgamescanbeclassifiedaccordingtothetypeofpiecesthat

remainonboard.Basiccheckmatesarepositionsinwhichone

sidehasonlyakingandtheothersidehasoneortwopiecesand

cancheckmatetheopposingking,withthepiecesworking

togetherwiththeirking.Forexample,kingandpawnendgames

involveonlykingsandpawnsononeorbothsidesandthetaskof

thestrongersideistopromoteoneofthepawns.Othermore

History

Predecessors

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a b c d e f g h

Ashtāpada,theuncheckered8x8

board,sometimeswithspecialmarks,

onwhichchaturangawasplayed

ChessisbelievedtohaveoriginatedinEasternIndia,c.280

–550CE, [27] intheGuptaEmpire, [28][29][30][31] whereits

earlyforminthe6thcenturywasknownaschaturaṅga

(Sanskrit:चतर‰‰ग),literallyfourdivisions[ofthemilitary]– infantry,cavalry,elephants,andchariotry,representedby thepiecesthatwouldevolveintothemodernpawn,knight, bishop,androok,respectively.Theearliestevidenceof

chessisfoundinthenearbySassanidPersiaaround600,

wherethegamecametobeknownbythenamechatrang. ChatrangisevokedinthreeepicromanceswritteninPahlavi (MiddlePersian).ChatrangwastakenupbytheMuslim

wasthennamedshatranj,withthepieceslargelyretaining

theirPersiannames.InSpanish"shatranj"wasrenderedas

ajedrez("al­shatranj"),inPortugueseasxadrez,andin

Greekasζατρίκιον(zatrikion,whichcomesdirectlyfrom thePersianchatrang), [32] butintherestofEuropeitwasreplacedbyversionsofthePersianshāh ("king"),whichwasfamiliarasanexclamationandbecametheEnglishwords"check"and "chess". [note3] MurraytheorizedthatMuslimtraderscametoEuropeanseaportswithornamentalchess kingsascuriosbeforetheybroughtthegameofchess. [30]

ThegamereachedWesternEuropeandRussiabyatleastthreeroutes,theearliestbeinginthe9th

century.Bytheyear1000ithadspreadthroughoutEurope. [33] IntroducedintotheIberianPeninsulaby

theMoorsinthe10thcentury,itwasdescribedinafamous13th­centurymanuscriptcoveringshatranj,

backgammon,anddicenamedtheLibrodelosjuegos.Anothertheorycontendsthatchessarosefrom thegamexiangqi(Chinesechess)oroneofitspredecessors, [34] althoughthishasbeencontested. [35]

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Originsofthemoderngame(1000–1850)

Around1200,therulesofshatranjstartedtobemodifiedin

southernEurope,andaround1475,severalmajorchangesmade

thegameessentiallyasitisknowntoday. [33] Thesemodernrules forthebasicmoveshadbeenadoptedinItalyandSpain. [36][37] Pawnsgainedtheoptionofadvancingtwosquaresontheirfirst move,whilebishopsandqueensacquiredtheirmodernabilities. Thequeenreplacedtheearliervizierchesspiecetowardstheend

ofthe10thcenturyandbythe15thcenturyhadbecomethemost

powerfulpiece; [38] consequentlymodernchesswasreferredtoas

"Queen'sChess"or"MadQueenChess". [39] Thesenewrules quicklyspreadthroughoutwesternEurope.Therulesconcerningstalematewerefinalizedintheearly 19thcentury.TheresultingstandardgameissometimesreferredtoasWesternchess [40] orinternational

chess. [41] inordertodistinguishitfromitspredecessorsaswellasregionalversionsofchessthat evolveddifferently.

Atacticalpuzzlefrom Lucena's 1497book

Atacticalpuzzlefrom

Lucena's1497book

Writingsaboutthetheoryofhowtoplaychessbegantoappearinthe15th

Inthe18thcentury,thecenterof

Europeanchesslifemovedfromthe

SouthernEuropeancountriestoFrance.

ThetwomostimportantFrenchmasters

musicianbyprofession,whodiscovered theimportanceofpawnsforchess strategy,andlaterLouis­CharlesMahédeLaBourdonnais,whowona famousseriesofmatcheswiththeIrishmasterAlexanderMcDonnell in1834. [42] Centersofchessactivityinthisperiodwerecoffeehouses inbigEuropeancitieslikeCafédelaRégenceinParisandSimpson's DivaninLondon. [43][44]

Asthe19thcenturyprogressed,chessorganizationdevelopedquickly.

Manychessclubs,chessbooks,andchessjournalsappeared.There werecorrespondencematchesbetweencities;forexample,theLondonChessClubplayedagainstthe EdinburghChessClubin1824. [45] Chessproblemsbecamearegularpartof19th­centurynewspapers; BernhardHorwitz,JosefKling,andSamuelLoydcomposedsomeofthemostinfluentialproblems.In

1843,vonderLasapublishedhisandBilguer'sHandbuchdesSchachspiels(HandbookofChess),the

firstcomprehensivemanualofchesstheory.

Birthofasport(1850–1945)

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GermanAdolfAnderssen,whowashailedastheleading chessmaster.Hisbrilliant,energeticattackingstylewas typicalforthetime. [46][47] SparklinggameslikeAnderssen's ImmortalgameandEvergreengameorMorphy'sOpera gamewereregardedasthehighestpossiblesummitofthe chessart. [48]

The" ImmortalGame ",Anderssen– Kieseritzky,1851

The"ImmortalGame",Anderssen–

Kieseritzky,1851

Deeperinsightintothenatureofchesscamewithtwo youngerplayers.AmericanPaulMorphy,anextraordinary chessprodigy,wonagainstallimportantcompetitors(except HowardStaunton,whorefusedtoplay),includingAnderssen,

duringhisshortchesscareerbetween1857and1863.

Morphy'ssuccessstemmedfromacombinationofbrilliant

attacksandsoundstrategy;heintuitivelyknewhowto prepareattacks. [49] Prague­bornWilhelmSteinitzlaterdescribedhowtoavoidweaknessesinone'sown positionandhowtocreateandexploitsuchweaknessesintheopponent'sposition. [50] Thescientific approachandpositionalunderstandingofSteinitzrevolutionizedthegame.Steinitzwasthefirsttobreak apositiondownintoitscomponents. [51] BeforeSteinitz,playersbroughttheirqueenoutearly,didnot completelydeveloptheirotherpieces,andmountedaquickattackontheopposingking,whicheither succeededorfailed.Thelevelofdefensewaspoorandplayersdidnotformanydeepplan. [52] In additiontohistheoreticalachievements,Steinitzfoundedanimportanttradition:histriumphoverthe

EmanuelLasker,whomaintainedthistitlefor27years,thelongesttenureofallWorldChampions. [53]

Aftertheendofthe19thcentury,thenumberofmaster

tournamentsandmatchesheldannuallyquicklygrew.Some

sourcesstatethatin1914thetitleofchessGrandmasterwasfirst

formallyconferredbyTsarNicholasIIofRussiatoLasker, Capablanca,Alekhine,Tarrasch,andMarshall,butthisisa disputedclaim. [note4] Thetraditionofawardingsuchtitleswas continuedbytheWorldChessFederation(FIDE),foundedin

1924inParis.In1927,theWomen'sWorldChessChampionship

wasestablished;thefirsttoholdthetitlewasCzech­English masterVeraMenchik. [54] IttookaprodigyfromCuba,JoséRaúl

positionsandendgames,toendtheGerman­speakingdominance inchess;hewasundefeatedintournamentplayforeightyears,

ChessPlayersinlate19th­Century Istanbul ,by StanisławChlebowski

ChessPlayersinlate19th­Century

Betweentheworldwars,chesswasrevolutionizedbythenew

theoreticalschoolofso­calledhypermodernistslikeAronNimzowitschandRichardRéti.They

advocatedcontrollingthecenteroftheboardwithdistantpiecesratherthanwithpawns,whichinvited

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opponentstooccupythecenterwithpawns,whichbecomeobjectsofattack. [56]

Post­warera(1945andlater)

AfterthedeathofAlekhine,anewWorldChampionwassought.FIDE,whichhascontrolledthetitle

tournament,RussianMikhailBotvinnik,startedaneraofSovietdominanceinthechessworld.Untilthe endoftheSovietUnion,therewasonlyonenon­Sovietchampion,AmericanBobbyFischer(champion 1972–75). [57] Botvinnikrevolutionizedopeningtheory.PreviouslyBlackstroveforequality,to neutralizeWhite'sfirst­moveadvantage.AsBlack,Botvinnikstrovefortheinitiativefromthe beginning. [58] InthepreviousinformalsystemofWorldChampionships,thecurrentchampiondecided whichchallengerhewouldplayforthetitleandthechallengerwasforcedtoseeksponsorsforthe match.FIDEsetupanewsystemofqualifyingtournamentsandmatches.Theworld'sstrongestplayers wereseededintoInterzonaltournaments,wheretheywerejoinedbyplayerswhohadqualifiedfrom Zonaltournaments.TheleadingfinishersintheseInterzonalswouldgoonthe"Candidates"stage,which wasinitiallyatournament,andlateraseriesofknockoutmatches.ThewinneroftheCandidateswould thenplaythereigningchampionforthetitle.Achampiondefeatedinamatchhadarighttoplaya rematchayearlater.Thissystemoperatedonathree­yearcycle.Botvinnikparticipatedinchampionship

matchesoveraperiodoffifteenyears.Hewontheworldchampionshiptournamentin1948andretained

thetitleintiedmatchesin1951and1954.In1957,helosttoVasilySmyslov,butregainedthetitleina

rematchin1958.In1960,helostthetitletothe23­year­oldLatvianprodigyMikhailTal,an

accomplishedtacticianandattackingplayer.Botvinnikagainregainedthetitleinarematchin1961.

Followingthe1961event,FIDEabolishedtheautomaticrightofadeposedchampiontoarematch,and

thenextchampion,ArmenianTigranPetrosian,aplayerrenownedforhisdefensiveandpositional

skills,heldthetitlefortwocycles,1963–69.Hissuccessor,BorisSpasskyfromRussia(champion

KarpovwhenFIDEdidnotmeethisdemands,andKarpovobtainedthetitlebydefault. [60] Fischer modernizedmanyaspectsofchess,especiallybyextensivelypreparingopenings. [61]

KarpovdefendedhistitletwiceagainstViktorKorchnoianddominatedthe1970sandearly1980swith

astringoftournamentsuccesses. [62] Karpov'sreignfinallyendedin1985atthehandsofGarry Kasparov,anotherSovietplayerfromBaku,Azerbaijan.KasparovandKarpovcontestedfiveworldtitle matchesbetween1984and1990;Karpovneverwonhistitleback. [63] In1993,GarryKasparovand NigelShortbrokewithFIDEtoorganizetheirownmatchforthetitleandformedacompeting

ProfessionalChessAssociation(PCA).Fromthenuntil2006,thereweretwosimultaneousWorld

ChampionsandWorldChampionships:thePCAorClassicalchampionextendingtheSteinitzian traditioninwhichthecurrentchampionplaysachallengerinaseriesofmanygames,andtheother followingFIDE'snewformatofmanyplayerscompetinginatournamenttodeterminethechampion. KasparovlosthisClassicaltitlein2000toVladimirKramnikofRussia. [64] TheWorldChess

titlesandmadeKramniktheundisputedWorldChessChampion. [65] InSeptember2007,helostthetitle toViswanathanAnandofIndia,whowonthechampionshiptournamentinMexicoCity.Anand defendedhistitleintherevengematchof2008, [66] 2010and2012.In2013,MagnusCarlsenbeatAnand inthe2013WorldChessChampionshipandisreigningchampion. [67]

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Placeinculture

Pre­modern

IntheMiddleAgesandduringtheRenaissance,chesswasapartof nobleculture;itwasusedtoteachwarstrategyandwasdubbedthe "King'sGame". [68] Gentlemenare"tobemeanlyseeneintheplayat Chestes",saystheoverviewatthebeginningofBaldassareCastiglione's

TheBookoftheCourtier(1528,English1561bySirThomasHoby),but

chessshouldnotbeagentleman'smainpassion.Castiglioneexplainsit

further:

Andwhatsayyoutothegameatchestes?Itistruelyanhonest kyndeofenterteynmenteandwittie,quothSyrFriderick.Butme thinkithathafault,whicheis,thatamanmaybetocouningatit, forwhoeverwillbeexcellentintheplayeofchestes,Ibeleavehe mustbeestowemuchtymeaboutit,andapplieitwithsomuch study,thatamanmayassoonelearnesomenoblescyence,or compaseanyothermatterofimportaunce,andyetintheendein beestowingallthatlaboure,heknowethnomorebutagame. TherforeinthisIbeleavetherehappenethaveryrarething, namely,thatthemeaneismorecommendable,thenthe excellency. [69]

Noblechessplayers, Germany,c.1320

Noblechessplayers,

Germany,c.1320

Twokingsandtwoqueensfromthe Lewischessmen ( BritishMuseum )

Twokingsandtwoqueensfromthe

Manyoftheelaboratechesssetsusedbythearistocracyhave

Chesswasoftenusedasabasisofsermonsonmorality.An exampleisLiberdemoribushominumetofficiisnobiliumsive superludoscacchorum('Bookofthecustomsofmenandthe dutiesofnoblesortheBookofChess'),writtenbyanItalian

DominicanmonkJacobusdeCessolisc.1300.Thisbookwas

oneofthemostpopularoftheMiddleAges. [70] Theworkwas

translatedintomanyotherlanguages(thefirstprintededition

Caxton'sTheGameandPlayeoftheChesse(1474),oneofthefirstbooksprintedinEnglish. [71] Differentchesspieceswereusedasmetaphorsfordifferentclassesofpeople,andhumandutieswere

derivedfromtherulesofthegameorfromvisualpropertiesofthechesspieces: [72]

Theknyghtoughttobemadeallearmeduponanhorsinsuchewysethathehaueanhelme

onhisheedandaspereinhisryghthande/andcouerydwythhissheld/aswerdeandamace

onhislyftsyde/Claddwythanhawberkandplatestoforehisbreste/leggeharnoysonhis

legges/Sporesonhisheelisonhishandeshisgauntelettes/hishorswellbrokenandtaught

andaptetobataylleandcoueridwithhisarmes/whantheknyghtesbenmaadtheyben

baynedorbathed/thatisthesignethattheysholdledeanewelyfandnewemaners/also

theywakeallethenyghtinprayersandorysonsvntogodthathewyllegyuehemgracethat

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theymaygetethatthyngethattheymaynotgetebynature/Thekyngeorpryncegyrdetha boutethemaswerdeinsigne/thattheysholdabydeandkepehymofwhomtheytaketheyr dispensesanddignyte. [73]

Knowninthecirclesofclerics,students,andmerchants,chessentered

intothepopularcultureofMiddleAges.Anexampleisthe209thsongof

CarminaBuranafromthe13thcentury,whichstartswiththenamesof

chesspieces,Roch,pedites,regina

[74]

Modern

DuringtheAgeofEnlightenment,chesswasviewedasameansofself­ improvement.BenjaminFranklin,inhisarticle"TheMoralsofChess"

(1750),wrote:

TheGameofChessisnotmerelyanidleamusement;severalvery

valuablequalitiesofthemind,usefulinthecourseofhumanlife,

aretobeacquiredandstrengthenedbyit,soastobecomehabits

readyonalloccasions;forlifeisakindofChess,inwhichwe

haveoftenpointstogain,andcompetitorsoradversariesto

contendwith,andinwhichthereisavastvarietyofgoodandill

events,thatare,insomedegree,theeffectofprudence,orthewant

ofit.ByplayingatChessthen,wemaylearn:

I.Foresight,whichlooksalittleintofuturity,andconsidersthe

consequencesthatmayattendanaction[

]

19th­centurydecorative chesspawns,China(National MuseuminWarsaw)

19th­centurydecorative

II.Circumspection,whichsurveysthewholeChess­board,or

sceneofaction:–therelationoftheseveralPieces,andtheir

situations[ ]

III.Caution,nottomakeourmovestoohastily[

]

[75]

Withtheseorsimilarhopes,chessistaughttochildreninschools aroundtheworldtoday.Manyschoolshostchessclubs,andthere aremanyscholastictournamentsspecificallyforchildren. Tournamentsareheldregularlyinmanycountries,hostedby organizationssuchastheUnitedStatesChessFederationandthe NationalScholasticChessFoundation. [76]

Chessisoftendepictedinthearts;significantworkswherechess

grandmasterwhoisaccusedofbeingaserialkiller.Chessis

featuredinfilmslikeIngmarBergman'sTheSeventhSealandSatyajitRay'sTheChessPlayers.Chessis

alsopresentinthecontemporarypopularculture.Forexample,J.K.Rowling'sHarryPotterplays

"Wizard'sChess",whilethecharactersofStarTrekprefer"Tri­DimensionalChess".Theheroof

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SearchingforBobbyFischerstrugglesagainstadoptingtheaggressiveandmisanthropicviewsofa worldchesschampion. [77] Chesshasbeenusedasthecorethemeofamusical,Chess,byTimRice, BjörnUlvaeus,andBennyAndersson.

LargechesssetinFranklinSquare, Tasmania

LargechesssetinFranklinSquare,

Tasmania

Composition

Chesscompositionistheartofcreatingchessproblems(theproblemsthemselvesaresometimesalso calledchesscompositions).Apersonwhocreatessuchproblemsisknownasachesscomposer. [78] Therearemanytypesofchessproblems.Thetwomostimportantare:

Directmates:whitetomovefirstandcheckmateblackwithinaspecifiednumberofmoves

againstanydefense.Theseareoftenreferredtoas"mateinn"–forexample"mateinthree"(a

three­mover);twoandthreemoveproblemsarethemostcommon.Theseusuallyinvolve

positionswhichwouldbehighlyunlikelytooccurinanactualgame,andareintendedtoillustrate

aparticular"theme",usuallyrequiringasurprisingorcounter­intuitive"keymove". [79]

Studies:orthodoxproblemsinwhichthestipulationisthatwhitetoplaymustwinordraw.

Almostallstudiesareendgamepositions. [80]

Chesscompositionisadistinctbranchofchesssport,andtournaments(ortourneys)existforboththe compositionandsolvingofchessproblems. [81]

Example

Thisisoneofthemostfamouschessstudies;itwaspublishedbyRichardRétiin1921.Itseems

impossibletocatchtheadvancedblackpawn,whiletheblackkingcaneasilystopthewhitepawn.The

solutionisadiagonaladvance,whichbringsthekingtobothpawnssimultaneously:

1.Kg7!h42.Kf6!Kb6

Or2 h33.Ke7andthewhitekingcansupportitspawn.

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3.Ke5!!

Nowthewhitekingcomesjustintimetosupporthis

pawn,orcatchtheblackone.

3 h34.Kd6draw

[82]

OstrauerMorgenzeitung,4Dec.1921

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Whitetomoveanddraw

Competitiveplay

Organizationofcompetitions

Contemporarychessisanorganizedsportwithstructuredinternationalandnationalleagues, tournaments,andcongresses.Chess'sinternationalgoverningbodyisFIDE(FédérationInternationale desÉchecs).Mostcountrieshaveanationalchessorganizationaswell(suchastheUSChessFederation andEnglishChessFederation)whichinturnisamemberofFIDE.FIDEisamemberofthe InternationalOlympicCommittee, [83] butthegameofchesshasneverbeenpartoftheOlympicGames; chessdoeshaveitsownOlympiad,heldeverytwoyearsasateamevent.

Invitation­onlytournamentsregularlyattracttheworld'sstrongest

players.ExamplesincludeSpain'sLinaresevent,MonteCarlo's

MelodyAmbertournament,theDortmundSparkassenmeeting,

Sofia'sM­telMasters,andWijkaanZee'sTataSteeltournament.

TheformerWorldChessChampion ViswanathanAnand (left)playing chessagainsthispredecessorVladimir Kramnik

TheformerWorldChessChampion

ViswanathanAnand(left)playing

RegularteamchesseventsincludetheChessOlympiadandtheEuropeanTeamChessChampionship.

TheWorldChessSolvingChampionshipandWorldCorrespondenceChessChampionshipsincludeboth

teamandindividualevents.

Besidestheseprestigiouscompetitions,therearethousandsofotherchesstournaments,matches,and

festivalsheldaroundtheworldeveryyearcateringtoplayersofalllevels.Chessispromotedasa"mind

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andScrabble.

Titlesandrankings

Thebestplayerscanbeawardedspecificlifetimetitlesbytheworld chessorganizationFIDE: [87]

Grandmaster(shortenedasGM;sometimesInternational

GrandmasterorIGMisused)isawardedtoworld­classchess

masters.ApartfromWorldChampion,Grandmasteristhehighest

titleachessplayercanattain.BeforeFIDEwillconferthetitleon

aplayer,theplayermusthaveanElochessrating(seebelow)ofat

least2500atonetimeandthreefavorableresults(callednorms)in

tournamentsinvolvingothergrandmasters,includingsomefrom

countriesotherthantheapplicant's.Thereareothermilestonesa

playercanachievetoattainthetitle,suchaswinningtheWorld

JuniorChampionship.

InternationalMaster(shortenedasIM).Theconditionsaresimilar

toGM,butlessdemanding.TheminimumratingfortheIMtitleis

2400.

FIDEMaster(shortenedasFM).Theusualwayforaplayerto

qualifyfortheFIDEMastertitleisbyachievingaFIDEratingof2300ormore.

CandidateMaster(shortenedasCM).SimilartoFM,butwithaFIDEratingofatleast2200.

Allthetitlesareopentomenandwomen.Separatewomen­onlytitles,suchasWomanGrandmaster

(WGM),areavailable.BeginningwithNonaGaprindashviliin1978,anumberofwomenhaveearned

theGMtitle,andmostofthetoptenwomenin2006holdtheunrestrictedGMtitle. [note5]

AsofAugust2011,thereare1363activegrandmastersand3153internationalmastersintheworld.Top

threecountrieswiththelargestnumbersofgrandmastersareRussia,Ukraine,andGermany,with208,

78,and76.ThecountrywithmostgrandmasterspercapitaisIceland,with11GMsand13IMsamong

thepopulationof310,000. [88]

Internationaltitlesareawardedtocomposersandsolversofchessproblemsandtocorrespondencechess

players(bytheInternationalCorrespondenceChessFederation).Nationalchessorganizationsmayalso

awardtitles,usuallytotheadvancedplayersstillunderthelevelneededforinternationaltitles;an

exampleistheChessexperttitleusedintheUnitedStates.

Inordertorankplayers,FIDE,ICCF,andnationalchessorganizationsusetheEloratingsystem developedbyArpadElo.Eloisastatisticalsystembasedontheassumptionthatthechessperformance ofeachplayerintheirgamesisarandomvariable.ArpadElothoughtofaplayer'strueskillasthe averageofthatplayer'sperformancerandomvariable,andshowedhowtoestimatetheaveragefrom

resultsofplayer'sgames.TheUSChessFederationimplementedElo'ssuggestionsin1960,andthe

systemquicklygainedrecognitionasbeingbothfairerandmoreaccuratethanoldersystems;itwas adoptedbyFIDEin1970. [note6] ThehighestFIDEratingofalltime,2881,wasachievedbyMagnus CarlsenontheMarch2014FIDEratinglist. [89]

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Publications

Chesshasaveryextensiveliterature.In1913,thechesshistorianH.J.R.Murrayestimatedthetotal

numberofbooks,magazines,andchesscolumnsinnewspaperstobeabout5,000. [90][91] B.H.Wood estimatedthenumber,asof1949,tobeabout20,000. [91] DavidHooperandKennethWhyldwritethat, "Sincethentherehasbeenasteadyincreaseyearbyyearofthenumberofnewchesspublications.No oneknowshowmanyhavebeenprinted." [91] Therearetwosignificantpublicchesslibraries:theJohn

G.WhiteChessandCheckersCollectionatClevelandPublicLibrary,withover32,000chessbooksand

7,000to8,000chessbooks,asimilarnumberofautographs(letters,scoresheets,manuscripts),and

about1,000itemsof"ephemera". [95] DirkJantenGeuzendamopinesthatDeLucia'scollection"is arguablythefinestchesscollectionintheworld". [96]

Mathematicsandcomputers

Thegamestructureandnatureofchessisrelatedtoseveral branchesofmathematics.Manycombinatoricalandtopological problemsconnectedtochesswereknownofforhundredsof

years.In1913,ErnstZermelousedchessasabasisforhistheory

ofgamestrategies,whichisconsideredasoneofthe predecessorsofgametheory. [97]

Thenumberoflegalpositionsinchessisestimatedtobebetween

complexityofapproximately10 123 .Thegame­treecomplexityof chesswasfirstcalculatedbyClaudeShannonas10 120 ,anumber knownastheShannonnumber. [100] Typicallyanaverage positionhasthirtytofortypossiblemoves,buttheremaybeas fewaszero(inthecaseofcheckmateorstalemate)orasmanyas

218. [101]

Oneofthemostimportantmathematicalchallengesofchessisthedevelopmentofalgorithmsthatcan

playchess.Theideaofcreatingachess­playingmachinedatestothe18thcentury;around1769,the

chess­playingautomatoncalledTheTurkbecamefamousbeforebeingexposedasahoax. [102] Serious trialsbasedonautomatons,suchasElAjedrecista,weretoocomplexandlimitedtobeuseful.

Sincetheadventofthedigitalcomputerinthe1950s,chessenthusiasts,computerengineersand

computerscientistshavebuilt,withincreasingdegreesofseriousnessandsuccess,chess­playing machinesandcomputerprograms. [103] Thegroundbreakingpaperoncomputerchess,"Programminga ComputerforPlayingChess",waspublishedin1950byShannon. [note7] Hewrote:

Thechessmachineisanidealonetostartwith,since:(1)theproblemissharplydefined

bothinallowedoperations(themoves)andintheultimategoal(checkmate);(2)itisneither

sosimpleastobetrivialnortoodifficultforsatisfactorysolution;(3)chessisgenerally

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consideredtorequire"thinking"forskillfulplay;asolutionofthisproblemwillforceus eithertoadmitthepossibilityofamechanizedthinkingortofurtherrestrictourconceptof

"thinking";(4)thediscretestructureofchessfitswellintothedigitalnatureofmodern

computers. [105]

1990schess­playingcomputer

1990schess­playingcomputer

firstconsideredonlyacuriosity,thebestchessplayingprograms,

forexampleRybka,havebecomeextremelystrong.In1997,a

computerwonachessmatchagainstareigningWorldChampion

forthefirsttime:IBM'sDeepBluebeatGarryKasparov3½–2½

(itscoredtwowins,oneloss,andthreedraws). [106][107] In2009,

amobilephonewonacategory6tournamentwithaperformancerating2898:chessengineHiarcs13

runningonthemobilephoneHTCTouchHDwontheCopaMercosurtournamentwithninewinsand onedraw. [108] Thebestchessprogramsarenowabletobeatthestrongesthumanplayers.

Withhugedatabasesofpastgamesandhighanalyticalability,computerscanhelpplayerstolearnchess andprepareformatches.InternetChessServersallowpeopletofindandplayopponentsalloverthe world.Thepresenceofcomputersandmoderncommunicationtoolshaveraisedconcernsregarding

cheatingduringgames,mostnotablythe"bathroomcontroversy"duringthe2006World

Championship. [109]

Zermelo'stheoremstatesthatitispossibletosolvechess,i.e.todeterminewithcertaintytheoutcomeof aperfectlyplayedgame(eitherwhitecanforceawin,orblackcanforceawin,orbothsidescanforceat leastadraw). [110] However,accordingtoClaudeShannon,thereare10 43 legalpositionsinchess,and thetimeframerequiredtocomputeaperfectgameputsthispossibilitybeyondthelimitsofanyfeasible technology. [111]

Psychology

Thereisanextensivescientificliteratureonchesspsychology. [note8][note9][113][114][115][116] AlfredBinet andothersshowedthatknowledgeandverbal,ratherthanvisuospatial,abilityliesatthecoreof expertise. [117][118] Inhisdoctoralthesis,AdriaandeGrootshowedthatchessmasterscanrapidly perceivethekeyfeaturesofaposition. [119] AccordingtodeGroot,thisperception,madepossibleby yearsofpracticeandstudy,ismoreimportantthanthesheerabilitytoanticipatemoves.DeGroot showedthatchessmasterscanmemorizepositionsshownforafewsecondsalmostperfectly.Theability tomemorizedoesnotaloneaccountforchess­playingskill,sincemastersandnovices,whenfacedwith randomarrangementsofchesspieces,hadequivalentrecall(abouthalfadozenpositionsineachcase). Rather,itistheabilitytorecognizepatterns,whicharethenmemorized,whichdistinguishedtheskilled playersfromthenovices.Whenthepositionsofthepiecesweretakenfromanactualgame,themasters hadalmosttotalpositionalrecall. [120]

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Morerecentresearchhasfocusedonchessasmentaltraining;therespectiverolesofknowledgeand look­aheadsearch;brainimagingstudiesofchessmastersandnovices;blindfoldchess;theroleof personalityandintelligenceinchessskill;genderdifferences;andcomputationalmodelsofchess expertise.Theroleofpracticeandtalentinthedevelopmentofchessandotherdomainsofexpertisehas ledtoalotofresearchrecently.Ericssonandcolleagueshavearguedthatdeliberatepracticeissufficient forreachinghighlevelsofexpertiseinchess. [121] Recentresearchindicatesthatfactorsotherthan practicearealsoimportant.Forexample,FernandGobetandcolleagueshaveshownthatstronger playersstartedplayingchessatayoungageandthatexpertsbornintheNorthernHemispherearemore likelytohavebeenborninlatewinterandearlyspring.Chessplayersaremorelikelytobenon­right­ handed,thoughtheyfoundnocorrelationbetweenhandednessandskill. [122]

Chessandintelligence

Althoughthelinkbetweenperformanceinchessandgeneralintelligenceisoftenassumed,researchers havelargelyfailedtoconfirmitsexistence. [123] Forexample,a

2006studyfoundnodifferencesinfluidintelligence,as

measuredbyRaven'sProgressiveMatrices,betweenstrongadult chessplayersandregularpeople. [124] Thereissomeevidence towardsacorrelationbetweenperformanceinchessand intelligenceamongbeginningplayers.However,performancein chessalsoreliessubstantiallyonone'sexperienceplayingthe game,andtheroleofexperiencemayoverwhelmtheroleof intelligence.Chessexpertsareestimatedtohaveinexcessof

10,000andpossiblyasmanyas300,000positionpatternsstored

intheirmemory;longtrainingisnecessarytoacquirethat amountofdata. [125]

Achildren'schesstournamentinthe UnitedStates

Achildren'schesstournamentinthe

UnitedStates

A2007studyofyoungchessplayersintheUnitedKingdom

foundthatstrongplayerstendedtohaveabove­averageIQ scores,but,withinthatgroup,thecorrelationbetweenchessskill andIQwasmoderatelynegative,meaningthatsmarterchildren tendedtoachievealowerlevelofchessskill.Thisresultwas explainedbyanegativecorrelationbetweenintelligenceand practiceintheelitesubsample,andbypracticehavingahigher influenceonchessskill. [125]

Variants

Therearemorethantwothousandpublishedchessvariants, [126] mostofthemofrelativelyrecentorigin. Variantscaninclude,butarenotlimitedto:

directpredecessorsofchesssuchaschaturangaandshatranj;

traditionalnationalorregionalgamessuchasxiangqi,shogi,janggi(Korean),makruk(Thai),and

sittuyin(Burmese)whichsharecommonancestorswithWesternchess;

modernvariants,whichmaybeplayedonadifferentboard(e.g.hexagonalchess),orusedifferent

forces(e.g.Dunsany'schess)ordifferentrules(e.g.losingchess)ornon­standardpieces(e.g.

Grandchess).OneofthemostpopularsuchvariantsisChess960,wherethestartingpositionis

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selectedrandomly,renderingtheuseofpreparedopeninglinesimpracticable. [127]

Gametheory

The11­category,gametheoreticaltaxonomyofchessincludes:twoplayer,no­chance,combinatorial,

Markovstate(presentstateisallaplayerneedstomove;althoughpaststateleduptothatpoint, knowledgeofthesequenceofpastmovesisnotrequiredtomakethenextmove),zerosum,symmetric, perfectinformation,non­cooperative,discrete,extensiveform(treedecisions,notpayoffmatrices), sequential. [128]

Seealso

Gliński'shexagonalchess .Threebishopsper sidearethenormforhexagonalvariants.

Gliński'shexagonalchess.Threebishopsper

sidearethenormforhexagonalvariants.

Referenceaids

Outlineofchess(subject­widetableofcontents)

Lists

References

Notes

1. Withoutthisadditionalrestriction,whichwasaddedtotheFIDErulesin1972,itwouldbepossibleto

promoteapawnontheefiletoarookandthencastleverticallyacrosstheboard(aslongastheother

2. The50moveruleisnotappliedatFICGS. [5]

3. AtthattimetheSpanishwordwouldhavebeenwrittenaxedrez.TheSpanish"x"waspronouncedasEnglish "sh",asthePortuguese"x"stillistoday.ThespellingofajedrezchangedafterSpanishlostthe"sh"sound.

itrepresentsthedomaininwhichexpertperformancehasbeenmostintensivelystudiedandmeasured. [112]

Citations

1.

2010­08­03.

2.

3.

4.

Burgess(2000),p.481

5.

6.

7.

2010­09­04.

8.

Hooper&Whyld(1992),p.92

9.

10.

Harding(2003),p.70ff

11.

Harding(2003),p.8ff

12.

Burgess,Nunn,&Emms(2004),pp.14–15

13.

14.

Harding(2003),pp.1–7

15.

Lasker(1934),p.73

16.

Watson(1998),p.163ff

17.

Harding(2003),pp.138ff

18.

Evans(1958),pp.22–67

19.

Tamburro(2010),p.18

20.

Tarrasch(1987)

21.

Evans(1958),p.175

22.

Harding(2003),p.32–151

23.

Hooper&Whyld(1992),p.86

24.

Silman(1998),pp.202–5

25.

Hooper&Whyld(1992),p.373

26.

Harding(2003),p.187ff

27.

28.

Leibs(2004),p.92

29.

Robinson&Estes(1996),p.34