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MA1102R CALCULUS

Lesson 10
Wang Fei

matwf@nus.edu.sg

Department of Mathematics
Office: S14-02-09
Tel: 6516-2937

Chapter 4: Application of Differentiation 2


Rolle’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Mean Value Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Application of M.V.T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

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Chapter 4: Application of Differentiation 2 / 26

Rolle’s Theorem
• Let f be a function such that
◦ f is continuous on [a, b], and
◦ f is differentiable on (a, b), and
◦ f (a) = f (b).
Then there is a number c ∈ (a, b) such that f ′ (c) = 0 .

y y
b b

O c x O c1 c2 x

This is known as Rolle’s Theorem.


◦ Michel Rolle (1652–1719), French Mathematician.
◦ Rolle’s Theorem (1691)

◦ Rolle invited the notation n x for the nth root of x.
• It seems that the points at which f ′ (c) = 0 always occur as local maximum or local minimum.
◦ This gives the motivation to the following proof.

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2
Proof of Rolle’s Theorem
• Let f be a function such that
◦ f is continuous on [a, b], and
◦ f is differentiable on (a, b), and
◦ f (a) = f (b).
Then there is a number c ∈ (a, b) such that f ′ (c) = 0 .

• Proof. Case I: f (x) = k is a constant function.


y
b b b

O c1 c2 c3 x

◦ f ′ (c) = 0 for any c ∈ (a, b).

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3
Proof of Rolle’s Theorem
• Proof. Case II: f (x) > f (a) for some x ∈ (a, b).
y
b

b b

x
O a c b

◦ f is continuous on [a, b]. By Extreme Value Theorem,


• f attains absolute maximum at some c ∈ [a, b].
◦ f (c) > f (a) = f (b) ⇒ c 6= a, b. So
•f attains absolute maximum at c ∈ (a, b).
∴ f attains local maximum at c ∈ (a, b).
◦ f is differentiable at c. By Fermat’s Theorem,
• We have f ′ (c) = 0.

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Proof of Rolle’s Theorem


• Proof. Case III: f (x) < f (a) for some x ∈ (a, b).
y

b b

b
x
O a c b

◦ f is continuous on [a, b]. By Extreme Value Theorem,


• f attains absolute minimum at some c ∈ [a, b].
◦ f (c) < f (a) = f (b) ⇒ c 6= a, b. So
• f attains absolute minimum at c ∈ (a, b).
∴ f attains local minimum at c ∈ (a, b).
◦ f is differentiable at c. By Fermat’s Theorem,
• We have f ′ (c) = 0.

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4
Remarks on Rolle’s Theorem
• All the three properties must be satisfied.
◦ f is continuous on [a, b],
◦ f is differentiable on (a, b),
◦ f (a) = f (b).
• Examples.
◦ If f is discontinuous at an endpoint:

bc

b b

O a b x

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Remarks on Rolle’s Theorem


• All the three properties must be satisfied.
◦ f is continuous on [a, b],
◦ f is differentiable on (a, b),
◦ f (a) = f (b).
• Examples.
◦ If f is discontinuous at an interior point in (a, b):

y
b

bc

b b

O a x0 b x

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5
Remarks on Rolle’s Theorem
• All the three properties must be satisfied.
◦ f is continuous on [a, b],
◦ f is differentiable on (a, b),
◦ f (a) = f (b).
• Examples.
◦ If f is not differentiable at an interior point in (a, b):

y
b

b b

O a x0 x
b

9 / 26

Remarks on Rolle’s Theorem


• All the three properties must be satisfied.
◦ f is continuous on [a, b],
◦ f is differentiable on (a, b),
◦ f (a) = f (b).
• Examples.
◦ If f (a) 6= f (b):

O a x
b

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6
Applications of Rolle’s Theorem
• Let s = s(t) be the position function of an object along a straight line.
◦ Suppose the object is in the same place when t = a, b.

◦ An object moves smoothly. The position function


• s = s(t) is continuous on [a, b], and
• s = s(t) is differentiable on (a, b), and given that
• s(a) = s(b).
◦ By Rolle’s Theorem,
•there is a number c ∈ (a, b) with s′ (c) = 0.
∴ The instantaneous velocity v(t) = s′ (t) is 0 at some time c between a and b.

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Application of Rolle’s Theorem


• Show that x3 + x − 1 = 0 has exactly one real root.

at least one,
exactly one ⇔
at most one.
◦ At least one real root: (Intermediate Value Theorem)

◦ Let f (x) = x3 + x − 1.
• f (0) = 03 + 0 − 1 = −1 < 0,
• f (1) = 13 + 1 − 1 = 1 > 0.
f is a polynomial, then it is continuous on [0, 1].
• By Intermediate Value Theorem,
f (c) = 0 for some c ∈
1 (0, 1).
y

b
O c x
1
−1

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7
Application of Rolle’s Theorem
• Show that x3 + x − 1 = 0 has exactly one real root.

at least one,
exactly one ⇔
at most one.
◦ At most one real root: (Rolle’s Theorem)

◦ Let f (x) = x3 + x − 1.
What happens if f (x) = 0 has more than 1 real root?
Suppose f (x) = 0 has 2 distinct real roots c1 < c2 .
• f is continuous on [c1 , c2 ],
• f is differentiable on (c1 , c2 ),
• f (c1 ) = f (c2 ) = 0.
By Rolle’s Theorem, f ′ (d) = 0 for
some d ∈ (c1 , c2 ).
3 2
However, f (d) = (x + x + 1) x=d = 3d + 1 ≥ 1.
′ ′

◦ A contradiction! So f (x) = 0 has at most one real root.

13 / 26

Mean Value Theorem


• Let f be a function such that
◦ f is continuous on [a, b], and
◦ f is differentiable on (a, b).
However, sometimes we may not have f (a) = f (b).
What can we say about the general case?
y
(b, f (b))
b
y = f (x)

y−f (a) f (b)−f (a)


(a, f (a)) x−a
= b−a
b

O a b x

f (b) − f (a)
◦ There exists c ∈ (a, b) such that f ′ (c) = .
b−a
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8
Mean Value Theorem
• Mean Value Theorem. Let f be a function such that
◦ f is continuous on [a, b], and
◦ f is differentiable on (a, b).
Then there is a number c ∈ (a, b) such that
f (b) − f (a)
f ′ (c) = .
b−a
◦ It is known as Lagrange Mean Value Theorem.
• Joseph-Louis Lagrange, (1736–1813),
Italian French mathematician and astronomer.
The greatest mathematician in the 18th century.
◦ If f (a) = f (b), we have a c ∈ (a, b) with f ′ (c) = 0.
So Mean Value Theorem is a generalization of Rolle’s Theorem.

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Mean Value Theorem


• Mean Value Theorem. Let f be a function such that
◦ f is continuous on [a, b], and
◦ f is differentiable on (a, b).
f (b) − f (a)
Then there is a c ∈ (a, b) with f ′ (c) = .
b−a
y
• Proof. (b, f (b))

y = f (x)

f (b)−f (a)
(a, f (a)) y= b−a
(x − a) + f (a)

O a b x

◦ Let h(x) be the vertical difference between the curve and the straight line from (a, f (a)) to
(b, f (b)).

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9
Mean Value Theorem
• Mean Value Theorem. Let f be a function such that
◦ f is continuous on [a, b], and
◦ f is differentiable on (a, b).
f (b) − f (a)
Then there is a c ∈ (a, b) with f ′ (c) = .
b−a
• Proof.
 
f (b) − f (a)
◦ Let h(x) = f (x) − (x − a) + f (a) .
b−a
• h is continuous on [a, b], differentiable on (a, b).
• h(a) = 0, h(b) = 0.
◦ By Rolle’s Theorem, h′ (c) = 0 at some c ∈ (a, b).
That is,
f (b) − f (a)
f ′ (c) = .
b−a
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Examples
• Let f (x) = x3 − x be defined on [0, 2].
y
6 b

b
b
O 2 x

◦ By Mean Value Theorem, there exists c ∈ (0, 2) with


f (2) − f (0) 6−0
f ′ (c) = = = 3.
2−0 2−0
◦ Where is the number c? 2
f ′ (c) = 3c2 − 1 = 3 ⇒ c = √ .
3
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10
Examples
• Suppose f (0) = −3 and 3 ≤ f ′ (x) ≤ 5 for all x.
How large and how small can f (2) possibly be?
y
7

O 2 x

−3 b

◦ By Mean Value Theorem, there exists c ∈ (0, 2) with

f (2) − f (0) f (2) + 3


3 ≤ f ′ (c) = = ≤ 5.
2−0 2
∴ 3 ≤ f (2) ≤ 7.

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Examples
• Let a and b be real numbers. Show that
◦ | sin b − sin a| ≤ |b − a|.
• Suppose a < b. Let f (x) = sin x. Then
◦ f is continuous on [a, b], and
◦ f is differentiable on (a, b).
By Mean Value Theorem, there exists c ∈ (a, b) such that
f (b) − f (a)
f ′ (c) =
b−a y
sin b − sin a b

⇒ cos c = b
b−a O b x
| sin b − sin a| a c
⇒| cos c| = ≤1 b
|b − a|
⇒| sin b − sin a| ≤ |b − a|.

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11
An Application of Mean Value Theorem
• We have seen that if f (x) = k (constant), then f ′ (x) = 0.
◦ Question. If f ′ (x) = 0, then f (x) =?
Is it always a constant?
◦ This is the simplest “ordinary differential equation”.
• Theorem. Let f be a function such that
◦ f is continuous on [a, b], and
◦ f ′ (x) = 0 for every x ∈ (a, b).
Then f is constant on [a, b].
• Note. f must be continuous on an interval.

1, if x > 0,
◦ Let f (x) =
−1, if x < 0.
• f ′ (x) = 0 on R\{0},
• but f (x) is not constant on R\{0}.

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An Application of Mean Value Theorem


• Theorem. Let f be a function such that
◦ f is continuous on [a, b], and
◦ f ′ (x) = 0 for any x ∈ (a, b).
Then f is constant on [a, b].
b b x
a c x0 b

• Proof. We show that f (x0 ) = f (a) for any x0 ∈ [a, b].


◦ It is trivial if x0 = a. Suppose x0 > a. Then
• f is continuous on [a, x0 ], and
• f is differentiable on (a, x0 ).
◦ By Mean Value Theorem, there is c ∈ (a, x0 ) with
f (x0 ) − f (a)
0 = f ′ (c) = .
x0 − a
∴ f (x0 ) = f (a).

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12
An Application of Mean Value Theorem
• Theorem. Let f be a function such that
◦ f is continuous on [a, b], and
◦ f ′ (x) = 0 for any x ∈ (a, b).
Then f is constant on [a, b].
• Remark: [a, b] may be replaced by (a, b), [a, ∞), . . .
• Corollary. Let f and g be continuous on [a, b].
◦ If f ′ (x) = g ′ (x) for all x ∈ (a, b),
◦ then f (x) = g(x) + C on [a, b] for a constant C .
Proof. Let h(x) = f (x) − g(x). Then
◦ h is continuous on [a, b], and
◦ h′ (x) = f ′ (x) − g ′ (x) = 0 for any x ∈ (a, b).
By Theorem, h(x) = C is constant on [a, b].
∴ f (x) = g(x) + C on [a, b].

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Examples
• Solve the differential equation 2y ′ y = 1, such that when x = 0, y = 1.
◦ (y 2 )′ = 2y ′ y = 1 = x′
• y 2 = x + C for a constant C .
• 12 = 0 +√C ⇒ C = 1 ⇒ y 2 = x + 1.
∴ y = x + 1.
• Prove the identity sin2 x + cos2 x = 1.
◦ Let f (x) = sin2 x + cos2 x. It is differentiable on R.
• f ′ (x) = 2 sin x cos x + 2 cos x(− sin x) = 0.
• Then f (x) = C for some constant C .
◦ In particular, f (x) = f (0).
• That is, sin2 x + cos2 x = 1.

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13
Examples
• Prove the Sum Law of Cosine:
◦ cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β .
Let f (α) = cos(α + β) − cos α cos β + sin α sin β .
◦ f ′ (α) = − sin(α + β) + sin α cos β + cos α sin β .
◦ To prove the identity, we shall verify that f ′ (α) = 0.
It seems that we shall prove the Sum Law of Sine first:
◦ sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + cos α sin β .
Let g(α) = sin(α + β) − sin α cos β − cos α sin β .
◦ g ′ (α) = cos(α + β) − cos α cos β + sin α sin β .
◦ To prove the identity, we shall verify that g ′ (α) = 0.

Sine Cosine

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Examples
• Prove the Sum Law of Cosine:
◦ cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β .
x+y x−y
Let x = α + β , y = α − β . Then α = 2
and β = 2
.
The sum law is equivalent to
x+y x−y x+y x−y
   
◦ cos x = cos 2
cos 2
− sin 2
sin 2
We view x as a constant and y a variable. Define
x+y x−y x+y x−y
   
◦ f (y) = cos 2
cos 2
− sin 2
sin 2
.
By computation, f (y) = · · · = 0.

◦ Then f (y) is constant on R.


In particular, f (y) = f (x) for all y ∈ R. That is,
x+y x−y x+y x−y
   
◦ cos 2
cos 2
− sin 2
sin 2
= cos x.
This gives another proof to the sum law of cosine.

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