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Product Bulletin

SALT

(SODIUM CHLORIDE)

TYPICAL PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES

APPLICATIONS

SALT is the common name for sodium chloride (NaCl). This widely
available commercial chemical is an economical product for formulating clear solids-free workover and completion fluids to 10 lb/gal
(SG 1.2). Drilling fluid applications for SALT include: increasing density, increasing shale inhibition by decreasing water activity, reducing
salt dissolution when drilling halite SALT sections, reducing the freezing point of water-base fluids and to reduce the potential of forming
gas hydrates.

Physical appearance . .
Specific gravity . . . . . .
Solubility @ 68F (20C)
Bulk density . . . . . . . .

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SALT is used to increase density and


shale inhibition and reduce salt formation dissolution, freezing point
and gas hydrate potential in a wide
variety of water- and oil-base drilling

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White crystalline powder


2.16 (as an insoluble solid)
36 g/100 ml water
135.4 lb/ft3 (2,168.9 kg/m3)
fluids. To build one barrel of saturated salt brine, approximately
109 lb (49.44 kg) of SALT is mixed
in 0.886 bbl (0.141 m3) of water,
as per the data in the table below.

Weight
(%)
1
2
3
4
5
6
8

SG
(kg/l)
1.005
1.013
1.020
1.027
1.034
1.041
1.056

Density
(lb/gal)
8.38
8.44
8.50
8.56
8.62
8.68
8.81

Cl(mg/l)
6,127
12,254
18,563
24,932
31,363
37,914
51,260

Na+
(mg/l)
3,973
7,946
12,037
16,168
20,337
24,586
33,240

NaCl
(lb/bbl)
3.5
7.1
10.7
14.4
18.1
21.9
29.6

Water
(bbl)
0.995
0.992
0.989
0.986
0.982
0.979
0.971

Cryst. Pt.
(F)
30.9
29.9
28.8
27.7
26.5
25.3
22.9

Water
Activity
0.994
0.989
0.983
0.977
0.970
0.964
0.950

10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26

1.071
1.086
1.101
1.116
1.132
1.148
1.164
1.180
1.197

8.93
9.05
9.18
9.31
9.44
9.57
9.71
9.84
9.98

64,970
79,044
93,481
108,344
123,570
139,282
155,357
171,858
188,843

42,130
51,256
60,619
70,256
80,130
90,318
100,743
111,442
122,457

37.5
45.6
53.9
62.5
71.3
80.4
89.6
99.2
109.0

0.964
0.955
0.947
0.938
0.928
0.918
0.908
0.897
0.886

20.2
17.3
14.1
10.6
6.7
2.4
-2.5
1.4
27.9

0.935
0.919
0.902
0.883
0.862
0.839
0.815
0.788
0.759

Properties based on 100% purity NaCl and 68F (20C).


% Volume SALT = 100 x (1.0 - bbl water).

APPLICATIONS
(CONTINUED)

ADVANTAGES

Sodium chloride brines are used


extensively in low-density, clearfluid workover and completion
operations such as shallow, lowpressure wells which do not require
the special inhibitive properties of
calcium or potassium systems. It can
also be used to adjust the density of

other non-saturated brines such as


seawater, potassium chloride and
ammonium chloride.
The density of SALT solutions is
affected by temperature and pressure. For high-temperature applications, the effect of temperature and
pressure should be considered.

Widely available economical


product for density and inhibition.

LIMITATIONS

Saturated SALT (sodium chloride)


brines are limited in density to
10 lb/gal (SG 1.2).

TOXICITY
AND HANDLING

Bioassay information is available


upon request.
Handle as an industrial chemical,
wearing protective equipment

and observing the precautions as


described on the Transportation and
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).

SALT is usually packaged in 80- and


100-lb (36.3- and 45.4-kg), and
50-kg (110-lb), multi-wall, paper
sacks; and is available in bulk.
Store in a dry location away from
sources of heat or ignition, and
minimize dust.

NOTE: SALT, being a commercial


chemical, is available from numerous
sources with various degrees of purity
and with various levels of contamination depending on manufacturer and
grade. Fine evaporated or low-calcium
grades are recommended for most
clear, solids-free brine applications.

PACKAGING
AND STORAGE

This material is supplied solely for informational purposes and M-I Drilling Fluids L.L.C.
makes no guarantees or warranties, either expressed or implied, with respect to the accuracy or use of this data. All product warranties and guarantees shall be governed by the
Standard Terms of Sale.

1997 M-I Drilling Fluids L.L.C. All rights reserved.


MI-11902 3M 7/97 Litho in U.S.A.

P.O. Box 721110


Houston, Texas 77272-1110
Tel: 2815611300
Fax: 2815617240
http://www.midf.com
E-mail: mimud@midfre.com