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ABSTRACT

This experiment is carried out to examine in depth on the validity of Bernoullis theorem when
applied to the steady flow of water in tapered duct and to measure the flow rates and both static
and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent or divergent tube of known geometry for a range of
steady flow rates. The relation among the pressure, velocity and elevation in a moving fluid
(liquid or gas), the compressibility and viscosity (internal friction) of which are negligible and
the flow of which is steady or laminar is indicated in Bernoullis theorem. The F1-15 Bernoullis
Apparatus Test Equipment is used in this, in order to demonstrate the Bernoullis theorem. The
reading shown by manometer h* is the sum of the pressure and velocity heads and the reading in
manometer hi measured the pressure head only. The time to collect 3L water in the tank was
measured. Lastly, the flow rate and total velocity was calculated by using both Bernoulli and
Continuity equation and the difference in velocity for both equations was also calculated from
the data of the results. Based on the results taken, it has been analyzed that the velocity of the
fluid is increased when it is flowing from a wider to a narrower tube as the pressure is lower at
constrictions and the pressure increased as the cross-sectional area increases.

INTRODUCTION

In fluid dynamics, Bernoullis principle states that for an in viscid flow, an increase in the speed
of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid potential
energy. Bernoullis principle is named after the Dutch-Swiss mathematician, Daniel Bernoulli
who published his principle in his book, Hydrodynamics, in 1738. Bernoullis principle can be
applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in what is loosely denoted as Bernoulli equation.
Bernoullis principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. This states that,
in a steady flow, the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is the
same at all points on the streamline. This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and potential
energy remain constant. Thus, an increase in the speed of fluid occurs proportionately with an
increase in both its dynamic pressure and kinetic energy, and a decrease in its static pressure and
potential energy.
Fluid particles are subject only to pressure and their own weight. If a fluid is flowing
horizontally and along a section of a streamline where the speed increases, it can only be because
the fluid on that section has moved from a region of higher pressure to a region of lower
pressure. And if its speed decreases, it can only be because it has moved from a region of lower
pressure to a region of higher pressure. Consequently, within a fluid moving horizontally, the
highest speed occurs when the pressure is lowest and the lowest speed occur when the pressure is
highest.
Bernoullis equation holds that for fluids in an ideal state, pressure and density are inversely
related, in other words, a slow-moving fluid exerts more pressure than a fast-moving fluid. Since
fluid in this context applies equally to liquid and gases. The principle has many as many
applications with regard to airflow as to the flow of liquids. One of the everyday examples of
Bernoullis principle can be found on the airplane, which stays aloft due to pressure differences
on the surface of its wing.

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this Bernoullis Theorem experiment is verify experimentally the validity of
the Bernoulli equation for fluid flow in a tapered duct and to measure flow rates, static and total
pressure heads in a rigid convergent or divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates.

THEORY

Bernoullis principle involves these laws which are the conservation of mass, energy and
momentum and, it each application, these laws can be simplified in an attempt to describe
quantitatively the behavior of fluid. For a horizontal device, the continuity equation shows that
for an incompressible fluid, the reduction in diameter will cause an increase in the fluid flow
speed which shows that there must be a decrease in the pressure in the reduced diameter region.
Thus, this phenomenon is known as venturi effect. Bernoulli equation is derived under the
following assumptions:

1.

2.

flow is steady:

3.

flow is frictionless (t = 0);

4.

along a streamline;
Then, it is expressed with the following equation:

Where (in SI units):

p= fluid static pressure at the cross section in N/m2.
r= density of the flowing fluid in kg/m3
g= acceleration due to gravity in m/s2 (its value is 9.81 m/s2 = 9810 mm/s2)
v= mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section in m/s
z= elevation head of the center of the cross section with respect to a datum
z=0
h* = total (stagnation) head in m
The terms on the left-hand-side of the above equation represent the pressure head (h), velocity
head (hv), and elevation head (z), respectively. The sum of these terms is known as the total head
(h*). According to the Bernoullis theorem of fluid flow through a pipe, the total head h* at any
cross section is constant (based on the assumptions given above). In a real flow due to friction
and other imperfections, as well as measurement uncertainties, the results will deviate from the
theoretical ones.
In this experimental setup, the centerline of all the cross sections on the same horizontal plane
(which we may choose as the datum, z=0), and thus, all the z values are zeros so that the above
equation reduces to:

(This is the total head at a cross section).

For our experiment, we denote the pressure head as hi and the total head as h*i, where i
represents the cross section we are referring to.

APPARATUS
Bernoullis Theorem demonstration unit:

Venturi
Manometer
Water tank
Stopwatch
Discharge valve

PROCEDURE
1. The pump switch was switched on
2. The discharge valve was adjusted to high measurable flow rate to filled the manometer
tube to make sure the air bubble inside the manometer is free.
3. The water level was reduced from 200mm to 150mm by using air bleed screw.
4. The first flow rate was started by contolling the control valve.
5. After the level stabilizes, gently slide the hypodemic tube connected to manometer H. So
that its end reaches the cross section of the venturi tube at A.The readings from
manometer H and A was taken.
6. The step 5 was repeated for cross section ( B, C, D, E and F )
7. After that, the water flow rate is filled into the measuring tube to 3L. The time was taken
by using the stopwatch from 0L to 3L.
8. The step 4 to 7 was repeated with two other flow.
9. The velocity, ViB was calculated using the Bernoullis equation where;
ViB =

2 x g x (hhi)

10. The velocity, ViC was calculated using the continuity equation where
ViC =

Qav
Ai

RESULTS
6

(i)

Reading 1 (Slow flow rate)

Volume (L)
Average Time (min)
Flow rate (LPM)

3.000
0.283
10.588

Using Bernuolli Equation

Continuity Equation

Cross
sectio
n

Difference
Vib - Vic

(m/s)

A = Di

h* = hH
(m)

hi
(m)

ViB =

0.187

0.165

(m/s)
0.657

5.31 10

0.331

0.326

0.172

0.154

0.594

3.66 104

0.481

0.113

0.169

0.146

0.672

2.01 104

0.876

-0.204

0.165

0.115

0.990

3.14 104

0.561

0.429

0.163

0.124

0.875

3.80 10

0.463

0.412

0.160

0.135

0.700

5.31 10

0.331

0.369

2 g ( hhi )

4
(m)

(ii)

Reading 2 (Medium flow rate)

Volume (L)
Average Time (min)

3.000
0.150
7

Vic = QAV / Ai
(m/s)

20.000

Using Bernuolli Equation

Continuity Equation

Cross
sectio
n

Difference
Vib - Vic

(m/s)

A = Di

h* = hH
(m)

hi
(m)

ViB =

0.219

0.184

(m/s)
0.829

5.31 104

0.628

0.201

0.210

0.173

0.852

3.66 104

0.911

-0.509

0.207

0.158

0.980

2.01 10

1.658

-0.678

0.200

0.091

1.462

3.14 104

1.062

0.400

0.196

0.125

1.393

3.80 104

0.877

0.516

0.186

0.145

0.804

5.31 104

0.628

0.176

2 g ( hhi )

4
(m)

(iii)

Reading 3 (Higher flow rate)

Volume (L)
Average Time (min)
Flow rate (LPM)

3.000
0.117
25.714

Vic = QAV / Ai
(m/s)

Using Bernuolli Equation

Continuity Equation

Cross
sectio
n

Difference
Vib - Vic

(m/s)

A = Di

h* = hH
(m)

hi
(m)

ViB =

0.278

0.215

(m/s)
1.112

5.31 104

0.808

0.304

0.264

0.193

1.180

3.66 104

1.172

0.008

0.260

0.164

1.372

2.01 104

2.134

-0.762

0.250

0.035

2.054

3.14 104

1.366

0.688

0.243

0.130

1.489

3.80 104

1.129

0.360

0.236

0.165

1.180

5.31 104

0.808

0.372

2 g ( hhi )

4
(m)

Table 1.3: Data recorded at 25.714 L/min

CALCULATIONS
Example: Reading 1 (Q = 10.588 L/min at Manometer A)
Volume collected = 3 L
1000 L = 1m
3.00 L = 3.00 L x 1m
1000 L= 3.0 x 103 m
Flow Rate, Q = Volume collected / times collection
9

Vic = QAV / Ai
(m/s)

Q=

10.588 L 1 min
1 m3

min
60 s 1000 L

4 3
= 1.76 10 m

For cross section A,

2 g ( hh i)

Velocity, ViB =

2 ( 9.81 ) ( 0.1870.165 )

m/s

= 0.657 m/s
Area = Di

/ 4 m

= (0.026)
4

= 5.31 10

/4
m2

Velocity, Vic = Q/A m/s

4
4
= 1.76 10
/ 5.31 10

= 0.331 m/s
Vib Vic = 0.657 0.331 = 0.326 m/s

DISCUSSION

The purpose of this experiment is to verify the validity of Bernoullis equation for fluid
flow upon the converging and diverging flow passage at the tube. Bernoulli's law indicates that,
if an in viscid fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying cross section, then the pressure is lower at

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constrictions with respect to its velocity which is higher, and pressure will become higher at large
cross-sectional area and the fluid stagnates.
Overall, from the tables provided previously, it can be seen that by using Bernoullis
equation, the highest velocity, Vib is achieved at cross section D. This is because the tube has
small diameter second only to C, which is equivalent to 20mm, providing its large cross
sectional area, thus resulting low pressure and high velocity. However, by using continuity
equation, the highest velocity, Vic is achieved at cross section C which has the smallest diameter
of 16mm. Therefore, we had calculated the difference between Vib and Vic for each section to
further investigate the significance of these two equations (i.e. Bernoulli equation and Continuity
equation) and how they are related to each other.

According to Bernoullis, as the speed of the liquid increased, the pressure is lower.
Taking example from Table 1.3, this statement can be proved. Constant flow rate of 25.714
L/min equivalent to

4.29 104

m3/s has the lowest speed which was calculated at the cross

section A. The velocity, Vib at A is recorded 1.112 m/s and hi was recorded at 0.215 m. This is
because the difference between height (level) of liquid, (h hi) with respect to tube A is high
resulting the highest pressure in the system. Hence, the velocity at A is lower. Next, is where the
fastest velocity in the tube, at cross section D with velocity of 2.054 m/s and hi at 0.035 m, this
time with the lowest pressure in the system. Thus, the Bernoullis statement was proven.

C 11

For continuity, it is based on a condition that is, what goes in equal to what goes out (Q
= Q

in

). Plus that the fluid is considered as incompressible. For this case, water can be

out

considered as incompressible. Looking at the calculation using continuity equation, in all flow
rates, the highest velocity is also achieved at cross section C, due to its largest cross-sectional
area. It obeys the theory where the cross sectional area is larger, the pressure is lower. Hence,
when the pressure is lower, the velocity is increased. In this experiment, this situation happened
accordingly to cross-section C at all readings. The condition is vice versa at low velocity. If it
was gas, continuity cannot be applied as it can be compressed, changing its density, thus
resulting in Q in Q out.
However, while demonstrating the significance of both Bernoulli equation and Continuity
equation, there is though one abnormally results which can be seen at each table, at cross section
C. The difference of velocity (Bernoullis minus Continuity) is negative. Basically, this condition
cannot happen as explained earlier, continuity equation was derived on one basic condition, what
goes in equal to what goes out. But in Bernoullis, the kinetic energy of the fluid was also
calculated. So actually, the Bernoullis should have a bigger velocity. The reason for this may
happen is because; there is a bubble formation in the venturi tube. This may be cause by low
flow rate in of the water, but high flow out of the tube. When this happen (the air inside tube),
the reading of hi will not be accurate.

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CONCLUSION

From the experiment conducted, there are different cross-sections for each tube A, B, C, D, E and
F. These differences resulted in varieties of value obtained for stagnation head h* and pressure
head hi. By using Bernoulli equation to calculate the velocity, it can be said that the velocity of
fluid increase as the fluid is flowing from a wider to narrower tube and the velocity decrease in
the opposite direction. This also indicates that the pressure of fluid decreases as the velocity
increases. The Bernoullis principle is proven where the highest velocity Vib, 2.054 m/s is
achieved at cross section D because of the small tube diameter. As for the larger diameter tube at
A, the velocity is the lowest which is 1.112 m/s. The first inclination might be to say that, where
the velocity is the greatest, the pressure is higher. A big force could be feel on the hand in the
flow where its going the fastest. However, the force does not come from the pressure there from
the hand taking away the momentum from the liquid.
The continuity equation is also used in this experiment to relate the pressure in pipes to their
changes in diameter. The equation of continuity shows that liquid flows at constant mass rate and
can also relates speed to pressure. There are few readings which go against the continuity
equation. These circumstances occurred due to errors when the experiment was conducted. In
order to prevent error, proper precautions must be taken before the experiment starts.
The Bernoulli equation forms the basis for solving a wide variety of fluid flow problems such as
jets issuing from an orifice, flows associated with pumps and also turbines. Bernoullis equation
is also useful in demonstration of aerodynamic properties such as drag and lift. From the result
obtained, we can conclude that the Bernoulli equation is valid for flow as it obeys the equation.
As the area decreases at a section, velocity increase and the pressure decrease.

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RECOMMENDATION

The eyes of the observer may not be parallel to the scale and will cause parallax error.
To prevent this from happen during the experiment, the eyes of the observer must be
perpendicular to the reading scale.

The factors such as temperature, pressure and other things especially for the air bubble
inside the tubes should be stabilized first before conducting the experiment for the
accurate results.

The reading of the venture meter level should be taken more than three times in order to
get an accurate value.

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REFERENCES

1. Holzner, S. (n.d.). Use Bernoullis Equation to Calculate Pressure Difference between

Two Points. Retrieved from
http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/use-bernoullis-equation-to-calculate-pressurediff.html
2. Fitzpatrick, R. 2012. Bernoullis Theorem. Retrieved from
http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/336L/Fluid.pdf
3. Anonymous. (n.d.). Bernoullis Theorem Lab. Retrieved from
http://www.markedbyteachers.com/university-degree/engineering/bernoulli-s-theoremdistribution-experiment.html

APPENDICES

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