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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

annealing line

Zong-Wei Kang, Tei-Chen Chen*

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC

h i g h l i g h t s

3-D temperature distributions of strip in CAL were calculated by two methods.

Crown of rolls has a signicant inuence on the transverse temperature distribution of strip.

Phase transformations have a signicant inuence on the longitudinal temperature distribution of strip.

3-D temperature distributions of strip in CAL can be used to predict the residual stress and warpage of strip.

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 4 December 2012

Accepted 31 March 2013

Available online 17 April 2013

In this study, the three-dimensional (3-D) temperature distributions of strip in the whole continuous

annealing line (CAL) were evaluated by using the techniques of energy balance method (EBM) and nite

element method (FEM). The results show that both the effects of ferriteeaustenite phase transition of the

steel strip and the thermal contact resistance between the strip and taper rolls have very signicant

inuence upon the distributions of temperature. These taper rolls tend to introduce the non-uniform

distributions of the temperature and plastic deformation along both the width and thickness of the

strip which are closely related to the phenomenon of warping during punching process. Although the

computational time by EBM is very short compared to that by FEM, the results evaluated by these two

methods are well consistent.

2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Continuous annealing line (CAL)

Finite element method (FEM)

Energy balance method (EBM)

Thermal contact resistance

1. Introduction

The continuous annealing line (CAL) is characterized by faster

delivery and higher thermal efciency than conventional batch

annealing and can provide a sound heat treatment on the strip

materials with higher quality. Sound control of the temperature

along the continuous annealing furnace is important to guarantee

the physical properties of the nal product and to save energy of

operation. In the CAL, the crowns with various proles are given to

hearth rolls for the purpose of preventing strip snaking. However,

these crowns easily introduce non-uniform distributions of temperature along the width which may result in the local plastic strain

due to both the thermal and mechanical loadings. These local

plastic strains of the strip material will then be accumulated and

nally may lead to the residual stress and warpage of the strip

Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC. Tel.: 886 6

2757575; fax: 886 6 2352973.

E-mail address: ctcx831@mail.ncku.edu.tw (T.-C. Chen).

1359-4311/$ e see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2013.03.062

measurement is difcult to perform due to the high speed of the

strip and possible damage to the steel. On the other hand, indirect

measurement as pyrometers is also imprecise in consideration of

complicated radiation interaction between several surfaces in the

furnace. It would be helpful to establish a physical model to observe

the temperature history of strip and to gain knowledge of the

detailed mechanisms of heat transfer between each component.

Prieto et al. [1] developed a powerful stepwise thermal model to

estimate the 1-D temperature history in CAL without taking thermal contact between roll and strip into account. Ho and Chen [2,3]

extended Prietos model to evaluate the 2-D temperature distributions of strip in preheating section (PHS) along the longitudinal

and transverse directions by taking the thermal contact resistance

between the strip and the rolls as well as view factor of radiation

into account. In the CAL, the rolls with crown are necessary to avoid

the strip snaking [4]. A schematic diagram of roll is shown in Fig. 1.

However, the crown generates not only the non-uniform distribution of tensile stress in the transverse direction but also the noncontact between the taper roll and outside of strip which lead to

242

Nomenclature

surface area, m2

specic heat at constant pressure, J/kg-K

strip thickness, m

Youngs modulus, GPa

least square error

view factor

traction, N/m2

Gebhart factors

heat transfer coefcient, W/(m2-K)

equivalent heat transfer coefcient, W/(m2-K)

strip thickness, m

side length of strip, m

number of surfaces in enclosure

Nusselt number

Prandtl number

heat ux, W/m2

heat transfer rate, W

conductive heat ux, W/m2

qC

qR

convection/radiation heat ux, W/m2

r

radial distance from the center, m

R

radiative exchange factors for application of Gebhart

method

Ra

Rayleigh number

thermal contact resistance, (m2-K)/W

Rc

Re

Reynolds number

surface, m2

SF

t

time, s

T

temperature, K

atmosphere temperature in furnace, K

TN

u

strip speed, m/s

displacement vector, m

ui

U

displacement, m

V

control volume, m3

w

strip width, m

X,Y,Z; x,y,z Cartesian coordinates

a

phase of ferrite

ath

thermal expansion coefcient, 1/K

aR

thermal diffusivity of roll, m2/s

g

phase of austenite in steel material

emissivity

strain tensor

ij

q

coordinate in circumferential direction

q0

angular width of the periphery in contact with strip

A

cp

e

E

Er

F

Fi

G

h

heq

H

LS

n

Nu

Pr

q

Q_

l

m

n

r

s

sij

sn

sy

u

d

Dt

dynamic viscosity, Pa-s

Poissons ratio

density, kg/m3

StefaneBoltzmann constant, W/(m2-K4)

stress tensor, Pa

contact pressure, MPa

yield strength, Pa

angular speed of roll, rad/s

Kronecker delta

time interval, s

Subscripts

ce

ceiling

cond

conduction mechanism

conv

convection mechanism

en

enclosures

oor

hp

heating plate

hp-l

to indicate heat transfer rate from heating plate to

enclosure placed on left

hp-r

to indicate heat transfer rate from heating plate to

enclosure placed on right

i,j

generic surface index

in

refers to enclosure inlet conditions

loss

losses through walls

out

refers to enclosure outlet conditions

rad

radiation mechanism

R

rolls

s

strip

s-a

to indicate heat transfer rate from strip to enclosure

located above

s-b

to indicate heat transfer rate from strip to enclosure

located below

s-l

to indicate heat transfer rate from strip to enclosure

located on left

s-r

to indicate heat transfer rate from strip to enclosure

located on right

sw

side walls

S-H

strip in horizontal position

S-V

strip in vertical position

w

walls

ws

inner surfaces of walls

Ns

thermal conditions in surroundings of furnace

Nen

thermal conditions in enclosure atmosphere of furnace

transverse direction. In addition, when the tension of strip is

decreased, the snaking of strip may occur easier. Therefore, the

tension of the strip should keep at a high level, and this situation

may induce the heat bucking in the transverse direction.

As reported in the previous study [3], the strip in PHS is still

deformed within the elastic range. However, as the strip temperature is signicantly increased in heating section (HS), the plastic

deformation will take place due to the decrease of yield strength of

strip at high temperature. Based on the FeeC phase diagram, the

ferriteeaustenite phase transition occurs near 727 OC, where the

crystal structures of the phases of ferrite a and austenite g are BCC

and FCC, respectively. The volume change due to this phase transition can be considered by modifying the value of thermal

expansion coefcient, while the effect of latent heat accompanied

with can be accommodated by the curve of specic heat. The

pearlite, bainite, and martensite are very important in the heat

treatment of steel.

To the authors knowledge, there exist very few studies relevant

to the 3-D temperature distribution of strip in CAL. In this study, the

3-D temperature distributions of strip in the CAL, composed of PHS,

HS, soaking section (SS) and cooling section (CS), were theoretically

evaluated and discussed under some specic operational conditions. Both the techniques of energy balance method (EBM) and

nite element method (FEM) were utilized to deal with the thermal

and mechanical models of the problems. The results were

compared and discussed. The surface temperatures of rolls and the

contact pressure between strip and roll were rst evaluated by

energy model of roll and mechanical model of strip through nite

element simulation, respectively [5]. And then the corresponding

thermal contact resistance between the roll and strip was determined via the contact pressure. Finally, the longitudinal and

transverse temperature distributions of strip in the whole CAL were

evaluated iteratively under different operational conditions by

either EBM or FEM.

243

left side and moves alternately upward and downward. The total

numbers of major rolls in PHS, HS, SS, and CS are 1, 13, 7 and 1,

respectively. As the steel strip is moving through the taper rolls, the

thermal contact conductance between the strip and rolls should be

taken into account. Indirect radiative heating tubes are utilized in

the PHS, HS, and SS, while turbulent jets of air are installed in CS to

quench the strip. These heating tubes are situated between both

sides of the strip. Combustion of coke oven gas or propane takes

place inside these heating tubes. Since a great number of heating

tube rows in types of multiple U shape and W shape are arranged in

the PHS, HS, and SS of CAL, they can be satisfactorily considered as

heating planes in thermal model. These heating planes supply the

thermal energy to the strip, the walls and the furnace atmosphere.

The atmosphere of the furnace is made up of a mixture of nitrogen

and hydrogen (93%N2 and 7%H2). The materials used for the furnace

walls are described in Table 1, including the ceiling, the side walls

and the oor. The ceiling and the side walls are made of the superimposition of the rst ve materials, and the oor is made of the

last two materials. The detail dimensions in various furnaces are

shown as in Table 1. The input data of computational model include

the furnace dimension, the strip dimension (1204 0.503 mm), the

physical properties of the walls [1], strip velocity (3.3 m/s), strip

density (7860 kg/m3), and the temperature at entry (298 K). The

temperature of air is not uniform throughout the furnace. The atmosphere temperatures at different zones experimentally

measured by thermocouples are listed in Table 2, in which the

zones divided in each section are shown in Fig. 2. The physical

properties of the atmosphere are listed in Table 3 [2,3]. The sizes of

rolls are shown in Table 4. In addition, the view factors between

two any components of enclosure can be calculated by the formula

in the article [6].

Fig. 3 shows a representative enclosure to illustrate the energy

balance for each of the components in the enclosures, including the

heating plate, the walls, the strip and the enclosure. The associated

relations of energy balance at each following component in the

furnace can be expressed as [2]:

(1) Heating plate

Energy balance should be remained at the heating plate. In other

words, the heat supplied by the heating plate should be equal to

total heat moving out of the heating plate via the convection and

the radiation, as shown in Fig. 3, and can be written as

2. Mathematical model

2.1. EBM scheme to evaluate strip temperature

A simplied scheme of components in CAL considered in the

present study is illustrated in Fig. 2, which includes PHS, HS, SS, and

CS. In EBM scheme, the individual dimensions of PHS, HS, SS, and CS

were 17.828 3 2.3 m, 22.62 11.9 2.4 m, 22.62 6.75 2.4 m

and 25.02 3.8 3.2 m, and were divided into 7, 30, 13 and 7

enclosures, respectively. The strip is fed into the furnace from the

Q_ hp Q_ conv;hpen

Q_ rad;hpj

(1)

j ce;sw;fl;s

Q_ conv;hpen represents the heat owing out of the heating plate to

P

Q_ rad;hpj

the environment via the convection, while

j ce;sw;fl;s

Table 1

Materials used for ceiling, side walls and oor [1].

Material

t, mm

t, mm

t, mm

t, mm

l, W/(m-K)

Rock wool

Rigid rock wool

Ceramic bre (96 kg/m2)

Ceramic bre (128 kg/m2)

Steel sheet

PHS (ce/sw)

30/30

50/50

35/35

37/37

3/3

HS (ce/sw)

30/30

50/50

35/35

37/37

3/3

SS (ce/sw)

96/48

162/81

114/57

120/60

8/4

CS (c/sw)

96/48

162/81

114/57

120/60

8/4

2 107T2

2 107T2

2 107T2

107T2 8

0.015T 9

Floor

Calcium silicate

Insulating re brick JM23

PHS

150

115

HS

150

115

SS

283

217

CS

283

217

2 108T2 5 105T 0.0993

2 105T 0.0239

2 105T 0.0239

2 105T 0.0132

105T 0.0014

244

Table 2

Atmosphere temperatures at different zones of CAL.

Table 4

Size of roll in CAL.

Temperature (K)

PHS

HS

SS

CS

L1

L2

D1

D2

Zone

Zone

Zone

Zone

470

469

e

e

1096

1116

1126

1136

1089

e

e

e

578

526

518

514

PHS

HS

SS

CS

500

500

500

500

210

210

575

210

340

365

300

365

750

750

750

750

749

748

749

748

0.5

1.0

0.5

1.0

1

2

3

4

shows the heat moving out of the heating plate to the ceiling, the

side wall, the oor, and the strip via the radiation.

(2) Ceiling of the furnace

Energy balance is also satised at the ceiling of the furnace. It

means the total heat absorbed by the ceiling through the convection and the radiation should equal to the heat loss to the surrounding of the furnace, as shown in Fig. 3.

Q_ loss;ce Q_ conv;ceen

Q_ rad;cej

(2)

j hp;sw;fl;s

where Q_ loss;ce denotes the heat loss from the ceiling to the surrounding of the furnace, Q_ conv;ceen represents the heat absorbed

by the ceiling from the environment via the convection, while

P

shows the heat absorbed by the ceiling from the

Q_

j hp;sw;fl;s

rad;cej

heating plate, the side wall, the oor, and the strip via the radiation.

(3) Side walls of the furnace

Energy balance is also satised at the side wall of the furnace. It

means the total heat absorbed by the side wall through convection

and radiation should equal to the heat loss to the surrounding of the

furnace, as shown in Fig. 3.

Q_ loss;sw Q_ conv;swen

Q_ rad;swj

(3)

j hp;ce;fl;s

j hp;ce;sw;s

rad;flj

heating plate, the ceiling, the side wall, and the strip via radiation.

(5) Vertical strip

The total heat absorbed by the vertical strip should equal to the

heat transferred to the left and right sides of the strip through the

convection and the radiation, as shown in Fig. 3. This net absorbed

heat leads to the increase of the strip temperature, as shown in Eq. (5).

Q_ SV rs ewucp;SV TSV;out TSV;in

(5)

where Q_ conv;sl and Q_ conv;sr denote the heat transferred to the left

and right sides of the strip through convection, respectively;

Q_ rad;sl and Q_ rad;sr denote the heat transferred to the left and right

represents

sides of the strip through radiation, respectively; Q_

SV

the heat absorbed by the vertical strip, rs, e, w, u and cp,S-V denote

the density, the thickness, the width, the speed and the specic

heat of the vertical strip, respectively; TS-V,out and TS-V,in are the

temperature of the vertical strip at the outlet and the inlet,

respectively.

(6) Horizontal strip

where Q_ loss;sw denotes the heat loss from the side wall to the surrounding of the furnace, Q_ conv;swen represents the heat absorbed

by the side wall from the environment via the convection, while

P

denotes the heat absorbed by the side wall from

Q_

j hp;ce;fl;s

where Q_ loss;fl denotes the heat loss from the oor to the surrounding of the furnace, Q_ conv;flen represents the heat absorbed by

the oor from the environment via convection, while

P

shows the heat absorbed by the oor from the

Q_

rad;swj

the heating plate, the ceiling, the oor, and the strip via the

radiation.

the heat transferred to the upper and bottom sides of the strip

through the convection, the radiation and the contact heat conduction of the roll, as shown in Fig. 3. This net absorbed heat leads

to the increase of the strip temperature, as shown in Eq. (6), in

which

Energy balance is also satised at the oor of the furnace. It

means the total heat absorbed by the oor through the convection

and the radiation should equal to the heat loss to the surrounding of

the furnace, as shown in Fig. 3.

Q_ loss;fl Q_ conv;flen

Q_ rad;flj

(4)

j hp;ce;sw;s

Table 3

Properties of atmosphere [2,3].

Property

Function

Range

r, kg/m

325.38/T

1.096 104T2 5.499 102T 1054.84

6.358 105T 1.299 102

2.966 108T 1.011 105

400

400

400

400

cp, J/kg K

l, W/m K

m, Pa s

<

<

<

<

T(K)

T(K)

T(K)

T(K)

<

<

<

<

1000

1000

1000

1000

Q_ SH rs ewucp;SH TSH;out TSH;in

Q_ cond;sR TR Ts =Rc sn

(6)

where Q_ conv;sa and Q_ conv;sb denote the heat transferred to the

upper and bottom sides of the strip through the convection,

respectively, Q_ rad;sa and Q_ rad;sb denote the heat transferred to the

upper and bottom sides of the strip through the radiation,

respectively, Q_ SH represents the heat absorbed by the horizontal

strip, TS-H,out and TS-H,in are the temperature of the horizontal strip

at the outlet and the inlet, respectively, Q_ cond;sR represents the

heat transferred to the strip through the contact heat conduction of

the roll, TR and Ts are the surface temperature of the roll and the

strip, respectively, Rc denotes the contact heat resistance between

the roll and the strip that is dependent upon the contact pressure,

sn, between these two bodies.

(7) Furnace atmosphere

The total heat absorbed by and supplied to the surrounding

components through the convection should be balanced, as shown

in Eq. (7):

Q_ conv;jen 0

(7)

shown in Eq. (9), should be replaced by the temperature of the

furnace surrounding, TNs. The convective heat transfer coefcients,

hi, are calculated using the Nusselt number, Nu. Moreover, the

contact heat resistance between the roll and the strip, Rc(sn), and

the surface temperature of each roll, TR, can be determined by the

mechanical model of strip and energy model of roll introduced as

follows, respectively.

2.1.1. Mechanical model of strip [3]

The mechanical formulation is based on the elasto-plastic nite

element formulation that is one of the extreme principles proposed

by Hill [8]. The weak form of this principle leads to the following

equation in terms of the arbitrary variation of the displacement [9]:

sij dij dV

V

Fi dui dS 0

P

j hp;ce;sw;fl;s

the traction Fi is prescribed, sij, ij, and ui denote the stress tensor,

strain tensor, and displacement vector, respectively. A coupled

thermal elasto-plastic theory is adopted in the mechanical model of

the strip. Only half roll and strip in width are established due to the

geometrical symmetry, as illustrated in Fig. 4. The strip meshed

with quadratic quadrilaterals shell element (8 nodes) is plotted as

tween the surrounding and the heating plate, the ceiling, the side

wall, the oor, and the strip via the convection.

Consequently, totally seven unknown parameters in each

enclosure, including six unknown temperatures for the heating

plate, the ceiling, the side wall, the oor, and the strip in the horizontal and the vertical positions, as well as one unknown heating

power for the heating plate, can be completely determined by

solving the equations from (1) to (7).

The radiative heat transfer rates, which are calculated using the

technique of surface to surface approach, can be expressed by Eq. (8).

n

P

Ri;j Ti4 Tj4

Q_ rad;i

j1

Ri;j Ai si di;j Gi;j

Gi;j

F

i;j j

(8)

di;j 1 j Fi;j

generic subscript for each of the surfaces that proceed heat exchange by radiation; Ti and Tj are the temperature at the surfaces i

and j, respectively; Ri,j are the exchange factors that depend on the

surface emissivities and the view factors; Fi,j, Ai is the surface area; s

is the StefaneBoltzmann constant; i is the emissivity; di,j is the

Kronecker delta and Gi,j denotes the Gebhart factor proposed by

Siegel and Howell [7]. The view factors can be referred to the work

of Gross et al. [6] under the condition of rectangular surfaces on the

parallel or the perpendicular planes.

The convective heat transfer rates for the surfaces are calculated by

Q_ conv;i Ai hi Ti TNen

(9)

case of the convective heat transfer with respect to the furnace

(10)

SF

j hp;ce;sw;fl;s

where

245

246

shown in Fig. 4(a). The side length of strip, LS, as shown in Fig. 4(b),

is assumed as p times the diameter of roll for taking the heat

transfer program of nite element model into account [3]. Contact

elements are prescribed between the strip and the roll to ensure a

suitable contact condition between them. The contact stress of strip

passing through each roll can be determined by using the temperature of strip obtained by FEM. The roll is assumed to be rigid

and xed at its center, i.e., Ux UY UZ 0 at X Y Z 0.

Moreover, the displacement of strip at the central line along the Zdirection, UZ, should be also equal to zero. The boundary conditions

and constraints are shown in Fig. 4(b). Taking a rigid displacement

as load is more reasonable than a uniform tension in the actual

process [10]. A small displacement is applied at both ends of strip to

create the suitable tension (5000 10% N) performed actually by

the factory. The contact pressures between the strip and the roll are

evaluated by the nite element method and then converted to the

thermal contact resistances by using the following relation [11]

.

m2 K W

Rc sn 0:33 1:175e0:521sn 103

(11)

applied contact pressure sn. This relation was obtained by using the

method of least squares under the tests performed on two steel

specimens with as-rolled clean surfaces without loose mill scale at

contact pressure 0e30 MPa and maximum temperatures 450e

700 K. Moreover, the measured roughness of the contact surfaces is

within the range of 1.3e7.0 mm. This relation of the contact

pressure-dependent thermal contact resistance between two

blocks, described by Eq. (11), is also in good agreement with the

experimental data reported by the literature [12]. The thermal

contact resistances converted from the thermal contact pressures

are substituted into the energy balance equations. Consequently,

the revised temperature of strip can be obtained. One can repeat

these procedures until the strip temperature is converged within a

satisfactory tolerance.

2.1.2. Energy model of roll [3]

This energy model is used to determine the surface temperatures of rolls which are continuously contacting with strip and

exposing to the furnace atmosphere for a long time period.

Consequently, these rolls, initially having the same temperature as

furnace atmosphere, are heated over one portion through the

mechanisms of heat convection/radiation by exposing to hot

furnace atmosphere and cooled over the remaining portion of the

periphery through contact heat conduction by the cold strip. Both

the Lagragian and Eulerian descriptions can be used in thermal

analysis of roll. For the Lagragian one (observer xed to the strip or

roll), the thermal eld must be represented as time-dependent.

However, after a short transient, the thermal eld becomes

quasi-stationary. On the other hand, for the Eulerian one (observer

xed to the laboratory), the temperature eld becomes stationary.

In this work, Lagragian description rather than Eulerian description was adopted in thermal analysis of roll, since an additional

convective term, which is difcult to deal with in ANSYS, should

be included for the latter description. The thermal boundary

conditions of contact heat transfer with respect to strip and

convective/radiative heat transfer with respect to furnace atmosphere were individually prescribed at the rotating speed of roll

along the specic periphery of roll. The transient temperature of

roll, TR, can be obtained by solving the energy balance equation

given by

v2 TR 1 vTR 1 v2 TR

1 vTR

2

aR vt

r vr

r vq2

vr 2

rR

TR x; y; z; t TN ;

t 0

(13)

ut q q0 ut

(14)

lR

vTR

T T

R

;

Rc sn

vr

lR

vTR

heq TR TN ;

vr

q0 ut q 2p ut

(15)

where aR (kR/rRcp-R) is the thermal diffusivity of roll; kR, rR, and cpdenote the thermal conductivity, density, and specic heat capacity of roll, respectively; u is the angular speed of roll; while q0

denotes the angular width of the periphery in contact with strip.

The temperature-dependent mechanical properties of the steel

strip including Poissons ratio, n(0.3), thermal expansion coefcient, ath, Youngs modulus, E, yield strength, sy [13] and specic

heat capacity [14], were shown in Fig. 5. The effect of latent heat

(76 kJ/kg) created during ferriteeaustenite phase transition can be

considered by using the modied specic heat capacity curve

adopted by Brown et al. [15] and Frewin et al. [16] in ABAQUS and

ANSYS, respectively.

The computational procedure of energy balance model was

divided into two steps. First, the temperatures of heating plane,

ceiling, side walls, oor, vertical and horizontal strips were determined in each enclosure by solving the energy balance equations

iteratively. Secondly, the strip was divided into several imaginary

narrow strips along the width direction in each enclosure. Different

view factor was specied individually in each imaginary narrow

strip. The temperatures of strip in various imaginary narrow strips

were evaluated by the temperatures of heating plane and walls

obtained previously and thermal contact resistances distributed

along the width. A 2-D temperature distribution for the strip along

the length and width was thus obtained. The owchart, as shown in

Fig. 6, represents the computational algorithm to calculate the

temperature of heating plane, walls and strip by the energy balance

equations and nite element models.

(12)

Fig. 5. Physical properties of strip [13,14].

247

contact pressure of the strip and the surface temperatures of all the rolls

in CAL, as well as to estimate the emissivity and equivalent heat transfer

coefcient of the strip in each section of CAL. Due to the coupling effect

between mechanical and energy models of strip, mainly attributed to

the effects of contact pressure-dependent thermal contact resistance,

temperature-dependent material properties and thermal strain, an

effort of coupled-eld analysis should be conducted. In addition, the

heat source that generated by mechanical deformation of strip is very

small and can be satisfactorily neglected. In order to evaluate 3-D distributions of temperature and stress of strip, a strip with nite length is

adopted in both mechanical and energy models. This strip passes

through the inlet and moves into the interior of CAL and then is subjected to the complicated convective/radiative heat ux from the hot

furnace atmosphere. The strip keeps moving and then in contact with

the roll, where a conductive heat ux due to thermal contact conductance between them takes place. The strip keeps moving forward and

nally passes though the outlet of the CAL. Consequently, the thermal

analyses of strip in CAL were mainly composed of two steps:

2.2.1. Estimation of equivalent emissivity or heat convective

coefcients of strip in each section of CAL

The methods of direct sensitivity coefcient [17] and the least

square error were employed to evaluate the equivalent emissivity of

strip in each section of CAL by using the measured strip temperature

at outlet of each section and the estimated strip temperature at some

specic locations along the length by energy balance model.

2.2.2. Energy model of strip [3]

When a strip with nite length is moving in the furnace, its

corresponding energy equation can be written as [18]

v

vT

v

vT

v

vT

vT

lT

lT

lT

rTcp T

vx

vx

vy

vy

vz

vz

vt

(16)

the strip are:

Both the thermal and mechanical models were analyzed by using

the nite element code ANSYS to investigate the inuence of operational parameters on the temperature distributions of the strip especially along the width in CAL. This method mainly includes to establish

The total heat ux imposed on the strip is composed of heat

convection and radiation:

248

4

qR s TN

T 4 h TN T heq T TN T

where

2

T 2 TN T h

heq s TN

(17a)

(17b)

When the strip is passing through the roll, the area contacting to

the roll, denoted by the contact angle q, is subjected to the heat ux

due to the contact conduction, qC, while the remaining region of

strip is subjected to the convection/radiation heat uxes, qR. The

strip front starts to contact with the roll; while the contact angle

decreases by 5 after each Dt as the strip starts to leave the roll. The

relationship between thermal contact conduction and the temperature of strip can be expressed by

qC TR T=Rc sn

(18)

where TR is the surface temperature of roll; T denotes the temperature of strip in contact to the roll; Rc is the thermal contact

resistance, that is a function of contact pressure sn.

Detailed solution procedures and algorithm of FEM scheme

were shown in Fig. 7. All the required input data, including the size

and physical properties of strip and roll, as well as the parameters

of CAL, should be provided as input data rst. It is obvious that a

numerically iterative solution procedure should be performed to

the mechanical and energy models of strip and roll. The contact

pressure and thermal contact resistance with an assumed initial

strip temperature and surface temperature of roll, generally estimated by EBM, were evaluated rst by mechanical model. A revised

temperature distribution of strip after completely passing over the

roll, that takes account of the inuence of thermal contact resistance and surface temperature of roll, was then calculated by the

energy model of strip. After that, the revised contact pressure and

the thermal contact resistance were evaluated again by mechanical

model. These solution procedures were iteratively proceeded until

a satised convergence in numerical solutions was obtained.

3. Results and discussions

The distributions of contact pressure and thermal contact

resistance in width as the strip is passing the No. 1 roll in HS were

shown in Fig. 8. It can be found that a uniform contact pressure was

induced at the central portion of the strip along the width direction,

while an extremely high peak of contact pressure was induced near

the edge of the crown. The value of contact pressure reduces to zero

near the two edges of the strip, where a signicant gap appears

between strip and roll. In other words, the situation of thermal

contact resistance disappears in these regions, where both the effects of thermal radiation and convection instead of thermal

Fig. 8. Contact pressure and thermal contact resistance of strip along the width at No.

1 roll of HS.

249

simulation. This kind of contact pattern almost remains unchanged

as the strip passes the rolls in each section of CAL. In addition, the

data relevant to the surface temperature of rolls in CAL as a function

of strip temperature under different atmosphere temperature of

furnace are shown in Fig. 9, which is required and should be

determined in solution procedures of FEM and EBM schemes.

The equivalent heat convective coefcients, as dened in Eq.

(17b), were simplied to a constant in each section of CAL, which

actually should be temperature-dependent. The values of equivalent heat convective coefcient in PHS, HS, and SS determined by

inverse scheme were 6.31, 1.61, and 1.61 W/(m2-K), respectively,

while the values of equivalent heat convective coefcient in CS

corresponding to the cooling of air jet array (temperature of cooling

air was equal to 350 K) at central part and two sides were equal to

27 and 32 W/(m2-K), respectively. Higher equivalent heat convective coefcient in PHS was due to the higher temperature difference

between strip and furnace atmosphere. The temperature history of

strip in each section of CAL was shown in Fig. 10, where the strip

lengths in PHS, HS, SS and CS are 0e42.5, 42.5e337.2, 337.2e505.8

and 508e554.7 m, respectively. The outlet temperatures in various

sections were 401, 1058, 1080 and 923 K, respectively. A temperature gradient is produced suddenly when the strip is in contact

with each roll, since the effect of heat conductance is much higher

than heat convection and radiation. Moreover, it was found by

energy model of strip in FEM scheme that the strip temperature

always keeps uniform distribution in thickness in the whole CAL

even under such a high moving speed. In other words, only 2-D

temperature distributions of strip, i.e., along the wide and longitudinal directions, are required to be displayed and discussed.

When strip is moving in HS, the temperature of strip gradually

rises higher than 727 C and then the aeg phase transformations

occurs. On the other hand, as the temperature is decreased lower

than 727 C in CS, the reverse phase transformation from g to a

takes place. The effect of phase transformation on strip temperature is very signicant. As shown in Fig. 11, a maximum discrepancy

of 19.5 C of the strip temperature is produced in HS in case this

250

1 roll in HS and the No. 23 roll of CS were shown as in Figs. 12 and

13, respectively.

The temperature distributions in the width at each section were

shown in Fig. 14. It can be seen that the temperature near the center

of strip is higher than the two sides due to the thermal contact

conductance between the roll and the strip, as shown in Fig. 14(a),

where No. 1 w 13 represent the temperature of strip just passing

through the No. 1 w 13 rolls in HS, respectively. The discrepancy of

temperature distributions between FEM and EBM schemes are

small and acceptable. On the other hand, when the strip is moving

at SS, the temperature rise near the center part of strip becomes

smaller due to smaller thermal contact effect between the strip and

along the width of strip tends to decrease gradually and nally less

than a few degrees, as show in Fig. 14(b), where No. 15 w 21(SS) and

Exit(SS) represent the temperature distributions of strip just

passing through the No. 15 w 21 rolls and outlet in SS, respectively.

Finally, as the strip reaches to CS, the temperature of strip drops

signicantly due to the forced cooling effect of air jet array. It can be

seen that, the variation of transverse temperature near the center of

strip is due to the cooling effect of thermal contact conductance

between strip and roll, as shown in Fig. 14(b), where No. 23A(CS),

No. 23T(CS) and No. 23L(CS) represent the time instant that strip

just arrives at roll, at the top of roll and leaves the roll in CS,

respectively. The signicant temperature drop at two sides of strip

is due to the stronger forced convection of heat ow and radiation

interaction between the strip and the components in CS. The

temperature evaluated by scheme of EBM is in good agreement

with FEM. The computational time by the former is only about

5 min by personal computer (Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU

2.33 GHz), signicantly shorter than the latter.

4. Conclusion

3-D temperature distributions of strip in CAL were theoretically

evaluated by using both the techniques of EBM and FEM, in which

the view factors, ferriteeaustenite phase transition, and thermal

contact conductance between strip and roll were taken into account.

The heat ux and temperatures of heating plane, ceiling, side walls,

oor and strip were obtained as well. It can be found that the crown

of roll has a signicant inuence on the transverse temperature

distribution of strip, while the phase change has remarkable inuence on the longitudinal temperature distribution of strip in HS and

CS. The numerical results obtained by both techniques were in good

agreement with the literature reported and experimental data

measured at some specic locations in factory. The strip in contact

with roll results in a remarkable temperature rise. Consequently, the

central portion of strip has the higher temperature than two sides of

strip especially in both PHS and HS. This 3-D temperature distribution of strip can be used to predict the residual stress and warpage of

strip during punching process.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the National Science Council in

Taiwan through Grant No. NSC 98-2221-E-006-043.

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