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ZOPFAN

Zone Of Peace, Freedom and


Neutrality
(1971)

BACK
GROUND

ZOPFAN
STILL
RELEVANCE?

ZOPFAN
COMPONENTS

ZOPFAN

THE GLOBAL
THREATS

ASEAN
REGIONAL
SECURITY

BACKGROUND:
Zon of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality or ZOPFAN,
signed on 27 December 1971 in Kuala Lumpur
ZOPFAN also known as Declaration of Kuala
Lumpur
Declaration was signed by the Foreign Ministers of
ASEAN member states, included:
1. Malaysia (Tun Abdul Razak)
2. Indonesia (Adam Malik)
3. Philippine (Carlos P. Ramulo)
4. Singapore (S. Rajaratnam)
5. Thailand (Thanat Khonam)

ZOPFAN PRINCIPLES:
1) Regional cooperation in economy, social and
cultural fields among the ASEAN member
states.
2) Respect for the sovereignty and territorial
integrity of all states.
3) Recognizing the right of every states and free
from outside interference in internal affairs.
4) Dedicated to maintenance of peace, freedom
and independence.
5) Neutralization of South east Asia region is a
desirable objectives.

ZOPFAN & THE (ASEAN) REGIONAL


SECURITY

ZOPFAN promoting internal security and it


contributes to political stability among the
ASEAN members.
ZOPFAN could be the instrument by which
the member states managed their own
security environment, without any external
intervention.
Two security concepts that are frequently
applied to ASEAN;
1. Comprehensive
2. Cooperation

TAC
SEANWFZ

ARF

ZOPFAN
COMPONENTS

TAC (1976); to promote perpetual peace,


everlasting amity and cooperation which
would contribute to their strength, solidarity
and closer relationship.
SEANWFZ (1987); implementing ZOPFAN
concepts- to limit extra regional involvement,
ASEAN free from nuclear weapons threat.
ARF (1994); to foster constructive dialogue
and consultation on political and security
issues of common interest and concern.

ISSUES THAT CHALLENGE THE


CREDIBILITY OF ZOPFAN:

PREAH VIHEAR Temple Dispute;


Cambodian and Thai troops exchanged fire
near the 11th century Preah Vihear temple on
disputed border
(Xinhua.net, April 2011)

Burma may be building


missile and nuclear sites
in remote locations with
support from North
Korea, according to
secret US cables
released by Wikileaks
(BBC News, Dec. 10,
2010)

SPRATLY ISLAND
DISPUTE OVER SPRATLY

In 1988, where a group of


unarmed Vietnamese soldiers,
who put up their guns to become
workers on the islands of Truong
Sa, were ambushed by several
Chinese warships. With no
fighting capabilities, the
Vietnamese workers were
massacred by the invading army
of the PRC

MALAYSIA

VIETNAM

THE CLAIMANT TERRITORY IN SPRATLY


ISLAND

CHINA

PHILIPPINES

ZOPFAN & THE GLOBAL THREATS


Security in ASEAN context relates to much more
than concern over military issues and external
threat scenarios.
ZOPFAN, Post- Cold War era;
1. Military development (arms races) and external
military existence in the ASEAN region.
2. Hegemonic powers rivalry over resource in
South China Sea- maritime power domination &
great powers seeking for the new influences.
3. ASEAN citizen under new threat- the New Cold
War?

Myanmar would increase its


naval troop strength on the
island, while China would help
in building two more helipads
and storage systems for arms
(Times of India, August 2008)

VS.
Obama announced new plan to increase
its military presence in Asia Pacific region
(including South East Asia)
Meanwhile, Singapore and Vietnam have
promises to provide bases for US combat
ships
(Press TV report, Nov. 26, 2011)

ZOPFAN STILL RELEVANCE?