Heat pipes and Thermosyphons
Cold end
Hot end
Inside the system, there is a fluid (usually termed refrigerant)
Heat pipes and Thermosyphons
Heat pipes
• In Heat Pipes, capillary forces in the wick ensures the liquid return from the hot end to the cold end.
• This means that a Heat Pipe can operate independent of gravity. The heat pipe was actually developed for zero gravity (i.e. space) applications.
Heat pipes and Thermosyphons
Cold end
Hot end
• Heat is transferred as latent heat of evaporation which means that the fluid inside the system is continuously changing phase from liquid to gas.
• The fluid is evaporating at the hot end, thereby absorbing heat from the component.
• At the cold end, the fluid is condensed and the heat is dissipated to a heat sink (usually ambient air).
Heat pipes
Heat pipes
Heat pipes
Heat pipes  Applications
Schematic of a Thermosyphon
Evaporator
Heat pipes  Applications
Thermosyphons
• Are always gravity driven!
• Loop system enables enhancement of heat transfer and minimization of flow losses (pressure drop).
• Generally have better performance compared to Heat Pipes working with gravity.
Example of a Thermosyphon cooling three components in parallel
Falling tube length=1750mm Rising tube height=1200 mm
Liquid head:988+27=1015 mm
Example of a Thermosyphon cooling three components in series
Advantages with Thermosyphon cooling:
• Large heat fluxes can be dissipated from small areas with small temperature differences (150 W/cm ^{2} )
• Heat can be transferred long distances without any (or with very small) decrease in temperature.
Temp
Condensation
Boiling
Saturation temp
Hot side
Cold side
Temperature difference as a function of the heat dissipation
(Prototype C, Condenser is fan cooled)
Data: P8F2MAX.STA 10v * 23c
P (W)
Temperatures obtained experimentally in a Thermosyphon system that has three evaporators that each cool one component. The total heat dissipation is 170 W.
10 mm
Cooling of Power Amplifiers in a Radio Base Station
Thermosyphons  Applications
Immersion cooling
Thermosyphons  Applications
Thermosyphons  Applications
Two phase flow in a large diameter tube:
Flow regimes determine heat transfer mechanism
Thermosyphons
Rahmatollah Khodabandeh
• 
Heat Transfer Coefficient 

• 
At least two different mechanisms behind flow boiling heat transfer: convective and nucleate boiling heat transfer. 

• 
General accepted that the convective boiling increases along a tube with increasing vapor fraction and mass flux. Increasing convective boiling reduces the wall superheat and suppresses the nucleate boiling. When heat transfer increases with heat flux with almost constant vapor fraction and mass flux, the nucleate boiling dominates the flow boiling process. Due to the fact that the mechanism of convective and nucleate boiling can coexist, a good procedure for calculating flow boiling must have both elements. 

• 
With larger n, the h _{t}_{p} is implying more asymptotic behavior in the respectively dominant region. h _{L} and h _{n}_{b} are the heat transfer coefficients for onephase liquid flow and pool boiling respectively. E and F are enhancement and suppression factors. 

• 
Chen, GungorWinterton [1986] and Jung’s correlations are based on superposition model. 

• 
Shah, Kandlikar and GungorWinterton’s [1987] correlations are based on enhancement model. 

• 
LiuWinterton, SteinerTaborek and VDIWärmeatlas are based on asymptotic model. 

• 
Total thermal resistance in an advanced closed twophase flow thermosyphon loop 

• 
The thermosyphon’s thermal resistance can be considered to the sum of four major component resistances: 

• 

• 
R _{t}_{o}_{t} =R _{c}_{r} +R _{b}_{o} +R _{c}_{o} +R _{c}_{v} 
(K/W) 
• 

• 
R _{c}_{r} is the contact resistance between the simulated component and the 

evaporator front wall. In order to reduce R _{c}_{r} a thermally conductive 

epoxy can be used. 

• 
R _{b}_{o} , is the boiling resistance. 

• 
R _{c}_{o} , is the condensing resistance. This resistance is in fact very low due 

to the high heat transfer coefficient in condensation and the large 

condensing area. 

• 
R _{c}_{v} is the convection resistance between the condenser wall and the air. 
• Heat transfer depends on pressure level, vapor fraction, flow rate, geometry of evaporator and thermal properties of refrigerant.
• The influence of pressure level, choice of working fluid, geometry of evaporator, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient, critical heat flux and overall thermal resistance were investigated during the present project.
• Cooper’s pool boiling correlation is plotted versus saturated pressure for different fluids: (for saturated temp. between 060 °C)
• As can been seen heat transfer coefficient generally increases with increasing pressure and decreasing the molecular weights.
Consideration when choosing refrigerant
• A fluid which needs small diameter of tubing
• A fluid which gives low temp. diff. in boiling and condensation
• A fluid which allows high heat fluxes in the evaporator.
•Fig. shows ratio of viscosity to density and heat of
vaporization vs. Saturated
pressure, we find that the the
2.50E08
general trend is decreasing
pressure drop with increasing 
Figure of merit (Dp) 
2.00E08 
R32,M=52.02 
NH3,M=17.03 

pressure and decreasing 
1.50E08 
R12,M=120.9 

molcular weights. 
1.00E08 
R134a,M=102 

•The Twophase pressure 
R22,M=86.47 

5.00E09 
R600a,M=58.12 
drops expected to follow the
0.00E+00
•For Saturated temperature between 060 °C.
•Another important parameter when choosing
working fluid is the critical
CHF (W)
heat flux.
2400
•Figure shows calculation of
Kutateladze CHF correlation
versus reduced pressure for
pool boiling.
•As can been seen ammonia
2100 R600a,M=58.12
1800 R11,M=137.4
1500 NH3,M=17.03
1200 R134a,M=102
900 R12,M=120.9
600 R22,M=86.47
300 R32,M=52.02
0
once again shows 
0 
0.1 
0.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.5 
0.6 
0.7 
Reducedpressure 
outstanding properties with
34 times higher than the other fluids.
FC fluids
• In immersion boiling FC fluids have been used
• FC fluids generally have poor heat transfer properties:
• Low thermal conductivity
• Low specific heat
• Low heat of vaporization
• Low surface tension
• Low critical heat flux
• Large temperature overshoot at boiling incipience
Influence of system pressure and threaded surface
• R600a (Isobutane)
• Tests were done at five reduced pressures ;
• p
• Two types of evaporators: smooth and
• threaded tube surfaces.
r
=
p
p cr
; 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3.
•The Fig. shows temperature difference between inside wall temperature and refrigerant vs. heat
input.
•As can be seen, the temperature
difference increases with
increasing heat input, but with
different slopes, depending on the
saturation pressure in the system
•As the heat transfer coefficient is the heat flux divided by the temp. difference, this indicates higher heat transfer coefficient with increasing pressure
Q (W)
•Effect of threaded surface at different reduced
pressure on heat transfer
coefficient
•The fig. shows temp. diff. vs. reduced pressure from 10 to 110 W heat input for each one of evaporators on threaded surface.
•Relatively low temp. diff can be
achieved. •Temp. diff. In the most points will be reduced to less than a third by increasing the reduced pressure from 0.02 to 0.3.
•Effect of heat flux on heat transfer coefficient •Figur shows the relation between heat transfer coefficient and heat flux for Pr=0.1, with smooth tube. •The dependence of heat transfer coefficient on heat flux can be expressed as h=f (q ^{n} ), n, in most cases varies between 0.60.8 •Presented data follows h=f 

y
=
0.8761x 0.5755
25
R600a
R
2 = 0.9984
20
15
h=f (q n )
10
h=f (q 0.57 )
5
0
0
40
80
120
160
200
240
280
q
(kW/m²)
h (kW/m².K)


_{(}_{q} 0.57 _{)} 
•Comparison between Liu Winterton’s correlation and experimental results
•The Fig. shows heat transfer coeff., comparison between LiuWinterton’s correlation versus experimental results for smooth tube surfaces at different reduced pressure.
•As can be seen the heat transfer coeff. calculated by LiuWinterton’s correlation is in good agreement with the experimental results •For the most points the deviation is less than 25 percent.
•Comparison between Cooper’s correlation and experimental results
•The Fig. shows heat transfer coeff.
comparison between Cooper’s pool
boiling correlation versus
experimental results for smooth
tube surfaces at different reduced
pressure.
•As can be seen the heat transfer
coeff. calculated by Cooper’s correlation is in good agreement
with the experimental results •For the most points the deviation is less than 25 percent.
Influence of diameter Testing condition
• R600a as refrigerant
• Tests were done with 7, 5,4, 3, 2 and 1 vertical channels with diameter of 1.1, 1.5,1.9, 2.5 3.5 and
6 mm.
• Smooth surface
• At reduced pressure 0.1 (p/P _{c}_{r} )
Conclusions
• Heat transfer coefficients and CHF can be expected to
• Increase with increasing reduced pressure and with
• decreasing molecular weight
• The effects of pressure, and threaded surface on heat
• transfer coefficient have been investigated.
• The pressure level has a significant effect on heat
• transfer coefficient.
• h=f
• h=f (q ^{n} ) where n=0.57
(pr ^{m} )
m=0.317
Conclusion
• 
Heat transfer coefficient can be improved by using 
• 
the threaded surfaces. 
• 
Heat transfer coefficient at a given heat flux 
• 
is more than three times larger at the reduced 
• 
pressure 0.3 than 0.02 on threaded surfaces. 
• 
The experimental heat transfer coefficients are 
• 
in relatively good agreement with Cooper’s 
• 
Pool boiling and LiuWinterton’s correlations. 
• 
Classification and application of thermosyphon system.
• Open thermosyphon
• Closed thermosyphon
– Pipe thermosyphon
• Singlephase flow
• Twophase flow
– Simple loop Thermosyphon
• Singlephase flow
• Twophase flow
• Closed advanced twophase flow thermosyphon loop
• The most common industrial thermosyphon applications include:
• gas turbin blade cooling
• electrical machine rotor cooling
• transformer cooling
• nuclear reactor cooling
• steam tubes for baker’s oven
• cooling for internal combustion engines
• electronic cooling.
Conclusion
• The effects of pressure, mass flow, vapor
• quality, and enhanced surface on CHF have
• been investigated.
• Threaded surface has a minor effect on CHF.
• The pressure level has a significant effect on CHF.
• The CHF can be improved by using the higher pressure.
• The influence of diameter on the heat transfer coefficients for these small diameter channels was found to be small and no clear trends could be seen.
• Thermosyphon is a circulating fluid system whose motion is
• caused by density difference in a body force field which result
• from heat transfer.
• Thermosyphon can be categorized according to:
1. The nature of boundaries (Is the system open or closed to mass flow)
2. The regime of heat transfer (convection, boiling or both)
3. The number of type of phases present (single or twophase state)
4. The nature of the body force (is it gravitational or rotational)
All thermosyphon syatems removing heat from prescribed source and transporting heat and mass over a specific path and rejecting the heat or mass to a prescribed sink.
•Open Thermosyphon:
•Singlephase, natural convection open system in the form of a tube open at the top and closed at the bottom. •For open thermosyphon •Nu _{a} =C1·Ra _{a} ^{m} (a/L) ^{C}^{2} , Nu _{a} =(h·a)/k •a: based on radius
• Closed loop thermosyphon
• Two distinct advantages make the closedloop thermosyphon profitable to study:
1. Natural geometric configuration which can be found or created in many industrial situation.
2. It avoid the entry choking or mixing that occurs in the pipe thermosyphon
3. For single phase loop:
4. Nu _{L} =0.245·(Gr·Pr ^{2} ·L/d) ^{0}^{.}^{5} can be used
• Heat pipe and thermosyphon
• Thermosyphon and heat pipe cooling both rely on evaporation and condensation. The difference between the two types is that in a heat pipe the liquid is returned from the condenser to the evaporator by surface tension acting in a wick, but thermosyphon rely on gravity for the liquid return to the evaporator.
• However the cooling capacity of heat pipes are lower in general compared to the thermosyphon with the same tube diameter.
• Twophase thermosyphon
• The advantages of operating twophase thermosyphons are:
1. The ability to dissipate high heat fluxes due to the latent heat of evaporation and condensation
2. The much lower temperature gradients associated with these process.
3. Reduced weight and volume with smaller heat transfer area compared to other systems.
• Closed advanced twophase thermosyphon loop
• Thermosyphon cooling offers passive circulation and the ability to dissipate high heat fluxes with low temperature differences between evaporator wall and coolant when implemented with surface enhancement.
• An advanced twophase loop has the possibility of reducing the total cross section area of connecting tubes and better possibility of close contact between the component and the refrigerant channels than a thermosyphon pipe or a heat pipe.
• Operation condition of an advanced twophase thermosyphon loop
• The net driving head caused by the difference in density between the liquid in the downcomer and the vapor/liquid mixture in the riser must be able to overcome the pressure drop caused by mass flow, for maintaining fluid circulation.
• The pressure changes along the thermosyphon loop due to gravitation, friction, acceleration, bends, enlargements and contractions.
• In design of a compact twophase thermosyphon system, the dimensions of connecting tubing and evaporator, affects the packaging and thermal performance of the system.
• The pressure drop is a limiting factor for small tubing diameter and compact evaporator design.
• By determining the magnitude of pressure drops at different parts of a thermosyphon, it may be possible to reduce the most critical one, therby optimizing the performance of the thermosyphon system.
• The pressure loss around bends can be calculated by:
D
p
lb
= x
G ² l 
^{} 2 r
x
• is an empirical constant which is a function of
where
curvature and inner diameter.
• In the downcomer section, the pressure drop due to friction is much larger than the pressure loss around bends.
• Method of analysis twophase flow pressure drop
• The methods used to analyse a twophase flow are often based on extensions of singlephase flows.
• The procedure is based on writing conservation of mass, momentum and energy equations.
• To solve these equations, often needs simplifying assumptions, which give rise different models.
• Homogeneous flow model
• One of the simplest predictions of pressure drop in two phase flow is a homogeneous flow approximation.
• Homogeneous predictions treat the twophase mixture as a single fluid with mixture properties.
• In the homogeneous flow model it is assumed that the two phases are well mixed and therefore have equal actual vapor and liquid velocities.
• In other words in this model, the frictional pressure drop is evaluated as if the flow were a singlephase flow, by introducing modified properties in the singlephase friction coefficient.
• Pressure drop in the riser
• The total twophase flow pressure drop in the riser is mainly the sum of two contributions: the gravitational and the frictional pressure drop.
• The most used correlations for calculation of frictional pressure drop are:
1. LockhartMartinelli correlation
2. CESNEF2 correlation
3. Friedel correlation
4. Homogeneous flow model correlation
• Gravitational pressure drop
D p
G R
,
= r
m
·g·H
r
• The gravitational or head pressure change at the riser
• The momentum equation gives:
• Where a is void fraction
• A: total crosssection area (m ^{2} )
• A _{g} : average crosssection area occupied by the gas phase (m ^{2} )
• Void fraction can be calculated by:
1. Homogeneous model
2. Zivi model [1963]
3. Turner& Wallis twocylinder model [1965]
4. LockhartMartinelli correlation [1949]
5. Thom correlation [1964]
6. Baroczy correlation [1963]
r m
= a·r
a =
A g
A
g
+ (1a)·r
L
CHF
Testing condition
• R600a (Isobutane)
• Tests were done at three reduced pressures;
• 0.035, 0.1, and 0.2.
• Two types of evaporators: smooth and
• threaded tube surfaces.
•Effect of mass flow on CHF
•The mass flow is a function of both heat flux and system pressure.
•As can be seen simulations at CHF shows that mass flow increases with increasing reduced pressure. •This is believed to be the explanation for the higher CHF.
•Higher pressure gives higher mass flow on CHF, which facilitates the deposition and replenishment of liquid film.
•
m_dot (kg/s)
0.006
0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.001
Q _{c}_{r}_{i} (W)
Experimental setup
Not to scale
Fig. 1
All dimensions in the figure are in mm
•CHF=f(p _{r} , G, x) Effect of pressure on CHF:
•The Fig shows temperature difference between inside wall temperature and refrigerant for three evaporators, vs CHF. •For pr =0.2 the CHF is 690 W which correspond to 230 W/cm² front area of the component which correspond to 650 kW/m² heat flux for smooth channels. •As can be seen, the saturation pressure strongly affected the temp. diff. With increased pressure the temp. diff. decreases in the total range of heat load up to CHF.
DT(°C)
Q _{t}_{o}_{t} (W)
• Effect of vapor quality on CHF
• The Fig. shows, vapor quality vs. CHF for three
• evaporators.
• According to the
simulations the vapor quality at different pressure on CHF is almost constant.
•Effect of enhanced surface on CHF 

700 
threaded
smooth


•Generally at enhanced surfaces increases the heat transfer. •In this study threaded surfaces have been used to investigate the effect of surface structure on CHF. 
600 

500 

Q _{c}_{r}_{i} (W) 
400 

300 

200 

100 

•The picture shows the CHF versus reduced pressure for both surfaces. 
0 

0 
0.05 
0.1 
0.15 
0.2 
0.25 

•However the CHF is independent on surface condition. •The fact that the surface condition is unimportant for CHF were reported by other researcher. 
pr 

• Comparison between Kutateladze’s
correlation and
experimental results
• The Fig. shows CHF,
comparison between
Kutateladze’s pool boiling
correlation versus
experimental results for smooth tube surfaces.
• Deviation is less than 15 percent.
Q_cri_exp. (W)
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