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Heat pipes and Thermosyphons

Cold end

Hot end

Heat pipes and Thermosyphons Cold end Hot end Inside the system, there is a fluid (usually

Inside the system, there is a fluid (usually termed refrigerant)

Heat pipes and Thermosyphons

Heat pipes and Thermosyphons

Heat pipes

• In Heat Pipes, capillary forces in the wick ensures the liquid return from the hot end to the cold end.

• This means that a Heat Pipe can operate independent of gravity. The heat pipe was actually developed for zero gravity (i.e. space) applications.

Heat pipes and Thermosyphons

Cold end

Hot end

• Heat is transferred as latent heat of evaporation which means that the fluid inside the system is continuously changing phase from liquid to gas.

• The fluid is evaporating at the hot end, thereby absorbing heat from the component.

• At the cold end, the fluid is condensed and the heat is dissipated to a heat sink (usually ambient air).

cold end, the fluid is condensed and the heat is dissipated to a heat sink (usually

Heat pipes

Heat pipes

Heat pipes

Heat pipes

Heat pipes

Heat pipes

Heat pipes - Applications

Heat pipes - Applications

Schematic of a Thermosyphon

PCB Condenser Liquid- Vapor Mixture Air Liquid Hot Component
PCB
Condenser
Liquid-
Vapor
Mixture
Air
Liquid
Hot
Component

Evaporator

Heat pipes - Applications

Heat pipes - Applications

Thermosyphons

• Are always gravity driven!

• Loop system enables enhancement of heat transfer and minimization of flow losses (pressure drop).

• Generally have better performance compared to Heat Pipes working with gravity.

Example of a Thermosyphon cooling three components in parallel

Condenser Evaporator 5 hole with d_f=1.5 mm 1510 10 1200 Rising tube Falling tube 988
Condenser
Evaporator
5 hole with d_f=1.5 mm
1510 10
1200
Rising tube
Falling tube
988
27
273

Falling tube length=1750mm Rising tube height=1200 mm

Liquid head:988+27=1015 mm

Example of a Thermosyphon cooling three components in series

Example of a Thermosyphon cooling three components in series

Advantages with Thermosyphon cooling:

• Large heat fluxes can be dissipated from small areas with small temperature differences (150 W/cm 2 )

• Heat can be transferred long distances without any (or with very small) decrease in temperature.

Temp

without any (or with very small) decrease in temperature. Temp Condensation Boiling Saturation temp Hot side

Condensation

Boiling

Saturation temp

Hot side

Cold side

Temperature difference as a function of the heat dissipation

(Prototype C, Condenser is fan cooled)

Data: P8F2MAX.STA 10v * 23c

12 R142b 10 Filling Ratio = 39% Evaporator2 8 6 4 Condenser 2 0 0
12
R142b
10
Filling Ratio = 39%
Evaporator2
8
6
4
Condenser
2
0
0
40
80
120
160
Temp.difference (C)

P (W)

Areas in a thermosyphon Component, 1 cm 2 4 times Evaporator, front, 2.2 cm 2
Areas in a thermosyphon
Component, 1 cm 2
4 times
Evaporator, front, 2.2 cm 2
Evaporator, inside, 3.5 cm 2
Condenser, inside, 108 cm 2
Condenser, facing air,
(heat sink included), 5400 cm 2

Temperatures obtained experimentally in a Thermosyphon system that has three evaporators that each cool one component. The total heat dissipation is 170 W.

Condenser Evaporator
Condenser
Evaporator
Contact Component Saturation resistance temperature Contact Evaporation resistance Condensation Thermosyphon Fin
Contact
Component
Saturation
resistance
temperature
Contact
Evaporation
resistance
Condensation
Thermosyphon
Fin to
air
Air

10 mm

Evaporator geometries d=2.5 mm d=1.1 mm d=1.5 mm d=3.5 mm 14.7 mm Tc, d=0.8 mm
Evaporator geometries
d=2.5 mm
d=1.1 mm
d=1.5 mm
d=3.5 mm
14.7 mm
Tc, d=0.8 mm

Cooling of Power Amplifiers in a Radio Base Station

Cooling of Power Amplifiers in a Radio Base Station

Thermosyphons - Applications

Thermosyphons - Applications

Immersion cooling

Immersion cooling

Thermosyphons - Applications

Thermosyphons - Applications

Thermosyphons - Applications

Thermosyphons - Applications

Two phase flow in a large diameter tube:

Two phase flow in a large diameter tube: Flow regimes determine heat transfer mechanism

Flow regimes determine heat transfer mechanism

Two phase flow in a large diameter tube: Flow regimes determine heat transfer mechanism

Thermosyphons

Rahmatollah Khodabandeh

• all heat transfer correlations can be divided into three basic models: 1) Superposition model
• all heat transfer correlations can be divided into three basic
models: 1) Superposition model 2) Enhancement model 3)
Asymptotic model
• In the superposition model, the two contributions are
simply added to each other, while in the enhancement
model the contribution of nucleate and convective boiling
are multiplied to obtain a single-phase model. In the
asymptotic model the two mechanisms are respectively
dominant in opposite regions.
• The local heat transfer coefficient as sum of the two
contributions
n
n
n
= h
= E·h
(
n
L )
+ F·h
(
) n
h tp
cb + h
nb
b
• Where n is an asymptotic factor equal to 1 for the
superposition model and above 1 for the asymptotic model
• Lazarek-Black, Tran and Crnwell-Kew have developed heat transfer correlations for small diameter channel. •
• Lazarek-Black, Tran and Crnwell-Kew have developed heat
transfer correlations for small diameter channel.
• Cooper’s pool boiling correlation or Liu-Winterton’s flow
boiling correlation can be used for heat transfer coefficient in
an advanced closed two-phase flow thermosyphon loop.
• Liu-Winterton correlation
2 ]
0.5
( s
= [( E
h
)
2 +
h
h tp
l
pool )
0.12
(
- 0.55
)
(
- 0.5
)
0.67
h
=
55
p
(
-
log10 p
(
r ))
M
q
pool
r
0.35
È
Ê
ˆ ˘
r
E
=
Í
1
+
(
x
)
Á
l
˜
Pr
- 1
˙
l
Á
r
˜
Í
˙
Î
Ë
g ¯ ˚
[
- 1
)
0.1
s
=
1
+
0.055 E
(
0.16 ] (
Re
l )
0.8
(
) 0.4
h
= 0.023
Ê Á k
l ˜
ˆ (
¯
Re
l )
Pr
l
l
Ë d

Heat Transfer Coefficient

At least two different mechanisms behind flow boiling heat transfer: convective and nucleate boiling heat transfer.

General accepted that the convective boiling increases along a tube with increasing vapor fraction and mass flux. Increasing convective boiling reduces the wall superheat and suppresses the nucleate boiling. When heat transfer increases with heat flux with almost constant vapor fraction and mass flux, the nucleate boiling dominates the flow boiling process. Due to the fact that the mechanism of convective and nucleate boiling can coexist, a good procedure for calculating flow boiling must have both elements.

With larger n, the h tp is implying more asymptotic behavior in the respectively dominant region. h L and h nb are the heat transfer coefficients for one-phase liquid flow and pool boiling respectively. E and F are enhancement and suppression factors.

Chen, Gungor-Winterton [1986] and Jung’s correlations are based on superposition model.

Shah, Kandlikar and Gungor-Winterton’s [1987] correlations are based on enhancement model.

Liu-Winterton, Steiner-Taborek and VDI-Wärmeatlas are based on asymptotic model.

Total thermal resistance in an advanced closed two-phase flow thermosyphon loop

The thermosyphon’s thermal resistance can be considered to the sum of four major component resistances:

R tot =R cr +R bo +R co +R cv

(K/W)

R cr is the contact resistance between the simulated component and the

evaporator front wall. In order to reduce R cr a thermally conductive

epoxy can be used.

R bo , is the boiling resistance.

R co , is the condensing resistance. This resistance is in fact very low due

to the high heat transfer coefficient in condensation and the large

condensing area.

R cv is the convection resistance between the condenser wall and the air.

• Heat transfer depends on pressure level, vapor fraction, flow rate, geometry of evaporator and thermal properties of refrigerant.

• The influence of pressure level, choice of working fluid, geometry of evaporator, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient, critical heat flux and overall thermal resistance were investigated during the present project.

• For turbulent single- 2 L phase we can derive D p = · r
• For turbulent single-
2 L
phase we can derive
D p
=
·
r ·
w
·
f 1
d
pressure drop as:
- 1/ 4
= 0.158·Re
f 1
w · d
Re =
u
• For a certain tube
length, diameter and
cooling capacity the
pressure drop is a
function of viscosity,
density and heat of
vaporization.
·
·
·
·
V
m
Q / h
fg
4· Q
w =
=
=
2 ª
2
A
p
· d
p
· d
2 h
·
r · p
·
d
fg
r ·
r
·
4
4
·
7/ 4
m 1/4
L · Q
D
p
= 0.241·
·
19 / 4
7/4
d
r
·
h
fg

• Cooper’s pool boiling correlation is plotted versus saturated pressure for different fluids: (for saturated temp. between 0-60 °C)

• As can been seen heat transfer coefficient generally increases with increasing pressure and decreasing the molecular weights.

45000 40000 35000 NH3,M=17.03 30000 R32,M=52.02 25000 R600a,M=58.12 20000 R134a,M=102 15000 R12,M=120.9 10000
45000
40000
35000
NH3,M=17.03
30000
R32,M=52.02
25000
R600a,M=58.12
20000
R134a,M=102
15000
R12,M=120.9
10000
R22,M=86.47
5000
R11,M=137.4
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
P
s (bar)
h-Cooper (W/m²·K)

Consideration when choosing refrigerant

• A fluid which needs small diameter of tubing

• A fluid which gives low temp. diff. in boiling and condensation

• A fluid which allows high heat fluxes in the evaporator.

•Fig. shows ratio of viscosity to density and heat of

vaporization vs. Saturated

pressure, we find that the the

pressure, we find that the the 2.50E-08 general trend is decreasing pressure drop with increasing Figure

2.50E-08

general trend is decreasing

pressure drop with increasing

Figure of merit (Dp)

2.00E-08

R32,M=52.02

NH3,M=17.03

pressure and decreasing

1.50E-08

R12,M=120.9

molcular weights.

1.00E-08

R134a,M=102

•The Two-phase pressure

R22,M=86.47

5.00E-09

R600a,M=58.12

drops expected to follow the

0.00E+00

same trends. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Pressure(bar)
same trends.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Pressure(bar)

•For Saturated temperature between 0-60 °C.

Pressure(bar) •For Saturated temperature between 0-60 °C. •Another important parameter when choosing working fluid

•Another important parameter when choosing

working fluid is the critical

working fluid is the critical CHF (W) heat flux. 2400 •Figure shows calculation of Kutateladze CHF

CHF (W)

heat flux.

2400

•Figure shows calculation of

Kutateladze CHF correlation

versus reduced pressure for

pool boiling.

•As can been seen ammonia

2100 R600a,M=58.12

1800 R11,M=137.4

1500 NH3,M=17.03

1200 R134a,M=102

900 R12,M=120.9

600 R22,M=86.47

300 R32,M=52.02

0

once again shows

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

 

Reducedpressure

 

outstanding properties with

3-4 times higher than the other fluids.

FC fluids

• In immersion boiling FC fluids have been used

• FC fluids generally have poor heat transfer properties:

• -Low thermal conductivity

• -Low specific heat

• -Low heat of vaporization

• -Low surface tension

• -Low critical heat flux

• -Large temperature overshoot at boiling incipience

•The picture shows heat flux vs. temperature difference between inside wall temperature and refrigerant. 350000
•The picture shows heat flux vs.
temperature difference between
inside wall temperature and
refrigerant.
350000
pr=0.3
pr=0.02
300000
•As can be seen, the temperature
difference increases with
increasing heat flux, but with
different slopes, depending on the
saturation pressure in the system
250000
200000
150000
100000
Isobutane
50000
Smooth tube
0
•As the heat transfer coefficient is
0
5
10
15
20
25
the
heat flux divided by the temp.
DT (°C)
difference, this indicates higher
heat transfer coefficient with
increasing pressure
•The Fig. shows, heat transfer
coeff. vs. reduced pressure for 110
W
heat input to each one of the
45000
evaporators.
•The dependence of heat transfer
coefficient on reduced pressure are
often expressed in the form of h=f
(pr m ), in which m is generally
between 0.2-0.35.
40000
35000
30000
25000
h = constant·pr 0.317
20000
R 2 =
0.9957
15000
10000
Q=110 W
5000
•In
the present case, m=0.317,
0
correlates the experimental data
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
well for the smooth tube with
Isobutane as refrigerant.
pr
q (W/m²)
h (W/m².K)

Influence of system pressure and threaded surface

• R600a (Isobutane)

• Tests were done at five reduced pressures ;

p

• Two types of evaporators: smooth and

• threaded tube surfaces.

r

=

p

p cr

; 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3.

•The Fig. shows temperature difference between inside wall temperature and refrigerant vs. heat

input.

•As can be seen, the temperature

difference increases with

increasing heat input, but with

different slopes, depending on the

saturation pressure in the system

•As the heat transfer coefficient is the heat flux divided by the temp. difference, this indicates higher heat transfer coefficient with increasing pressure

24 pr=0.3 22 pr=0.2 20 pr=0.1 18 pr=0.05 16 14 pr=0.02 12 10 8 6
24
pr=0.3
22
pr=0.2
20
pr=0.1
18
pr=0.05
16
14
pr=0.02
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
DT (°C)

Q (W)

Effect of threaded surface at different reduced

pressure on heat transfer

coefficient

•The fig. shows temp. diff. vs. reduced pressure from 10 to 110 W heat input for each one of evaporators on threaded surface.

•Relatively low temp. diff can be

achieved. •Temp. diff. In the most points will be reduced to less than a third by increasing the reduced pressure from 0.02 to 0.3.

10 10 W 9 30 W 8 50 W 7 70 W 6 90 W
10
10
W
9
30
W
8
50
W
7
70
W
6
90
W
5
4
110 W
3
2
1
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
pr
DT (C°)

Effect of heat flux on heat transfer coefficient •Figur shows the relation between heat transfer coefficient and heat flux for Pr=0.1, with smooth tube. •The dependence of heat transfer coefficient on heat flux can be expressed as h=f (q n ), n, in most cases varies between 0.6-0.8 •Presented data follows h=f

 
y = 0.8761x 0.5755 25 R600a R 2 = 0.9984 20 15 h=f (q n
y
=
0.8761x 0.5755
25
R600a
R
2 = 0.9984
20
15
h=f (q n )
10
h=f (q 0.57 )
5
0
0
40
80
120
160
200
240
280
q
(kW/m²)
h (kW/m².K)

(q 0.57 )

Comparison between Liu- Winterton’s correlation and experimental results

•The Fig. shows heat transfer coeff., comparison between Liu-Winterton’s correlation versus experimental results for smooth tube surfaces at different reduced pressure.

•As can be seen the heat transfer coeff. calculated by Liu-Winterton’s correlation is in good agreement with the experimental results •For the most points the deviation is less than 25 percent.

10 W 50000 30 W 25% 50 W 40000 70 W 30000 90 W 25%
10
W
50000
30
W
25%
50
W
40000
70
W
30000
90
W
25%
110 W
20000
10000
0
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
h-exp (W/m²·K)
h-LW(W/m²·K)
• Influence of diameter • Heat transfer coefficient vs. heat flux at different diameters. 30
• Influence of diameter
• Heat transfer coefficient vs.
heat flux at different diameters.
30
25
d=6 mm
• The influence of diameter on
the heat transfer coefficients for
these small diameter channels
was found to be small and no
clear trends could be seen.
20
d=3.5 mm
d=2.5 mm
15
d=1.9 mm
10
1.5 mm
5
d=1.1mm
0
0
50
100
150
200
250 300
350
Heat flux (kW/m²)
h-exp. (kW/m²·K)

Comparison between Cooper’s correlation and experimental results

•The Fig. shows heat transfer coeff.

comparison between Cooper’s pool

boiling correlation versus

experimental results for smooth

tube surfaces at different reduced

pressure.

•As can be seen the heat transfer

coeff. calculated by Cooper’s correlation is in good agreement

with the experimental results •For the most points the deviation is less than 25 percent.

Q=10 W 50000 Q=30 W 25% Q=50 W 40000 Q=70 W 30000 Q=90 W 25%
Q=10 W
50000
Q=30 W
25%
Q=50 W
40000
Q=70 W
30000
Q=90 W
25%
Q=110 W
20000
10000
0
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
h-exp (W/m²·K)
h-Cooper (W/m²·K)

Influence of diameter Testing condition

• R600a as refrigerant
• Tests were done with 7, 5,4, 3, 2 and 1 vertical channels with diameter of 1.1, 1.5,1.9, 2.5 3.5 and

6 mm.

• Smooth surface

• At reduced pressure 0.1 (p/P cr )

Conclusions

• Heat transfer coefficients and CHF can be expected to

• Increase with increasing reduced pressure and with

• decreasing molecular weight

• The effects of pressure, and threaded surface on heat

• transfer coefficient have been investigated.

• The pressure level has a significant effect on heat

• transfer coefficient.

• h=f

• h=f (q n ) where n=0.57

(pr m )

m=0.317

Conclusion

Heat transfer coefficient can be improved by using

the threaded surfaces.

Heat transfer coefficient at a given heat flux

is more than three times larger at the reduced

pressure 0.3 than 0.02 on threaded surfaces.

The experimental heat transfer coefficients are

in relatively good agreement with Cooper’s

Pool boiling and Liu-Winterton’s correlations.

Classification and application of thermosyphon system.

• Open thermosyphon

• Closed thermosyphon

– Pipe thermosyphon

• Single-phase flow

• Two-phase flow

– Simple loop Thermosyphon

• Single-phase flow

• Two-phase flow

• Closed advanced two-phase flow thermosyphon loop

• The most common industrial thermosyphon applications include:

• gas turbin blade cooling

• electrical machine rotor cooling

• transformer cooling

• nuclear reactor cooling

• steam tubes for baker’s oven

• cooling for internal combustion engines

• electronic cooling.

Conclusion

• The effects of pressure, mass flow, vapor

• quality, and enhanced surface on CHF have

• been investigated.

• Threaded surface has a minor effect on CHF.

• The pressure level has a significant effect on CHF.

• The CHF can be improved by using the higher pressure.

• The influence of diameter on the heat transfer coefficients for these small diameter channels was found to be small and no clear trends could be seen.

• Thermosyphon is a circulating fluid system whose motion is

• caused by density difference in a body force field which result

• from heat transfer.

• Thermosyphon can be categorized according to:

1. The nature of boundaries (Is the system open or closed to mass flow)

2. The regime of heat transfer (convection, boiling or both)

3. The number of type of phases present (single- or two-phase state)

4. The nature of the body force (is it gravitational or rotational)

All thermosyphon syatems removing heat from prescribed source and transporting heat and mass over a specific path and rejecting the heat or mass to a prescribed sink.

•Open Thermosyphon:

•Single-phase, natural- convection open system in the form of a tube open at the top and closed at the bottom. •For open thermosyphon •Nu a =C1·Ra a m (a/L) C2 , Nu a =(h·a)/k •a: based on radius

bottom. •For open thermosyphon •Nu a =C1·Ra a m (a/L) C 2 , Nu a =(h·a)/k
•Closed Thermosyphon Condenser (simple pipe) •A simple single-phase natural- convection closed system in the form
•Closed Thermosyphon
Condenser
(simple pipe)
•A simple single-phase natural-
convection closed system in the form
of a tube closed at both ends.
•It has been found that the closed
single-phase thermosyphon can be
treated as two simple open
thermosyphon appropriately joined at
the midtube exchange region.
•The primary problem is that of
modeling the exchange region.
•It has been found that the exchange
mechanism is basically convective.
Evaporator
Thermosyphon pipe
Simple thermosyphon
Advanced thermosyphon
loop
loop

• Closed loop thermosyphon

• Two distinct advantages make the closed-loop thermosyphon profitable to study:

1. Natural geometric configuration which can be found or created in many industrial situation.

2. It avoid the entry choking or mixing that occurs in the pipe thermosyphon

3. For single phase loop:

4. Nu L =0.245·(Gr·Pr 2 ·L/d) 0.5 can be used

• Heat pipe and thermosyphon

• Thermosyphon and heat pipe cooling both rely on evaporation and condensation. The difference between the two types is that in a heat pipe the liquid is returned from the condenser to the evaporator by surface tension acting in a wick, but thermosyphon rely on gravity for the liquid return to the evaporator.

• However the cooling capacity of heat pipes are lower in general compared to the thermosyphon with the same tube diameter.

• Two-phase thermosyphon

• The advantages of operating two-phase thermosyphons are:

1. The ability to dissipate high heat fluxes due to the latent heat of evaporation and condensation

2. The much lower temperature gradients associated with these process.

3. Reduced weight and volume with smaller heat transfer area compared to other systems.

• Closed advanced two-phase thermosyphon loop

• Thermosyphon cooling offers passive circulation and the ability to dissipate high heat fluxes with low temperature differences between evaporator wall and coolant when implemented with surface enhancement.

• An advanced two-phase loop has the possibility of reducing the total cross section area of connecting tubes and better possibility of close contact between the component and the refrigerant channels than a thermosyphon pipe or a heat pipe.

• Operation condition of an advanced two-phase thermosyphon loop

• The net driving head caused by the difference in density between the liquid in the downcomer and the vapor/liquid mixture in the riser must be able to overcome the pressure drop caused by mass flow, for maintaining fluid circulation.

• The pressure changes along the thermosyphon loop due to gravitation, friction, acceleration, bends, enlargements and contractions.

• Single-phase flow pressure drop in downcomer • The total pressure drop in the downcomer
Single-phase flow pressure drop in downcomer
The total pressure drop in the downcomer consists of two
components: frictional pressure drop and pressure drop due
to bends respectively.
For fully developed laminar flow in circular tubes, the
frictional pressure drop can be calculated by:
16
G
²
L
D
p
=
2
l
Re
d r
l
For the turbulent flow regime, the Blasius correlation for
the friction factor can used:
2
G
²
L
-
0.25
D
p
=
0.079 Re
l
d r
l
Two-phase flow pressure drop
Two-phase flow in the riser and evaporator:
The total two-phase flow pressure drop consists of six
components:
1. Acceleration pressure drop
2. Friction pressure drop
3. Gravitational pressure drop
4. Contraction pressure drop
5. Enlargement pressure drop
6. Pressure drop due to the bends
7. Frictional and gravitational pressure drop are most important
pressure drops in the riser

• In design of a compact two-phase thermosyphon system, the dimensions of connecting tubing and evaporator, affects the packaging and thermal performance of the system.

• The pressure drop is a limiting factor for small tubing diameter and compact evaporator design.

• By determining the magnitude of pressure drops at different parts of a thermosyphon, it may be possible to reduce the most critical one, therby optimizing the performance of the thermosyphon system.

• The pressure loss around bends can be calculated by:

D

p

lb

= x

G ²

l

2 r

x

• is an empirical constant which is a function of

where

curvature and inner diameter.

• In the downcomer section, the pressure drop due to friction is much larger than the pressure loss around bends.

• Method of analysis two-phase flow pressure drop

• The methods used to analyse a two-phase flow are often based on extensions of single-phase flows.

• The procedure is based on writing conservation of mass, momentum and energy equations.

• To solve these equations, often needs simplifying assumptions, which give rise different models.

• Homogeneous flow model

• One of the simplest predictions of pressure drop in two- phase flow is a homogeneous flow approximation.

• Homogeneous predictions treat the two-phase mixture as a single fluid with mixture properties.

• In the homogeneous flow model it is assumed that the two phases are well mixed and therefore have equal actual vapor and liquid velocities.

• In other words in this model, the frictional pressure drop is evaluated as if the flow were a single-phase flow, by introducing modified properties in the single-phase friction coefficient.

• Pressure drop in the riser

• The total two-phase flow pressure drop in the riser is mainly the sum of two contributions: the gravitational- and the frictional pressure drop.

• The most used correlations for calculation of frictional pressure drop are:

1. Lockhart-Martinelli correlation

2. CESNEF-2 correlation

3. Friedel correlation

4. Homogeneous flow model correlation

• Gravitational pressure drop

D p

G R

,

= r

m

·g·H

r

• The gravitational or head pressure change at the riser

• The momentum equation gives:

• Where a is void fraction

• A: total cross-section area (m 2 )

• A g : average cross-section area occupied by the gas phase (m 2 )

• Void fraction can be calculated by:

1. Homogeneous model

2. Zivi model [1963]

3. Turner& Wallis two-cylinder model [1965]

4. Lockhart-Martinelli correlation [1949]

5. Thom correlation [1964]

6. Baroczy correlation [1963]

r m

= a·r

a =

A g

A

g

+ (1-ar

L

• Separated flow model • The separated flow model is based on assumption that two
Separated flow model
The separated flow model is based on assumption that two
phases are segregated into two separated flows that have
constant but not necessarily equal velocities.
Drift flux model
This model is a type of separated flow model, which looks
particularly at the relative motion of the phases. The model
is most applicable when there is a well-defined velocity in
the gas phase
In the homogeneous model, the analysis for single-phase
flow is valid for homogeneous density and viscosity. The
homogeneous density is given by:
1
x
1 -
x
=
+
r
r
r
h
g
L
Several
different
correlations
have
been
proposed
for
estimation of two-phase viscosity, such as:
Cicchitti et al.
m
= x·m
+ 1- x ·m
(
)
h
g
L
Beattie- Whalley
1
x
1 -
x
=
+
m
m
m
h
g
L
m
=
m
·(1
-
b )·(1
+
2.5·b )
+
m
·b
Mc Adams
h
L
g
et al.
x · r
h
m
·
x
·
r
·1
(
- x
)
b
=
m
·
r
g
h
L
h
m
=
+
r
g
h
r
r
g
L
Dukler et
al.
1
a
=
È u
(1
- x
)
r
˘
g
g
1 +
Í
˙
u
x
r
Î
˚
L
L
For the homogeneous flow the phase velocities are equal,
u
u
L =u g ,
g
, where S is the slip ratio.
S =
u
L
1
a
=
h
È (1
- x
)
r
˘
g
1 +
Í
˙
x
r
Î
˚
L
• Acceleration pressure drop • Acceleration pressure drop in the evaporator, resulting from the expansion
• Acceleration pressure drop
• Acceleration pressure drop in the evaporator, resulting
from the expansion due to the heat input during the
evaporation process can be calculated:
• (homogeneous model)
D
p
=
G
2 ·(
v
-
v
x
g
L
• v specific volume

CHF

Testing condition

• R600a (Isobutane)

• Tests were done at three reduced pressures;

• 0.035, 0.1, and 0.2.

• Two types of evaporators: smooth and

• threaded tube surfaces.

Effect of mass flow on CHF

•The mass flow is a function of both heat flux and system pressure.

•As can be seen simulations at CHF shows that mass flow increases with increasing reduced pressure. •This is believed to be the explanation for the higher CHF.

•Higher pressure gives higher mass flow on CHF, which facilitates the deposition and replenishment of liquid film.

m_dot (kg/s)

0.006

pr=0.035 pr=0.1 pr=0.2 smooth channel 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
pr=0.035
pr=0.1
pr=0.2
smooth channel
0
0
100
200
300
400 500
600
700

0.005

0.004

0.003

0.002

0.001

Q cri (W)

Experimental setup

Not to scale

Fig. 1

glass tube Condenser Abs. pressure transduc er ID=6.1 mm 8 Evaporator C B 95 55
glass tube
Condenser
Abs.
pressure
transduc
er
ID=6.1 mm
8
Evaporator
C
B
95
55 hålholemedwith d_f=1.5d_f=1.5 mmmm
150
1510
939
10
255
77
Downcomer
974
186
1160

All dimensions in the figure are in mm

CHF=f(p r , G, x) Effect of pressure on CHF:

•The Fig shows temperature difference between inside wall temperature and refrigerant for three evaporators, vs CHF. •For pr =0.2 the CHF is 690 W which correspond to 230 W/cm² front area of the component which correspond to 650 kW/m² heat flux for smooth channels. •As can be seen, the saturation pressure strongly affected the temp. diff. With increased pressure the temp. diff. decreases in the total range of heat load up to CHF.

DT(°C)

35 pr=0.035 30 pr=0.1 25 20 pr=0.2 15 10 0.035 5 0.1 smooth channel 0
35
pr=0.035
30
pr=0.1
25
20
pr=0.2
15
10
0.035
5
0.1
smooth
channel
0
0.2
350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

Q tot (W)

Effect of vapor quality on CHF

• The Fig. shows, vapor quality vs. CHF for three
• evaporators.

• According to the

simulations the vapor quality at different pressure on CHF is almost constant.

1 pr=0.035 0.9 pr=0.1 0.8 0.7 pr=0.2 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 smooth channel 0.2 0.1
1
pr=0.035
0.9
pr=0.1
0.8
0.7
pr=0.2
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
smooth channel
0.2
0.1
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Qcri (W)
x

Effect of enhanced surface on CHF

   

700

threaded smooth
threaded
smooth

•Generally at enhanced surfaces increases the heat transfer. •In this study threaded surfaces have been used to investigate the effect of surface structure on CHF.

600

500

Q cri (W)

400

300

 

200

 

100

•The picture shows the CHF versus reduced pressure for both surfaces.

0

 

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

•However the CHF is independent on surface condition. •The fact that the surface condition is unimportant for CHF were reported by other researcher.

 

pr

 

Comparison between Kutateladze’s

correlation and

experimental results

• The Fig. shows CHF,

comparison between

Kutateladze’s pool boiling

correlation versus

experimental results for smooth tube surfaces.

• Deviation is less than 15 percent.

700 15% 600 500 -15% 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 400
700
15%
600
500
-15%
400
300
200
100
0
0
100 200
300
400
500
600
700
Q_cri_pb. (W)

Q_cri_exp. (W)