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Electric Initiation

Users manual Standard Operation Procedure


for use of electric detonators in
demining operations.

TRIO ul.Glavna 18a/L30, 11080 ZEMU, S&MN

1. Detonator description
The principle of operation of an electric detonator is
that, when a high enough electric current is passed
through the leg wires, a bridge wire is heated in the
fuse head, which then deflagrates and initiates the delay element which in turn initiates the explosive in
bottom of the detonator after a time determined by the
length and content of the delay element.
Dyno Nobels electric detonators have a strength rating of No. 8 (according to Prior test 10) for the safe
initiation of cap sensitive explosives and primers.
They are known as NPED*-detonators (Non Primary
Explosive Detonator), this means they do not contain
any primary explosive (e.g. lead azide). NPEDdetonators are considerably less sensitive to impact
and rough handling than detonators that contain primary explosive.
The sensitive lead azide in a conventional detonator is
replaced by an I-element in which PETN is enclosed
in a steel tube. In the I-element a deflagration turns
into a detonation, which in turn initiates the base
charge.
The detonator shell, which is made of aluminum, contains, in addition to the secondary explosive in the Ielement, a base charge of RDX (also a secondary explosive) which initiates the explosive in contact with
the detonator. The total amount of explosives in the
detonator is approx. 1 g. In the delay element the
detonation is delayed pyrotechnically for a predetermined time after the firing impulse has reached the
detonator.
The delay times vary in steps between 25 ms (0.025
sec.) and 5000 ms (5 sec.). Enclosing the fuse head is
an electrostatic protective sleeve that decreases the
risk of unintentional initiation due to static discharge.
The detonator is fitted with a sealing plug to make it
water resistant.
Electric detonators are manufactured with two types of delay, millisecond delay (MS) and
half-second delay (HS). In the MS-detonators the delay time increases in increments of 25
ms between each period number while the increment is 500 ms in the HS-detonators Electric. HS-detonators are designed for use in underground operations. HS-detonators should
be used in surface operations as the delay times are too long and can cause fly rock, which
can damage explosives charges placed near to. HS-detonators should only be used for destruction of UXO buried in stacks.
HS-detonators can be replaced by non-electric initiation systems such as NONEL LP,
which reduce the risk of unintentional initiation.
Electric MS-detonators are used in surface operations and mostly for single shot or in
smaller operations. When placed on the surface only detonators with one delay number
should be used.
* US patent No. 4.727.808
Dyno Nobel Danmark A/S, 1/2004

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The delay time of an electric detonator is the sum of the delays in the delay element, the
intermediate composition, used for fine-tuning of the accurate delay time, and the Ielement.
For safe and successful blasting with electric detonators the following is needed:
1. A blasting machine capable of firing the size of the round with the type of detonators being used.
2. Knowledge of electric hazards at the worksite and ensuring they are eliminated.
3. That each series in series/parallel blasts are of the same size. Careful connection of
lead wires and scrupulous testing of the different parts of the round.
The design of the firing pattern depends on the number of detonators in the round and the
type of blasting machine that is used. Generally rounds with less than 50 detonators can be
connected in one series. Larger rounds can be divided into several series which are then
connected together in parallel.
The appropriate authority in the country where it is used must approve the source of energy that is used for the initiation of an electric blast.
A capacitor-blasting machine, which is capable of firing the number of detonators in the
round, is the most reliable means of initiation.
Knowledge of the hazards at the worksite that could cause unintentional initiation of one or
several electric detonators is absolutely necessary in order to be able to eliminate them.
See page 23 for the risks that may occur and recommendations for their elimination.
It is important to take extreme care when firing with electric detonators. Lack of attention
to detail can result in damage to property and injury to people. All electrical connections
must be well made and all joints well insulated. Bare electric wires must not come into
contact with earth. The resistance of all series must be checked and must tally with the calculated values. Each series in a round connected in series/parallel should have the same
resistance and only approved connecting wire and firing cable must be used.
For a successful simultaneous initiation of a great number of detonators, sufficient electrical power must be delivered to all detonators within a few milliseconds. The time required
to heat up the bridge wire until the fuse head deflagrates is a function of the voltage and
the current.
It is important that all detonators in a firing circuit are initiated instantaneously. If one
detonator in the round fires before any other the circuit breaks and one or several detonators will not get the firing impulse and misfires will occur.
Therefore, Dyno Nobels instantaneous detonators have a very short delay time, which is
obtained by a pyrotechnical batch, which is pressed directly into the detonator. Due to the
very short delay time, there is no risk that the firing current breaks the circuit too early in a
circuit with several detonators connected in series. Therefore, instantaneous detonators
should not be connected in series.
Different types of detonators have different firing properties and must not be used in the
same round. The same is true for detonators from different manufacturers.

Dyno Nobel Danmark A/S, 1/2004

5
Electric detonators are classified in 4 Groups or 4 Classes depending on their electric properties. The denomination Group is the traditional Nordic conception with the subdivisions
1, 1A, 2 and 3.
In the proposed new European Standard (prEN 13763-1) the denomination is Class with
subdivisions 1, 2, 3, 4. In this manual the denomination Group will be used.
Nordic denomination
Group 1
Group 1a
Group 2
Group 3

Older denomination
Type A/S/NT
Type U
Type VA
Type HU/XS

European denomination
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4

Group 1 detonator (type A/S/NT)


Group 1 detonator (called NT-detonator by Dyno Nobel) is a conventional electric detonator. In NATO countries a group 1 detonator is named L1A2 electric detonator. Electric
detonator type A and L1A2 are slightly more sensitive than the type NT.
The no fire current is < 0.25 A.
A minimum of 0.6 A firing current is required to initiate one Group 1 detonator and a
minimum of 1.0 A is required to reliably initiate a series of Group 1 detonators.

Group 1A detonator (type U)


Group 1A detonators are somewhat safer in hazardous situations than Group 1 detonators.
The no fire current is < 0.45 A.
A minimum of 1.0 A firing current is required to fire one Group 1A detonator and a minimum of 1.5 A is required to initiate a series of Group 1A detonators.

Group 2 detonator (type VA)


Group 2 detonators are detonators with a high degree of safety. Even though VA detonators are much safer in the presence of electrical hazards than Group 1 detonators, safety
precautions must still be taken close to strong radio transmitters, radar, power lines over 70
kV and during thunderstorms.
No fire current is < 1.2 A.
A minimum of 2.2 A is required to fire one VA detonator and a minimum of 3.5 A is required to fire a series of VA detonators.
The resistance of VA detonators is independent of leg wire length and is 3.6 + 0.3 at
+ 20 C.
Note that the resistance depends on the temperature and decreases when the temperature
falls.
The leg wires can be of different material (iron, brass or copper) depending on leg wire
length. Therefore the temperature dependence is different for different leg wire lengths.

Dyno Nobel Danmark A/S, 1/2004

Group 3 detonator (type HU/XS)


The HU/XS detonator is a detonator with a very high degree of safety against electric hazards.
No fire current is < 4.0 A.
A minimum of 6.0 A is required to fire one Group 3 detonator and a minimum of 25 A is
required to fire a series of Group 3 detonators.
Dyno Nobels Group 3 detonators are not included in the CE certification according to directive 93/15/EEG and may therefore not be sold within EU without special per-mission.
These products are included in this manual only for information and for markets outside
EU as well as for customers with requisite permits.

2. Electric resistance and characteristic for the different detonators groups


Characteristic

A, S
L1A2

NT
(Group 1)

Type
F, U
(Group 1a)

VA
(Group 2)

HU, XS
(Group 3)

Fuse head resistance


0,9-1,4
0,9-1,4
0,4-0,9
0,15-0,25
0,04-0,09
R in (Ohm)
Resistance incl.
wire
1-5
1-5
0,6-3,5
3,3-3,9 *
0,5-1,0
R in (Ohm)
Firing pulse
0,8
2,5
8,0
80
1100
Ktu in mJ/
3
5,5
16
140
2500
Kt in mJ/
Firing current
Itu in A
0,18
0,28
0,45
1,3
4
Ik in A
0,8
1,1
1,5
3,5
25
Firing voltage
Utu in Volt
0,2
0,3
0,3
4,3
2,0
* The resistance does not depend on the length of the wire for this type of detonator.
Ktu
Kt
Itu
Ik
Utu

Firing impulse, lower limit, corresponding to 0.01 % firing frequency (mJ/)


Firing impulse, upper limit, corresponding to 99.99 % firing frequency (mJ/)
Firing current, lower limit, corresponding to 0.01 % firing frequency (A)
Series firing current, corresponding to 99.99 % firing frequency (A)
Firing voltage, lower limit, following Ohms Law Utu = R Itu

3. Technical data for electric detonators from Dyno Nobel.


Recommended working temperature:
Recommended storage conditions:
Maximum hydrostatic water pressure:
Tensile strength, single wire:
Tensile strength, joint detonator/leg wires:
The electric detonators are packed in plastic bags.
Dyno Nobel guarantees the function in 3 years from
date of manufacture if package is unopened. Date of
manufacture is given on box as well on a tag on
every single detonator (year/month).

Dyno Nobel Danmark A/S, 1/2004

-25 C - + 50C
Normal room temperature, occasionally max + 50C
at max. RH 50 %. The magazines should be well
ventilated as well.
3 bar during 7 days
4 kg max + 50C
4 kg during 2 minutes up to + 50C

4. Color coding of electric detonators.


Electric detonators are color coded by different colors on the leg wires. Common
for all groups is that one of MS(millisecond) detonators leg wires is
green and one of the HS-(half second)
detonators leg wires is red. The instantaneous detonator has one white leg wire.
Group 1
NT-instantaneous
NT-MS
NT-HS*
Group 1A
U-instantaneous
U-MS
U-HS*
Group 2
VA-instantaneous
VA-MS
VA-HS*
Group 3*
XS/HU-instantaneous
XS/HU-MS
XS/HU-HS

Leg wire colors


Yellow/white
Yellow/green
Yellow/red
Red/white
Red/green
Red/red
Grey/white
Grey/green
Grey/red
Blue/white
Blue/green
Blue/red

* NOTE that Dyno Nobels HS-detonators and


Group 3 detonators are not certified under EU
directive 93/15/EEG.

The above color code is the code used by


Dyno Nobel Europe and based on international practice. That does not mean that
all manufacturers follow this practice.

NEVER USE DETONATORS FROM DIFFERENT GROUPS


IN THE SAME ROUND. IT WILL MOST PROBABLY
CAUSE MISFIRES AS THE DIFFERENT GROUPS HAVE
DIFFERENT ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES. FOR THE SAME
REASON DETONATORS FROM DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS MUST NOT BE USED IN THE SAME ROUND.

Dyno Nobel Danmark A/S, 1/2004

5. Marking on the detonators shell.


Dyno Nobels detonators are marked with
the delay time. Therefore it is possible to
deduce which period number a detonator
has even though the identification tape
has disappeared during the charging operation. For example, the marking 500 ms
shows that it is an MS detonator No. 20.
If it states 25 ms is it a MS detonator No.1

6. Joining detonators in a round.


When connecting a round, it is important
that bare leg wires or joints do not come
into contact with earth or with each other.
In contact with earth, the initiation current
may leak into the earth and only a part of
the round may fire. If joints come in contact with each other the initiation current
may take a shortcut with the same consequences.
For this reason all detonators manufactured by Dyno Nobel are fitted with a
connecting sleeve fixed to one of the leg
wires. For transport the other leg wire is
loosely inserted into the connecting
sleeve. When connecting the circuit the
end of the wire with no insulation from
one detonator is inserted into the connecting sleeve of the next. The connecting
sleeve is twisted 5 - 6 turns and a good
connection is obtained.
For electric detonators that are not supplied with connecting sleeves there are
available grease filled connecting sleeves
are available. These connecting sleeves
are especially useful in wet operations.
All detonators manufactured by Dyno
Nobel Europe are fitted with connecting
sleeves as standard.

Dyno Nobel Danmark A/S, 1/2004

7. MS and HS detonators.
Dyno Nobel manufactures three series of electric detonators:
- MS-series
- Extended MS-series
- HS-series
MS series detonators are intended use in bench and trench blasting and are suitable for
demining and bulk demolition of UXO as well.
The extended MS-series detonators are used in underground operations and bench blasting
with large burdens (8 - 10 m).
HS-series detonators are intended only for underground blasting or for bulk demolition of
UXO.
Delay times:
MS-series:
No. 0 Instantaneous
No. 1 25 ms
HS-series:
No. 0 25 ms
No. 2 1000 ms (1 second)
No. 4 2000 ms (2 second)
No. 6 3000 ms (3 second)
No. 8 4000 ms (4 second)
No. 10 5000 ms (5 second)

8. Testing and firing the round.


The measuring instruments and blasting machines that are used for the testing and firing of
electric rounds must in some countries be approved before use.

The use of batteries or power from mains is strictly prohibited.


Capacitor blasting machines have proved to be very reliable even under severe working
conditions. The introduction of Group 2 and Group 3 detonators with high in-built safety
increased the demand for blasting machines with high capacity.
The blasting machines typ TRIO are CE certified in accordance with EMC and LVD directives.

Dyno Nobel Danmark A/S, 1/2004

10

9. Testing electric circuits.


Electric detonator rounds may be connected
in series, in parallel or in a combination of
series and parallel connections. Which
method of connection is used depends on
the size of the rounds and the blasting machine available.
When a firing circuit is connected in series
the measuring procedure is simple. Just
multiply the number of detonators by the
resistance of one detonator. The measured
value should be the same as the theoretical
calculation.
When the firing circuit is connected in series/parallel the connection procedure is
somewhat more complicated.

Connection in series.

Each series in the round must be


of the same size and the resistance
of each series must not vary by
more than 5% between highest
and lowest value. It is best if all
series contain the same number of
detonators.
When the series are connected in
parallel the resistance becomes
lower as the area through which
the firing current is to go through
increases. If we have two series
the area is doubled and the resistance is half of that of one series.

Connection in series/parallel

With 3 series connected in parallel


the resistance will be one third
and so on.

RESISTANCE
NUMBER OF SERIES
In the top example there are 18 VA detonators connected in one series.
The resistance is then 18 x 3.6 = 65 .
Resistance after connection in parallel =

In the lower example there are 30 VA detonators connected in 2 series. The resistance in
each series is 15 x 3.6 = 54 .
The resistance of the round connected in parallel is then 54/2 = 27 .
Note that the resistance of the firing cable is added on to these values when connected.

Dyno Nobel Danmark A/S, 1/2004

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dodati trio sliku

10. Resistance meter Beetohm.

Test instruments used to check electric


rounds. The use of electricians resistance
meter is strictly forbidden, as the measuring
current is far too high. Beetohm is an instrument for measurement of the resistance
in individual detonator and detonators connected in series and rounds connected in
series/parallel.
The test instrument Beetohm is digital and
starts and selects measuring range automatically, the blaster only needs to connect the
round (or part of the round) to the terminals
of the instrument and read the result.

The displayed value is automatically


rounded off to the accuracy needed in practical blasting work.
Beetohm has an in-built resistor for the selftest function. Pressing the black button tests
Beetohm.
The instrument is powered by a 9V battery
and displays when it is time for a replacement battery to be fitted.
When blasting with heavy covering material
it is good practice to test the circuit after the
placement of each mat. In that way discontinuities in the circuit are discovered
quickly and can be corrected.

Technical data for Beetohm


Range of resistance (R-measurement):
Measuring current:
Working temperature:
Size (l x w x h)
Weight:
Battery:

0-1.999,9
1 mA
-10 C to + 50 C
147 x 85 x 38,5 mm
0,5 kg
1 p.c. 9 V battery 6F22

Measuring with Beetohm

Connect the shot firing cables to the two terminals. Press the switch button to see the circuit resistance displayed.
An open circuit or resistance above 1.999,9 is displayed as a 1on the left hand side of
the display.
When the battery requires replacement, a battery symbol will appear on the display. To
replace the battery, remove the case screws and lid, this will allow access to the battery
compartment.

Dyno Nobel Danmark A/S, 1/2004

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11. Blasting machine CB 20 VA and CB 400 NT.

The CB is a capacitor-blasting machine designed for initiation of up to 20 VA detonators connected in one series with a firing
cable that has a maximum resistance of 5.
The blasting machine is battery powered
and requires a two handed operation to
avoid unintended initiation of the round. CB
is delivered with rechargeable batteries that
are located in the handle. The batteries are
charged by connecting the terminals of the
blasting machine to a DC source of 12 or 14
V, i.e. the cigarette lighter outlet in a car or
to a battery charger.

dodati trio sliku

In case of emergency ordinary batteries can


replace the rechargeable batteries. (Do not
try to recharge ordinary batteries).
The control panel of the blasting machine
has three lamps that indicate:
1. If the batteries are sufficiently
charged.
2. That the resistance in one series is
within the capacity of the blasting
machine.
3. That the capacitor is charged and
ready for initiation.

Technical data for CB


Capacity, max number of detonators:
Max. resistance of the round, group 2 (type VA)
Max. resistance of the round, group 1 (type NT)
Charging time:
Capacitance:
Firing current:
Working temperature:
Weight:
Size (l x w x h)

Dyno Nobel Danmark A/S, 1/2004

Se table on next page


77
430
Approx. 15 sec.
200F
540 V
-25 C to + 55 C
0,65 kg
245 x 65 x 75 mm

13

Operating instructions for blasting machines CB 20 VA and CB400NT


The CB 20 VA is adapted to Group 2 detonators and the CB 400 NT is adapted to Group 1
and 1a detonators.

General
CB 20 VA and CB 400 NT is a capacitor-blasting machine designed for the initiation of 20
Group2 (type VA) detonators in one series alternatively 120 Group la detonators in 3 series
with a firing cables resistance of 5 .
The firing machine requires a two handed operation to avoid unintended initiation of the
round. With in-built test functions the charge level of the batteries may be checked as well
as if the resistance of the round is within the blasting machines capacity.
The blasting machine must not be used as circuit tester for the round.
Built-in batteries power the blasting machine. As standard CB 20 VA and CB 400 NT are
delivered with rechargeable Ni-Cad batteries.
The capacity of CB 20 VA and CB 400 NT for different types of detonators.
For the types of detonators that have different resistance among them, also the total permitted resistance is stated.
Group 1 (type A/S/NT)
Number Number of
Total
Maximum
of parallel detonators number of
resistance
series
per series detonators per series,
1
2
3
4

170
140
120
100

170
280
360
400

425
350
300
250

Group 1, A/S/NT detonators.


CB can initiate up to 170 detonators in
one series and 400 in 4 parallel series.
In the table on the left the following
data has been used:
Firing current < 1 A, firing impulse <
5 mWs/.
The resistance of each detonator is assumed to be 2.5 and the firing cable
resistance to be 5 .
The resistance of Group 1 detonators
depends on the leg wire length.

Group 1a (type U)
Number Number of
Total
Maximum
of parallel detonators number of
resistance
series
per series detonators per series,
1
2
3

70
50
40

70
100
120

Group 1A, U detonators.


When calculating the firing capacity of
CB the following data has been used:
Firing current < 1.5 A, firing impulse
< 16 mWs/.
The resistance of each detonator is as245 sumed to be 3.5 and the firing cable
175 resistance to be 5 .
140 The resistance of Group 1A detonators
depends on the leg wire length.

Group 2 (type VA)


Number Number of
Total
Maximum
of parallel detonators number of
resistance
series
per series detonators per series,
1

20

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20

Group 2, VA detonators.
CB can initiate up to 20 detonators. In
the table on the left the following data
has been used:
Firing current < 3.5 A, firing impulse
< 140 mWs/.
The
resistance of each detonator is as72
sumed to be 3.5 and the firing cable
resistance to be 5 .
The resistance of Group 2 detonators
is independent of leg wire length.

14
Group 3 (type HU/XS)
Number Number of Leg wire
Maximum Group 3, HU/XS detonators
of parallel detonators length, m
resistance CB can initiate up to 3 HU/XS detonaseries
per series
per series, tors In the table on the left, the following data have been used:
Firing current < 25 A, firing impulse <
1
3
4
1.8 2500 mWs/. The resistance of each
1
2
6
1.8 detonator is assumed to 0.6 and the
1
1
10
1.8 firing cable resistance 5 . HU/XS
detonators are connected only in a single series circuit.
The resistance of Group 3 detonators
depends on the leg wire length.
The electric detonators in the round must all be of the same type and the lowest period
number must be No.1
Instantaneous detonators must not be used in rounds connected in series as they may break
the firing circuit too early.

Repair
Any repair to the blasting machine must be made by a person who has knowledge and experience of the electrical, mechanical and safety requirements (standards) that applies to
the machine.
If the machine has been opened up it is of utmost importance that the sealing is made correctly when re-assembling.

Battery testing
Press the RED button TESTING. The lamp BATT shall light up. If the lamp does not light
up, the batteries must be recharged at the earliest opportunity, or if dry cell batteries are
used they should be replaced.
NOTE! If the lamp BATT does not light up or if it goes out during the charging operation,
the machine can be used only if the lamp CHARGE lights up within 30 sec after the green
button CHARGING being pressed.
The normal charging time to reach firing voltage is approx. 15 sec.
If the lamp CHARGE does not light up within 30 sec after the green button CHARGING
being pressed, the batteries must be recharged (or replaced) before the machine is used.

Charging the batteries


The batteries are charged by connecting the blasting machine to 12 -14 V DC, e.g. a car
battery. Observe the polarity according to the marking on the terminals of the blasting machine.
The green lamp BATT lights up to indicate that the batteries are being charged. The charging time for depleted batteries is approx. 14 hours.

Replacement of batteries
Unscrewing the battery cover on the handle of the blasting machine makes battery pack or
battery holder replacement of batteries.
When changing rechargeable Ni-MH, 4.8 V and 12 mAh, battery pack or to holder for dry
cell the connecting cables must be detached from the old battery pack and soldered to the
new pack or battery holder. If dry cells are used instead of rechargeable Ni-Cad batteries
they must be of Alkaline type and placed in the battery holder according to instruction in
the holder. Note! Do not recharge dry cell batteries.
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Instruction
DANGEROUS VOLTAGE! Do not touch the terminals and firing cable when firing.
Max. voltage 550 V.

Firing
1. First step: Evacuate the danger zone.
2. Connect the firing cable to the terminals by introducing the cables both ends into the
holes on top of the blasting machine at the same time, as the terminals buttons are kept
depressed.
3. Press the red button TESTING
The lamp ROUND shall light up and remain lit as long as the button is depressed.
Also the lamp BATT lights up.
4. If the lamp ROUND lights up when the button is depressed and thereafter goes out, the
resistance of the round is too high and no firing should be attempted as a misfire most
probably will follow.
5. If the round test is satisfactory: release the button TESTING.
Press the green button CHARGING and keep it pressed until the lamp CHARGE
lights up. Charging time is approx. 15 sec.
6. FIRE the round by pressing the RED button FIRING while the green charging button
is kept depressed.
7. Disconnect the firing cable.

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13. Blasting machine Beethoven MK 22/3

The Beethoven MK 22/3 is a capacitorblasting machine designed for initiation of


electric detonators in above ground shot firing applications especially where insensitive detonators are being used.

The dc voltage required to initiate the detonators is supplied by a hand-operated generator, which charges a capacitor to 950 V.

The control panel on top of the blasting machine has a lamp that indicates if the capaciAll types of dc electric detonators can be tor is sufficiently charged.
initiated with consideration given to the
output power generated by the MK 22/3.

Technical data for Beethoven MK 22/3


Capacity, max number of detonators:
Max. resistance of the round, group 2 (type VA)
Max. resistance of the round, group 1 (type NT)
Charging time:
Capacitance:
Firing current:
Working temperature:
Weight:
Size (l x w x h)

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Se table on next page


65
255
Approx. 7 sec.
28,5F
950 V
-25 C to + 55 C
4,5 kg
275 x 94 x 217 mm

17

Operating instructions for blasting machines Beethoven MK 22/3


The Beethoven MK 22/3 is adapted to Group 2 detonators as well as Group 1 and 1a
detonators.

General
Beethoven MK 22/3 is a capacitor-blasting machine designed for the initiation of 15 Group
2 (type VA) detonators in one series alternatively 80 Group la detonators in 2 series with a
firing cables resistance of 5 .
Firing is achieved by a two handed operation to avoid unintended initiation of the round.
With in-built test functions the charge level of the capacitor may be checked.
The capacity of Beethoven MK 22/3 for different types of detonators.
For the types of detonators that have different resistance among them, also the total permitted resistance is stated.
Group 1 (type A/S/NT)
Number Number of
Total
Maximum
of parallel detonators number of
resistance
series
per series detonators per series,
1
2
3
4

100
80
72
64

100
160
216
256

250
200
180
160

Group 1, A/S/NT detonators.


In the table on the left the following
data has been used:
Firing current < 1 A, firing impulse <
5 mWs/.
The resistance of each detonator is assumed to be 2.5 and the firing cable
resistance to be 5 .
The resistance of Group 1 detonators
depends on the leg wire length.

Group 1a (type U)
Number Number of
Total
Maximum
of parallel detonators number of
resistance
series
per series detonators per series,
1
2

51
40

51
80

Group 1A, U detonators.


When calculating the firing capacity
the following data has been used:
Firing current < 1.5 A, firing impulse
< 16 mWs/.
The resistance of each detonator is as180 sumed to be 3.5 and the firing cable
140 resistance to be 5 .
The resistance of Group 1A detonators
depends on the leg wire length.

Group 2 (type VA)


Number Number of
Total
Maximum
of parallel detonators number of
resistance
series
per series detonators per series,
1

15

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15

Group 2, VA detonators.
In the table on the left the following
data has been used:
Firing current < 3.5 A, firing impulse
< 140 mWs/.
The resistance of each detonator is as60 sumed to be 3.5 and the firing cable
resistance to be 5 .
The resistance of Group 2 detonators
is independent of leg wire length.

18
Group 3 (type HU/XS)
Number Number of Leg wire
Maximum Group 3, HU/XS detonators
of parallel detonators length, m
resistance In the table on the left, the following
series
per series
per series, data have been used:
Firing current < 25 A, firing impulse <
2500 mWs/. The resistance of each
1
3
4
1.8 detonator is assumed to 0.6 and the
1
1
6
1.8 firing cable resistance 5 . HU/XS
detonators are connected only in a single series circuit.
The resistance of Group 3 detonators
depends on the leg wire length.
The electric detonators in the round must all be of the same type and the lowest period
number must be No.1
Instantaneous detonators must not be used in rounds connected in series as they may break
the firing circuit too early.

Repair
Any repair to the blasting machine must be made by a person who has knowledge and experience of the electrical, mechanical and safety requirements (standards) that applies to
the machine.
If the machine has been opened up it is of utmost importance that the sealing is made correctly when re-assembling.

Instruction
DANGEROUS VOLTAGE! Do not touch the terminals and firing cable when firing.
Max. voltage 950 V.

Firing
1. First step: Evacuate the danger zone.
2. Connect the firing cable to the terminals by introducing the cables both ends into the
holes on front of the blasting machine.
3. Depress the Green button CHARGING and keep it pressed whilst turning the generator handle.
4. When the neon indicator lights pressing the RED button FIRING while the green
charging button is kept depressed fires the exploder.
5. Disconnect the firing cable.
The exploder becomes automatically safe if the Green charge button CHARGING is released at any time.

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13. Faultfinding.
Discontinuities
After the round has been charged and connected it may occur that the resistance meter
shows infinite resistance (it shows nothing), which means there is a break in the circuit.
This can happen due to carelessly made joint, or a broken wire, or that a detonator is damaged or faulty. (If the detonator is damaged it must be replaced. Therefore it is a good practice to check the circuit before adding the stemming.
When measuring connected series it is important that the measured reading is the same as
the calculated value. If the reading is higher than expected it is an indication that one or
several series are not correctly connected or there is a break in one or several circuits.
A lower resistance in a round or a series
than the calculated value indicates that all
detonators are not connected or that the
measuring current has short circuited If
wires become damaged when using blast
mats the damaged wires could short circuit
giving rise to earth faults where the measuring or firing current could bypass some
detonators.
To identify breaks in a circuit a resistance meter is used. The circuit is divided in two and
each circuit is measured. The part that now is
faulty is divided in two and the procedure repeated until the fault is identified and then it
may be corrected.

Earth faults
Earth faults are leakage currents that go to
earth allowing the firing current to miss out
part of the circuit. This may happen when a
leg wire of a detonator has been damaged
during charging work, if not insulated joints
are in contact with electrically conducting
rocks or when connections lay under water.
Special care should be observed when using
heavy covering as damaged insulation on
the leg wires may come in contact with the
wires in the blasting mat and cause earth
faults.
When blasting with heavy covering it is important to measure the blasting circuit after
each mat is placed.
If earth fault is discovered, the search for
the fault is made in the same way as search
for discontinuities.
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When searching for earth faults a special


meter must be used.

20

14. Firing cable and connecting wire

The firing cable

Connecting wire

is used to connect the electric round to the


blasting machine. Resistance in the firing
cable should be as low as possible as high
firing cable resistance will decrease the capacity of the blasting machine. The color of
the firing cable should be such that it may
not be mixed up with other cables on the
work site.

is used to connect series that shall be connected in parallel and to connect the round
to the firing cable.

Technical data for firing cable

Technical data for connecting wire

Type

Resistance per
100 m

Type

Wire
area
mm

2,5

ELUB

0,64

The connecting wire is a single, well insulated, wire with low resistance. If the resistance is too high it may affect the capacity
of the blasting machine, reducing the numbers of detonators that may be connected in
Competent persons may only repair the fir- the circuit. The connecting wire should be
used only once. Used connecting wire may
ing cable.
cause misfires.

REXV

Wire
area
mm
2 x 1,50

Insulation
thickness
mm
0,8 + 1,3

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Insulation
thickness
mm
0,60

Resistance per
100 m
5,6

21

15. Hazards in connection with electric initiation


Safety distance to lightning.
Thunderstorms are with no doubt the
greatest risk in blasting due to its unpredictable nature and the high amount of energy released. A lightning strike may have
a voltage of over 1.000.000 V and a current of over 100.000 A. A direct lightning
strike in a worksite using electric detonators will initiate one or several detonators
in the round, but even a distant lightning
strike constitutes a risk due to the high
current flow. When a thunderstorm is approaching, the worksite using explosives
must be evacuated and guarded in the
same way as when a blasting is to take
place.
Group 1 Group 1a Group 2 Group 3
(type
(type U)
(type
(type
A/S/NT)
VA)
HU/XS)
1000 m
800 m
200 m
150 m
Safety distance in meter to thunderstorm

Safety distance to power lines


Close to power lines and electric cables, it
is always hazardous to do blasting with
electric detonators. Power lines may cause
unintentional initiation by flash-over, induced currents and through capacitive discharge.
The risk may be reduced by:
Placing the firing cable on dry ground.
Not extending the firing cable parallel
to the power line or in loops.
Avoiding that firing cable, connecting
wires or leg wires coming into contact
with the earth.
When extending the firing cable from
the round to the firing point, the cable
ends should be short-circuited.
When connecting to the blasting machine,
the cable must be insulated from any conductive object.

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Safety blasting should be combined with a


lightning warning system.

22

Safety distance to overhead power lines


Voltage on
Group 1
Group 1a
Group 2
the wire
(type A/S/NT) (type U)
(type VA)
(kV):
and
Group 3
(type HU/XS)
0,4 - 6
20
5
5
7 - 12
50
22
5
13 - 24
70
40
5
25 - 52
100
40
6
53 - 72,5
200
70
6
72,6 - 123
200
85
10
124 - 245
200
110
12
> 245
200
180
16
Safety distance to buried electric power lines
Voltage on
Group 1
Group 1a
Group 2
the wire
(type A/S/NT) (type U)
(type VA)
(kV):
and
Group 3
(type HU/XS)
0,4 - 6
2
2
2
7 - 12
3
3
2
13 - 24
6
10
2
25 - 52
16
10
3
53 - 72,5
16
16
3
72,6 - 123
16
16
10
124 - 245
16
16
16
> 245
16
16
16

Safety distance to overhead power line is the horizontal distance


and to underground power line is the total distance.
The safety distances are different in different countries due to national restrictions. The
recommendation above is according to Swedish regulation AFS 1986:14 Sprngarbete
and to Danish regulation BAR Bygge- og Anlg, BVL Sikkerhed ved sprngningsarbejder.
Stray currents may occur close to electric welding operations and a safety distance of 30 m
should be considered. Close to operating power stations, stray currents occur and a nonelectric firing method should be used.
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23

Safety distance to radio-frequency radiation


Radio transmitters or radar may accidentally initiate electric detonators during the charging
operation.
It is mainly stationary radio transmitters that constitute a problem and then mainly the
large medium wave and long wave transmitters.

Safety distance in meter to radio-frequency radiation when blasting on the surface


Effect
Frequency Group 1 Group 1a Group 2 Group 3
(Type
(Type U)
(Type
(Type
A/S/NT)
VA)
HU/XS)
1 < 0.1 W
3
1
0
0.3
1 <1W
10
3
0
1
1 <5W
20
7
0
2
5 5 110 W (100 W) < 26 MHz
100
30
10
10
6 110 W 500 W
< 26 MHz
100
100 W 1 kW
300
100
30
7 500 W 2.5 kW
< 26 MHz
100
1 10 kW
1000
300
90
8 2.5 10 kW
< 26 MHz
170
10 100 kW
3000
1000
300
100 400 kW
6000
2000
(800) *)
600
400 1000 kW
9000
3000
900
1 3 MW
15000
5000
(1700) *)
1500
2 5 110 W
> 26 MHz
0.5
3 110 500 W
> 26 MHz
10
4 > 500 W
> 26 MHz
30
th
Safety distance in accordance with 4 Draft Technical "Report Preventation of inadvertent
initiation of bridge wire electro-explosive devices by Radio frequency radiation"
(GEL/602/-/1, CLCTC31 (sec) 317 August 1997) and the Swedish Board of Labours
Sprngarbete (AFS 1986:14 of 20th August 1996).
* Short, mid and long wave transmitters in Denmark.
1. Hand carried radio transmitters (e.g. GSM pocket mobile phone, wireless communication
to machinery).
2. Radio transmitter in cars e.g. police, taxi, GSM/UMTS mobile phone and mobile amateur
radio transmitters.
3. Stationery amateur radio transmitter and local radio transmitters.
4. Stationery civilian FM- or TV transmitter and transmitters for GSM/UMTS.
5. Stationery amateur radio transmitter, transmitters on vessels, radio beacon.
6. Stationery amateur radio transmitter, transmitters on vessels, radio beacon.
7. Transmitters on vessels.
8. Coast radio transmitters.
In cars with radio-frequency radiation may electrical detonators be transported when they are
placed in a way that radio transmission cannot initiate the detonators. Mobile phones cannot
inadvertent initiate electrical detonators group 1a, group 2 and group 3 when they are in the
original packaging from the manufacture.
Special safety distances apply for blasting underground.
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24
With regard to radar installations, contact should be taken with the owner for information
about the danger zone.
Static electricity can be built up during sand and snowstorms causing unintentional initiation.
Static electricity can also build up during covering work with heavy mats under dry conditions. A person charged up with static electricity can constitute a risk to safety, especially
when using Group 1 (type A/S/NT) detonators.

If safety distances cannot be obtained


use non electrical firing systems.

16. Destruction of detonators.


Detonators that are damaged or too old
should not be used but must be destroyed.
Small quantities of undamaged detonators
may be disposed of by dropping them into a
blasthole with explosive to be blasted. Cut
the leg wires off and place the detonators
into the blasthole one by one.

Taping them to or inserting them into an


explosives cartridge that is to be fired may
also destroy detonators. If the explosives
cartridge is fired in open air, there is a risk
of shrapnel being emitted along with a high
air pressure wave.

If larger amounts are to be destroyed or if the detonators are damaged, contact Dyno Nobel
or its representative.

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17. Misfire procedure


In the case of undetonated detonators being discovered after the blast, the following
procedure can be used.

NOTE: Safety regulations in force must be followed.

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18. Certificates
Latest issue of declarations, certificates, safety data sheets etc. is available on request.

www.dynonobel.dk

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