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Housing IV _HOUS402

Lecture 12: Rural Development

Name: Lawrence Ogunsanya
Email : lawrencesanya@yahoo.com

Rural Region Definitions:

Geological --- population outside geopolitical limits

of city miscounted as rural and tiny clusters within

municipalities are counted as urban:
The 1996 census dictionary Canada defines Rural
Areas as sparsely populated lands lying outside
urban areas (Statistics Canada, 1999a: 226)
Population living outside place of 1000 people or
Rural and small towns refers to the population living
outside the commuting zones of large urban centers.
Rural communities are those having population
densities less than 150 people per square kilometer

Rural Development: Definitions

The term rural development connotes the overall development of

rural areas with a view to improve the quality of life of rural people
(Singh, 2009).
Rural development in general is used to denote the actions and
initiatives taken to improve the standard of living in non-urban
neighborhoods, countryside, and remote villages.
These communities can be exemplified with a low ratio of
inhabitants to open space. Agricultural activities may be prominent
in this case whereas economic activities would relate to the
primary sector, production of food stuffs and raw materials.

Rural Region Challenges

Insufficient Health care facilities and practitioners
Limited educational and skills development facilities
Low Infrastructural development
Limited Job creation and opportunities
Urban migration
Inadequate supply of public amenities: Water,

electricity, sewage e.t.c.

Poverty and diseases

Rural Development: Concept

Rural development is a multi-dimensional concept
As a process, it implies the engagement of individuals,

communities and nations in pursuit of their cherished goals

over time.
As a phenomenon, it is the end result of interaction between
various physical, technological, economic and socio-cultural
and institutional factors.
As a strategy, it is designed to improve the economic and
social well-being of a specific group of people, i.e. the rural
As a discipline, it is multi-disciplinary in nature, representing an
interaction of agricultural, social, behavioral, engineering and
management sciences

Rural Development: The South

African Scenario
The South African underdevelopment of the rural areas can

mostly be attributed to the apartheid mode that aimed to build a

first class capitalist economy for a few, leaving the majority and
creating a legacy of underdevelopment and poverty in the rural
Geographic differentiation apartheid system effectively defined
three kinds of spaces in South Africa, each with its own political,
social and economic systems:
the major urban areas;
the commercial farming regions
and the associated small towns; and the so-called Homelands.

Rural Development: The South

African Scenario
Efforts made since the dawn of democracy in 1994 have been

geared towards changing the negative consequences of

economic, social and political exclusion and marginalization of
the rural dwellers.
Many policy and institutional measures have been put in place in
order to improve the lives of the rural communities and
regenerate rural economies which have made some impact but
have had limited successes.
Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), 19941996
The Rural Development Strategy of the Government of
National Unity of 1995
The Rural Development Framework of 1997
The Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy
The Comprehensive Rural Development Programme CRDP

CRDP: Concept
The vision of the CRDP is to create vibrant, equitable and sustainable

rural communities. through a three-pronged strategy based on:

a coordinated and integrated broad-based agrarian transformation;
rural development infrastructure, and
An improved land reform programme.

Rural Development: Objectives

Improving food security in rural communities by establishing food

gardens and improving technologies for food production

Create jobs in rural areas through infrastructural projects, etc
The improvement of the quality of life
Provisions of amenities and health care facilities
Quality basic education which provides skilled and capable
workforce to support an inclusive growth path
Vibrant equitable and sustainable rural communities and food
security for all
Promotes innovative action development research in partnership
with communities, government, relevant research institutions and
other development agencies
Provision of rural housing

Rural Housing: Objectives

Rural housing plays an important part of the rural

integrated development plan

Water provision
Homestead Gardening
Fruit tree establishment
Micro enterprise development and skills development
HIV / AIDS and special needs relief including home based care

(improved shelter and care)

Rural Development: Challenges

The employment situation in different economic sectors, relevance

of farmers with other gainful activities.

Availability of job opportunities. Assessment of the development
Capabilities (level of education, skills) of the rural population in
relation to actual and potential labour demand.
Entrepreneurship and risk taking. Assessment of training,
animation and information needs.
Local capacity (private and public) for developing a sustainable
strategy using local strengths and opportunities.
Inadequate assessments of local governance needs
Ineffective implementation of government policies
Corruption and mismanagement or lack of funds.

Rural Development
Achieving the required change transformation in rural areas

requires an integrated and phased approach that can

systematically transform the economic and social systems that
keep rural communities in a poverty trap and move them to an
improved quality of life.
In the short term, it is easier to improve basic services, expand
public employment schemes and substantially reform the land
tenure system as a way to improve incomes and enhance social
In the long term, the critical components of education and training
combined with the development of new economic production
systems must empower rural people and enable them to generate
their own incomes.