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SPSS

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Benjamin Noblitt

Lead Tutor

Quantitative Skill Center

Notes

This mini guide/ walkthrough is for SPSS 15.0 for Windows and was written in

the Summer of 2010. If there are any changes/updates that apply afterwards, this

document will not address them. Additionally, if a previous version (pre 15.0) is

being used, this document might not fully apply. This said, the concepts behind

what is being explained should still be the same, so long as the functions of the

program remain similar.

This guide is intended to give the reader a VERY basic understanding on how

to use SPSS. This is also intended to be a crash course type of guide. The length of

this document is indicative of how in depth this document goes. Furthermore,

there is a lot that this document does not mention. If you want to perform a very

thorough analysis with very in depth statistics, you can read the SPSS survival

manual by Julie Pallant.

Table of Contents

Preparations

3

Getting Started 4

Entering Data

7

Output Window

9

Walkthrough

10

Analysis

10

Graphing

10

Regression 13

Correlation 14

Testing

15

One Sample T-Test 15

Independent Sample T-Test

17

Paired Sample T-Test

18

One Way ANOVA

20

Hypothesis Testing Crash Course 26

Preparations

Know that SPSS is for analyzing data from a statistical researchers

point of view. The name SPSS stands for Statistical Package for the

Social Sciences SPSS. This means that this program is best suited to

comparing data samples or surveys using statistics. Furthermore, this

is a very robust program that is much more difficult to use if you do not

know statistics very well; it is designed primarily for the researcher or

statistician. Essentially, if you need to use this program, you will need

to learn basic statistics and its application before using this program.

Set up a survey or data collection mechanism that is numerical in its

nature. SPSS works with numbers, so the data needs to be able to be

quantified. (If its qualitative, you will need to make it quantitative.)

Make sure you have a goal in your research. Have a question you want

to answer, and collect data that you think will help answer that

question. For example do you think there is a correlation between

stress level and red blood cell count? These are questions that can be

answered numerically, making SPSS a good candidate for analyzing

this data.

Getting Starting

1. Open up SPSS (may be PASW Statistics 18)

2. A screen will pop up that has 5 different options to choose from as follows:

Figure 1:

the authors of the program. This tutorial will only show you how to

operate the program. Whereas it is the intention of this walkthrough to

show you how to apply it.

b. Type in data This will be the most commonly used option. If this is

selected, you can type in the data manually.

c. Skip Run an existing query, and Create a new query using

Database Wizard

d. Open an existing data source Like the name implies, you can

open a file that already has data in it from this option.

3. Select Type in data. You will be presented with a screen that looks a lot like

an Excel page. At the top of the work-area (the area of white cells) you will

see tabs that say var; these columns are the variables of your sample data.

Consequently, the numbered rows represent the number of data points for

each variable in your data.

Figure 2

4. At the bottom of the page there are two tabs: Data View and Variable View.

The variable view brings you to the page where you can enter the variables into

the program. For example if you have a range of age groups, this is where you

would enter the age groups and their numerical assignments. The data view is

the tab where you enter the raw data into the program.

Figure 3:

can see an example of how these tabs work by playing with them. If you look

at the variable view tab, you can see that there are 4 variables. If you click

on the data view tab, you can see these four variables at the top of the

work-area. A confusing aspect to SPSS is that the rows in the variable view

are the columns in the data view tabs (see Figure 4 and 5).

Figure 4: (Variable View)

6. Look at the variables in variable view; each one has an abbreviated name

(with no spaces) that will show up in the data view tab in place of the var

that usually shows up. The Label column is the full name of the variable,

which you can enter in as well with spaces. Under the Values column, you

can determine what numerical values represent certain data points. For

6

example, in the accidents.sav file, you can see that a 1 represents a female,

and a 0 represents a male. In the Scale column, this is where you determine

the type of data being used. For example, gender is a categorical type of

variable, so it best fits into the nominal1 option. Furthermore, age category is

an ordinal variable, so the ordinal2 option would fit best.

7. In the data view tab, notice a small button that looks like a price tag with a

red end (see Figure 6). If you click on this button, it changes the data from

numbers to labels. You can see here that Females are denoted with a 1 and

males are denoted with a 0 as stated in the variable view. This makes

entering data into the work-area easier. Instead of writing female for all of

your data, you can just enter a 1 and the program knows to treat it as female.

Figure 6:

Entering Data

1. Open up the variable view tab.

2. You must first assign every variable a numerical value. For example assign a

1 to Under 21 and a 2 to 21-25 and a 3 to 26-30. This is the ONLY way

for SPSS to quantify your data. Additionally it is advised to at least determine

the Label, Values, and Measure of your data.

Figure 7:

category. Example: Hair color is Brown = Br, Black = Bk, Red = Rd, and

Blonde = Bl

2 Ordinal: A type of data classification that categorizes data by some order or rank.

Example: agree = 3, somewhat agree = 2, does not agree = 1

7

4. After you have entered in all your variables, you need to enter the data into

the work-area. You must now numerically assign your data sources. For

example, if you have taken a survey of 6 people (each person is a data

source), each person should be assigned a number of 1 through 6 on paper

that will correspond to rows in SPSS. This allows SPSS to correlate data from

each data source (i.e. what people responded with what data).

5. Each data set can then be assigned to its respective row. This means that

data source 1 (the first person surveyed) will be entered in row 1, and data

source 2 will be entered in row 2 and so on.

6. There are two ways to enter data in the data view tab:

a. If the Value Labels button is pressed, you can simply select to

response of each survey from a drop down menu in each cell. This can

be done if the cell that corresponds to the correct data source (row)

and variable (column) is selected (see Figure 8).

b. If the Value Labels button is not pressed, you must enter the data in

as a number (with no drop down menu) (see Figure 9).

Figure 8:

Figure 9:

Output Window

Figure 10:

1. The Output window is a window that is separate from the main window which

shows you the results of your analysis. For example, if you want to have a

graph of some of your data, it will pop up in the output window.

2. There are two sections of the output window. The area on the left is a log of

all the data you have generated in your study. The area on the right is the

visual output of that data. For example, if you have 5 different graphs you

have made, you can click on any specific chart in the left area, and it will

appear (selected) in the right area. If you look at Figure 10, you can see that

the Log portion is selected, and it highlighted the log data in the right section.

3. Note: you can close the output window and NOT close SPSS; it is an auxiliary

feature.

Walkthrough

Analysis

1. Graphing is the most basic type of visual analysis and is presented first in

this guide.

a. Open SPSS/Tutorial/sample_files/accidents.sav. At the top of the screen,

select Graphs>Chart Builder.

b. You can select the different type of graphs you want to create from the

Gallery tab. Select Scatter/Dot and then Grouped Scatter by

clicking and dragging the thumbnail up into the empty area above the

tabs (see Figure 11).

Figure 11:

10

c. Next, you can see the variables that you have created in the upper left

side of the screen. Click and drag Age Category and place it as the

independent variable (x-axis), and then click and drag Accidents to

the dependent variable (Y-axis). Next, click and drag Gender into the

Set Color area. This allows the graph to distinguish between the two

genders, when graphing the two sets of data provided (see Figure 12).

Figure 12:

11

d. Click OK and look at the graph produced in the output window. If you

notice, both males and females are graphed on the same scale. This

can allow you to compare different sets of data on the same graph.

(see Figure 13)

Figure 13:

12

graphing options and see what you can gather from visual analysis of

the sample data. For example, look at using a simple bar graph, and

then look under the Basic Elements tab for the three dimensional

aspects, and then place gender on the Z axis instead of the Set Color

area. These are both very common ways to visually compare larger

sets of data.

Graphing can sometimes illustrate a large amount of data in a very compact

and elegant way if done effectively. Looking at the different types of graphs

available to use in SPSS can help familiarize you with the options that you

can use if you wish to use a graph. Also, a graph can act as a useful reference

in a report (always recommended).

2. Regression is a good trend analysis tool. In simple terms a regression can

allow you to model data with a linear equation (a straight line).

13

a.

SPSS/Tutorial/sample_files/car_sales.sav. If you notice, you now have

two main windows open. Opening up a new file does not close out

your existing project.

b. From the top of the window go to Analysis>Regression>Linear. It

should be noted that this guide is only covering linear regression for

now. In the screen that pops up, you can see all the variables on the

left hand side (lots of them!).

c. Select Horsepower and then click on the triangle under the

dependent area. This will place Horsepower as the dependent

variable in the regression. Next, select Price and click on the triangle

under the independent area. Note that the triangle acts as an arrow

showing you if you can put a variable either in or out of the area

available. See Figure 14 for a reference.

Figure 14:

d. Click OK. A new set of tables should appear in the Output window. In

the output window, there are a lot of tables that SPSS will make for

you. If you want to model the data with a linear equation, the bottom

table should be used. The equation in this example can be made in the

form of y=mx+b where y is the horsepower of the car, and x is the

price of the car.

14

Figure 15:

thousands: 3.323 and the intercept is given as the constant

(unstandardized coefficient constant): 94.670 so the final equation is:

y=3.323x+94.670. You can now use this equation to extrapolate

beyond the data set and model the data mathematically.

of how closely two variables are related to one another. (PLEASE note

correlation is NOT causation)

a. Go to File>Open>Data, and then go to

SPSS/Tutorial/sample_files/car_sales.sav.

b. At the top of either window (output or the main screen) go to

Analyze>Correlate>Bivariate. Click on Price in Thousands and

move it over to the variables box by clicking on the triangle (arrow).

Do the same with the Horsepower variable (see Figure 16).

Figure 16:

15

c. Note that the box next to Pearson is checked. This will produce a table

that has the Pearson correlation values for two variables (basic

correlation). This tool is most handy when finding the correlation (not

causation) between large numbers of variables. If you noticed, the

correlation coefficient for the two variables is given in both the

regression (see previous section) and the correlation table (R=.840)

(see Figure 17).

Figure 17:

Testing

In order to determine the validity of sample data, you need to test it. Testing

determines the likelihood of obtaining the sample results given a certain

assumption (the assumption is called the Null Hypothesis:

H 0 ). If you are

unfamiliar with Hypothesis testing, please refer to the end of this walkthrough for a

brief crash course on hypothesis testing.

16

1. One Sample T-Test is a way to determine whether or not you are convinced

that your sample can allow you to make a conclusion from it, i.e. (does it

reject

the t-critical is larger than the t-value (using absolute values) then there is

insufficient proof to reject

Ha

H0

(also using

absolute values).

a. Go to File>Open>Data, and then go to

SPSS/Tutorial/sample_files/callwait.sav.

b. We will see if the waiting time for being on hold is different than 9

minutes.

c. Go to Analyze>Compare Means>One-Sample T Test. A box should

open up that looks like Figure 18.

Figure 18:

Then type in a 9 in the Test Value box to represent our 9 minutes

benchmark. This means that SPSS is going to do a T-Test comparing the

mean of the data in the sample compared to 9. Click OK.

e. Figure 19 shows the output for the T-Test. Note that the significance

level is very small at .001. Since the alpha value is so small, you would

17

Alternative Hypothesis (mean waiting time 9).

Figure 19:

It is only useful when the data comes from two distinct groups, rather than

the same group of data (i.e., one sample from men, and the other from

women).

a. Go to File>Open>Data, and then go to

SPSS/Tutorial/sample_files/callwait.sav.

b. We will be looking to see if there is a significant difference between the

Monday (coded as 2) and Friday (coded as 6) waiting times.

that there is no difference, and

Ha

H0

is

Place the Minutes to respond as the Test Variable, and the

Grouping Variable will be the days of the week, see Figure 20.

Figure 20:

18

Groups and type in a 2 for Group 1 and then a 6 for Group 2 (see

Figure 21). This lets SPSS know that you are comparing only the

Monday and Friday data. Also, since this is a two sample test of

differences, determining which set of data is Group 1 or Group 2 is

arbitrary (it does not matter). Click on Continue and then Hit OK.

Figure 21:

e. SPSS should now bring you to the output window with a table that

looks like Figure 22. First you must look to see if Equal Variance can be

assumed. To do this, look at Levenes Test for Equal Variances and

see if the significance is large (above .05 or so). If it is, then use the

upper row of data, if it is not use the bottom row of data. In our case,

the significance level of Equal Variances is far too small to assume

equal variances, so we use the bottom row.

f. Look at the bottom row and see that the T-value of the test is -7.519

(very large!), and the significance of the test (Sig two tailed) is .000, so

there is significant data to determine a difference among the mean call

waiting time of Monday compared to Friday. Another way to measure

this is to look at the 95% confidence interval; if 0 is within the range,

there is not sufficient data to determine a difference. In our interval, 0

19

H 0 ).

Figure 22:

3. Paired Samples T-Test is useful when the data is either from the same

group, or the data is paired up. For example if two police officers are giving

tickets each day for a week, the data would be paired because the number of

tickets written by each officer is paired since we have two sets of data that

are coming from the same two officers on the same days.

a. Go to File>Open>Data, and then go to

SPSS/Tutorial/sample_files/dietstudy.sav.

b. We want to see if there is a difference in someones weight before and

after a treatment plan. Therefore,

and

Ha

H0

of paired data so that each test subject has two sets of data; an initial

weight (wgt0) and a final weight (wgt4).

c. Go to Analyze>Compare Means>Paired Sample T Test. Select

both the initial weight and the final weight and move them over to the

Paired Variables box and click OK (see Figure 23). Note: you must

select BOTH data points before you can move then to the paired

variables box, because it treats them as one pair.

Figure 23:

20

d. In Figure 24 it can be seen that the t-value for this test is 11.175, with

a sig value of .000. This means that the likelihood of these two samples

being from the same population is effectively 0. Thus, we will reject our

H0

in favor of the

Ha

populations).

Figure 24:

4. One-Way ANOVA test is most useful when more than two means are being

compared. This is done by looking at the sample variances. ANOVA stands for

ANalysis Of VAriances.

21

SPSS/Tutorial/sample_files/demo.sav.

b. We want to see if there is a difference among income levels based on

education background. So we are going to compare the means of the

income levels for the different education backgrounds. Our

H0 :

there is no difference among the different mean income levels, and our

c. Go to Analyze>Compare Means>One-Way ANOVA There are two

terms that need to be clarified; the Dependent and the Factor. The

factor is what you are using to distinguish the groups from one

another. Our Factor is the Level of Education. To try and make this easy

to remember the dependent depends on what factor we are looking

at (kind of). The dependent is what you are measuring as a result of

the change in factor. Our dependent is Household Income in

Thousands (see Figure 25).

Figure 25:

H0

in favor of

H a , then we

income are in fact different. This is because the ANOVA test only tells

us that there is a difference among the means, it does not tell us where

the difference is. Consequently, the Tukey test will show where the

differences are, should we want to know. Click on the Post Hoc

button, and select the Tukey test as shown in Figure 26. Click

Continue.

22

Figure 26:

and Tukey test, we must also make sure that the variances are treated

appropriately. To do this, click on Options, and then select

Descriptive, Homogeneity of variance test, Drown-Forsythe, and

Welch, and the Means plot. See Figure 27. Click Continue and then

OK.

Figure 27:

23

f.

The output window will have a lot of data provided! Dont worry

because once it is explained, it is not too bad to follow. The first table

shows the basic descriptive statistics of the groups of data analyzed.

The data provided is a good overview of what the data looks like in a

condensed form with all the basic data provided (see Figure 28).

Figure 28:

g. Before the ANOVA test can be done, we must see if the assumption of

equal variances is appropriate. The table of Homogeneity of Variances

looks at this very thing and tests it using Levenes test (see Figure 29).

Since the F value of the test is large (14.766), the corresponding

significance level (.000) is well below .05, meaning that equal

variances cannot be assumed. If the sig value was larger than .05, we

could simply move onto the ANOVA test.

Figure 29:

24

interpreting the ANOVA table. Because the variances are not equal, the

resulting F value and significance value might be off enough to sway

the output of the test (see Figure 30). The results of the ANOVA test

imply that we would reject our

H0

level, however we need to verify this with the Welch and DrownForsythe tests (Robust Test for Equality of Means).

Figure 30:

i.

If the Welch and Brown-Forsythe tests produce values that are above .

05 then this would contradict our ANOVA test and cause us to fail to

reject our

results as our ANOVA test, (significance levels of .000) we can use the

ANOVA results. See Figure 31.

Figure 31:

j.

H 0 , we need to

determine which groups are different from one another. The Post Hoc

table in Figure 32 provides the data need to see which groups of data

have sufficient evidence to say that they are indeed different. Look at

the Did not complete high school (I) compared to High school

25

degree (J). Notice that both the sig level and the 95% confidence

interval are above .05 and includes 0 respectively. This means that

there is not sufficient data to say that the income levels between Did

not complete high school and High school degree are different.

Conversely, look at Did not complete High school compared to

Some college. This sig level and confidence interval are below .05

and do not contain 0 respectively, so there is sufficient data to say that

this pair of data is likely to be different. If you noticed, the mean

differences that have an asterisk next to them indicate a significant

difference between values.

Figure 32:

26

not use the ANOVA test, we could not infer the validity of this graph

(Figure 33), but now we can say which points contain significant

differences. For example, we see graphically that Did not complete

high school and High school degree have different means, but now

we can say that the this difference is not enough proof to say that they

are in fact different (statistically). This illustrates the potentially

misleading information in a graph. Furthermore, the axis on the graph

can make small differences that are not significant appear to be large

differences since the graph zooms in, which can allow for faulty

analysis of a graph.

27

Figure 33:

A hypothesis is a claim that you need to test in order to accept 3 something.

Whenever you create a hypothesis, there are always two sides to it: the claim that

you want to prove and the claim that is already assumed to be true.

3 Accept is in quotes since the statistical terminology is fail to reject. The reason

for this is that there are no absolutes in statistics.

28

H

( a)

example if we want to show that trees are taller than shrubs, you would say that the

mean height for a shrub is less than the mean height for a tree.

H

( 0)

absolutely no prior knowledge of something, then this is what you would believe,

Using the previous case, if you never knew anything about trees or shrubs, you

would not know that there is a difference in their heights, or you could assume that

shrubs are taller than trees. This said, the Null hypothesis is that the mean height

for shrubs is either equal to (or greater than) 4 the mean height of trees.

The alpha value () is the point at which you are convinced that your sample is

significant. When in doubt, let =.05 or if you REALLY want to be sure let =.01

If the probability of an event occurring (given the assumption of your

H 0 ) is less

than some arbitrary percentage (alpha value or ) then it is called significant. This

means that there is sufficient evidence to say that

reject

H0

in favor of the

H0

Ha .

H 0 ) is to use a t-test

44 It is assumed that there is no difference among the trees and shrubs, however, it

is also IMPLIED that the shrubs could be greater than because that would still not

contradict the alternative hypothesis.

29

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