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a OnceGenerator

Associate Profes:;o,,

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Northeastern University,

Boston, Mas::"

Assoc. Mem. ASM.::

presented which allows the investigation of power plant system transients. The threesection (economizer, evaporator, and superheater) model with time-varying phase

boundaries is described by a set of nonlinear di.U'erential and algebraic equations derived from the fundamental equations of conservation of mass, moment-urn, and energy.

The transient response of 8 process variables, due to 5 percent independent step disturbances in 6 input variables at 100 percent load, is discussed.

Introduction

The thermal-hydraulic transients of the steam generator are

essential in the study of the overall system performance of both

nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants as well as for the design

of their appropriate control systems. These transients are described here by a nonlinear dynamic model of the steam generator.

For efficient digital simulation of the overall system, the steam

generator model should be optimized for computation cost and

accuracy. Fine mesh models [1, 2]2 give good representation of

the system dynamics at the cost of increased model complexity

and require a relatively small iteration time step for numerical

stability and convergence of the solution. To circumvent this

problem, a nonlinear dynamic model of the once-through subcritical steam generator [3] was formulated using the concept of

time-varying phase boundaries. This concept was first introduced

by Adams et al. [4], for analog simulation of a linearized model of

such a steam generator.

The basic model equations were derived form the integral

forms of the fundamental equations of conservation of mass,

momentum, and energy [.5, 6] through the control volume approach. The numerical results for the transient response of

selected system variables were obtained by simulating the set

of nonlinear differential and algebraic equations on an IBM

370 computer using Continuous System Modeling Program

(CSMP III) [7].

The method of analysis and study of numerical stability and

System Description

The once-through subcritical steam generator considered in

this analysis is typical of those used in gas-cooled nuclear power

plants. It consists of a large number of helically coiled tubes of

vertical orientation. Each tube was treated as a counterflow heat

exchanger. Hot gas (primary coolant) is circulated through the

shell of the steam generator from the top, and compressed water

(secondary coolant) is pumped through the steam generator

tubes from the bottom. Thermal energy from the primary

coolant (gas) is transferred to the secondary coolant (water/

steam) through the tube walls. The exchange of thermal energy

results in the cooling of the hot gas on the shell side of steam

generator and production of superheated steam on the tube side.

The model was based on the performance of a typical tube

shown schematically in Fig. l(a).

Assumptions

The fundamental assumption of this study was that the distributed parameter process can be represented by a lumped parameter model using the concept of control volumes. In addition, the following assumptions were made:

(a) Uniform fluid properties over any cross-section.

(b) Uniform and independent heat fluxes across the tube wall

1 Now

Contributed by the Automatic Control Division for publication in the

JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, .MEASUREMENT, AND CoNTROL. Manuscript

received at ASME Headquarters, October 24, 1975. Paper No. 76-Aut-M.

(c) Identical flow through each of the steam generator tubes.

(d) Steady primary coolant flow.

(e) Constant primary coolant pressure.

(.f) Primary coolant treated as a perfect gas.

Further, the following parameters were evaluated and were

COLD PRIMARY

HOT PRIMARY

COOLANT OUTLET

COOLANT INLET

FEEDWATER PRESSURE

PRIMARY COOLANT

AT INLET

FLOW RATE

ONCE-THROUGH

FEEDWATER FLOW

PRIMARY COOLANT

SUBCRITICAL STEAM

GENERATOR MODEL

RATE

INLET TEMPERATURE

INLET

FEEDWATER ENTHALPY

STEAM PRESSURE AT

FEEOWATER

AT INLET

OUTLET HEADER

PRIMARY COOLANT

OUTLET TEMPERATURE

OTHER INTERMEDIATE

OUTPUT VARIABLES

Il

OUTLET STEAM

TEMPERATURE

OUTLET STEAM

FLOW RATE

LEGEND

ARROW ENTERING THE MODEL-INPUT VARIABLE

LEGEND

NODE

NODE

NODE

NODE

NODE

NODE

NODE

I- FEEDWAT~R ENTRY

2- AVERAGE POINT FOR ECONOMIZER

3- ECONOMIZER/EVAPORATOR BOUNDARY

4-AVERAGE POINT FOR EVAPORATOR

5-EVAPORATOR/SUPERHEATER BOUNDARY

6- AVERAGE POINT FOR SUPERHEATER

7- SUPERHEATER OUTLET

A-NODES FOR TUBE METAL

0 -NODES FOR SECONDARY COOLANT

To-PRIMARY COOLANT TEMPERATURE

Tm-TUBE WALL TEMPERATURE AT THE MEAN RADIUS

T- WATER /STEAM TEMPERATURE'

Fig. l(b)

NOTES

I NODES 2,3,4,5, AND 6 ARE TIMEVARYING; NODES I AND 7 ARE FIXED

2.. 7 STEAM

time-varying phase boundaries

found to be negligible:

required the formulation of model equations in unique ways.

The continuity equations for the secondary coolant in each

of the three regions are as follows:

Economizer

(Wl - Wa)/ A

+ padl1a/dt

(1)

Evaporator

(b) Velocity head of water /steam in each section.

+ psdl15jdt

(2)

Superheater

d(p6ls1) I dt

was partitioned into three sections, i.e., compressed water (economizer), wet steam (evaporator), and superheated steam (superheater), as shown in F'ig. l(a). The length of each section was

allowed to vary with time. Thus, the other process variables

such as pressure, temperature, flow, etc, at these phase boundaries were also time-varying.

The model equations were devloped using control volumes with

time-varying control surfaces as shown in Fig. l(a). A model

solution diagram indicating the input and output variables is

given as Fig. 1(b). The model equations for secondary coolant,

primary coolant, and tube wall are discussed below:

of the secondary coolant in different phases and the effect of

Secondary Coolant.

(3)

where

dl1s

dt

dlta

dt

dlas

+ dt

of the three regions:

Economizer

(4)

Evaporator

d(p4u4las)/dt = (Waha - Wshs

+ Q4)jA

- pahadltafdt

+ pshsdl1s/dt

(5)

----Nomenclature,..............................................................................._ ................_________________

A

secondary coolant flow

inner circumference of tube

unit cross-sectional area for primary coolant flow

outer circumference of tube

thermal capacity of tube per unit

length

specific heat of primary coolant

specific heat of primary coolant

primary coolant flow rate per

tube

local acceleration due to gravity

specific enthalpy of secondary

coolant

fluid pressure drop constant

heat transfer coefficient constants

K'mt

KpT

ltm

l

Q0

Q

ri

r0

rm

heat transfer coefficient constants

for secondary coolant

product of absolute temperature

and density of primary coolant

thermal conductivity of tube

metal

length of tube or tube section

secondary coolant pressure

heat transfer rate from primary

coolant to tube wall

heat transfer rate from tube wall

to secondary coolant

inside tube radius

outside tube radius

mean tube radius

primary coolant temperature

Tm

tube wall temperature at mean

radius

t

time

U

heat transfer coefficient

u

specific internal energy of secondary coolant

W

secondary coolant mass flow rate

per tube with respect to tube

wall

x = quality factor

Ta

delay time

p

density of secondary coolant

Po

density of primary coolant

(}

average horizontal inclination

of helically coiled tubes

'J.l

T0

Evaporator

Superheater

+ Qo)/A

(6)

(13)

yields equations (7) and (8):

set equal to the inlet flow Wa in the evaporator.

Superheater

d(psu 6ls1)jdt

dbjdt

= [

+ Q,)jp,

(W5hs - W1h1

wl - Wa -

]/[A (

- pshsdl15/dt

( apz )

(Wl(hl - Uz) - Wa(ha - Uz)

auz pz

u,)) J

(p,

(7)

where

dpz

duz /dt

+ pa(ha

+ Qz)/ A

- Uz)dlla/dt]j(pzlla)

(8)

In the pressure range of interest (i.e., close to the critical pressure), the thermodynamic properties of water/steam mixture

reveal that the partial derivative of specific internal energy

with respect to pressure changes sign monotonically between

0 and 100 percent quality. Thus, U4 was not chosen as a state

variable as it cannot be analytically formulated to represent

the lumped characteristics of the evaporator. Consequently,

l1s was chosen as a state variable and du4jdt was computed as a

weighted average of the derivatives of fluid properties at the

evaporator exit boundary and economizer average point.

For the superheater, equations (3) and (6) yield

du6jdt

Q6)/A

(10)

integration, the continuity equations for the evaporator and the

superheater were combined together as,

which yields

dp5jdt

[(Wa - W1)/ A

+ (p5

- pa)dlla/dl]/(la5

+ ls7)

(11)

equations revealed very fast decaying transients due to low inertia of the steam/water path. The control system and the

process external to the steam generator behave as low pass

filters with respect to these fast transients. Hence, these transients have little bearing on the design of control systems.

Further, the time step size of integration used in this analysis

is large in comparison to the period of these transients. Thus, the

temporal acceleration terms have been omitted in the momentmn

equations as stated below:

(14)

was taken to be equal to the spatial average flow Ws in the

superheater.

The saturated steam flow Ws at the evaporator/superheater

boundary was computed as an arithmetic average of Wa and W1.

Transport Delay. Any change in enthalpy at the inlet of a

control volume is not immediately sensed at the outlet of that

control volume particularly in the case of economizer where the

velocity of flow and mixing of feeclwater are relatively small.

The outlet enthalpy (saturated water) in this analysis was based

on an extrapolation of inlet and spatial average enthalpies.

Thus, to accurately represent the process, a transport delay

term 'Td = Al1aPz/W1 was necessary.

The effect of transport delay was approximated b r a first

order lag equal to about half the transport delay. Op ~rational

changes in inlet enthalpy occur slowly (because of lage thermal

inertia of cleaerator) and thus the above equation rathe, closely

approximates the actual operating conditions.

Heat Transfer. Heat transfer from the primary coolant to the

tube wall and from the tube wall to the secondary colla 1t was

assumed to be clue entirely to convection. Radial heat transfer

through the tube wall was clue to conduction. The temperature

nodes in the tube wall were taken at the mean radius.

Convective heat transfer for fully developed single phase turbulent flow was computed by Dittus and Boelter equation [8,

9]. Since the thermal and hydraulic property changes of the

primary coolant, compressed water, and superheated system

are insignificant in comparison to the changes in fluid velocity,

the heat transfer coefficient for a single phase fully developed

turbulent flow was expressed as, U = W"/Ku, where W is mass

flow rate of fluid and JC and n are constants.

For a fully developed two phase flow, the heat transfer is

primarily due to nueleate boiling in the low quality factor

region and to partial film boiling in the high quality factJr region

[10]. For nucleate boiling, the heat transfer coefficient has been

given by Levy [10] and was approximated as U cc p413(b,.T)2.

The heat transfer coefficient for the partial film boiling regime

was obtained by using the data [10] given by Bertoletti, et al.

The average heat transfer coefficient between the tube wall

and the two phase coolant was obtained by graphically integrating the local heat transfer coefficient over the entire length

of the evaporator.

The rates of heat transfer [8] clue to turbulent flow of the primary coolant over the tube walls in the three regions were computed as Economizer

where

Co

= (ro

+ ri)/2

Evaporator

Economizer

(16)

Superheater

(12)

(17)

equal to the inlet feedwater flow wl, as the coolant is incompressible in this region.

The rates of heat transfer between the tube wall and the secondary coolant for the three regions were calculated as

Economizer

(18)

where

where

Evaporator

and

Y4)

+ 2Y4Tm4 + Y

Yz)

2YzTm2

dlas/dt]j(1

Y4)

(28)

Y 0 dlls/dt]j(1

Yz)

(29)

Y2

(19)

Superheater

Qs = Ad57(Tms- Ts)/[KrntsVV7-o.B8

+ Ci]

(20)

Tma and T m5 at the economizer/evaporator and the evaporator/

superheater boundaries, respectively, were expressed in terms of

the average temperatures T mz, T m4, and T ms as

Energy Equation in Tube Wall.

'I'ma

T m5

+ l1a'I'rn4)/l1s

(ls1T m4 + Zas'I'rns)/(la5 + l51)

=

(21)

(lss'I'mz

(22)

equations for energy storage in the tube wall were formulated

from the energy balance in the tube wall as shown:

Economizer

Aulla/[2(K0 rnzG-o. 66

+ Co)GCp]

listed in the Appendix.

System Parameters. The system parameters were calculated

from the end point values of the process variables (e.g., pressure,

temperature, length, etc.) for each region at the rated conditions,

and the physical dimensions of the steam generator tube. These

data and the steady state model results are listed in Table 1.

The steady state values of average tube wall temperature were

determined from energy balance data. Knowing the friction

factors and steady state pressure drop, the steady_state values

of spatial average density for the secondary coolant were calculated for each region. For two phase flow in the evaporator,

the Martinelli-Nelson correction factor [8] was applied.

From the knowledge of temperature and density at the

average points, the other properties were determined via the

thermodynamic state relations. The averaging constants were

then calculated from the steady-state values of individual variables at the inlet, outlet, and average points.

Evaporator

dTm4

dt

(24)

Superheater

dTm6

dt = (Qos- Q6)/(Crnl57)

+ ((Trn6

(25)

Primary Coolant. The dynamic terms in the continuity equations were not considered because the fluid at low linear velocity

was treated as incompressible. Further, the pressure drops due

to acceleration and friction were neglected since they are insignificant in comparison to the absolute pressure of the primary

coolant.

In the superheater, the energy equation for the primary

coolan't can be expressed as

(26)

For a linear temperature profile along the length of steam

generator tube, the average temperatures '1'0 s, T 04, and '1'02 of

the primary coolant were computed as arithmetic means of the

end point temperatures for each of the three regions.

Combining equations (17) and (26), and using the relation

'l'os = ( '1'01 + '1'0 s)/2 yields

Ta5 = ['1'0 7(1

Ys)

+ 2Ys'I'rns-

Y 0 dl1s/dt]j(1

Ys)

(27)

where

and

Yo = (CP -

evaporator and economizer regions yield

was tested at the 100 percent and 50 percent rated conditions,

respectively. Table 1 shows that the model results agree favorably with the heat balance data.

The results of the steam generator system simulation are

presented in the form of a series of curves representing the

transient response of the process variables at the rated conditions'

for independent step increases in 5 different input variables.

In each case, the input variable under study was perturbed from

its operating point by a 5 per~ent step increase with the other 4

input variables held constant. The following 5 input v:ariables

(Fig. l(b )) were perturbed:

1

2

3

4

5

(

\

Primary coolant inlet temperature

Steam pressure at superheater outlet

Inlet feedwater flow rate

Inlet feedwater enthalpy

process variable to a change in one of the 5 input variables, are

displayed in a single figure. Fig. 2-9 show the transient response

of 8 different output variables for changes in each of the 5 input

variables listed above.

Run No. 1 shows the system transient response for a 5 percent

step increase in primary coolant flow rate w~th the other 4 input

variables held constant. Increased prima~y coolant flow rate

increases the rate of heat transfer from the prin;1ary coolant to

the secondary coolant through the tube walL The lengths of

economizer and evaporator (Figs. 2 and 3) decrease, whereas

the length of superheater (Fig. 4) increases. For constant outlet

steam header pressure and feedwater flow rate, the inlet feedwater pressure (Fig. 6) increases, due to a larger presF~ure drop

across the steam generator tube (the largest pressure drop

occurs across the superheater). The temperature of steam leaving the steam generator (Fig. 5 ), after a small initial dip, steadily

increases to a new steady state value. The enthalpy of saturated

water at the economizer/evaporator boundary (Fig. 7) increases

and the enthalpy of saturated steam at the evaporator/super-

Table 1

Physical dimensions, heat balance data, and steady state model performance

'length

I. D.

349ft

106.375 m

0.06083 ft

0.01854 m

O.D.

rate

Process variables

lb/sec

kg/sec

Btujlbm

vV-sec/kg

Btu/lbm

W-sec/kg

ft

m

ft

m

ft

m

psi a

N/m2

psi a

Njm2

psi a

Njm2

psi a

N/m2

hl

h7

Zta

ln~

Zo7

pl

Pa

p5

p7

OF

Tot

T 01

oc

OF

oc

Wt

lbm/sec

kg/sec

50%

rate

Model results

Model results

Remarks

2.19

0.9934

347.0

0. 80693e + 06

1422.5

3. 30793e + 06

176.0

53.645

82.0

24.994

91.0

27.737

2848.0

288.57e + 06

2818t0

285.53e + 06

2744.0

278.03e + 06

2600.0

253.45e + 06

623.6

328.67

1247.3

675.17

1.577

0. 7153

2.19

0.9934

347.0

0. 80693e + 06

1422.6

3.30813e + 06

175.94

53.627

81.78

24.927

91.28

27.822

2847.5

288.52e + 06

2817.3

285.46e + 06

2743.6

278.00e + 06

2600.0

253.45e + 06

623.64

328.69

1247.3

675.17

1.577

0.7153

1.235

0.5602

293.4

0. 68228e + 06

1422.5

3. 30793e + 06

172.0

52.426

90.0

27.432

87.0

26.518

2536.0

256.96e + 06

2524.0

255. 74e + 06

2500.0

253.3le + 06

2462.0

249.46e + 06

562.6

294.78

1140.4

615.78

0.785

0.3561

1.235

0.5602

293.4

0. 68228e + 06

1424.2

3.3119e + 06

173.7

52.944

90.38

27.548

84.92

25.884

2533.8

256. 74e + 06

2521.7

255.51e + 06

2498.3

253.14e + 06

2462.0

249.46e + 06

561.68

294.27

1140.4

615.78

0.785

0.3561

Model

Input

Model

Input

at each boundary. The different enthalpy-pressure relationships

of saturated liquid and vapor near the critical pressure are important in the analysis of the dynamic behavior of once-through

subcritical steam generators. The rate of steam flow out of the

8Leam generator (Fig. 9) initially rises and then approaches the

original value as there is no increase in feedwater flow to sustain

the rise. The transient response curves of the system output

variables are almost monotonic and settle down in approximately

~4 FEEDW~TER

RUN

84 _INLET FLOW-

~~~

57

183

80

55

1LL..

(/)

a::

I.J.J

177

1-

:::E

53

J:

1(!)

w

__J

1-

w

w

LL..

76

~ '-\

~

Model

Input

Model

Input

)

25

RUN #I-PRIMARY

COOLANT FLOW ......_

'

w

__J

...J

(/)

r---

72

51

a::

ll.'

1-

1\

23

~

~

J:

('

(!)

24

J:

1-

26

RLN #5 FJEDWATER

INLET ENTHALPY~

~LET TEMPERATURE_

J:

G

z

171

Model

Input

consists of the thermal capacitance of the metal mass in the

tube wall and the thermal resistance in the heat flow path from

the primary coolant ot the secondary coolant.

Run No. 2 shows the same system transient responses for a 5

percent step increase in primary coolant inlet temperature with

the other 4 input variables held constant. Increased temperature

of the primary coolant increases the rate of transfer of thermal

energy to the secondary coolant throtlgh the tube wall. The

189

w

w

0.08333 ft

0.02534 m

fl

122

HEADER PRESSURE

(!)

i'5

__J

21

68

20

64

0

20

40

60

80

100

Tl ME IN SECONDS

Fig. 2 Economizer length transients due to 5 percent independent

step increases in 5 input variables at 100 percent load (run #'s 1-5)

20

40

60

80

100

TIME IN SECONDS

Fig. 3 Evaporator length transients due to 5 percent independent

step increases in 5 input variables at 100 percent load (run #'s 15)

3020

116

20.7

34

108

2980

32

....w

30

Q.

::!:

28

92

...J

20.3

2940

(!)

:::>

Cl)

Cl)

...J

Q

RUN #2-PRIMARY COOLANT

Cl:

RUN #1-PRIMlRY

COOLANT FLOW

2860

~#5-FEEPWATER

-~

I

INLET

~

76

20

40

60

100

80

step increases in 5 input variables at 100 percent load (run #'s 15)

20

40

60

20.1

~

w

19.9

f3

a::

Cl)

Q.

I9.7

ENTHALPY'

I ~

1

2820

TIME IN SECONDS

1-

Q.

"'::::iE

;z

CD

Cl:

1-

(!)

(/)

:I:

1-

....ww

:I:

20.5

Cl:

w 100

IJ..

HEADER PRESSURE""""

['\.

(/)

I9.5

I

80

100

j,

,t

TIME IN SECONDS

ent step increases in 5 input variables at 100 percent load (run #'s

1-5)

to those of run No. 1; but the process variables are quantitatively more perturbed.

Run No. 3 shows the system transient responses for a 5 percent

step increase in outlet steam header pressure with the other 4

input variables held constant. Since the feedwater flow rate is

unchanged, the fluid pressure throughout the steam generator

increases. Thus, the subcritical steam generator approaches a

supercritical steam generator which results in a large decrease

in the length of the evaporator (Fig. 3) and corresponding increases in the lengths of both economizer and superheater (Figs.

2 and 4). Significant rise in water/steam pressure throughout

the steam generator tube causes a sharp increase and decrease

in the enthalpies at the economizer/evaporator and evaporator/

superheater boundaries (Figs. 7 and 8), respectively. The increase in downstream header pressure causes an abrupt decrease

in steam flow rate out of the steam generator (Fig. 9) which

quickly settles down to the original value as there is no change

in the inlet feedwater flow rate. The temperature of steam leaving

7925

I.84

RUN #3-0UTLET STEAM

HEADER PRESSURE-...,_

(\

787.5

I.83

...J

(/)

I

7825

I.82

(1)

...J

<(

3:

<D

>a..

......

(.)

w

::z

(1)

......

::::>

1-

(!)

I .81

7775

RUN #2- PRIMARY COOLANT

INLET TEMPERATURE,---,..

:I:

1-

...J

<(

:I:

~UN

w

772.5

I.80

#I-PRIMARY

OOLANT FLOW---.

'~ ;:5-FEEDWlTER

\../';;

INLJT

>a..

ENTHALPY~

1-

I.79

767:5

20

40

60

80

100

TIME IN SECONDS

dependent step increases in 5 input variables at 100 percent load

(run #'s 15)

1100

590

1065

r-... /""""

1060

I~

570

1060

LL

(.)

0

w

Cl

0

w

550 Cl

1020

w

a::

~

a::

w

Q.

530

980

(1)

!;;t

>a..

a::

w

...J

::!:

1-

1-

1--

...J

......

Q.

::!:

510

940

"'

(1)

w

a::

:::>

:::>

::!:

::::>

1-

<(

1055

RUN #4-FEEDWATER /

INLET FLOW

RUN #5-FEEDWATER

INLET ENTHALPY

(!)

RUN ~I-PRIMARY/

COOLjNT FLOW

......

2.46

l.aJ

20

40

60

80

100

Tl ME IN SECONDS

percent independent step increases in 5 input variables at 100 percent

load (run # 's 1-5)

3:

CD

2.45

Q

~

2.44

:I:

>a..

...J

<(

:I:

1-

HEADER PRESSURE~

v

0

l.aJ

2.43

1040

0

(.)

(/)

#2~PRIMAR~ COOLANL~,;I

RUN

INLET TEMPERATURE

1045

900

2.47

1050

490

20

40

60

80

2.42

100

TIME IN SECONDS

pendent step increases in 5 input variables at 100 percent load (run \

#'s 1-5)

195

0.87

INLETITEMPERAjURE

/7 COOLANT

RUN #I-PRIMARY/

FLOW

165

~

Cl

(..)

IJJ

135

0.74

J

Cl

+ R U N #5- FEEDWATER

C/)

.......

Ill

C)

~

HEADER PRESSURE

_J

z

&3

C/)

......

:::l:

I/

f---INLET FLOW

0.48

L05

3:

0

3:

presented. The steam generator under consideration was of the

type used in gas-cooled nuclear power plants. The system transients derived from this model are useful to the design of appropriate control systems. Further, the model can be used as an element

in an overall system performance study of large scale nuclear

power plants. For application to fossil-fueled power plants, the

effect of radiation should be included in the calculation of heat

transfer from the flames/flue gas to the tube wall.

By including the temporal acceleration terms in the momentum

equations, this model could be used for microscopic flow stability

studies of individual steam generator tubes.

_J

LL

_J

LL

0.75

20

40

60

80

0.35

Acknowledgments

0.22

first author's former colleagues Mrs. N. E. Pettengill, Dr. S. M.

Joshi, and Mr. J. A. Rovnak. This paper represents part of a

Mechanical Engineer Degree Thesis completed by the first author

at Northeastern University in June, 1974.

100

TIME IN SECONDS

step increases in 5 input variables at 100 percent load (run #'s 15)

References

the steam generator (Fig..5) increases initially due to the drop

in steam flow rate and then relaxes back close to the original

value as the rate of energy input to the system and the feed water

flow rate are unchanged. All the system transients for the perturbation of outlet steam header pressure completely decay within

20 s. The re::;ponse times for this run are faster than those for

runs. Nos. 1 and 2 because the disturbance, in this case, is hydraulic whereas those for runs Nos. 1 and 2 were thermal.

Run No. 4 shows the system responses for a 5 percent step increase in feedwater flow rate with the other 4 input variables

held constant. Steam flow out of the steam generator (Fig. 9) is

unresponsive to the increased feedwater flow rate for a period of

approximately 2 s, and essentially equals the increased feedwater flow ra.te within 50 s. For constant primary coolant flow

rate and inlet temperature, the temperature at all points in the

secondary water/steam path drops due to the increased feedwater flow rate. Consequently, the lengths of economizer and

evaporator (Figs. 2 and 3) increase and the length of superheater

(Fig. 4) decreases. The inlet feedwater pressure (Fig. 6) increases

initially due to a larger pressure drop across the steam generator

caused by the increase in feedwater flow rate. Subsequently, the

decrease in superheater length (Fig. 4) overcompensates for the

increase in feedwater flow rate and the inlet feedwater pressure

asymptotically approaches a value slightly lower than its initial

value. The coupled hydraulic/thermal transients observed here

have response times which are intermediate between the thermal

transients of runs Nos. 1 and 2 and the hydraulic transients of

run No.3.

Run No. 5 shows the system transient responses for a 5 percent

step increase in inlet feedwater enthalpy with the other 4 input

variables held constant. Each process variable (Figs. 2-9) displays an initial reverse oscillation with a subsequent asymptotic

behavior. Probably, these oscillations in the model results are

generated due to extrapolation of enthalpy (h3 ) of saturated water

from inlet and average point enthalpies (h1 and hz) in the economizer. However, the long term transients of the process variables

can be justified for an increased thermal energy input to the

secondary coolant circuit at the economizer inlet. These transients are of the order of 60 s, reflecting the effect of thermal

transport delay and thermal/hydraulic time lag.

Supercritical Pressure Boiler," PhD thesis, 1971, Swiss Federal

Institute of Technology, Zurich.

2 Ahner, D. J., deMello, F. P., Dyer, C. E., and Sumner,

V. C., "Analysis and Design of Controls for a Once-through

Boiler Through Digital Simulation," !SA Proceedings, 9th

National Power Instrumentation Symposium, May, 1966.

3 Ray, A., "A Nonlinear Dynamic Model of Once-through

Subcritical Steam Generator," Mechanical Engineer Thesis,

1974, Northeastern University, Boston.

4 Adams, J., Clark, D. R., Louis, J. R., and Spanbauer,

J. P., "Mathematical Modeling of Once-through Boiler Dynamics," IEEE Trans., PAS-84, Feb. 1965, pp. 146-156.

5 Batchelor, G. K., An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics,

Cambridge University Press, 1970, pp. 73-75, 137-139, 151-156.

6 Shames, I. H., Mechanics of Fluids, McGraw-Hill, 1962,

pp. 77-155.

7 IBM Continuous System Modeling Program III, Program

Reference Manual No. 5734-XS9.

8 El-Wakil, M. M., Nuclear Heat Transport, International,

1971, pp. 238-248.

9 Rohsenow, W. M., and Choi, H. Y., Heat Mass and

~Momentum Transfer, Prentice Hall, 1961, pp. 192-196.

10 Tong, L. S., Boiling Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Flow,

Wiley, 1965, pp. 111-134.

APPENDIX

Summary of Equation Set Constituting the

Mathematical Model

The following differential equations identify the selected state

variables as l1a, uz, l15, 1tG, p5, T m2, T m4, Tm6, and h1, respectively:

dl1a =

dt

W1

Wa -

apz

~a

U2

pz

- W, (hr, - u,)

[ A ( po - p;

duz

dt

dl15

~onclusions

dt =

+ Qo)/{)2

+ (po/Po) (

JI

: : ) Po (ho - Uo) )

+ Qz)/A

U4) -

Ws (hs -

U4)

- U4))

T 0 a = (T0 s (1 - Y4)

dps

-- = ((Wa - W1)/A + (ps - pa) dllafdt)/(las + ls7)

dt

dt

T 0 1 = (T0 a (1- Yz

T0 i

= (Qo4- Q4)/(Cm las)+ ((Tms- Tm4)/(las + Zs7)) dl1s/dt

+ ((Tm4

Tm4

Y 0 dlas/dt)/(1

Y4)

where Yz

dTm4

+ 2 Y4

T mz)/Zls) dl1a/dt

+ 2 Yz

Tmz

Y 0 dlla/dt)/(1

Yz)

= (T

0 ci-1)

Ta(i+l))/2, i

2, 4, 6

The following process variables were obtained by thermodynamic state relationship and/or averaging interpolation/

extrapolation:

Ps = Avi (Ps, P1)

1

dh = (hrw- h1)/(AZ1apz/(2WI))wherehrwisfeedwaterenthalpy

dt

T1 = j(h1, P1)

Wa

h2, p2, Tz

W1 =

ha

V (Ps -

Ws = (Wa

P1 - Ps gls1 sin

las + ls1

Pa, pa, Ta

=

where G\

Q4

= (T 0 1 (1

Ys)

+ Ci)

- Y 0 dhs/dt)/(1

Avi (pa, Ps)

= f(h4, P4)

=

au )

A vi ( du2,

dt ' ( 8p

X=l

dps )

dt

f( ) indicates a function

Avi( ) indicates value obtained by averaging

interpolation

+ C,)

+ 2 YsTms

P4

du4

dt

where

T0s

+ Co)

[riln (rm/ri)1/km

U4

=

T4

= f(ha)

Qz

Psi (IS..rsls1)

(a constant)

Qos

= f(uz)

Ys)

extrapolation

~\

Printed in U.S:A{

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