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ISSS International Conference on Smart Materials, Structures and Systems

July 08-11, 2014, Bangalore, India

TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF 1D GRATING EMBEDDED IN


2D PHOTONIC CRYSTAL: A SIMULATION BASED ANALYSIS
G V Sai Yeswanth a, Akash Kannegulla b, Alok Kumar Jha a
Department of Electronics and Communication, Amrita School of Engineering, Bangalore.
b
Department of Electronics and Instrumentation, Amrita School of Engineering, Bangalore.
Email: gantasalagvs@gmail.com, akash.kann@gmail.com, alok_jha@blr.amrita.edu
a

Abstract: In this paper, the 2D photonic crystal of triangular lattice is designed. The analysis of band structure and transmission
spectra for this simple triangular lattice is made which is used to compare with further proposed models of the paper. Later, the
1D grating is embedded in the above lattice thus creating a line defect. The transmission spectra is compared for various
dielectric constants of the grating. It is been observed that the transmission decrease with increase in dielectric constant of the
grating.
Keywords:

Photonic Band Gap Structure, Transmission Spectra, Line defect, 1D Grating, Triangular lattice, Waveguide mode.

1.

INTRODUCTION

In recent decades research in silicon photonic devices is


performed due to their conspicuous advantages like filters,
optical switches and optical fibers, which can be integrated
in to the conventional electronic integrated circuits. These
nano-sized photonic crystals are dielectric material
structure based on periodic modulation of dielectric
constant. The periodic variation is of the order of the
wavelength of light and may be one, two or three
dimensions respectively.
The spatio-temporal trajectory of photons can be
controlled in various desired ways by varying the
periodicity of optical index in the medium.

Figure 1

A line defect can be created by either completely filling a


row of holes in slab with a particular dielectric constant, or
by removing a strip of line make a defect.
In this paper, a line defect is made in both above
mentioned ways and the analysis of transmission spectra is
made by embedding a 1D grating in the line defect.
2.

STRUCTURAL FEATURES

The PBG structure considered here is triangular lattice


with holes in slab. Line defect is made by filling one row
of holes with dielectric constant and by embedding the 1D
grating in to the line defect. Transmission spectra is
analyzed for three different dielectric constants of grating.

Figure 2

Figure 3

It involves expanding both the periodic dielectric function


( ) and the field function
as
in infinite series of
uniform plane ways as shown below:
(2)

and,

(3)
Figure 4

Thus it reduces Boundary Value Problem (BVP) to a set of


Eigen value equations and = (k)provides the band
structure.
5.

For the regular holes in slab of triangular lattice (Fig.1,


Fig.2, Fig.3 and Fig.4), the dielectric constant is 12 and
period is 1m. The dielectric constants of grating used are
12, 10 and 8. The dielectric constant of 12 is used because
the physical status like Si and GaAs have the dielectric
constant around this value.
The length of 1D grating is 0.1 m and breadth is 0.6 m.
The height assumed for this hypothetical case is infinite.
The period is optimally scaled for desired band gap range
and height is optimally tailored for near physical structure.
3.

BAND STRUCTURES AND TRANSMISSION SPECTRA

For triangular lattice structure without defect, complete


band gap exists for TE mode. Hence, various band gap
features are analyzed for TE modes.
Fig.2, Fig.3 and Fig.4 show the line defect in (Fig.5)
direction. The k-points are indicated by k-index on the
band diagrams, are sampled along direction of
Irreducible Brillouin Zone (IBZ) with 10 equidistant points
between (k=0) and (k=0.5) including the both.

STRUCTURE PARAMETERS

Triangular as shown in Fig.1, Fig.2, Fig.3 and Fig.4


Period of lattice = 1m
Radius of holes in slab = 0.42m
Height of slab = Infinite
Dielectric constant of slab = 12
Dielectric constant of grating for Fig.4 = 8, 10 and 12 as
separate cases.
Length of 1D grating = 0.2m
Breadth of 1D grating = 0.6m
Height of grating = Infinite

4.

NUMERICAL METHOD FOR ANALYSIS

In this paper, the numerical method used for analysis is


plane wave expansion method (PWEM). It is a frequency
domain technique which involves Blochs theorem of
periodicity.
The following equation is derived from two curl equations
from the set of Maxwells equation for dielectric media.

(1)

Figure 5. Brillouin Zone


The band structure and transmission spectra of simple
triangular lattice as shown in Fig.1 are illustrated in Fig.6
and Fig.7

Figure 6. TE band structure for triangular lattice (Fig.1)


with no defect

Figure 7. Transmission spectra of triangular lattice with no


defect

Figure 9. Comparison of (A)-triangular lattice with holes


filled with dielectric constant along one row (Fig.2) and
(B)-transmission spectra for a simple triangular lattice
(Fig.1)

Next the band structure and transmission spectra of


triangular lattice with holes filled with dielectric constant
along one row as shown in Fig.2 are illustrated in Fig.8
and Fig.9.

The band structure and transmission spectra of triangular


lattice with a strip of slab (horizontally) filled with air as
shown in Fig.3 are illustrated in Fig.10 and Fig.11.

Figure 8. TE band structure for triangular lattice (Fig.2)


with holes filled with dielectric constant along one row

Figure 10. TE band structure for triangular lattice (Fig.3)


with a strip of slab (horizontally) filled with air.

Figure 11. Comparison of (A)- triangular lattice with a


strip of slab (horizontally) filled with air (Fig.3) and (B)transmission spectra for a simple triangular lattice (Fig.1)

Figure 13 (a). Comparison of (A)-transmission spectra of


1D grating with epsilon=8, (B) transmission spectra of
simple triangular lattice (Fig.1) and (C) transmission
spectra of triangular lattice with line defect (Fig. 3).

Next, the band structure and transmission spectra of


triangular lattice with 1D grating embedded in it as shown
in Fig.4 are illustrated in Fig. 12 and Fig. 13 (a) (b) (c).
The comparison of the transmission spectra for dielectric
constant 8, 10 and 12 is shown in figure 14.

Figure 13 (b). Comparison of (A)-transmission spectra of


1D grating with epsilon=10, (B) transmission spectra of
simple triangular lattice (Fig.1) and (C) transmission
spectra of triangular lattice with line defect (Fig. 3).

Figure 12. TE band structure of traingular lattice (Fig. 4)


with 1D grating embedded in it.

Figure 13 (c). Comparison of (A) transmission spectra of


simple triangular lattice (Fig.1), (B)-transmission spectra
of 1D grating with epsilon=12 and (C) transmission
spectra of triangular lattice with line defect (Fig. 3).

analysis and comparison. The band structures and


transmission spectra of this triangular lattice is
presented in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.
2) Also, a line defect is made by filling a row of
holes with dielectric constant 12 as shown in Fig.
2. The change in transmission spectra is observed
when a defect is made as shown in Fig 9.
3) Next, before embedding the 1D grating into the
line defect, the above defect is replaced with
material as air. The waveguide mode and
transmission spectra is observed as shown in
Fig.10 and Fig.11. This defect is made so that the
1D grating is embedded and parameters are varied
to observe the change in transmission.
4) Later, the 1D grating is embedded into the above
made line defect as shown in Fig. 4. The analysis
as shown in Figure 14 shows that as the dielectric
constant of the grating is increased, the
transmission gradually reduces. Also, the change
in waveguide mode is observed on adding the
grating.
7.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, we illustrated the wave guide mode features


of triangular lattice with a line defect and a 1D grating
embedded in it. The analysis of transmission is made by
varying the dielectric constant of 1D grating. All the
analysis is made by keeping the height as infinite. It is
observed that the transmission reduces as the dielectric
constant of grating increases. As the further research to
this, various filters can be realized using the above
proposed designs.
8.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our thanks to MIT Ab-initio Physics Group,


MIT, USA for the simulation software MPB and MEEP
software group.

Figure 14. Comparison of (A) transmission spectra of 1D


grating with epsilon=12, (B) transmission spectra of
triangular lattice with line defect (Fig. 3), (C) transmission
spectra of 1D grating with epsilon=10 and (D)
transmission spectra of 1D grating with epsilon=8

6.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1) Initially, a 2D photonic crystal is made with


triangular lattice of holes in slab as shown in
Fig.1. The dielectric constant of the slab is 12
with periodicity 1m. The radius of the holes is
0.42 m and height of the slab is infinity. These
values of regular lattice provide good platform for

9.

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