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Multimedia Database:
Multimedia database system stores & manages a
large collection of multimedia objects
Audio data, image data, video data, sequence
hypertext data (contain text,
text markups & linkages)
Audio-video equipment, CD-ROM, internet
Multimedia data mining focuses on image data
Multimedia data mining methods
Similarity search in multimedia data,
Multidimensional analysis,
Classification & prediction analysis and
Mining associations in multimedia data
Similarity Search In Multimedia Data
Two types of multimedia indexing and retrieval
Description-based retrieval system
Content-based retrieval system
Description-based retrieval system
Build indices and perform object retrieval based
on image descriptions,
Time of creation

Poor quality
Content-Based Retrieval System

Object retrieval is based on the image content,

color histogram
image topology
shape of objects and their layouts and locations
within the image
Desirable in many applications
Two kinds of queries
Image sample-based queries
Image feature specification queries
Image sample-based queries
Search compares the feature vector extracted
from the sample with images & indexed in image
Images closer to the sample images are returned
Image feature specification queries
Sketch image features(color, texture or shape)
Translated into feature vector to be matched with
the image database
Applications medical diagnosis, weather prediction,
web search engines for images
QBIC(Query By Image Content)
Support both sample-based & image feature
specification queries
Approaches for similarity-based retrieval in image

database based on image signature

Color histogram-based signature
Multifeature composed signature
Wavelet-based signature
Wavelet-based signature with


Color histogram-based signature

image signature includes color histogram based
on the color composition of an image
No information about shape, location or texture
Two images with similar color results in
unrelated semantics
Multifeature composed signature
Image signature includes a composition of
multiple features
Color histogram, shape, location and texture
Separate distance function for each feature
Few features are used to search for images with
similar features
Wavelet-based signature
Image signature includes the wavelet coefficients
of an image
Wavelets capture shape, texture & location
information in a single unified framework
Improves efficiency & reduces the need for
multiple search primitives
Computes a single signature for an entire image
Wavelet-based signature with region-based
Computation & comparison of signatures are at

the granularity of regions, not the entire image

Similar images may contain similar regions
Region in one image performs
translation/scaling of a matching region with
Similarity measure between query image &
target image
Multidimensional Analysis Of Multimedia Data
Multimedia data cube
contain additional dimensions
Measures for multimedia information color,
texture & shape
Multimedia miner
Image contains 2 descriptors feature descriptor
& a layout descriptor
Original image is not stored directly in database
Description information
Image file name
Image URL
Image type
List of keywords
Feature descriptor
set of vectors for visual characteristics
Main vectors color vector, MFC (Most
Frequent Color), MFO (Most Frequent
Orientation) vector
Layout descriptor
Color layout vector - MFC
Edge layout vector number of edges for each

Dimensions of multimedia data cube

Size of the image/video in bytes
Width & height of the frames
Date of creation (image/video)
Format type
Frame sequence duration in seconds
Keywords, color & edge orientation

Construction of a multimedia data cube

Facilitates multidimensional analysis
multimedia data
Based on visual content
Mining of multiple kinds of knowledge


Difficult to implement a data cube efficiently for

large number of dimensions
Attributes are set-oriented instead of single-valued
Eg : single image corresponds to set of keywords,
set of objects associated with set of colors

Classification & Prediction Analysis Of Multimedia

Scientific research astronomy, seismology &
geoscientific research

Decision tree classification essential data mining

Eg : sky images classified by astronomers as the
training set
constructing models for recognition of galaxies,
based on properties magnitudes, areas, intensity,
moments & orientation.sky images taken by
telescope are
tested against the constructed models to identify
Data preprocessing mining image data

Mining Associations In Multimedia Data

Association between image content & non-image
content features: if atleast 50% of the upper part of
the picture is blue, it is likely to represent sky

Association among image contents that are not

related to spatial relationships:if a picture
contains 2 blue squares, it is likely to contain one red
circle as well
Association among image contents related to
spatial relationships:if a red triangle is in between
2 yellow squares, it is likely there is a big ovalshaped object underneath
Multiple objects with multiple features large
number of possible associations

Essential to promote progressive resolution

Frequently occurring pattern mine at rough level &
focus on finer resolution level
Reduces the cost without loss of quality
Picture containing multiple recurrent objects is an
important feature in image analysis
Relative spatial relationships among multimedia
objects above, beneath, between, nearby

Audio & Video Data Mining

Demand for effective content-based retrieval & data
mining methods for audio & video data
Eg: editing video clips, detecting suspicious scenes in
MPEG & JPEG video compression schemes
MPEG-7- formally named Multimedia Content
Description Interface
Used in broad range of applications
Audiovisual description still pictures, video,
graphics, audio, speech

Elements in MPEG-7
A set of descriptors defines the syntax &
semantics of a feature
Structure & semantics of the relationships
between its components
A set of coding schemes for the descriptors
DDL(Description Definition Language)

Facilitates content-based video retrieval & video data

Video clip collection of actions & events in time
Shot group of frames/pictures
Key frame
Most representative frame in a video
Sequence of key frames defines the sequence of
the events in the video clip