Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 74

900 Wharves and Moorings

Abstract
Section 900 introduces basic layout and design considerations, including design
load calculations, for tanker wharves and offshore moorings. The guidelines are
written for entry-level engineers or experienced engineers working outside their
discipline or area of expertise. These guidelines can also be used for barge facilities. This section does not cover the design of piping and other facilities such as
vapor recovery systems.
Engineers can use this section to define the number of berths and layout of a tanker
wharf for given condi-tions, make preliminary estimates of breasting and mooring
loads, make preliminary decisions on construction materials, specify wharf loading
arms, and initially size a single point mooring buoy and its mooring system.

Chevron Corporation

Contents

Page

910

Background and Basic Data

900-3

911

Industry Codes and Practices

912

Environmental Considerations

920

Tanker Wharves

921

Required Design Information

922

Wharf Location and Layout

923

Types of Construction

924

Breasting System Design

925

Mooring System

926

Loading Platform and Loading Gear

927

Utilities and Other Facilities

930

Offshore Moorings

931

Mooring Types

932

Basic Data

933

Mooring Forces

934

Chain and Anchorage Design

900-5

900-35

900-1

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

December 1993

Civil and Structural Manual

935

Ship-to-Buoy Attachment

936

Underbuoy and Floating Hoses

937

Miscellaneous Design Considerations

938

Installation and Operation

940

Corrosion Protection

941

Cathodic Protection

942

Coatings

950

Glossary of Terms

900-69

960

Model Specifications and Standard Drawings

900-71

961

Model Specifications

962

Standard Drawings

970

References

971

Terminals and Wharves

972

Single Point Moorings

900-68

900-71

900-2

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

910 Background and Basic Data


This section lists pertinent industry codes and practices, and reviews the major
considerations in wharf and offshore mooring design.

911 Industry Codes and Practices


This section lists the applicable codes used for design of steel and concrete tanker
wharf structures and offshore moorings.
Manual of Steel ConstructionAmerican Institute of Steel Construction (AISC).
Includes: AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural
Steel for Buildings.
Structural Welding CodeAWS D1.1 American Welding Society (AWS).
Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. American Concrete Institute
(ACI 318, Latest Edition).
Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF)

Guidelines and Recommendations for Safe Mooring of Large Ships at Piers


and Sea Islands

Design and Construction Specification for Marine Loading Arms

Guide to Purchasing, Manufacturing and Testing of Loading and Discharge


Hoses for Offshore Moorings

Mooring Equipment Guidelines

Hawser Guidelines

SPM Hose Ancillary Equipment Guide

Buoy Mooring Forum Hose Guide

Recommendations for Equipment Employed in the Mooring of Ships at Single


Point Moorings

Single Point Mooring Maintenance and Operations Guide

U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. (Applicable publications that


address local requirements for marine transport, terminals, and navigation.)
API RP-2P, Analysis of Spread Mooring System for Floating Drilling Units.
ABS, Rules for Building and Classing Single Point Moorings.
API RP-FP1, Recommended Practice for Design, Analysis, Maintenance of Moorings for Floating Production Systems.

Chevron Corporation

900-3

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

912 Environmental Considerations


Design
Design decisions for tanker wharves and offshore moorings must be made while
bearing in mind the importance of protecting the environment. The potential for
accidental discharge of hydrocarbons into the marine environment is always present
by the very nature of a tanker terminal. The fact that significant accidental
discharge occurs so rarely attests to the efficacy both of operational procedures and
the designs of the Company marine terminals. Proposed new facilities should draw
heavily on the successful experience of the Company both for operations and
design.
The following agency or operational-related concerns and requirements may impact
terminal designs, but a detailed discussion is not within the scope of this guideline.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


Coast Guard regulations
Spill contingency plans
Deck drainage and waste handling
Tanker emissions
Support and maintenance craft impacts
Testing of terminal lines

The potential environmental areas and concerns that frequently have to be


addressed as a part of a wharf or mooring design are listed below for dredging and
construction operations.

Dredging Operations

The actual dredging operation will disturb marine life within a localized area
around the work.

Bottom sediments to be dredged may contain metals or other chemical


compounds. The dredging operation disturbs these materials and a portion of
the sediments will be resuspended in the surrounding waters. The actual
impacts on marine life are not well understood and are very controversial.
Studies report such extremes as growth stimulation by nutrients released to the
surrounding water to toxicity from poisons.

Getting approval on the disposal of dredged spoils can be difficult and


adequate lead time must be scheduled.

December 1993

Offshore disposal. The concerns mentioned above regarding disruption to


marine life (loss of feeding grounds) and possible undesirable material in
the spoils applies to disposal.
Onshore disposal. Even with a dedicated dredge spoils disposal area, there
are a number of concerns to be addressed. These primarily relate to getting
sufficient settlement time for the spoils material so that the specified limitations on suspended solids in the final runoff are met.

900-4

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Permits are typically required for both dredging and disposal operations.

Construction Operations

Air emissions that are produced by construction equipment must be addressed.

Noise emissions, particularly from pile driving operations, may be a problem if


the facility is close to residential areas. Certain activities may need to be
limited to specific work hours.

Fuel transfers to equipment can be of major concern. In some cases special


impounding is required to contractors floating equipment in order to refuel at
the site.

Accidental or deliberate discharge of prohibited materials into the surrounding


waters must be prevented. These materials include hydrocarbon spills,
restricted vessel discharge, construction-type materials, or rubbish. Strict rules
governing the contractors activities must be issued and enforced.

920 Tanker Wharves


This section outlines design information needed and tells how to select a site and
lay out a wharf. It describes the choice of materials for wharf construction and
gives design details for breasting and mooring systems, loading platform, loading
gear, and utilities. Figure 900-1 describes six Company tanker wharves with associated construction costs.
For information on completing a tanker berthing impact analysis, see Appendix D
of this manual.

Chevron Corporation

900-5

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-1

Civil and Structural Manual

Six Company Wharf Structures for Tankers

December 1993

900-6

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

921 Required Design Information


The following items are presented as a checklist of information that should be
obtained or developed during the course of a wharf design project. The extent of
information required for a particular item varies from case to case.

Functional Requirements
1.

Number of berths.

2.

Range of tanker sizes for each berth. (Obtain such tanker dimensions as overall
length, parallel mid-body length vs. draft, position of manifold flanges, in addition to tanker displacements.)

3.

Water depth requirements.

4.

Mooring and breasting dolphin arrangements.

Product Requirements
1.

Types of products to be handled and their fluid properties.

2.

Design loading and/or unloading rates.

3.

Ballast handling requirements.

Meteorological Data
1.

Wind conditions.
a.

Wind roses (frequency of occurrence by velocity and direction) for each


month.

b.

Maximum wind velocity and directionannual basis and also 50- or 100year return period.

2.

Extreme temperatures.

3.

Visibility conditions for each month.

Oceanographic Data
1.

Chevron Corporation

Wave conditions
a.

Wave roses (frequency of occurrence by height and direction) for each


month. Also swell conditions by height and period (by months).

b.

Maximum wave height with direction and period for 50- or 100-year
return period.

2.

Astronomical tide ranges for neaps and springs. Class of tidediurnal, semidiurnal.

3.

Storm surge or tide in feet.

900-7

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

4.

Current velocities and directions. Field measurements are typically required. A


survey of the local current behavior is helpfultide rips, eddies, shear lines,
for example.

5.

Harbor oscillation or seiche action if any. Again, field measurements may be


required.

6.

Sand movement if any.

7.

Ice conditions including strength, thickness, and approach direction.

Sea Bottom Conditions


1.

Soil borings and soil tests. Extent of coverage and nature of tests will vary with
type of structure proposed and also with type of soils encountered. The potential for scour or filling in should be checked. With this data, design criteria for
anchors and piles or other foundations can be developed.

2.

Obstruction surveys. A wire-drag survey to locate hidden navigation obstructions, rock out-crops and coral heads, for example. Side-scan sonar surveys are
also very helpful in assessing bottom conditions.

3.

Acoustic sub-bottom profiling to extend range of soil survey.

Earthquake Design Requirements


1.

Earthquake zone for site.

2.

Potential for tsunami action at site.

Operational Requirements/Permit Requirements


1.

Cargo loading systemhose versus arm.

2.

Mooring gear requirementshooks, posts, and/or pulleys.

3.

Utility system requirements.

4.

Means of personnel access.

5.

Communication system requirements.

6.

Office, warehouse, washroom needs.

7.

Tugboat and mooring launch needs.

8.

Safety equipment requirementslife rings, Jacobs ladders, etc.

9.

Fire protection and emergency evacuation.

10. Oil spill clean-up requirements, spill booms, etc.


11. On-deck spill containment facilities.
12. Navigation aids (Ref.: U.S. Coast Guard).
13. Drainage needs.

December 1993

900-8

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

14. Cargo hose handling and storage.

922 Wharf Location and Layout


When planning a Company wharf, it is important to have the counsel of Chevron
Shipping from the outset. Agreement as to the design range for tanker displacements and dimensions, design wind, current and wave forces, critical water depths,
clearances, operating limitations and mooring arrangement is vital.

Site Selection
The location selected for a tanker wharf should be based on the following:
1.

Accessibility to point of need, e.g., refinery, oil field or terminal.

2.

Protection from open-sea exposure.

3.

Required water depth.

4.

Tanker maneuvering room.

5.

Prevailing wind, wave, current and ice conditions.

6.

Construction problems presented by soil and oceanographic conditions.

Where an otherwise attractive wharf site is exposed to wave action, thereby limiting
the period for safe tanker operation, the use of offshore moorings (conventional
spread moorings and single-point moorings) should be considered as well as the
possibility of breakwater construction.

Wharf Layout
A tanker wharf must be laid out in a manner that permits the mooring lines to hold
the tanker in the correct position with respect to the loading platform. Mooring
points should be located as nearly as possible symmetrically about the center line of
the wharf. Mooring line arrangements should be such that the mooring lines range
from 115 to 165 feet in length, with parallel lines as close as possible to the same
length.
The overall length of the wharf is controlled by the maximum length of tanker to be
handled. This distance should be such that the bow and stern mooring lines make an
angle no less than 45 degrees with the axis of the wharf for the maximum size
tanker.
Guidelines and recommendations for mooring large ships at fixed structures are
presented in the Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) publication,
Guidelines and Recommendations for the Safe Mooring of Large Ships at Piers and
Sea Islands, (Reference 8). This reference represents the industry standard and
should be continuously reviewed during design of a tanker wharf.
The major components of a wharf are: 1) mooring structures, 2) breasting structures, 3) loading platform, 4) pipeway/causeway, and 5) connecting walkways.
Figure 900-2 shows a typical wharf layout. A mooring structure is any element that

Chevron Corporation

900-9

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

holds the ships mooring lines to restrain the ship. Such a structure can be as elaborate as a framed steel platform or as simple as an anchored buoy. A breasting
element is a structure that resists the motion of the tanker normal to the axis of the
wharf. These elements are usually designed to withstand the impact of a tanker
during docking. The loading platform supports the cargo transfer piping plus the
gear necessary to make the connection to the tanker manifold. Finally, the
pipeway/causeway connects the wharf to the shore facilities, and the connecting
walkways provide access from the loading platform to the mooring and breasting
structures. Where the wharf is well offshore and no solid cargo is to be handled, it
can be economical to use submarine pipelines in place of the pipeway/causeway.
Without a causeway, however, rough sea conditions can restrict access to the
loading platform and lead to operational problems.
Fig. 900-2

Typical Wharf Layout

The first three of these components can be combined in a wide variety of ways to
suit a particular location. For example, a single, quay-like structure that combines
all components in one unit could be used in relatively shallow water, whereas a
multi-element structure may be preferred in deeper water.
The wharf should be oriented to minimize mooring loads. Typically this means
aligning the wharf axis with the direction of the current. In some areas with very
weak currents, it may be advisable to set the wharf parallel to the prevailing wind
direction. In harbor basins known to be subject to surging, it may be possible to
locate the wharf at a spot where surge action is minimal.

923 Types of Construction


Tanker wharves have been constructed of timber, concrete and steel or a combination of these materials. Economics and service requirements determine the best
material.

December 1993

900-10

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Timber Construction
Timber has proven successful in light-duty wharves. The term light-duty, of
course, is relative and must reflect tanker size, berth occupancy, and wharf exposure. For example, the Point Orient Wharf at Richmond, before its modification in
1985, was all-timber and handled four to five tankers per month ranging in size up
to 29,000 DWT. In 1985, a steel-and-concrete fender system and mooring dolphins
were added to increase the wharfs capacity to 40,000 DWT.
Timber construction can also be used for the loading platform portion of heavierduty structures if the mooring forces and tanker impact loads are handled by other
structures.
Timber elements should be pressure treated with wood preservative to provide
some resistance to marine borers, insects, and decay fungi. Pressure treatment
should conform to American Wood Preservers Association (AWPA) Standard C18,
Standard for Pressure-Treated Material in Marine Construction. Handling requirements and field treatment of cuts and holes should be in accordance with AWPA
Standard M4, Standard for the Care of Preservative-Treated Wood Products.
To stop attack of marine borers, concrete jackets (or PVC wrap) have been applied
successfully from below the mudline to above the tidal range.
Timber has other uses in wharf construction. Mooring dolphins can be constructed
out of a cluster of 3, 7 or 9 individual piles strapped together by cable-windings.
The strength of such dolphins depends on the water depth and soil conditions, but
they are generally limited to design mooring line pulls of less than 20 kips. At the
Empire Terminal, creosoted Southern Yellow Pine is used as a rubbing surface on
the loading platform fender designed for barges. Tropical hardwoods such as Greenhart and Azobe have been used in this service at the BORCO wharves to improve
service life. The use of these hardwoods is limited, however, because they are
expensive and difficult to work.
Timber design, in the absence of any governing local code, should conform to the
National Design Specification for Stress-Grade Lumber and its Fastenings,
published by the National Forest Products Association.

Steel Construction
Steel is most often used for the primary members in major tanker wharves. These
wharves can be of open-construction (tubular jacket structures supported on steel
pipe piles), or they can be solid, quay wall-like structures using sheet-pile cells.
This latter type of construction is more suited to freight handling wharves and is
less frequently used where the wharf is strictly for tankers.
The four sea island berths at the BORCO refinery are examples of steel construction in deep water. In this design, the mooring dolphins are rigidly trussed towers;
the breasting dolphins are flexible elements using high-strength steel; while the
loading platforms are special jack-up type barges. Catwalks supported on light,
tubular trusses provide access to the various elements. Sub-sea pipelines connect
the wharves to the refinery tankage.

Chevron Corporation

900-11

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Steel design, in the absence of any governing local code, should conform to the
Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings, published by the American Institute of Steel Construction. To prevent moisture penetration, all pipe, plate, and structural shape intersections should be
completely seal welded. Structural steel members which can retain water should be
avoided or provided with adequate drainage to minimize corrosion.
The construction of new large tanker wharves often involves the use of tubular steel
members. Tubular design and pile design should conform to the American Petroleum Institutes Recommended Practice (RP 2A) for Planning, Designing, and
Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms, (Reference 10).
Direct connections between tubular members require special design consideration
to insure proper behavior. Two problems are especially important. First, where a
tube of smaller diameter is connected to the outside of a larger diameter tube (with
no stiffeners or gussets), it is important to be sure the wall thickness of the larger
tube is thick enough to resist the very high local stresses that will be induced.
Second, in earthquake areas, it is important to detail the connection so it can carry
high strains (strains several times greater than those at nominal yield in the joint).
The design of tubular joints should be in accordance with API RP 2A.
Steel piles are often used for wharf structures because they are resilient, light to
handle, capable of being driven hard to deep penetration and readily cut off or
extended in the field if required. Tubular piles are preferable to H-Section because
they induce smaller drag forces. Tubular piles may be driven closed-ended to
develop end bearing resistance over the pile base area. For hard driving conditions
(e.g., gravelly soil lenses), open-ended piles should be used. For easy to moderately
easy driving conditions, no shoes or other strengthening devices at the pile toe are
required. Where open-ended piles must be driven through resistant layers to obtain
deeper penetration, or where they must be driven into rock, the toes can be strengthened by welding on a steel ring. Alternatively, cast alloy cutting shoes are available.
Associated Pile and Fitting Corporation, for example, markets a variety of shoes for
both tubular and H piles. Internal rings (or inside flange cutting shoes) should be
used where necessary to develop the full frictional resistance of the pile shaft.

Concrete Construction
Concrete has wide application in marine construction because of its durability and
cost advantages. In wharf construction, concrete is often precast (piling and deck
panels, for example) to simplify handling by marine equipment.
In situations where a large deck area is desired and where the water depth is in the
30- to 50-foot range, precast, prestressed concrete piles can be used economically.
Because these structures are rigid, special fenders are needed to handle ship impact
loads. The Berth 4 addition to the Richmond Long Wharf is an example of this type
of construction.
In the absence of any local governing code, concrete design should conform to the
American Concrete Institutes Building Code Requirements for Reinforced
Concrete (ACI 318) and its Guide for the Design and Construction of Fixed
Offshore Concrete Structures (ACI 357R).

December 1993

900-12

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Prestressed concrete pile design should conform to the Prestressed Concrete Institutes Recommended Practice for Design, Manufacture, and Installation of
Prestressed Concrete Piling.
The steel reinforcing in concrete wharf structures must be protected from corrosion
by proper construction details and construction practice. Reinforcement in regions
exposed to salt water or salt spray should be given special concrete cover: 3 or 4
inches for cast-in-place concrete and 2-1/2 inches for precast concrete. Adequate
steel should be provided for the control of temperature and shrinkage cracking.
Most important of all is to use a good, sound, durable concrete mix. Minimum
strength should not be less than 4,000 psi at 28 days and air-entrainment should be
provided. ASTM Type II cement should be used. The use of epoxy-coated reinforcing steel should also be considered.

924 Breasting System Design


The basis of fender design is the energy which the fender system must be able to
absorb during the berthing operation. The breasting structure is designed for the
reaction force that exists when the energy absorbing elements are deformed to the
extent that their stored potential energy equals the design kinetic energy. The structure must be able to resist wave forces as well, but in virtually all cases, tanker
breasting forces will control design.
The two most commonly used methods of determining the design kinetic energy
are the kinetic method and the statistical method.

Kinetic Method
The kinetic approach is based on theoretical consideration of the ships kinetic
energy. The kinetic energy of the berthing ship, assuming the ship moves in pure
translation, is:
(KE)ship = m (v)2
(Eq. 900-1)

where:
m = mass of the ship
v = approach velocity
The energy to be absorbed by the fender system is based on the ships energy, but
the calculation is complicated by other considerations including the inertia of the
water moving with the ship and the partial energy dissipation/absorption by
elements other than the fender system. This approach is discussed in more detail in
Appendix D of this manual.
The kinetic approach, although widely used, has a number of shortcomings (e.g.,
the large number of assumptions involved in establishing design velocity and
energy modification coefficients). Accurate evaluation of the tanker approach
velocity is especially important because the design energy is proportional to the
square of velocity. For most locations, proper mooring practice calls for the tanker

Chevron Corporation

900-13

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

to be brought to a complete stop at some distance off the face of the wharf and then
to be pushed sideways (athwartship) by tugs until it comes against the breasting
elements. Normally one of the breasting structures is contacted before the other.
Fender damage occurs when tankers approach with accidentally high velocities.
The design of breasting elements from an economic standpoint must assume that
tankers will have a controlled velocity at the time of contact. It is not practical to
design for abnormally high approach velocities. The design velocity should vary
with the degree of exposure and the amount of current at the wharf. If the wharf is
to handle barges as well as tankers, a higher velocity for the barges should be
considered because of their unwieldy nature.

Statistical Method
The statistical method is based on measurements of energies actually absorbed in
fenders at existing terminals. Therefore, it automatically includes the effects of the
energy modification coefficients listed above. The statistical method even includes
the human factor, which contributes to the variability of tanker approach velocities.
Information collected to date indicates that the most important parameters affecting
fender energy are ship size and current conditions. The data analyses, therefore,
concentrate on variation of the impact energies with these two parameters. Figures
900-3, 900-4, and 900-5 present the recommended design normalized energy to be
used for fender design of three types of harbors. The graphs are based on analysis
of accumulated data presented in Reference 4 of Section 971. Statistics used in the
analysis of the three types of harbors included in Reference 4 follow.
Fig. 900-3

December 1993

Design Energy Coefficient, Harbor Type A

900-14

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

Chevron Corporation

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-4

Design Energy Coefficient, Harbor Type B

Fig. 900-5

Design Energy Coefficient, Harbor Type C

900-15

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Harbor Type A. Well protected against waves, no current, sufficient tugboat


running assistance available.
Rotterdam, British Petroleum Berth 1 461 Arrivals
Rotterdam, British Petroleum Berth 2 526 Arrivals
Esso Berth Kalundborg, Denmark

166 Arrivals

Torshamnen, Gotenburg, Sweden

1916 Arrivals

Total Data Type A:

3069 Arrivals

Harbor Type B. Well protected against waves but exposed to moderate (2-4 knots)
current parallel to berth.
Gulfhavn Stignaes, Denmark

149 Arrivals

British Petroleum Berth, Finnart, UK 270 Arrivals


Wilhemshafen, NWO Berth

659 Arrivals

Total Data Type B:

1078 Arrivals

Harbor Type C. Well protected against waves, but exposed to currents running in
directions significantly different from the orientation of berth.
British Petroleum Berth, Kent, UK

578 Arrivals

Total Data, Type C:

578 Arrivals

The recommended design kinetic energy for each primary breasting element is:
(KE)Design = Ceff(W)
(Eq. 900-2)

where:
(KE)Design = design Kinetic Energy, ft-lb/1000
W = tanker displacement at time of mooring, long tons/1000
Ceff = statistical energy coefficient, kip feet per 1000 long tons (2240
pounds per long ton). The coefficient will depend on wharf exposure, ship displacement, and desired reliability.
For a receiving wharf, the design displacement W will usually be for full tanker
displacement. For a shipping wharf, the displacement may be for a ballasted tanker.
However, shipping wharves which are used for topping off should be designed
for the highest vessel displacement expected to berth.
It should be emphasized that the energy coefficient design graphs are based on
limited berthing data from a limited number of locations for fully loaded vessels.
Until more measurements are incorporated in the design graphs, considerable judgment will be needed to select an appropriate design energy. This is especially true
for designs in very exposed locations (Type C Harbors) for which little data are
available.

December 1993

900-16

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Reference 4 cautions that due to the lack of a strong data base, statistically derived
energies should be compared with those predicted by the kinetic method. Reference
4 also presents a more rigorous statistical procedure for determining risk and the
statistical distribution of fender energies based on an assumed distribution of ship
sizes. The extent of analysis appropriate for a particular design should be evaluated
by the designer.
Because of their increased freeboard, partly laden vessels are more easily influenced by wind load, thereby making them more difficult to control. However, the
scarce published data for partly laden vessels do not show appreciable differences
in design energy for partly laden and fully laden vessels at design risk levels (Reference 11 of Section 971).

Risk
The statistical behavior of fender impact energies requires that the designer explicitly consider the probability (risk) that the selected fender energy will be exceeded.
The assignment of acceptable risk is ultimately the responsibility of the owner of
the facility, based on advice from the designer. The following should be considered:
1.

The number of berthings expected during the life of the fender.

2.

Economic consequences of a shutdown due to damage. A one-berth facility


may require a lower risk level than a multi-berth facility.

3.

The expense of performing repairs compared to the initial investments involved


in increasing the capacity of the fender to an energy value with a small risk.

For comparison, past Company practice has labeled design values with an
exceedence probability of 1 in 500 berthings (0.2%) as Low Risk and 1 in 100
berthings (1%) as Moderate Risk.

Frictional Forces
In addition to forces perpendicular to the fender panel, the fender system must be
designed to resist frictional forces in the plane of the panel. Frictional forces should
be obtained from Equation 900-3 and applied in any direction in the plane of the
panel that creates maximum stresses in the structural components.
Ff = (N)
(Eq. 900-3)

where:
Ff = design frictional force, lb.
= coefficient of friction between the ships hull and the fender

panel (Typically, 0.3 < < 0.4)

N = maximum horizontal normal force on the fender panel, lb.

Chevron Corporation

900-17

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Fender Design: General


The design kinetic energy from Equation 900-2 is taken by the breasting elements,
which usually transfer this energy of movement into stored potential energy. This
fender structure must, therefore, be designed to carry a potential energy equal to the
design kinetic energy as follows:
(PE) Fender = (KE) Design
(Eq. 900-4)

The amount of stored energy in a structure is equal to the area under the load-deflection curve of the structure. In a linear, elastic system, potential energy is given by:
PE = 1/2 (K) (X)2
(Eq. 900-5)

where:
PE = potential energy, kip-ft.
K = spring constant of the system, kip-ft.
X = deflection of the fender, ft.

Fender Types and Breasting Dolphin Design


The primary design problem for a wharf fender, therefore, is to maximize deflection without overstressing any of the structural members. Current practice for
wharves designed to handle tankers over 40,000 DWT is to insert special rubber
units in the structure between the fender panel and the primary support structure or
breasting dolphins. Figure 900-6 shows some common rubber fender units. The
average service life of rubber fenders is about 25 years. The size and type of rubber
units should depend upon the rigidity of the structural system to which they are
attached.
It is critical in fender selection that the fender absorb a large amount of energy
while transmitting a relatively small reaction to the wharf structure. The fender
manufacturers have different hardnesses of rubber available in various fender sizes.
Mid-range rubber hardness is desirable; the harder rubbers, while absorbing more
energy, transmit a larger reaction to the wharf structure, and the softer fenders have
not been as durable.
The rated deflection of rubber fenders more commonly used today ranges from 45
to 55% of the fender length in the direction of loading. The maximum reaction
load, however, does not often occur at the rated deflection. Therefore, when determining the load for which to design the structure, the entire performance curve for
the fender should be observed. Often, a high load reaction occurs at approximately
20% deflection. Figure 900-7 shows a typical performance curve for a rubber
fender unit.
The relationship between energy absorption and fender reaction of the buckling
fenders is non-linear. That is, the reaction may be increasing faster or slower than
the fenders ability to absorb energy. Because of this non-linear relationship, consid-

December 1993

900-18

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

Chevron Corporation

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-6

Rubber Fenders

Fig. 900-7

Typical Rubber Fender Performance Curve

900-19

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

eration should be given to compatibility of safety factors for the structure and
fender. This issue is discussed in detail in Section 2.2.6 of Reference 4
(Section 971). The possibility of providing extra energy absorption capacity in the
fender should be considered as part of the overall assessment of safety factors in
design loads and allowable stresses.
The performance of these fenders will be altered depending on the angular
approach of the tanker on the fender. Fender manufacturers offer methods to
analyze fender systems for different angles of approach. The fender connection
details as well as the breasting structure must be able to handle approach angles
(included angles between tanker side and fender panel surface) of at least 10
degrees. This angle may be smaller for ULCCs and VLCCs.
Another common practice is to use flexible tubular piles of high strength steel (steel
monopiles) cantilevering from the bottom as fenders. Rubber fender units are
usually attached near the top of the monopile, between the pile and the dock structure, to increase the energy absorbing capacity of the fender system. The use of
high strength steel increases the importance of considering weldability and susceptibility to local buckling.
The performance of flexible dolphins has been generally good, except for several
cases of localized buckling prior to attainment of the steel yield strength. This
should be considered when selecting allowable stresses.
In case of accidental overload, the monopile should be designed to maintain its
capacity through concentrated inelastic deformation. Portions of the piles where
inelastic deformation is possible should be designed to compact section requirements of API RP-2A (D/t < 1300/Fy, ksi). Other portions of the pile should be sized
to preclude local buckling (D/t < 60).
Spacing of Breasting Dolphins. The spacing of breasting dolphins, where isolated
units are used, should be about one-third the overall length (LOA) of the largest
tanker to be handled. To ensure contact with the parallel sides of the vessels to be
moored, however, the spacing limits are generally set a minimum of .25 LOA and a
maximum of .4 LOA for the largest vessel. If a wide range of tanker sizes is
expected, then intermediate breasting dolphins must be spotted between the end
dolphins. The parallel mid-body length of the smallest size tanker will control the
spacing of these intermediate dolphins.
End Breasting Dolphins. Experience has shown that the most frequently damaged
fenders are the end or corner breasting dolphins. Because of their critical exposure,
an increase in design energy for these fenders may be justified.
Fender Panel Design. Most fender systems include fender panels, frameworks that
receive the ships impact and distribute the impact force over a large enough hull
area so that no damage is done to the ship. The area of the fender panel must be
large enough to hold the peak pressure on the vessel hull under 5000 psf and preferably under 4000 psf. The fender panel should also be wide enough to span between
the transverse frames in the tanker, if possible. For a 270,000 DWT tanker, this
spacing can approach 20 feet.

December 1993

900-20

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

The contact surface of the fender panel must be covered with a material which
offers a low coefficient of friction in order to reduce friction loads between the
ships hull and the fender panel. Synthetic resins, high density polyethylenes, and
other engineering plastics are commonly used for this purpose. Corrosion resistance
should be considered when selecting materials for all hardware, including the
fasteners which attach the wear pads to the fender panel. The preferred material for
performance in immersion service is Monel; however, economics and availability
issues often dictate use of alternate materials. Due to susceptibility to pitting of
stainless steels and rapid depletion of zinc coating (galvanizing) in salt water, these
materials are not recommended for immersion service. Company materials specialists should be consulted when specifying materials for severe service environments.
It is important to specify beveled edges on the fender panel to prevent protruding
plates in the vessel hull from hanging up on the panel and overstressing the fender.
Fender panels should also be detailed to prevent mooring lines from catching on or
running underneath the panel. If barges are expected to use the wharf, the panel
design should prevent them from getting beneath the panel under all sea conditions.
When rubber fender units are used, it is usually necessary to install fender panel
chains to transfer the shear and tension forces from the panel to the support structure. Chain assemblies should be designed with a weak-link component (e.g.,
shackle) which will fail before structural damage occurs. Each assembly should
also include a turnbuckle to facilitate length adjustments during construction and
service life. The chains function as follows:
1.

Tension Chainsresist rotation of the fender panel in a vertical plane caused


by impact from a vessel at the bottom of the panel.

2.

Load Chainssupport the dead load of the fender panels.

3.

Shear Chainstransfer frictional forces in the plane of the fender panel.

Allowable Stresses. The maximum allowable stress under impact conditions for
structural steel members in wharf construction should typically be limited to 1.33
times the basic design stress given in the AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings. This factor is generally used
for extreme environmental loading conditions. Fendering units which impart near
maximum reaction forces with little deflection regularly subject structures to high
forces (see Figure 900-7). The potential energy stored in a deflected structure also
varies as the square of the bending stress. Therefore, using a very high allowable
stress drastically reduces the amount of overload capacity or safety factor before
reaching the ultimate bending capacity. This factor should be carefully considered
when setting the allowable stress for design of breasting dolphins.
Rated Approach Velocity. When Equation 900-2 is used to determine the design
kinetic energy, approach velocity is not explicitly considered. If the wharfs operators require a design approach velocity, Equation 900-1 can be solved for V using
the statistically based design energy. A typical maximum velocity is 0.4 to 0.5 feet
per second. A higher or lower value may be appropriate depending on wharf exposure and operational requirements.

Chevron Corporation

900-21

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

925 Mooring System


Mooring Layout
Wharves must be laid out to provide proper orientation of mooring lines. Proper
location of mooring structures is critical in optimizing the range of environmental
conditions under which a vessel can be safely held at the berth. Typically, there are
three functional classifications for mooring lines used to hold a tanker alongside a
wharf (See Figure 900-8):
1.

Bow and stern lines.

2.

Spring lines.

3.

Breasting lines.

Reference 8 in Section 971 discusses recommended mooring principles and should


be consulted when designing a mooring arrangement.
Fig. 900-8

Mooring Line Arrangement

If adequate mooring facilities are made available for good breasting and spring line
arrangement, a ship can be moored most efficiently virtually within its own length.
Bow and stern lines, due to their long length and poor orientation, are usually not
very efficient in holding a vessel at berth. The vertical angle of mooring lines
should be kept to a minimum and always less than 25 degrees. Horizontally applied
loads are more efficiently resisted as the mooring line gets flatter.
The spring lines hold the tanker in position longitudinally along the wharf and act
as shock absorbing elements. The breasting lines hold the tanker from drifting away
from the face of the wharf.
Mooring elements must be positioned to handle the expected range of tanker sizes.
This often means that additional mooring dolphins must be spotted between the
ones on the extreme ends of the wharf. It may be desirable to have the breasting
dolphins also double as mooring dolphins to handle spring lines. Where practical
for example, at wharves where berthing is only on one sidethe mooring dolphins
should be set back from the breasting face of the wharf by as much as 100 to 150

December 1993

900-22

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

feet, to limit the upward component of the mooring pull (tanker light) and also to
reduce the navigational hazards.
In locations subject to large waves or seiches, the mooring system must be analyzed
to ensure that it has enough elasticity to accommodate expected tanker displacements.

Design Mooring Forces


Theoretical mooring forces are calculated from the locations design wind, wave,
and current that would act on the largest tanker for which the wharf is designed.
These calculated (theoretical) forces are used to optimize the layout of mooring
structures. Generally, calculated mooring line forces should be restricted to about
55 percent of the minimum breaking load (MBL) of the weakest line in the system.
Figure 900-9 lists typical breaking strengths of typical mooring line components.
The strengths of these components will vary slightly from one manufacturer to
another.
Typical Breaking Strength of Mooring Line Components, Kips

Fig. 900-9

Size (inches) Diam.

Circum.

Manila

28.4

1-5/16

15

49

31

106

9(1)

64

229

12

105

396

15

606

Size (inches)

6x24 wire rope


Galvanized Plow
Steel

6x37 wire rope


Galvanized Plow
Steel

Polyester (Double Braid)

Cast Steel Stud


Link Chain

Die Lock Chain

57

64

84.5

129

1-1/2

126

142(1)

185

280

1-5/8

220(1)

220

248

322

488

2-1/2

492

744

693

1045

3-1/2

922

1383

1176

(1) Hawsers commonly carried on Chevron Shipping vessels.

The theoretical mooring forces can be calculated as the sum of the current,
wave/surge, and wind forces, in various tide and vessel draft conditions. CPTC (San

Chevron Corporation

900-23

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Ramon) maintains state-of-the-art analysis capabilities for the prediction of design


mooring forces.
The design force for a mooring dolphin should be calculated according to the
following equation:
PD = 0.55 N(S) PT
(Eq. 900-6)

where:
N = number of hawsers that may be run to the dolphin (consult
Chevron Shipping Co.)
S = breaking strength of each hawser, kips
PD = design mooring force on the dolphin, kips
PT = theoretical mooring force on the dolphin in kips, calculated by
subjecting the design tanker to the wind, current, and wave forces.
The stresses caused by this design force are at a working stress level (i.e., they are
to be compared with soil or material allowable stresses).
Figure 900-10 lists design mooring forces used for selected Company facilities.
Wind Forces. The design wind velocity should be the maximum velocity expected
at the wharf site when a tanker is at berth. The design wind velocity should not, in
normal circumstances, exceed 60 knots, because in practice the tanker must move
off the wharf when a severe storm approaches.
Current Forces. In the preliminary design phase, studies should be made to determine current velocities and direction. Where large currents are present, studies to
determine primary current direction and variability may be justified. It is desirable
to locate and orient the wharf so that the wharf face is within 2 to 3 degrees of the
primary current direction. Mooring line forces are extremely sensitive to vessels
moored at an angle to current direction.
Other Forces. Three other types of design forces should be mentioned: surge
forces, ice forces, and wave forces Surge forces can arise in several ways; for
example, in harbors with narrow channels, passing ships can cause oscillation in
turning basins with resulting surging of moored ships. This happens along the
Houston Ship Channel. A second type of surging occurs in harbors subject to
seiching. Seiching is a long period (2 minutes to 10 minutes, typically) resonant
oscillation of a bay, inlet or lake. Monterey Bay in California experiences seiching.
For surging, the best solution (if the wharf cannot be relocated) is to run additional
mooring lines and keep them snugged-up. The breaking strength of these extra
lines, of course, adds to the mooring forces to be considered in design.
Ice forces can be a design factor in many areas of the world. Typically, broken,
floating sheets of ice move down rivers or tidal estuaries and exert force against the
tanker. A possible design condition is where an ice floe becomes trapped between
the tanker and the wharf resulting in large form-drag forces being developed.

December 1993

900-24

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-10 Design Mooring Forces


Empire (1982)
150,000 DWT

- Bow

550 kips/dolphin

- Breast and Stern

440 kips/dolphin

- Spring

440 kips/dolphin

- Bow and Stern

250 kips/dolphin

- Breast

250 kips/dolphin

- Spring

160 kips/dolphin

- Bow and Stern

400 kips/dolphin

- Spring

350 kips/dolphin

- Bow and Stern

600 kips/dolphin (1)

- Spring

(Outer)

350 kips/dolphin

(Inner)

185 kips/dolphin

(Outer)

650 kips/dolphin

(Inner)

350 kips/dolphin

Pascagoula - Berth 7 (1982)


100,000 DWT

Oak Point (1978)


40,000 DWT

Borco - Berth 9 and 10 Jetty (1970)


Berth 10 (Outer Berth)
(400,000 DWT)

- Breast

Berth 9 (Inner Berth)


(120,000 DWT)

- Bow and Stern

600 kips/dolphin (1)

- Spring

185 kips/dolphin

- Breast

385 kips/dolphin

- Bow and Stern

230 kips/dolphin (2)

Nikiski (1969)
80,000 DWT

(1) At BORCO, bow and stern dolphins handle both inside and outside berths.
(2) At NIKISKI, ice forces plus very high currents control design. Spring lines run to combined breastingloading platform.

Designers must rely on their judgment to determine if such a situation is a practical


operating condition.
The structure should also be checked for wave forces, but tanker-induced forces
almost always control.

Chevron Corporation

900-25

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Mooring Equipment
Mooring hooks, bitts, bollards, and similar mooring equipment must be provided to
hold the mooring lines. For major facilities, quick-release hooks are furnished to
reduce the manpower needed to castoff a tanker.
These hooks should be proof tested to 150% of their design load. The hooks and
their anchorages, depending on their configuration, may allow 180-degree hook
rotation in the horizontal plane, but it is usually not practical to design for the 180degree rotation. The variety of mooring line arrangements normally encountered at
a tanker wharf does not subject these hooks to such rotation. In addition, the hooks
should be able to handle loads acting at an angle of 30 degrees up from the horizontal. The trip mechanism must be able to release under full load and slack line
conditions. Figure 900-11 shows some typical hooks.
Fig. 900-11 Mooring Equipment

Manufacturer catalogs should be consulted for the rotation and combined rotations
available. Common suppliers of mooring equipment are Seebeck, Sugita and Washington Chain and Supply. Coating of steel mooring equipment should be specified
after consulting the Companys Coatings Manual. Good protection has been
obtained with polyamide epoxy over inorganic zinc. An additional coat of aliphatic
polyurethane is sometimes recommended for additional protection.

December 1993

900-26

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

To simplify running of lines during mooring, motor-driven capstans should be


spotted near the hooks or integral with them. These capstans should have a 12- to
15-inch diameter barrel and a minimum loaded pulling capacity of 1 to 3 tons with
a motor geared to give a pull rate of 60 to 80 feet per minute. The capstan height
(center line of hawser on capstan) should be 30 inches to 40 inches above the deck.
Capstans should be provided with a mechanism which prevents free-wheeling of
the drum if power is interrupted. All electrical equipment and motor enclosures
must meet requirements of the applicable area classification.
Mooring pulleys should be considered for use on tanker wharves where a number
of line limited ships (ships having an inadequate number of mooring lines) are
expected to berth. These pulleys allow single mooring lines to be doubled up in
order to adequately restrain the vessel at its berth. A typical quick-releasing pulley
is shown in Figure 900-11.

926 Loading Platform and Loading Gear


Loading Platforms
The loading platform supports the cargo transfer piping and is usually the operations center for the wharf. In some installationsNikiski, for examplethe loading
platform is also the primary breasting structure. More recently, the practice has
been to provide separate breasting structures to isolate the loading platform from
any tanker forces. The BORCO wharf is an example of this arrangement.
When the loading platform is designed as an isolated unit, wave and current forces
(or ice) control the structural design. In designing to resist wave forces, it is vital to
provide sufficient clearance between the crest of the design wave and the deck of
the platform. For wharves in exposed locations, a design wave having a 50-year or a
100-year return period should be selected. The level of acceptable risk, as discussed
in Section 924, should be considered when determining the design wave. For
wharves in protected waters, the wave height is limited by the available fetch. This
maximum wave is then the design wave. CPTC (La Habra) can assist with development of design environmental conditions.
The loading platform should provide sufficient work surface area to support all
wharf operations other than mooring. Components may include the following:

Chevron Corporation

1.

Piping manifolds

2.

Loading arms or hose mast plus hose storage room

3.

Metering facilities

4.

Operations office, washroom

5.

Storage space

6.

Fire protection equipment

7.

Boat landing

900-27

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

8.

Gangway access to vessel

9.

Oil spill collection equipment (spill booms)

10. Vehicle access


11. Safety Equipment
If submarine pipelines are used to tie the wharf to the onshore tankage, the design
and construction details for the pipeline risers are most important. Risers have
proven to be the weak-link in too many installations. It is necessary to provide
some positive means of support at the base of the riser as well as adequate attachments between riser and platform. In no case, however, should there be a supportclip welded directly to a fluid-carrying pipe. Always provide some form of reinforcement pad designed to minimize stress concentrations.
The potential for scour around the base of the risers as well as around all other parts
of the wharf should be considered. Scour is particularly troublesome on sand
bottoms but can occur on any bottom. At the Nikiski wharf, which is founded on a
coarse sand and cobble bottom, scour developed some years after initial construction. The most practical solution to scour problems is to place a layered or graded
filter-blanket of properly sized stone around the structure. This prevents currents
from washing out the finer material.
For more information on submarine pipelines, see the Pipeline Manual. For pipeline coatings, see the Coatings Manual.

Loading Gear
The connection to transfer crude or products between the tankers manifold and the
wharf piping is made with either cargo hoses or articulated metal arms. The choice
here depends on the type of product, design load rate, tanker size, and berth occupancy. For crude loading, the maximum rates shown in Figure 900-12 are recommended.
Fig. 900-12 Recommended Maximum Load Rates, by Vessel Class

December 1993

Vessel Class

Maximum Load Rate

29,000 DWT

40,000 BPH

44,000

50,000

53,000

60,000

66,000

75,000

73,000

75,000

150,000

150,000

212,000

150,000

216,000

150,000

251,000

180,000

261,000

180,000

900-28

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

These rates are based on the venting capacity of the various tankers. For tanker
unloading, the peak rates are lower as they are governed by the ships pumps.
Typical rates are 75,000 BPH maximum for 200,000 DWTs and 100,000 BPH
maximum for 250,000 DWTs. For products transfer, the economical loading rate is
usually lower than for crude. Typical product rates are in the 5,000 to 25,000 BPH
range.
Marine Loading Arms. If it is economically attractive to design the marine
terminal for the maximum rates shown in Figure 900-12, fully-articulated, swingjoint arms are justified. These arms are readily available in sizes up to 16 inches.
Loading arms as large as 24 inches have been installed, but overall, their use is
limited. In selecting loading arm size, caution should be used if flow velocities in
excess of 30 feet per second are required. High flow velocities may cause cavitation, which can result in erosion damage, severe vibration, or fatigue failure in the
loading arm.
Swing-joint arms should be designed with counter-balances or controls that limit
the reaction force applied to the tanker manifold. This factor becomes increasingly
important for large tankers because their great draft necessitates very long and,
therefore, very heavy loading arms. The use of hydraulic control should be considered on these larger arms. Figure 900-13 shows a typical loading arm. Company
Specification CIV-MS-4074, Marine Loading Arms, and OCIMF Specification
Design and Construction Specification for Marine Loading Arms should be
consulted when preparing a specification for loading arms to be installed at a tanker
wharf.
Hoses. For small, light-duty wharves, hoses can be used to make the piping connection between tanker, or barge, and wharf. Hose cranes should be furnished to help
lift and handle the hose sections. Hose for this application in conjunction with
tankers should conform to the Companys Specification PIM-MS-2923. Hose
obtained for use in connection between barges and wharves should conform to
Specification PIM-MS-3133. These hose specifications will be in the Companys
Piping Manual.
The hose handling areas, including the hose connection manifolds, should be
provided with spill containment (concrete or sheet metal) deck and curbs and a
collection tank or sump.
Arcing during Connection and Disconnection. To provide protection against
arcing during connection and disconnection, metal marine loading arms and cargo
hose strings should be fitted with an insulating flange or joint or a single length of
non-conducting hose. This will ensure electrical discontinuity between the ship and
shore. Cargo hose strings can be insulated with an insulating flange on the dock
piping riser. All metal on the seaward side of the insulating section should be electrically continuous to the ship; that on the landward side should be electrically
continuous to the jettys earthing system.
Critical Dimensions. When specifying marine loading arms, it is necessary to
record on the OCIMF data sheet (4.3 and 4.4) some critical dimensions relating to
the berth and tankers. Figure 900-14 summarizes dimensional data used for existing

Chevron Corporation

900-29

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 900-13 Typical Marine Loading Arm

Company terminals. These data can guide you in specifying these dimensions. The
numbered items correspond to dimensional designations given in the OCIMF specification.
For a new or modified terminal it is necessary to get a representative slate of vessels
that could reasonably be expected to use the facility. This effort should also
consider what type/size of vessels might be used in the future. The agreed slate of
vessels is usually developed jointly with Chevron Shipping (Ports & Navigation)
and the facility operators.
Defining the Marine Loading Arm Envelope. Prior to filling out the data sheets
to specify the marine loading arms, an initial planning study should be made to
define the required marine loading arm envelope as shown in Figure 2 and 3 of
Reference 9 in Section 971.
The plot of vertical and horizontal tanker manifold positions with respect to the
loading platform should identify the extreme envelope conditions, vessels at full
draft at low tide, and vessels at light draft at high tide. With this plot completed, the
following items can be considered:

Dimensional checks on the proposed geometry of the loading platform

December 1993

Deck height
Set-back from the berthing line

900-30

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-14 Dimensional Data for Selected Company Wharves


Richmond
Berth 3

Richmond
Berth 4

Pascagoula
Berth 4

Pascagoula
Berth 7

Empire

Tanker Sizes
(DWT)

To 50,000

75-150,000

30-100,000

30-100,000

To 150,000

Arms
(qty-size)

2-8", 4-12"

2-12", 3-16"

1-8", 1-10"

2-12", 2-16"

1-10", 2-16"

Primary
Service

Products

Crude

Products

Crude

Crude

Item

OCIMF
Reference

Surge(1)
Fore & Aft

4.3 d. & e.

7' & 7'

7' & 7'

7' & 7'

7'6" & 7'-6"

Not avail.

Sway

4.3f

7'

7'

3'-0"

Not avail.

Not avail.

Heave at
manifold

4.3g.&h.

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

Top of
platform
to LLW

4.4.a

Approx 16'

Approx 25'

12'-6"

18'-6"

Approx
15'-10"

Loading platform face to


berthing line

4.4b

8'-0"

7'-7-1/2"

3'-6"

5'-0"

5'

Loading platform face to


center line of
risers

4.4c

9'-0"

10'-0"

7'-6"

8'-0"

7'-6"

Distance
between center
line of risers

4.4d

8'-8"

10'-0"

Approx 8'

10'-0"

10'-0"

(1) Value for surge fore and aft is combined with spotting allowance fore and aft of marine arm center line.
(2) Heave not separately identified. In protected waters heave is generally judged to be small, and normal arm envelopes can accommodate it.

Identification of the extreme tanker manifold positions that will govern the
geometry of the loading arms. Generally, the majority of tanker manifold positions will conveniently fall within a reasonable envelope. However, careful
consideration should be given to the few instances where a tanker manifold is
positioned well outside the normal envelope. The additional cost to provide
marine arms to meet an unusual, extreme case may not be justified. For such
situations take into account the following:

Chevron Corporation

Distance from center line of the marine arm risers to the face of the
loading platform
Spacing between loading arms

What is the expected frequency of this vessel at this terminal, and is this
expected to continue for a significant number of years?

900-31

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

What is the frequency of the extreme tidal conditions that cause the
problem?
Are there operational changes that can be made to the loading procedures
to mitigate the extreme draft conditions for the vessel?
If the tanker handrail located outside the manifold causes an interference
problem, is it removable?

Another recommended step prior to filling out the OCIMF marine loading arm
data sheet is to review the loading arm envelope with the marine arm suppliers.
The two largest manufacturers of arms are:

LTV Energy Products


(Continental Emsco)
DuraTech Products
P.O. Box 461388
Garland, TX 75046
FMC
Petroleum Equipment Group (Chiksan)
1803 Gears Rd., P.O. Box 3091
Houston, TX 77001
(713) 591-4000

Representatives from these manufacturers can provide valuable input regarding the
loading arm geometry. Items to be considered include:

Optimum height of trunnion swivel

Optimum lengths for inboard and outboard arms

Arm interferences with lateral sluing. The large triple swivel assemblies at the
outer end of the arms can cause interference problems at the extreme lateral
travel positions.

A commonly employed layout alternative reverses the hand of one or more


loading arms. The position of the trunnion swivel can be specified for either the
right or left hand side of the riser. Making one-half the bank of arms the reverse
hand of the other half sometimes allows greater flexibility in connecting the arms to
ship manifolds.

927 Utilities and Other Facilities


This section briefly covers utilities and the other facilities required for a functioning
wharf. The degree to which these supplemental facilities are required depends on
the intended duty of the particular wharf.

Electric Power
Power is required for lighting, impressed current cathodic protection systems, and
equipment such as loading arms, gangways, capstans, fire-water pumps, and reels
for oil spill boom equipment. Special outlets for welding are provided at some
installations.

December 1993

900-32

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Buildings
As a minimum, an operators shack with office, toilet facilities, and storage space is
usually provided. A major installation could well include a full operations-office
building, locker room facilities, bulk-cargo warehouses, shops, and a bunk house.

Navigation Aids
Navigation aids, such as lights and fog horns, must be provided in accordance with
the particular governing regulations. In the United States, the Coast Guard is in
charge and will outline their requirements when the Corps of Engineers permit is
filed.

Personnel Safety
Adequate personnel safety provisions are mandatory. There should be a minimum
of two escape stairways or ladders leading to boat landings. In addition, jacobs
ladders should be provided for all remote dolphins. Life jackets and life rings
should be provided as required by local regulating authority.

Fire Protection and Emergency Evacuation


A fire protection system is required for the loading platform area of a wharf. The
intent of the system is to limit damage to the wharf, not to save a moored ship.
Design guidance can be obtained from the Companys Fire Protection Manual and
from CRTCs Health, Environment, and Safety Group.
Current fire prevention requirements include:
1.

A firewater system connecting to hydrants, monitors, and fire-aid hose reels. If


justified, foam capability should be considered.

2.

A one-hour firewater supply of 500-1000 gpm for single berth docks, or a fourhour firewater supply of 2000-4000 gpm for multi-berth docks.

3.

A sufficient number of International Ship-to-Shore Connections to deliver the


required firewater supply for a single berth dock. A drawing of the connection
is shown in an appendix of the International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and
Terminals.

4.

Drainage should flow away from loading pipes, arms, and shut-off valves.

5.

Consideration should be given to the use of remote controlled fire monitor


protection over the platform loading area.

These guidelines are minimum requirements and may not always be sufficient.
Some foreign governments, for example, require much more elaborate fire protection and evacuation systems. Therefore, it is necessary to confirm requirements
with the specific government agencies issuing permits to the facility. It should be
noted that the Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) is compiling a
summary of recommended guidelines for fire protection and emergency evacuation.

Chevron Corporation

900-33

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Communications
The operations center on the loading platform must be furnished with a variety of
communications links. A telephone line should connect the wharf to the shore facilities. A radio system is needed to communicate with arriving tankers. Portable radio
sets are very useful in the mooring operation. Horns and buzzers can be used to
signal the operators when they are away from the office.

Gangway System
Most tanker wharves built today require the installation of fixed gangway facilities
for vessel access. On the most recent wharf projects, the gangways have been twopiece systems, an inboard section and an outboard section. The stair treads for each
section should be self-leveling or curved fixed treads that are relatively easy to walk
on in most operating positions. An envelope drawing of the tanker showing its
maximum limits of drift away from the berth and the maximum and minimum deck
elevations should be prepared to insure the gangway will satisfy all operating conditions.
A tower structure is typically required to support the gangway and its associated
control equipment. A motorized gear winch is commonly used to provide control of
the gangway. At Richmond Berth 1, the gangway has powered control in the
vertical plane, but the horizontal position is controlled by a swinging mechanism.
The gangway at Empire has powered control in the vertical and horizontal directions.
Washington Aluminum has manufactured the gangways installed at a number of
recently constructed tanker berths.

Oil Spill Containment System


In case of accidental oil spill, the facility must have access to equipment for
containing the spill until it can be skimmed off. This need is usually met by
providing the wharf with floating barriers called oil booms or spill booms.
Often, a combination of permanent booms and deployable booms are provided
which are usually connected together in use. Permanent booms, which are used to
protect areas which would be difficult to protect with a deployable boom, are
affixed to float continuously on sliding connections that allow movement up and
down with the tides. They require substantial maintenance due to wear of the
sliding connection and accumulation of marine growth. Deployable booms are
stored out of the water and towed by boat into position when the need arises.
As with most contingency plans, spill containment system design is generally a
compromise between budget and desire to provide for most likely accident
scenarios. Scenarios should be prepared for various combinations of wind and
current direction and spill location. Instead of completely surrounding the spill,
often it is possible to contain the spill by partially enclosing it in the direction of the
driving wind and current forces. In some areas, the regulatory agencies must be
involved in the decisions on spill containment system design.
Choice of boom type should consider available storage space, available deployment
manpower, and harbor conditions (wave height and current) as well as cost and

December 1993

900-34

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

durability. The wharves at Richmond, for example, are provided with compactable,
self-inflating/self-deflating booms stored on wharf-mounted hydraulic/electric or
pneumatic powered reels. The reel assemblies minimize required storage area and
deployment manpower. These deployable booms are connected in an emergency to
permanent booms located under the wharves.
Government regulations in the United States are not very specific regarding spill
containment. The Code of Federal Regulations Section 33CFR154 contains general
oil pollution prevention regulations that must be followed for marine oil transfer
facilities capable of transferring oil from vessels of 250 barrels or greater capacity.
The Coast Guard reviews equipment and procedures in order to judge compliance
with this regulation. The facility must have access to enough equipment (boom,
towing vessels, etc.) and personnel to deploy the boom and contain the spill in what
the Coast Guard considers a reasonable time period. Of course, the facility must
also have access to a means of removing the spill once contained.
Many company facilities belong to local cooperatives that purchase and maintain
spill clean-up equipment. The extent of equipment required at a particular wharf
will depend upon what equipment would be available from the cooperative, if one
exists.

Drainage System
The loading platform requires a drainage system to collect, contain, and dispose of
spilled hydrocarbons in all areas where spills may occur. Typically, the spills are
collected in sumps on the wharf. The oil may then be disposed of by pumping it
into a ballast line if one exists. Some facilities rely on a vacuum truck to periodically empty the sumps.

Other Systems
The following systems may be required or desirable depending on particular conditions:
1.

Fresh Water or Potable Water

2.

AirUtility or Instrument

3.

Sanitary Sewage

930 Offshore Moorings


931 Mooring Types
This section provides information to assist in choosing, evaluating, or designing
single point mooring (SPM) terminals for loading or offloading crude tankers. Catenary Anchor Leg Moorings (CALM), which are the most common type of SPM
terminal, are specifically addressed. This section primarily contains general information. A complete set of references is contained in Section 970.

Chevron Corporation

900-35

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Categories of Mooring
Three general categories of mooring types are used for mooring tankers offshore:
Fixed Jetty or Sea Island. The vessel is tied up to fixed point mooring structures
and breasting against fenders on a fixed structure. A loading platform is usually
located at the center. This type of mooring is limited to shallow water and sheltered
locations or mild environments. The structures are fixed in location so the vessel
cannot be re-oriented to minimize wind, current, and wave forces if the weather
direction changes. Tankers must be handled by tugs, and very large tankers cannot
be accommodated because of their water depth requirements. Capital cost outlay
can be significantly larger than for a single point mooring. Still, this type of
mooring facilitates quick, clean, and simple loading or offloading when the location
is suitable. (See Section 920: Tanker Wharves.)
Spread Mooring. The vessel is held with ropes to buoys secured by anchors or
mooring dolphins from several points around the vessel circumference. This system
fixes the orientation of the vessel; the vessel generally cannot be re-oriented to minimize wind, current, and wave forces if the weather direction changes. Therefore,
although the mooring lines allow compliance to wave motions, spread moorings are
limited to mild environments. Moreover, connecting mooring ropes to several
points around the vessel is more time consuming and requires more maneuvering
than connecting to a single point.
Single Point Mooring. Single point moorings (SPMs) are preferred over conventional spread moorings when the moored vessel needs to be able to easily change its
heading in response to changes in wind, wave, and current directions. Because a
single point mooring restrains a vessel through a single point or axis, the vessel is
free to weathervane and find its heading of least resistance to the weather.
Another reason for restraining the vessel through a single point is to facilitate quick
and easy connection to, and cast-off from the mooring. SPMs are well suited for
use as loading terminals for both of these reasons.

Types of Single Point Moorings (SPMs)


Several different single point mooring systems are available. The most common
categories are described below:
HawserCALM. This is the most common type of tanker loading terminal and
the main subject of this section. CALM stands for Catenary Anchor Leg
Mooring. The vessel is connected to a buoy by one or more synthetic fiber
hawsers. The buoy is fixed in orientation to the sea floor by catenary anchor legs,
but has a turntable arrangement to allow the hawser attachment point to rotate. The
hawsers are typically tied to the vessel at the forecastle on the bow. A vessel
moored by hawser CALM needs propulsion or tug assistance to avoid risk of collision with the buoy when the weather changes.
Rigid YokeCALM. This mooring is similar to the hawser-CALM up to the buoy
turntable, but instead of a hawser connecting the vessel to the buoy, a rigid yoke
structure spans the space between the buoy and the bow or stern of the vessel.
Generally, the yoke is hinged at both ends to decouple the buoy from the vessels
heaving and pitching motions, but the buoy does roll with the vessel. Rigid yoke

December 1993

900-36

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

CALMs do not lend themselves to quick connect or disconnect, so they are not suitable as loading terminals. They are typically used to permanently moor storage or
production and storage tankers, with lightering tankers loading in tandem or alongside. The rigid yoke is stronger and more durable than a hawser, and prevents collisions between vessel and buoy.
Soft YokeCALM. This mooring differs physically from the rigid yoke CALM
only in the connection of the rigid yoke to the vessel. Instead of hinges at the bow
or stern, a soft connection is made at the vessel. The vessel end of the rigid yoke
is connected to two pendulums suspended from the port and starboard sides of the
bow or stern. The pendulums are chains, weighted at their ends with a heavy rod
passing under the vessel and suspended from both chains. In this configuration,
vessel motions cause less loading on the anchor legs, but vessel to mooring connect
and disconnect is still not routine.
SALM. SALM stands for Single Anchor Leg Mooring; it is described here but
not specifically addressed by this section. As with the CALM type, the SALM is
suitable for use as an export terminal with hawsers between the vessel and SALM,
or as a permanent mooring with some kind of structural yoke between the vessel
and mooring. SALMs differ from CALMs in that the buoy on a SALM is anchored
to the sea floor by a single tensioned anchor leg rather than several catenary anchor
legs. The single anchor leg is often a rigid tubular structure, but always articulated
near the sea floor, where the base is held down by piles. Sometimes more articulations are employed along the anchor leg. The top of the anchor leg is buoyant,
providing the restoring mechanism, which is analogous to that of a pendulum, but
inverted and provided by buoyancy instead of gravity.
In addition to the hawser option, two types of structural yoke are commonly used to
fix the vessel to the buoy. Rigid yokes similar to those used for CALMs are
common. Another type, called a buoyant yoke, is unique to the SALM type. Here
the buoyancy that tensions the SALM is not in the top of the anchor leg but rather
on a submerged part of the yoke truss. This design is also referred to as a SALS,
for Single Anchor Leg Storage. Buoyant yoke SALMs are known to cause stress
and wear in the yoke-to-vessel hinge, with at least one catastrophic failure on
record.
Turret. A turret is similar to a CALM, except that the turret uses the vessels buoyancy to support the weight of the anchor legs. Consequently, no yoke or hawser is
required to attach the mooring to the vessel; the turret is either cantilevered off the
bow or stern, or built into the vessels hull. Turrets are not suitable for export terminals, because the tanker is permanently attached to the mooring.
Fixed Structure SPM. This type of single point mooring is used in shallow water.
A jacket or column structure is piled into the sea floor and the vessel is attached to
this structure by a hawser or by a soft yoke or wishbone yoke arrangement
similar to the one described for the soft yoke CALM. The top of the structure is
fitted with a turntable for weathervaning, and in the case of a hawser connection,
the structure is protected from vessel collisions with an impact energy absorbing
fender. Hawser-fixed structure SPMs are suitable as loading terminals.

Chevron Corporation

900-37

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Other types of single point moorings include the Counterweight Articulated


Mooring (CAM), and Spar buoy. The CAM is intended for deep water and derives
its restoring properties from a long structural riser, weighted at the bottom and
attached to the sea floor with catenary anchor legs near the bottom end. The Spar is
similar to a CALM, but with a buoy large enough for storage of crude oil and equipment.

Hawser-CALM Installations
Hawser-CALMs (sometimes called SPM buoys), are manufactured by several
firms and used throughout the world. In mild environments and moderate water
depths, CALMs are inexpensive and familiar. Many components can be purchased
from stock. Tankers do not normally require tugs for assistance during mooring,
although a launch is required to handle mooring hawsers and crude transfer hoses.
Moreover, CALMs have been designed to handle up to 5 separate products through
multiple pass swivels capable of accommodating transfer rates beyond 60,000
barrels of oil per hour. This section focuses on hawser-CALMs because they are the
most commonly used type of single point mooring for loading terminals, but some
of the information contained here, such as on chains, anchors, and hoses can be
applied to other types of moorings.
Description. A typical hawser CALM installation (Figure 900-15) consists of (1) a
submarine pipeline or pipelines from shore or offshore production facility to the
buoy site, (2) a pipeline end manifold (PLEM), (3) underbuoy hoses connecting the
PLEM to the buoy, (4) the CALM buoy, including turntable and product swivel
assembly, (5) hoses (usually floating) connecting the CALM to the tanker, (6)
mooring chains and anchorage for the buoy, and (7) hawsers from the tanker to the
buoy.
The underbuoy hoses are connected to the stationary buoy body, which is restrained
from rotating relative to the seafloor. The floating hoses are connected to a section
of the buoy called the rotating cargo manifold or turntable, which is free to rotate.
The tanker is moored to the turntable and is therefore free to assume a position of
least drag due to wind, waves, and current.
The CALM-type SPM was developed and patented by the Shell Development
Company, and the buoys are manufactured under license to Shell.
Manufacturers. At the present time, CALM systems are manufactured by the
following firms:

Single Buoy Moorings (SBM)


SOFEC Inc.
IMODCO
Bluewater
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

A computer database containing information on almost 300 CALM installations


contracted since 1959 can be accessed through CPTC (San Ramon). Since a precedent may already exist for any given design problem, this database is well worth
looking into before embarking on a design. Literature on existing installations and

December 1993

900-38

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-15 Typical Hawser-CALM Installation

current design features is readily available from the manufacturers. Some manufacturers, keep a sizable inventory of CALM components on hand for immediate
delivery and installation.

932 Basic Data


The following items are intended to provide a checklist for use in SPM terminal
design. Some of the data will be required by the buoy supplier in order to properly
design the buoy, mooring system, and underbuoy hose layout. These items include
the following.

Vessel Data
Figure 900-32 lists general characteristics of tankers ranging in size from 16,500 to
500,000 L.T. DWT. Also, Chevron Shipping publishes a volume called Vessel
Profile Sheets, which is useful for compiling specific or generic data about the
vessels (Reference 10 of Section 972).
1.

Maximum anticipated size of vessel, expressed in deadweight


(DWT long tons).

2.

Dimensions of largest anticipated:

Chevron Corporation

Length overall
Beam

900-39

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Depth
Maximum loaded draft
Minimum loaded draft

3.

Location of cargo manifolds (usually approximately amidship, port and starboard).

4.

Capacity of ships derricks for lifting hoses.

5.

Anticipated tanker usage frequency.

Fluid Flow
1.

Number of products to be handled.

2.

Products to be handled simultaneously.

3.

Loading or discharging? Both?

4.

Product data:

Pumping pressure
Anticipated loading and/or discharge rate
Fluid temperature
Viscosity
Gravity

Pumping pressure for a discharging tanker is normally 150 psi at pumps and
about 120 psi at the ships rail. Loading rates are limited by the tank venting
system; refer to the approximate maximum rates shown in Figure 900-12.
Average loading rates will be about 85% of maximum due to starting up and
topping off operations.
5.

Size, number, and distance of pipelines from shore or offshore production


facility.

6.

Number and size (I.D.) of hoses between buoy and ship.

7.

Number and size (I.D.) of hoses between pipeline and buoy.

8.

Is a specific hose manufacturer preferred?

9.

Are float/sink hoses required by local regulation? (Normally, Japan only)

Environmental Conditions
Information on environmental conditions for any location is available from CPTC
(La Habra).
1.

December 1993

Safety area around and under the buoy. Tankers require a certain amount of
safety area around the buoy to maneuver. The necessary safety area will vary
with each location and the size of the largest tanker anticipated. Tankers must
normally approach the buoy into the current or wind, whichever controls. The
safety area can be as little as two ship lengths to as much as four ship lengths,

900-40

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

depending on the direction and intensity of the prevailing winds and currents.
Three thousand feet is considered a desirable minimum distance to shoal water
(minimum depth). Adjacent CALMs should be separated by at least three (preferably more) ship lengths. Buoys should be separated from nearby structures
such as platforms or floating production systems by at least 1.5 miles.
Sufficient water depth is required for the fully loaded tanker to clear any pipelines at low tide with a 10% margin. Also consider whether the anchor chains
can become an obstacle to the tanker. Tankers have been known to catch on
anchor chains with their bulbous bows.
Preliminary layout can usually be made from U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey
charts. In locations where water depth changes sharply, CALM buoy may not
be the suitable choice for a marine berth.
2.

Tidal conditions:

Minimum low water, spring tides


Maximum high water, spring tides

3.

Minimum significant wave height. Significant wave height refers to the


average of the one-third highest waves. The design wave height may be based
on a 10-year storm for design loads and on a 100-year storm for buoy survival
loads. A rule of thumb for selecting the survival storm return period is to use
five times the design life.

4.

Maximum storm tide or storm surge. Based on 100-year storm. Will be


more severe in areas with extensive shallow water.

5.

Maximum wind velocity:

That may occur in vicinity during a 100 year storm.


Maximum to which tanker will be subjected. Tankers will not normally
remain at the buoy when extreme winds are expected, such as typhoons or
hurricanes. However, if located in an area where sudden squalls or freak
winds are not uncommon, the mooring system should be designed with
these in mind, since the tanker may not have adequate warning to vacate.

One minute sustained wind velocity at an elevation of 33 feet above the sea
surface should be used for the return interval selected.
6.

Normal prevailing wind direction. Normally shown on wind rose charts by


season or month.

7.

Maximum current. If tidal, give for both ebb and flood.

Velocity at sea surface


Direction

Also consider current velocity and direction versus depth below sea surface.

Chevron Corporation

900-41

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

8.

Normal current:

9.

Civil and Structural Manual

Velocity
Direction

Cause of current (i.e., tidal or littoral). If tidal, check patterns for rips or shear
lines which could cause problems with tanker motion around the buoy.

10. Water temperature:

Minimum
Maximum

11. Worst weather periods during year.


12. Bottom characteristics at site. If unknown, a soils survey is mandatory.

Type of soil (mud, sand, clay, shale, rock, coral, etc.)


Analysis of bottom (i.e., depth of mud.)

13. Underwater visibility; distance. Poor visibility will normally increase installation costs due to reduced diver efficiency.
14. Underwater obstructions. Plan on performing a side scan sonar survey of the
installation area and consider a wire rope drag survey.
15. Ambient temperatures:

Maximum
Minimum

16. Is ice build-up on buoy anticipated? If enough to cause problems, a heated


canopy may be required.

Terminal and Site Information


1.

Proposed distance offshore (see above, No. 1 of Environmental Conditions).

2.

Navigation light:

3.

Fog horn:

4.

December 1993

Required? (Check Coast Guard or Government agency outside U.S.)


Range of visibility desired
Characteristics desired (i.e., number of flashes per min.)
Color of lens desired
Specific manufacturer and model?

Required? (Check Coast Guard or Government agency outside U.S.)


Characteristics desired (i.e., number of blasts per min.)
Specific manufacturer and model?

Is power required on the buoy? Normally not required or desirable.

900-42

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

5.

Will telephone cables be attached to buoy? Normally, radio communications


used.

6.

Any other specific requirements?

7.

Mooring launches. If at present no terminal launch exists, but will be provided


later, consideration should be given to providing a launch with twin screws as
they are much more maneuverable than single screw launches. Also, the ability
to moor a tanker in rough seas is limited by the seas in which a launch crew
can work. A large launch which can work in rough seas will contribute to
increased berth availability. An average launch 50 to 70 feet long is limited to
about 6-foot seas.

8.

Tugs:

9.

Available? How many? Normally, tugs will not be required to moor


tankers, but under extreme environmental conditions, may be desirable or
necessary
Horsepower. Need at least 2000 HP to be effective with large tankers

Terminal maintenance equipment:

Available? If a work barge with a lifting capacity of about 30 tons is used


by the terminal, it may not be necessary to rig the SPM with equipment
needed to tension the chains. Barge must be equipped with anchors.
Maximum over-the-side lifting capacity of barge crane

10. Underwater work and inspection:

Availability of divers or remotely operated vehicles (ROVs).


Type of equipment; i.e., saturation, scuba. Scuba equipment can be used
effectively only where water is clear and depths are not over about 100 to
150 feet. Saturation divers can go to about 800 feet. ROVs can go to virtually any depth.
Type of work; i.e., manipulation of pipeline and manifold (PLEM) valves,
mooring line inspection, hose replacement.

11. Marine contractors:

Any locally?
Experienced with mooring and survey work?

12. Are there any local facilities for fabrication of a buoy?


13. Is there a local source of supply for hoses?
14. Is there a local source of supply for chains and anchors? Must be approved by
classification survey.
15. Is a recent hydrographic survey available?
16. Are meteorological records available?

Chevron Corporation

900-43

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

17. Determine any local regulations pertinent to installation or operation of the


terminal.

933 Mooring Forces


General
The forces which act on a moored tanker are complex and difficult to establish. The
forces are not static, but dynamic, with many variables. They are generated by
wind, waves and current. Oceanographic and weather data must be obtained for the
proposed terminal location in order to proceed with design.
Waves, wind, and current exert steady and oscillatory forces on the tanker. Wind
and current forces are predominantly steady, but sometimes oscillatory components
are considered. Wave forces are generally categorized into steady, low frequency
oscillatory, and wave frequency oscillatory components.
Steady wave force, like wind and current, causes the moored tanker to take on a
mean offset. The oscillatory forces cause the tanker to oscillate about the steady
offset position. Single point moorings are generally designed to comply to oscillatory tanker motions. The moorings purpose is to stop the tanker from drifting
away. It would require an extraordinarily strong mooring to resist oscillatory tanker
motions.
Suppliers have developed proprietary tanker force and motion information from
model tests. Some industry sponsored model test data are available to Chevron for a
variety of tanker sizes. Moreover, the American Petroleum Institute (API), the Oil
Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF), and several classification societies publish parametric graphs describing ship behavior in various sea states based
on results of model tests. A static load analysis can be used to make an estimate
which correlates to within 10% of model tests. For unusual conditions where prior
test data are not available, model tests should be considered to confirm designs.

Estimating Mooring Forces and Tanker Motions


Static forces due to wind, waves, and current are computed independently and
added together to obtain the total static mooring force. To obtain the worst case
mooring load, at least two draft conditions must be considered: fully loaded draft,
where wave force typically dominates; and ballast condition, where wind force typically dominates. It is also important to consider situations where wind, waves, and
current do not come from the same direction. Currents are often independent of
wind, such as when they are driven by tides, thermal effects, or river outflow. Long
period waves (swells) come from distant storms, and are often independent of local
winds. Where wind, waves, and current do not head in the same direction, the
tanker may find an equilibrium position with an oblique heading to one or more of
the elements.
Wave frequency tanker motions are assumed to occur independently of the
mooring, as though the vessel were not moored at all. The maximum mooring line
tension is determined for the condition in which the mooring has allowed a static

December 1993

900-44

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

offset in response to the static forces, and then is offset further by the amplitude of
the tankers motion response to waves.
Moored vessels also have motions at frequencies well below the wave frequency
range. These motions, known as second order motions, or slowly varying drift,
can be an important design consideration, depending on the spring-mass properties of the moored vessel. They occur when wave groups excite the natural motion
response period of the moored vessel.
Calculation Methods. Static mooring forces can be estimated by hand using
formulas and graphs contained in the following references (see Section 972). These
references are very easy to use and contain sample calculations.

Reference 8 is applicable for wind and current forces on very large crude
carriers (VLCCs), i.e., tankers ranging in size from 150-500 thousand tons
deadweight.

Reference 9 is similar to Reference 8 but applies to a broader range of tanker


sizes, including small tankers.

Reference 16 provides methods for quickly estimating wind, current, and wave
forces. Much of the wave force data, however, is valid only for relatively small
vessels such as drill ships.

Computer Programs. CPTC (San Ramon) license a state-of-the-art suite of


computer programs for the design and analysis of catenary-based mooring systems.
The PC-based programs provide the capability to perform simple to very exhaustive
analyses of static, low frequency and wave frequency vessel motions and mooring
system response.

934 Chain and Anchorage Design


Chain Design
Catenary anchor legs are usually made of large stud link chain. Chain specifications
are shown in Figure 900-16. Chain sizes normally range from 3 to 6 inches for
large tankers. The chain dimension refers to the diameter of metal in the link. The
proof test load on the chain is about 70% of breaking strength. Loads over the proof
test will cause some yielding in the chain. Chains are made up in 15-fathom lengths
(90 feet) called a shot and are usually purchased either by the shot or half shot.
Standard Drawing GD-M1078 illustrates the assembly details and shackles required
for the buoy-to-chain and chain-to-anchor connections.
Number of Chains. CALM buoys typically have 4, 6, or 8 evenly spaced chains.
Four chains are adequate on smaller buoys, in some sheltered locations, but if one
chain breaks, the buoy may capsize. Six-chain designs are most common, and eight
chains are used in more severe conditions, such as for very large tankers, very
shallow water, or very severe weather.
More chains provide more energy-absorption capacity and a greater factor of safety
in case one chain should break.

Chevron Corporation

900-45

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 900-16 Stud Link Anchor Chain Specification

December 1993

900-46

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Chain Design Criteria. Chain size and grade are determined by the required
strength and weight. Chain breaking strength should be adequate to survive a load
about 2 times the tension developed by the design horizontal force on the buoy
(survival condition factor of safety = 2), and to operate with a tension factor of
safety of 3.
Maximum allowable buoy offset is a function of the underbuoy hose design. Offsets
within 10% of water depth can normally be tolerated. Buoy offsets can be reduced
by using heavier chains and higher working tensions (pretensions).
Chain length is governed by water depth, pretension force, design load, weight of
chain, and the use of clumps or weights. Under the design load the chain should not
lift off the bottom 1) at the point of attachment to the pile, or 2) if anchors are used
instead of piles, at the point where less than 100 feet of chain remains on the sea
floor before an anchor.
Chain calculations are discussed in the latter part of this section.
Chain Tension and Wear. Chains are pretensioned during installation of the
CALM buoy. The pretensioning serves to stabilize the buoy and reduces the amount
of horizontal movement under load.
The chain pretension angle from horizontal at the buoy is usually in the range of 60
degrees for buoys in about 100 to 120 feet of water, and requires about 10 to 15
tons of pretensioning force.
Chain wear normally occurs in the dip section (where the chain contacts the
bottom) on catenary anchor legs. Sometimes heavier chain is used in this region to
reduce the effect of wear.
Use of Clumps. Clumps are sinker-type weights attached to the chain to provide
additional weight without going to a larger chain size. They have been used on
buoy anchorages employing 4 anchor chains for tankers around 100,000 DWT and
for deep-water installations to reduce the chain size and length. Clumps tend to
reduce the spring action of the mooring system which is not desirable in shallow
water, and provide another component of the system which requires inspection and
maintenance.
Calculations. The design of a mooring chain system involves trial and error calculations to establish the required chain size and pretension angle. Mooring analysis
calculations are used to check buoy excursion under load, chain tension, length of
chain required, and other properties of catenary curves.
If the anchor legs are composed of uniform material, with no clumps or subsea
buoys, and if chain elasticity and drag forces along the length of the chains can be
neglected, then hand calculations may be possible. Figures 900-17 and 900-18,
which are taken from the API RP-2P, contain the formulas which can be used for a
simple catenary. This Recommended Practice also contains sample calculations.
A more complete mooring analysis can be performed by CPTC (San Ramon) using
state-of-the art mooring analysis programs and techniques.

Chevron Corporation

900-47

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 900-17 Basic Catenary Relationships (Courtesy API)

Fig. 900-18 Force Geometry and Vector Diagram (Courtesy API)

December 1993

900-48

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Anchorage Design
Anchors should be designed to hold the chain under the maximum horizontal
design loading on the buoy.
Piles Versus Anchors. Chains can be anchored to the sea bottom by the use of shiptype drag embedment anchors or by pile structures driven into the sea bottom.
Some of the factors to be considered in choosing between piles or anchors are as
follows:

A soils investigation is required to determine bottom characteristics. Seafloor


material and slope conditions must be known to properly estimate the anchors
holding power. Piles are more adaptable to various soil conditions than anchors.

The exact location and holding power of a pile can be more precisely determined than for a drag embedment anchor. Because of this uncertainty, drag
anchors have to be tested to higher tensions than do piles.

Anchors which are well embedded during installation will still have a tendency
to creep before taking a permanent set. Anchor chains will require periodic
retensioning until the anchors stop moving. Piles do not creep.

An anchor may be pulled out or displaced if the force applied by the chain is
above horizontal. This situation could occur if the bulbous bow on a tanker
hooks under a chain.

Special equipment may be required to drive piles in extreme water depths,


making pile-driving impractical.

Generally, drag embedment anchors are less expensive to purchase and install
than pile anchorages.

Embedment Anchors. The most commonly used types of anchors are the Navy
Stockless, the LWT type (Danforth) and the STATO anchor. Anchor dimensions are
shown in Figures 900-19 through 900-23.
Figures 900-24 and 900-25 give holding power versus weight for 14 types of
anchors based on tests conducted by the U.S. Navy. More current information (for
14 different anchor types) can be found in the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratorys
technical data publication Drag Embedment Anchors for Navy Moorings (Reference 17, Section 972).
Pile Anchors. Several types of pile anchors can be used for single point moorings.
The most common, single or multiple driven piles, are depicted in Figure 900-26.
Piles can also be drilled and grouted, or jetted into the sea floor. Another less
common type of anchor pile is the suction pile. Suction piles are similar to oldfashioned diving bells. After lowering onto the sea floor, a vacuum is applied to the
cavity, sucking the piles edge into the ground.

Chevron Corporation

900-49

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 900-19 Navy Standard Stockless Anchor

December 1993

900-50

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-20 Navy Stockless Anchor with Stabilizers

Chevron Corporation

900-51

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 900-21 NAVSHIP Lightweight Anchors

December 1993

900-52

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-22 Details of NAVFAC STATO Mooring Anchor

Chevron Corporation

900-53

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 900-23 Characteristics of NAVFAC STATO Anchors

December 1993

900-54

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-24 Anchor Chain System Holding Capacity at the Mud Line in Hard Soils (Sand and Stiff Clay)

Chevron Corporation

900-55

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 900-25 Anchor Chain System Holding Capacity at the Mud Line in Soft Soils (Silt and Clay)

December 1993

900-56

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-26 Pile Cluster Anchorage

935 Ship-to-Buoy Attachment


General
Most hawser-CALM installations use two braided nylon mooring hawsers (ropes)
permanently attached to the buoy. Short lengths of chain are usually attached to the
ships end of the hawsers to prevent chafe where the lines go through the ships fairleads.
Nylon is commonly used because of its excellent strength and elasticity which
absorb the kinetic energy of the tanker motions. Two 18-inch circumference nylon
hawsers, for instance, can absorb over 5000 foot tons of energy at 50% of breaking
load. Polyester and polypropylene are also used for mooring hawsers. Both are less
stretchy than nylon, and polypropylene is much more susceptible to creep. Lately,
hawser manufacturers have produced a rope made with extra-long filament nylon
which will stretch 36% at 70% of its static breaking strength. The actual breaking
load of a hawser is about 80% of its static breaking load because of possible reduction in strength at eye splices.
Nylon lines tend to wear out from two sources. External wear from chafing is the
major cause for replacement, but nylon can wear out from internal friction between
the filaments. It is possible for a hawser to have a good external appearance but for
the inside fibers to be ground to dust. Nylon hawsers have a useful life of three to
six months.

Chevron Corporation

900-57

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Mooring line material should not be mixed. For example, do not use one polypropylene line and one nylon line, as the stretch versus load characteristics are different
and one line will take a disproportionate part of the load.

Design CriteriaStrength
Tests have indicated that nylon ropes will take a permanent stretch when normal
working loads of over 40% of breaking strength are encountered for an extended
period. Assuming that the two-rope system will take the load equally, it can be
considered logical to dimension the ropes to reach the design load when the two
ropes acting together take 80% of the static breaking strength of one rope.
Under actual mooring conditions, the two ropes may not take the load equally, since
the ship has a tendency to yaw, throwing more load on one rope. Under the most
severe conditions at design load, in the event all the load were taken by one rope,
the buoy design load would equal the actual breaking strength of one rope (80% of
the static breaking load).

Length of Mooring Lines


The optimum length of each hawser has evolved from various model tests. For
normal installations the suggested lengths are:
Tanker Size

Length, ft

100,000 DWT

110

200,000 DWT

150

250,000 DWT

160

350,000 DWT and larger

175

The length of lines does not include the sections of chafing chain at the buoy or at
the ships end, which will add about 15 feet total.
Special consideration should be given to:

Bulbous bow tankers moored in locations where underkeel clearance at low


water is minimal. These tankers may require longer hawsers to prevent interference between the bow and the buoy mooring chains.

Ships with unusually high freeboard. These vessels can be drawn uncomfortably close to the buoy when in ballast.

Rope Data
Static breaking strengths of rope vary slightly from manufacturer to manufacturer.
The information in Figure 900-27 is a good approximation for preliminary design
purposes.

Cost
Current costs for synthetic mooring rope suitable for SPM hawsers are available
from rope vendors such as Samson Ocean Systems (Boston) and British Ropes
(London).

December 1993

900-58

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-27 Static Breaking Strength of Double Braid Hawser Rope


Breaking Strength, lbs
Circumference,
inches

Polyester

Nylon

Polypropylene

10

280,000

322,000

194,000

12

396,000

451,000

270,000

15

606,000

680,000

400,000

18

857,000

950,000

560,000

24

1,250,000

1,425,000

740,000

936 Underbuoy and Floating Hoses


General
Hose replacement is the most costly item in maintaining hawser-CALM installations. Two types of hoses are used on hawser CALM buoys: (1) Underbuoy hoses
connecting the pipeline and manifold to the buoy, and (2) Floating hoses (also
called Loading hoses), connecting the buoy to the tanker.
Hoses used by the majority of single point moorings are manufactured by:

Sumitomo
Bridgestone
Pirelli
Manuli
Kleber
Yokohama
Dunlop

Flowrates and Hose Data


Hose manufacturers recommend the fluid velocity in hoses be limited to 40 feet per
second to prevent rapid internal wear due to erosion. Maximum flowrates and other
hose data are shown in Figure 900-28.

Head Losses
Head losses in hoses vary from 10% to 25% greater than losses in an equivalent
steel pipe. The percentage increase will be higher at low velocity and low viscosity
(1 cs), and around 10% for viscosities 10 cs and above and for throughputs in the
range of 30 to 40 fps. Figure 900-29 is a graph of head loss versus throughput.

Hose Specifications
Company experience indicates that hoses meeting the following general specifications will perform satisfactorily under normal operating conditions:

Chevron Corporation

Smooth-bore with synthetic rubber lining

900-59

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 900-28 Hose Data for Single Point Mooring Installation


Hose
Size
(in.)

I.D.
(in.)

Flow
Area
(sq.in.)

Flow
@ 40 fps
(lb/sec)

BPH
@ 40 fps
(S.G. 0.85)

Nom.
O.D.
Selfloat
Hose (in.)

Nom.
O.D.
Submarine
Hose (in.)

Wt/30'
Selfloat
Hose (lb.)

Wt/30'
Submarine
Hose
(lb.)

Min.
Bending
Radius
(ft)

8.0

50.3

760

9,200

16

10.125

1,670

940

10

10.0

78.5

1,182

14,300

20

12.25

2,350

12

12.0

113

1,708

20,650

22.875

14.5

16

15.25

183

2,760

33,400

28.25

20

19.25

291

4,390

53,200

33

24

23.25

426

6,400

77,600

30

29.25

674

10,100

123,000

36

35.25

978

14,700

178,000

Notes:

Max. Tension
Tons
Zero
Press

Work
Press

55

46

1,350

86

72

3,000

1,760

125

104

18.5

4,500

2,800

222

185

23.375

5,700

4,300

10

340

290

4,900

(1)

500

417

38.5

27

7,750

12

1. Flanges: 150 lb ASA Flat Face Carbon Steel.


Slip-on flanges for 8 in. and 10 in.
Weld neck flanges 12 in. and larger
2. Data based on Dunlop smooth-bore SPM hose.

(1) Varies with manufacturers

Maximum working pressure: 275 psi

Burst test pressure (6 x working): 1350 psi

Vacuum test: 25 inches of mercury

Flanges: 150 lb. ASA flat face, weld neck, carbon steel

Bolts: 316 stainless or Monel (Monel for most severe corrosive conditions, K
Monel if additional strength is required)

Gaskets: Fullface asbestos composition or neoprene

Refer to the latest edition of Reference 7 (Section 972) for up-to-date standard specifications. Company Specifications for oil suction and discharge hoses for SPM
offshore moorings are provided in PIM-EG-3092-D.

Underbuoy Hoses
Underbuoy hoses, also referred to as submarine hoses, connect the buoy to the
pipeline end manifold (PLEM). In order to function properly, these hoses must be
capable of movement to accommodate vertical rise and fall of the buoy due to tides,
waves, and swells, coupled with horizontal movements of the buoy due to tanker
mooring forces. Since at least two hoses are used in most installations for tankers
over 50,000 DWT, provision must be made to prevent the hoses from rubbing
against each other and wearing. The life expectancy of underbuoy hoses is normally
about 2 to 3 years, but it can be shortened considerably if chafing is allowed to
occur.

December 1993

900-60

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-29 Head Loss Versus Throughput for Smooth-bore Hoses in SPM Service

Chevron Corporation

900-61

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Three basic configurations for underbuoy hoses are currently used; they are (1)
Bow-leg (Chinese lantern), (2) Lazy S (or lazy wave), and (3) Steep S (for
steep wave). Figure 900-30 illustrates these configurations.
Fig. 900-30 Basic Underbuoy Hose Configurations

Buoyancy Systems. For any of these configurations, the hoses must be provided
with buoyancy in order to obtain and maintain the desired configuration. Two types
of buoyancy schemes have been used: (1) monocellular bead-type floats which
clamp around the hose, and (2) steel buoyancy tanks with adjustable buoyancy.
The bead-type floats are less expensive but tend to break and are, therefore, more of
a maintenance problem. The steel buoyancy tanks are more expensive, but once
installed, do not require much maintenance. The steel buoyancy tanks have adjustable buoyancy by means of the air/water (or air/oil) ratio within the tanks.

Floating Hoses
Floating hoses, which connect the ship to the buoy, have two major wear points: (1)
at the connection to the buoy, and (2) at the connection to the ship.
Buoy Connection. The section of hose closest to the buoy undergoes considerable
flexing due to wave and current action. This section of hose is frequently of a
special design called variflex to withstand the additional bending forces. Some
buoy manufacturers have attempted to minimize this problem by installing Chiksan-

December 1993

900-62

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

type swivel joints at the hose connection to the buoy. These swivel joints have
proven troublesome in that they become frozen and, in some cases, leak. The
swivels are not recommended at this time.
Ships Connection. The section of hose or hoses which bend over the ships rail
undergo considerable wear due to handling, bending, and chafing. These sections
are generally smaller diameter hose than the floating hose for three reasons: (1)
lower weight, so the ships derrick is able to pick up the hose and not overload the
derrick, (2) smaller hose is more easily bent over the ships rail, and (3) smaller
hose is less expensive to replace. Figure 900-31 shows lifting weights for various
sizes of floating hose.
Fig. 900-31 Lifting Weights for Three Sizes of Floating Hose (12-inch, 16-inch, 20-inch rail
hose, based on Dunlop Selfloat Hoses)

Flotation Systems. Three types of hose flotation systems are in general use today:
(1) monocellular bead-type floats which attach to a submarine-type hose, (2) integral flotation material formed continuously around the hose, and (3) a float-sink
hose system with either an air-filled jacket or a companion air tank made from pipe
sections.

Chevron Corporation

1.

Bead floats are made in two half-sections and are bolted or cemented together
around the hose. The floats are made from styrofoam or polyurethane formed
inside a hard, tough plastic shell. Users of bead-type floats have had problems
with breakage and loss of the floats.

2.

Integral flotation is used by Dunlop on their patented Selfloat hoses. The


flotation material is monocellular expanded synthetic rubber and is covered by
a rubberized canvas coating. The outside diameter of the flotation material is
greater than the O.D. of the flanges. This protects two hoses from chafing each

900-63

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

other at the flanges. Users report satisfactory service. Flotation provides about
25% reserve buoyancy. At the present time, the largest size made by Dunlop is
24 inches, but larger sizes are on the drawing boards.
3.

The float-sink hose system is used in Japan because of government requirements that the hoses shall not restrict navigation in crowded harbors. The floatsink hose system has a jacket around the hose which is inflated with
compressed air to bring the hose to the surface when ready to moor a tanker.
After the tanker has vacated the berth, the air is bled out of the jacket, and the
hose is allowed to sink to the bottom. Users report no problems with the
system as long as the sea bottom is covered with silt. On sandy bottoms,
chafing of the air-jacket is a problem. Some users in Japan remove the floating
hoses when the berth is vacant to prevent damage to the hoses and to comply
with government regulations. Float-sink hose systems should not be considered
unless mandatory by governmental authority.

Length of Floating Hose. The length can be determined from a summation of the
following:
1.

1.4 times the length of mooring lines

2.

One-half the diameter of the buoy

3.

Distance from bow to loading manifold

4.

Freeboard in ballast

5.

Vertical and horizontal distance from ships rail to manifold

6.

10% extra for bends

Bow-Loading
The hawser-CALM installation is well-suited for loading tankers by the bow.
However, few existing tankers are equipped for bow loading and require retrofit of
a bow manifold and necessary deck piping to take advantage of bow loading
through a shorter hose.

Hose Maintenance
To provide maximum berth availability, the installation of valves to isolate the
underbuoy hoses should be considered. If valves are installed and a leak should
occur in one hose, it may be isolated. Loading or unloading operations may be
carried out at reduced throughputs until the hose is replaced. If more than one
floating hose is used, the floating hoses should be valved at the buoy for similar
reasons. Butterfly valves with wafer-type construction are often used. These valves
occupy less space and are less costly than gate or ball valves, but they do not have
good tight shutoff characteristics.

December 1993

900-64

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

937 Miscellaneous Design Considerations


Mechanical Equipment
Use of mechanical equipment such as compressors and generators should normally
be avoided in the interest of simplicity. Chain tensioning equipment such as
derricks are sometimes provided, but may not be necessary if the marine terminal
has access to a work barge available with a capacity of at least 25 tons. Derricks or
other irregular projections on the buoy should either be collapsible or have guards
built around them to prevent the mooring hawsers from becoming fouled in the
event that the tanker rides past the buoy.

Fire Protection
Fire protection or fire fighting equipment is not normally installed on the buoy. If a
diesel generator or other sources of ignition are installed on the buoy, an automatic
CO2 system may be worth considering.

Compartments
Buoy hulls are normally divided into a number of water-tight compartments. These
compartments are often filled with flotation materials such as polyurethane foam to
prevent capsizing in the event of damage to the hull. However, manufacturers are
getting away from this practice now, because it hinders leak detection. Some buoy
manufacturers designate one compartment as a spare parts or storage compartment
and fit it with a manway hatch.

Grease Fittings
The most frequent maintenance operation on the majority of SPM buoys is greasing
the turntable bearings and/or bogie wheels each month. On some buoys, the manufacturers have installed one grease fitting to service several bearings. Users have
found this system not dependable because of plugging in the grease pipes and subsequent failure of the bogie wheel bearings. Bearing failure of this type can be
avoided by providing each bearing with its own grease fitting.

Navigation Aids
The governmental authority having jurisdiction over coastal marine facilities (Coast
Guard in the U.S.) will normally advise on the necessity for aids to navigation, such
as lights, fog horn, and radar reflector. They will normally recommend color, intensity, and flashes per second for the light intensity and duration for a fog horn and
requirements for a radar reflector. In the event no authority has jurisdiction in the
area, the terminal designer can select appropriate navigational aids with help from
Chevron Shipping.

Navigation Lights
Navigation lights operating on 6- or 12-volt batteries are available. They can be
equipped with red, white or amber lenses and can flash with any regular recurring
characteristics, including a code letter. The Wallace and Tiernan model FA-250 or

Chevron Corporation

900-65

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

equal, equipped with automatic lamp-changer and photo-cell switch, makes a good
installation. Batteries should have amp-hour capacity to last a year.

Winker Lights
Floating winker lights are advisable for attachment to the hose to warn shipping
away from the hose and to assist the tanker during night mooring operations.
Floating winker lights can be made from portable marine beacons, packaged in
flotation housing, operating on dry cell batteries.

Fog Horns
Battery-operated fog horns are available which meet U.S. Coast Guard requirements. A fog signal similar to Model FA-232 041 manufactured by Automatic
Power, Inc., will operate about a year on a 6 volt, 1000 amp-hour capacity battery.
The fog horn may be remotely operated by a pulse-coded radio signal like a garagedoor opener.

Transportation
When the buoy is floating in the water without the chains attached, it has a high
center of gravity, and while it will not readily capsize, it is not very stable. If the
buoy must be towed any distance, special precautions should be taken.
1.

Attach the towing bridle to the chain stoppers in the skirt.

2.

Place about 5000 pounds of ballast on the skirt opposite from the towing bridle.

3.

Keep maximum towing speed below 3 knots.

A special transporter ship is often used to deliver the buoy from the manufacturer to
the site.

938 Installation and Operation


Installation
After the submarine pipeline has been installed and the pipeline end manifold
attached and anchored to the sea bottom, the following steps are necessary to install
the buoy.

December 1993

1.

Install the anchors or anchor-piling. If anchors are used on sandy bottom,


bury the anchors by jetting or air-lifting, or as an alternative, drag them 50 to
100 feet until they are well embedded.

2.

Lay out and stretch the anchor chains. If anchors are used, this will probably
be done during anchor installation.

3.

Proof-load the anchor system by pulling on each of the two opposite anchor
chains about 35% of the breaking strength of the chain.

4.

Connect the chain pendants to the buoy.

900-66

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

5.

Tension the chains to manufacturers recommendation and remove excess


chain.

6.

Install underbuoy hoses and position buoyancy tanks, or beads. The hose can
normally be made up on shore, tested, and towed to the buoy site. The buoy
supplier will specify the spacing of the hoses.

7.

Install floating hoses. These hoses can normally be made up and tested on
shore and towed to the buoy.

8.

Install mooring lines.

9.

Check out all systems. The buoy supplier should be required to have a representative on hand to ensure the various components are assembled correctly to
validate the guarantee.

Problems Which May Be Encountered During Installation


Anchor Installation. Unless anchors are fitted with stabilizer bars when pulled into
a sand bottom to obtain a hold, they can twist and pull out before obtaining their
maximum holding power.
Underbuoy Hose Installation. Underbuoy hoses can be difficult to install when a
strong current is running. Using a crane barge to lift underwater loads and hold
them steady when seas are higher than about 2 feet can be very difficult and
dangerous for divers.
One method to install underbuoy hoses at the sea bed is to run a 1-inch cable
through the top bolt hole of the hose and manifold flanges and hold taut to guide
the hose for flange make-up. Use a come-a-long to pull the hose flange up to the
pipeline end-manifold flange. If the bolt holes straddle the vertical center line of the
flange, as is normal practice, the hose will roll. It would be better to have the top
bolt hole centered on the vertical center line so that the hose will not roll when
using this method. Designs for the pipeline end manifold should include attachment
points for the cable end and padeyes for pulling hoses into position.
A Van Stone-type flange should be incorporated into the hose riser at the buoy to
facilitate flange make-up.
Chain Tensioning. Divers use an inclinometer to check the chain angle just below
attachment to the buoy. When currents over about 0.5 knots are running, it may not
be possible to obtain reliable readings on the inclinometer due (1) to the movement
of the inclinometer, and (2) to movement of the buoy off center from current forces.
Use of Divers. Installation plans which depend on the use of two divers simultaneously on the bottom in close proximity should be avoided unless there is good
visibility and negligible current. Normally, when visibility is poor and water depth
is over 100 feet, divers work better in hard-hat-type diving equipment, instead of
scuba gear. When two divers are working around each other under conditions of
poor visibility, their lines can become tangled. Poor visibility will seriously reduce
diver efficiency, but experienced divers are able to perform under zero visibility
conditions. To assist divers, underwater installations should be painted white, have

Chevron Corporation

900-67

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

arrows for orientation, pipe sizes stenciled on the ends, and any other visual aids
that would expedite underwater work.
Before installing underwater facilities, such as the pipeline end manifold, good
photos from all angles should be taken so that subsequent maintenance divers can
be readily instructed. Photos are also helpful if modifications are to be made after
installation.

Operation
General Procedure. When the tanker is about 24 hours away, the terminal is notified of ETA for mooring master to come aboard. When the tanker is about 6 miles
away from the terminal, the terminal launch takes the Mooring Master and assistants (if any) aboard the tanker.
The launch then goes to the buoy and moves the hoses out of the path the ship will
take on its approach to the buoy. The tanker approaches the buoy up-current or upwind, whichever controls. The mooring lines are then picked up by the tanker with
assistance from the launch, if necessary.
The launch stands by the tanker during loading or unloading operations. It is not
normally necessary or desirable to put personnel on the buoy. Mooring operation,
exclusive of bolt-up time for the hoses, is about 1 hour.
Weather Factors That Affect Operations. The limiting sea conditions which
affect mooring operations are the highest seas the launch can work in. Normally, a
6-foot sea will be the limiting condition for a terminal launch about 60 feet long.
When the tanker is moored, it can remain moored as long as design conditions are
not exceeded, or until the Mooring Master or ships Captain feel it prudent to vacate
the berth. The hoses should be disconnected when seas exceed about 10 feet
because of possible hose damage.
Pressure Surges. When loading a tanker, care must be taken not to close valves in
the tanker manifold too quickly. If valves are closed suddenly, heavy surge pressures within the hose, buoy and pipeline systems could result. Some tankers have
power-operated gate valves which can close in seven seconds. If these valves were
closed without proper notice to the pumping source, the pressure surge could
overpressure various flanges, expansion spools and fittings, causing leakage.

940 Corrosion Protection


941 Cathodic Protection
Steel in marine environments is subject to corrosion. The sub-surface members
must be either cathodically protected or sized to include a corrosion allowance.
Corrosion rates are highest in the splash zone. The splash zone should be established after necessary oceanographic data have been collected.

December 1993

900-68

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

The primary choice for cathodic protection is between galvanic and impressedcurrent systems. The choice will be dictated in part by the salinity of the water at
the facility.
For information on cathodic protection systems refer to the Companys Corrosion
Prevention Manual, Section 500.

942 Coatings
Organic coatings such as coal tar epoxy, vinyl, epoxy glass flake (e.g., Ameron
Tideguard 171), and epoxy or vinyl over inorganic zinc systems have been specified for splash zone corrosion protection at recently constructed wharves.
Specific information about recommended coating materials and methods can be
found in the Companys Coatings Manual, and the Coatings Manual Quick Reference Guide. Proper specification and inspection of surface preparation and application methods are paramount to good coating performance. Company materials
specialists should be consulted when selecting coatings for any major job.
All organic coatings can be subject to damage during installation. Touch-up repairs
on site can be very difficult, particularly in cold climates where curing times may
be extended, or not practical. Epoxy splash-zone compounds used for touch-up
below the waterline must be rated to cure under water. PVC wrap (Pile-Gard) has
also been used successfully for coating repair. More expensive Monel-clad steel
may be used as an alternate to minimize installation damage. However, the Monel
must be justified economically. Refer to the Coatings Manual for recommendations.

950 Glossary of Terms


Bitts. Vertical steel posts or bollards mounted in pairs, often with crosshead pieces,
around which a mooring or other line is secured.
Bogie Wheel. Part of the bearing between the fixed and moving part of the buoy.
Bollard. A vertical steel post or strong point to which the eye of a ships mooring
line can be attached.
Bow Lines. Mooring lines leading ashore from the fore end of a ship, often at an
angle of about 45 degrees to the fore and aft line.
Breasting Dolphin. A structure that is designed to take the impact of a vessel in the
process of docking.
Breasting Lines. Mooring lines leading ashore as nearly perpendicular as possible
to the ships fore and aft line for the purpose of maintaining the ship alongside the
mooring facility.
Capstan. A motor-driven vertical drum used for hauling in the ships mooring lines.

Chevron Corporation

900-69

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

Catenary Anchor Legs. A mooring chain or wire.


Chock. A fitting for guiding mooring lines.
Deadweight Tons (DWT). The carrying capacity of a vessel, including cargo
bunkers and stores, in long tons. This can be quoted for any draft but is usually
given in reference to the fully laden capacity of the vessel.
Displacement Tons. The total displacement of the vessel and cargo bunkers in long
tons. Displacement tonnage of a vessel is equivalent to the sum of its deadweight
tonnage and the ships own weight.
Dolphin. A structure usually consisting of a cluster of piles, most often timber or
steel pipe piles, for mooring a vessel. Timber dolphins are often constructed by
strapping piles together with cable-windings. Steel pipe piles are often joined by
tubular members and connections to construct dolphin structures.
Draft. Depth of vessel hull below the water line.
Fender. A device that absorbs energy from a vessels docking and distributes reactions to a ships hull and the breasting dolphin.
Freeboard. Distance between the weather deck of a floating vessel and the waterline.
Hawser. Another term for mooring line, a wire or synthetic rope used to secure a
vessel in berth.
Length Overall (LOA). The extreme length of a vessel.
Loading Arms. Oil transfer units for effecting the connection between vessel and
shore for discharge and loading; generally applied to articulated all-metal arms.
Long Ton. Unit of weight commonly used when referring to tankers and other
marine vessels; a long ton is 2240 pounds.
Mooring Hooks. Devices that secure a vessels mooring line to a dolphin, buoy, or
wharf.
Seiche. Very long waves of small height generated by resonant oscillation within a
partly closed harbor or other body of water. Wave periods are determined by physical dimensions of the body of water and generally range from a few minutes to
more than an hour.
Sheet Pile Cells. Structures formed by a ring of sheet piles filled with rock or
concrete.
Spring Lines. Mooring lines leading ashore in a nearly fore and aft direction whose
purpose is to prevent longitudinal movement (surge) of the vessel in the berth.
Stern Lines. Mooring lines leading ashore from the aft end of a ship, often at an
angle of about 45 degrees to the fore and aft line.
Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC). A vessel greater than 320,000 DWT.

December 1993

900-70

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC). A vessel ranging from 160,000 to 320,000
DWT.
Yoke. A rigid structure with hinges at both ends. It connects a ship to a buoy.

960 Model Specifications and Standard Drawings


961 Model Specifications
The following specifications related to this section are included in the Specifications section of the manual or are available in other manuals as indicated.
CIV-MS-4074

Marine Loading Arms

PIM-MS-2923

275 psi Cargo/Submarine Hose (in the Piping Manual)

PIM-MS-3133

200 psi Hose for Barge Operations (in the Piping Manual)

COM-MS-4771

Offshore Structures Coatings (in the Coatings Manual)

962 Standard Drawings


The following standard drawing is included in the Standard Drawings and Forms
section of this manual.
GD-M1078

Typical Assembly Details and Shackles, Mooring Buoy to


Anchor Connections

970 References
971 Terminals and Wharves

Chevron Corporation

1.

British Ship Research Association, Research Investigation for the Improvement of Ship Mooring Methods, First Report, BSRA Report NS. 179,
Wallsend Research Station, 1967.

2.

Department of the Navy, Design Manual: Harbor and Coastal Facilities,


NAVFAC DM-26, July 1968.

3.

Quinn, A. D. Design and Construction of Ports and Marine Structures,


McGraw-Hill, 1972.

4.

Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses, Report of the


International Commission for Improving the Design of Fender Systems, 1984.

5.

Page, J. S. Cost Estimating Manual for Pipelines and Marine Structures, Gulf
Publishing Company, 1977.

900-71

December 1993

900 Wharves and Moorings

Civil and Structural Manual

6.

Dent, G. E., and B. F. Saurin. Tanker TerminalsBerthing Structures; Paper 4,


Conference on Tanker and Bulk Carrier Terminals, The Institution of Civil
Engineering, 1969.

7.

Oil Companies International Marine Forum, Prediction of Wind and Current


Loads on VLCCs, Witherby and Company Limited, 1977.

8.

Oil Companies International Marine Forum, Guidelines and Recommendations


for Safe Mooring of Large Ships at Piers and Sea Islands, Witherby and
Company Limited, 1978.

9.

Oil Companies International Marine Forum, Design and Construction Specification for Marine Loading Arms, Witherby and Company Limited, 1980.

10. American Petroleum Institute, Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed


Offshore Platforms (RP 2A).
11. Balfour, J. S., J. C. Feben, and D. L. Martin. Fendering Requirements/Design
Fender Impact Criteria, PORTS 80 Conference, American Society of Civil
Engineers, 1980.
12. Department of the Navy, Design Manual: Piers and Wharves, NAVFAC DM250.1, November, 1980.
13. Oil Companies International Marine Forum, Terminal Fire Protection and
Emergency Evacuation, (Publication Pending).
14. American Wood Preservers Association (AWPA), Standard for PressureTreated Material in Wood Construction (C18).
15. American Wood Preservers Association (AWPA), Standard for Care of Preservative-Treated Wood Products (M4).
16. Chevron Research and Technology Company, Coatings Manual
17. American Concrete Institute (ACI), Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318).
18. Prestressed Concrete Institute, Recommended Practice for Design, Manufacture, and Installation of Prestressed Concrete Piling.
19. CRTCs Health, Environment and Safety Group, Fire Protection Manual.

972 Single Point Moorings

December 1993

1.

Offshore Tanker Terminals, J. M. Langeveld, paper presented at Conference on


Tanker and Bulk Carrier Terminals, 13 November 1969.

2.

Model Test Reports, by Netherlands Ship Model Basin, Wageningen, 1969.

3.

Analyzing Mooring Line Catenaries, by B. G. Collipp, article in Petroleum


Engineer, May 1968.

900-72

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

4.

Design Manual, Harbor and Coastal Facilities, NAVFAC DM-26, Dept. of the
Navy, July 1968.

5.

Design of a Military Mono-mooring System for Tankers, by Henry C. Mayo,


November 1969, U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development
Center.

6.

Minutes, SPM Users Forum

7.

Hose Standards, Oil Companies International Marine Forum, London, 3rd


Edition, September, 1978.

8.

Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs, Oil Companies International


Marine Forum, London.

9.

Chevron Shipping, Wind and Current Force Coefficients for Tankers.

10. Chevron Shipping, Vessel Profile Sheets.


11. Woehleke, S.P., et al., Hawser System Design for Single-Point Moorings,
Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 1978.
12. Single Point Mooring Maintenance and Operations Guide, Oil Companies
International Marine Forum, London, March, 1984.
13. Standards For Equipment Employed in the Mooring of Ships at Single Point
Moorings, Oil Companies International Marine Forum, London, October 1977.
14. Rules For Building and Classing Single Point Moorings, American Bureau of
Shipping, 1975.
15. Langeveld, J. M. Design Criteria For Single Point Mooring Terminals, American Society of Civil Engineers, Annual and Environmental Engineering
Meeting, New York, Session 23Deep Water Offshore Moorings, November
1973.
16. Analysis of Spread Mooring Systems for Floating Drilling Units; API Recommended Practice 2P (2nd Edition, May 1987).
17. Drag Embedment Anchors for Navy Moorings, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Technical Data Publication.
18. Subsea-Data-Base, Volume 1E, Subsea Data Services, Houston Texas, 1987.
(Contact CPTC (San Ramon).)

Chevron Corporation

900-73

December 1993

Civil and Structural Manual

900 Wharves and Moorings

Fig. 900-32 General Tanker Data

Chevron Corporation

900-75

December 1993