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aHfJII1I1CKOfO 5I3bIKa
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IIOC'ryIIalOHx B By3hI

H.M. Pa3MHKMHa

CAMOY'U1TEIlb
AHrnllll7lcKoro Sl3blKA
AIlS! nocTynalOMx B By3bl

Y'Ie6HOe noco6l1e

MOCKBa
ACTpenb. ACT
2002

Y.IlK 811.111(075)
EiEiK

81.2AHrJl
PI7

KmmbtoT e p Hblfi lJ.UJaHH 06J1Q)KKJf

ClYIum -tbtK06paJ.,

nO,ll nnC3HO B nelJ3Tb C roTOBbiX ..lUlan03UTHBOD 07.02.2002.


<DopMaT 70xI001/16. neqaTb O<jx:eTHaJI.

Yen. ne". n. 15,6.

Tllpa>< 5100 310. 3aKll3 797.

06wepoccltilcKJfn K.n3Ccn<tullc3rop npo.ll.YKUIfIt


OK-005-93, TOM 2; 953005 - m!TepaTYPa yqe6HaJI.
CaHHTapHo-:mlUleMHOJlOnl'leCKOe 33KnfOlJeHlte
N! 77.99.11.953.n.002870.1O.01 OT 25.10.2001.

Pa3HHKHHa H.M.
PI7

CaMoY'IHTeJlb aHrJlHlicKOro 1I3blKa .1lJlll nocTynalOUlHx B


BYlbJ: Y'Ie6. noc06He /H.M . Pa:lHHKHHa. - M.: 000 J.1JllareJlb
CTBOAcTpeJlb.: 000 (,J.1JllaTeJlbcTBoACT, 2002. - 192 c.

ISBN 5-17-012820-7 (000 J.bllaTeJlbCTBO ACT.)


ISBN 5-271-04100-X (000 .lhllaTeJlbCTBO ACTpeJlb)
nOCo6He COHCP)lCJtT TeKCTbI C rpaMM3TWIeCKltMH II llCKClltICCKIL\11I
KOMMeHT3pIUIMH. J3,ll aHItHMIt H3 3KTJfBH33UlUO MaTeplHUJa II TeeThI, 110-

JDOJUllOlllH e KOIIT})OJlHPOB3Tb ypODCHb 3H3HIIH


PeKOMeHJl.yeTclI DeeM,

KTD rOTO BII TC$I

II

YMCIHli-L

K CA31lC BCTymlTcJlblloro

3K33-

MeHa no 3HrJlHACKOMY H3blKY B Bhlcwee ytle6110e J30ClleHHC.

Y)l.K 811.111(075)
DDK 81.2 Altr"

ISBN 5-17-012820-7
(000 .I1J.!l3TeJlbcTBo ACT.)

ISBN 5-271-04100-X

(000 .I1l.!laTeJlbCTBO AcrpeJIb.)

H.M. PaJIlIIKIlHa. 2002


000 (.H:maTenbCTBo AcrpCJlL.. , 2U02

BMECTO IIPE,UMCJlOBIUI

)],.1151 TEX, KOMY IIPE.D,CTOMT C.D,ABATb


BCTYIIMTEJIbHbII1 3K3AMEH
no AHmMI1CKOMY 513bIKY
BbI rrpo'lJlI1 CJlOBa BcTynI1TeJlbHbII1 3K3aMeH, 11 B Bawe CepLll\e np06paJlCli
Herrpl1lITHbII1 XOJlOLlOK: CLlaM JlI1? CnpaBJlIOCb JlI1? He OKalKYCb JlI1 XYlKe LlPYrI1X?
KOHe'lHO, 3K3aMeH eCTb 3K3aMeH, 11 CKOJlbKO K HeMY He rOTOBbClI, a 1136aBI1TbClI
rrOJlHOCTbIO OT BOJlHeHl1lI MaJlO KOMY YLlaeTCli. 3aTO YLlaeTCli LlPyroe: C nOMOLUbIO
perYJllIpHOI1 11 TLUaTeJlbHOI1 nOLlroToBKI1 o6pecTI1 66JlbWYIO YBepeHHOCTb B ce6e,
OLUYTI1Tb rrOLl HOraMI1 60Jlee TBepLlYIO rrO'lBY.
npO'lTI1Te 3TO rrpeLlI1CJlOBl1e BHI1MaTeJlbHO. AsTOP rroco611lI 6epeT Ha ce61I
CMeJlOCTb CKa3aTb, 'ITO TLUaTeJlbHali 11 rrOCJleLlOBaTeJlbHalI pa60Ta Hall npeLlJla
raeMbIMI1 Y'Ie6HbIMI1 MaTepl1aJlaMI1 rrpl1LlaCT BaM TY caMYlo 66JlbWYIO YBepeH
HOCTb 11 rrOMOlKeT o6pecTI1 TY caMYIO 60Jlee TBepLlYIO rrO'lBY, 0 KOTOPbIX 6bIJlO
CKa3aHO BbIwe.
npeLlJlaraeMOe rroco611e COCTOI1T 113 Tpex '1aCTel1. Bce pa3LleJlbI (Units) '1aCTel1
I 11 I I rroco61151 rrOCTpoeHbI OLlHOTl1rrHO 11 Ha'll1HaIOTCli C TeKCTa. TeMaTI1Ka TeK
CTOB pa3Hoo6pa3Ha. 3TO MorYT 6bITb TeKCTbI rro I1CTOPI1I1 aHrJlOlI3bI'IH0I1 CTpaHbI,
CI1CTeMe o6pa30BaHI11I B Hel1, 06bI'IalIM 11 TPaLlI1Ul1lIM, oco6eHHocTlIM I1CnOJlb30BaHl1lI 1I3blKa 11 Llp. Tex 113 Bac, KTO co611paeTclI CTaTb 3KOHOMI1CTOM I1JlI1 <pI1HaH
CI1CTOM, MorYT 3aHHTepeCOBaTb TaKl1e TeKCTbI, KaK "The American Monetary Sys
tem of the 17th and 18th Centuries", "The Federal Reserve System"; 6YLlYLUI1e
I1CTOPI1KH rrpo'lTYT TeKCT "The Early History of the White House" 11 T.Ll.
TeKcTbI noco6HlI paCrrOJlOlKeHbI B noplILlKe B03paCTaHI11I LlJlI1HbI - OT 60Jlee
KOPOTKHX K 60Jlee LlJlHHHbIM H CJIOlKHbIM. AsTOP BblpalKaeT HaLlelKLlY Ha TO, 'ITO
113 o6mero '1I1CJla B 39 TeKCTOB Bcema MOlKHO BbI6paTb Hal160Jlee HHTepeCHbII1 11
nOJle3HbII1 MaTepl1aJl.

O.LlHaKO, KaKOBa 6bI HI1 6bIJIa BallIa 6Y.LlYllIall CneUl1 aJll13aUI1I1, CaMbIM
Ha.ue)l(HbIM IIBJIlleTCIl TaKOH nO.LlXO.Ll, npl1 KOTOPOM 113Y'laIOTCIl
'II1TaIOTCIl

Bee

Bee

YPOKI1 11

TeKCTbI B TOH nOCJIe.LlOBaTeJIbHOCTI1, B KOTOPOH OHI1 npe.LlCTaB

JIeHbl B .LlaHHOM noco61111. KyJIbTypa CTpaHbI BKJIIO'IaeT caMbIe pa3HbIe CTO


POHbl )l(113HI1 HaCeJIIlIOUlI1X ee JIIO.LleH, 11 eCJII1 BaM He6e3blHTepeCHa :3Ta KYJIb
Typa, TO, CJIe.LlOBaTeJIbHO, 'IeM 60JIbllIe MaTepl1ana BbI I1MeeTe Jl)III 113Y4eHI111
113bIKa (a 'Iepe3 Hero 11 KyJIbTYPbI CTpaHbI), TeM nJIO.LlOTBOpHee 6Y.LlYT BallIl1
3aHiITI1I1.
Ha Bonpoc \1\3 KaKI1X I1CTO'lHI1KOB B311TbI TeKCTbI? aBTOp Mor 6bI OTBeTI1Tb
TaK: npOUle CKa3aTb, 113 KaKI1X I1CTO'lHI1KOB TeKCTbI He 6panI1Cb. JII060H MaTe
pl1an, KOTOPbIH MO)I(HO I1CnOJIb30BaTb B Y'le6HbIX ueJIRX 11 KOTOPbIH OCBeUlaeT pa3JII1'1Hble CTOPOHbI )I(I13HI1 JII0.LleH B aHrJIOR3bl'lHbIX CTpaHax, npe.LlCTaBJIRJICIl aBTO
py nOJIe3HbIM.
Ho BepHeMCR K CTpyKType noco61111. K Ka)l(.!lOMY TeKCTY npl1.LlaH CJIOBapb
(Vocabulary). B HeM BbI HaH.LleTe CJIOBa (11 CJIOBOCO'leTaHI1R), nepeBe.ueHHble
Ha PYCCKI1H R3blK B TOM 3Ha'leHI1I1, B KOTOPOM OHI1 I1CnOJIb30BaHbI B TeKCTe.
ll anee Bbl HaH.LleTe pa3.LleJI, 0603Ha'leHHbIH KaK Usage Notes. 3TO - Ba)l(HaR
'IaCTb noco6l1R. Usage Notes BKJI IO'IaIOT MOMeHTbI, CBR3aHHble C Tl1nl14Hbl
MI1 ollII16KaMI1 Y'laUlI1XCII, pa3bRCHeHI1eM OTTeHKOB 3Ha'leHI1H CI1HOHI1MI1'1HbIX CJIOB, I1CnOJIb30BaHI1eM onpe.LleJIeHHbIX npeJl)lOrOB C CYUleCTBI1TeJIbHbI
MI1 11 T.n.
CJIe.LlYIOUlI1H pa3.LleJI BKJIIO'IaeT TeCTbI Ha nOHI1MaHl1e npO'lI1TaHHOrO TeKCTa
(Reading Comprehension). nOMI1MO :3TOH OCHOBHOH ueJII1, .LlaHHbIH pa3.LleJI o6JIa
.LlaeT eUle O.LlHI1M npl1BJIeKaTeJIbHbIM Ka'leCTBOM: OH cnoco6cTByeT paCllIl1peHI1IO 11
3aKpenJIeHI1IO JIeKCI1'1eCKoro MaTepl1ana, nOCKOJIbKY Tpe6yeT 04eHb BHI1MaTeJIb
HOrO 11 B.LlYM'II1Boro OTHOllIeHl111 K CMbICJIY npeJl)lO)l(eHI1H, o6pa3yIOUll1x TeCTOBbIe
3a.uaHI1I1.
llanee CJIe.LlYIOT ynpa)I(HeHI1I1 (rpaMMaTI1'1eCKl1e 11/11J111 JIeKCI1'1eCKI1e), TeCHbIM
o6pa30M CBII3aHHbIe C npO'lI1TaHHbIM TeKCTOM.
ynpa)I(HeHI1I1 Ha

Bee

rpaMMaTl14eCKI1e 11

Bee

CO)l(aneHI1IO, HeB03MO)I(HO .LlaTb

JIeKCI1'1eCKI1e IIBJIeH1111 , I1CnOJIb3ye

MbIe B TeKCTe. B 3TOM CJIyqae noco611e npeBpaTI1JIOCb 6bI B orpOMHbIH TOM,


n03TOMY aBTOp oTo6pan IIBJIeHI1I1, oco6eHHO Ba)l(HbIe Jl)III 'IeJIOBeKa, co6l1paIO
UlerOCIl C.LlaBaTb BCTynl1TeJIbHbIH 3K3aMeH no aHrJIl1HCKOMY 113bIKY.
nOCJIe TOro KaK BbI BbInOJIHI1JII1 npeJl)laraeMbIe ynpa)I(HeHI1I1, peKOMeH.LlyeM
BaM nepeBeCTI1 TeKCT Ha PYCCKI1H 113bIK. TIepeBO.Ll .LlOJI)I(eH 6bITb 6JII13KI1M K TeK
cry Opl1TI1Hana 11 B TO )l(e BpeMIl OTBe'laTb HopMaM pYCCKoro JII1TeparypHoro 113bI
Ka, T.e. B HeM He .LlOJI)l(HO 6bITb KOPIIBbIX, HeCKJIa.uHbIX npeJl)lO)l(eHI1H, Kopo611UlI1X yxo.
BbI nepeBeJII1 TeKCT? OTJIO)l(I1Te ero B CTOPOHY, 3a6Y.LlbTe 0 HeM .LlHeH Ha .Lle
CIITb, a 3aTeM BHOBb BepHI1TeCb K CBoeMY nepeBO.LlY 11 C.LleJIaHTe 06paTHbIH nepe
BO.Ll Ha aHrJII1HCKI1H 113bIK. CpaBHI1Te o6a TeKCTa 11 nOCMOTpI1Te: 'ITO 3anOMHI1JIOCb, a 'ITO - HeT, me y Bac nOJIyql1Jlocb Y.Lla'lHOe oTcTynJIeHl1e, a rne - He O'leHb

Y.lWIHoe. He CTpeMI1TeCb K a6COJIlOTHOH TO'lHOCTI1 B BOCnp0I13BeD.eHI1I1 Opl1rHHa


lIa: 1I3blK He Ta6l111ua YMHO)!(eHl1l1. HMO cTapaTbclI COXpaHI1Tb CMbIClI aHfJII1HCKO
ro TeKCTa.
B

'1aCTH I

K Ka)!(.lJ.OMY TeKCTY D.aeTClI ClIeD.YJOlllee 3MaHl1e: CYMMI1PYHTe co

D.ep)!(aHl1e TeKCTa B

3-5

PYCCKI1X npeD.JIO)!(eHl1l1X 11 nonblTaHTeCb nepeBeCTI1 I1X Ha

aHrlll1HCKI1H 1I3bIK, I1cnOllb3YlI lIeKCI1KY TeKCTa (06pa3eu BbInOllHeHl1l1 npl1BO


D.I1TClI B YPOKe

I 0 C3MI03l1e Mop3e). Uellb 3TOro 3MaHI111 D.BOllKall: OD.Ha - 60llee

Y3Kall, D.Pyrall - 60llee, llll1pOKall. SOllee Y3Kall uellb - aKTI1BI13aUl111 lIeKCI1'1eCKO


ro 11 rpaMMaTI1'1eCKOrO MaTepl1aJIa, Ha OCHOBe KOToporo CTPOI1TClI TeKCT D.aHHoJ;o
ypOKa. O'leHb Ba)!(HO TO 06CTOllTellbCTBO, 'ITO D.aHHOe 3MaHI1e BbInOllHlIeTClI Ba
MI1 B nl1CbMeHHOH opMe. SOllee llll1pOKall, HO He MeHee Ball uellb - OPMI1pOBaHl1e 11 pa3BI1TI1e HaBbIKa, CB1I3aHHoro C YMeHl1eM lIOrH'IHO 11 BMeCTe C TeM
KpaTKO 11 nOClIeD.OBaTellbHO 113JI0)!(J1Tb COD.ep)!(aHI1e npO'lI1TaHHOro TeKCTa. 3TOT
HaBbIK O'leHb npl1rOD.I1TClI BaM, KOrD.a BbI 6YD.eTe I1MeTb D.ellO C PYCCKI1MI1 TeKCTa
MI1, cOD.ep)!(aHl1e KOTOPbIX D.OJI)!(HO 6bITb nOD.BeprHyTO TOMY, 'ITO nO-aHfJII1HCKI1
YD.a'lHO Ha3bIBaeTClI ClIOBOM "distillation", T.e. "extracting the essence of...", HO
D.ellO He TOllbKO B pa3Bl1Tl111 OnpeD.elleHHOro HaBbIKa, HO 11 B COBepllleHCTBOBaHl111 '
BallleH pe'll1 KaK TaKOBoH.

K Ka)!(D.OMY ypOKY D.aeTCH TaK)!(e

TeMa D.JIH KopOTKoro CO'lI1HeHl1l1. TaM, me 3TO

6blJl0 B03MO)!(H0, aBTop npeD.JIaraJI TeMbI, KOTopbIe n03BOlll1l111 6bI BaM CpaBHI1Tb
D.Be KYlIbTYPbI - aHfJI01l3bI'IHYIO 11 PYCCKYIO. 06paTl1Te BHI1MaHl1e Ha 3nl1rpa K
noc06l1IO: "It is by studying others that we learn about ourselves."

qacTb II noc0611H BKJlIO'IaeT

TeKcTbl, lIeKCI1'1eCKl1e ynpeHl1l1, 3MaHl1H Ha

OPMYlIl1pOBaHl1e OCHOBHoro cOD.ep)!(aHl1l1 TeKCTa Ha OCHOBe npeD.JIaraeMbIx


nOD.CKa30K (hints), a TaK)!(e TeMbI D.JI1I KopoTKoro CO'lI1HeHl1l1. Bo BTOPOH '1ac
TI1, KaK 11 B nepBOll, CD.ellaHa nonbITKa paCnOllO)!(J1Tb TeKCTbl B nOpllD.Ke B03paCTaHl1l1 I1X D.JII1HbI 11 ClIO)!(HOCTI1. 3D.eCb HeT pa3D.ella Vocabulary, CB1I3aHHoro C
nepeBOD.OM lIeKCI1K11 YPOKa Ha PYCCKI1H H3bIK, TaK KaK npeD.nOllaraeTClI, 'ITO BbI
y)!(e OCBOI1J\I1 npl1eMbI pa60Tbl C TeKCTOM. Oc060e BHI1MaHl1e 06pallleHo 3D.eCb Ha
Te lIeKCI1'1eCKl1e eD.I1HI1UbI, KOTopbIe I1CnOllb3YIOTClI B COCTaBe

BOCO'leTaHHH.

YCTOH'IHBbIX ClIO

BaM npeD.JIaraeTClI ClIeD.YJOllll1H npl1eM pa60TbI HM lIeKCI1'1eCKI1M

MaTepl1aJIOM noc061111: CD.ellaHTe (Hape)!(bTe) KapTO'lKI1 pa3MepoM

'"

CM X 4 CM,

)!(eJIaTellbHO 113 nllOTHOll 6YMam (D.JI1I 3Toro XOPOlllO nOD.XOD.I1T 6YMara 113 aJIb60Ma D.JI1I pI1COBaHl1l1). Ha OD.HOH CTopOHe KapTO'lKl1 Hanl1llll1Te aHfJIl1HCKOe ClIO
BO/ClIOBOCO'leTaHl1e. nOD. HI1M - E.g.:, T.e. KOPOTKI1H npl1Mep I1cnOllb30BaHI111
D.aHHOrO ClIOBa/ClIOBOCO'leTaHI1H. Ha 060pOTe - nepeBOD.. Ballla KapTO'lKa 6y
D.eT BbIrllHD.eTb TaK:

to abandon
E.g.: The dwellings were abandoned.
5

Ha 060pOTe:

n OKUaamb, OCm 06/1J/mb :JICU/lue.

npl1Mep nepeBO)lI1Tb

He

HY)I(

HO. Pa3JIO)l(J1Te Ha CTOne 20 (He 60nbllle!) KapTO'leK aHfnl1l1CKOI1 CTOPOHOI1


BBepx. no Mepe I1X 3anOMI1HaHI1S1 nepeBOpa'lI1Bal1Te KapTO'lKI1 PYCCKOI1 CTO
POHOI1 BBepx. 3aTeM npO)lenal1Te TO )l(e caMoe B 06paTHOM nOpSl)lKe, T.e. C)le
nal1Te nepeBO)l C PYCCKoro Ha aHfnI1I1CKI1I1.

Y Bac

6Y)leT MHoro KapTO'leK, no

CKonbKY, ecnl1 Bbl nOCne)lyeTe COBeTY aBTopa, Bbl nepeHeceTe Ha HI1X 11


neKCI1KY TeKCTOB, 11 neKCI1KY ynpa)l(HeHI1I1, 11 neKCI1KY pa3)lena Usage Notes,
11 neKCI1KY TeCTOBblX 3MaHI1I1. Pa60TaTb C KapTO'lKaMI1 HMO

KO:JICabIU aeHb,

06palliaSi oc060e BHI1MaHl1e Ha Te 113 HI1X, KOTopble He )l(enaJOT 3anOMI1HaTbCSI. 3TI1 cnOBa HMO Bbl)lenl1Tb B OT)lenbHYJO rpynny 11 Y)lenl1Tb 11M oc060e
BHI1MaHl1e.
KpoMe TOro, K Ka)l(JlOMY ypOKY )laeTCSI ynpa)l(HeHl1e, B KOTOPOM BaM npe)l
naraeTCSI MSI BbITIOnHeHI1S1 3a)laHI1S1 I1CnOnb30BaTb nO)lCKa3KI1. q T0 3TO 3a nO)l
CKa3KI1 11 KaKOBa I1X uenb? Ecnl1 B nepBOI1 '1aCTI1 noc0611S1 Bbl CyMMl1pOBMI1
cO)lep)l(aHl1e TeKCTa B HeCKOnbKI1X PYCCKI1X npe)lnO)l(eHI1S1X 11 nepeBO)ll1nl1 3TI1
npe)lnO)l(eHI1S1 Ha aHfnl1l1cKl111 Sl3bIK, TO BO BTOPOI1 '1aCTI1 3a)laHl1e ycno)l(HSleT
CSI: Bbl Y)l(e He 6Y)leTe BI1)leTb nepe)l c06011 3aKOH'IeHHble, nonHOCOCTaBHble
npeMO)l(eHI1S1, BaM npeMaraJOTcSI nl1ll1b KOpOTKl1e nO)lCKa3KI1 (hints), I1cnonb3ySl KOTopble BaM Ha)lO BOCCTaHOBI1Tb cO)lep)l(aHl1e npo'lI1TaHHoro TeKCTa.
npe)lCTaBbTe, 'ITO BaM HMO nonaCTb Ha )lpyrol1 6eper pe'lKI1. Qepe3 pe'lKY ne
peKI1HYTbl 1lI11pOKI1e npO'lHble )lOCKI1. 3TO - aHMor 3a)laHI1I1 B nepBOI1 '1aCTI1.

A Tenepb npe)lCTaBbTe, 'ITO eCTb HeCKonbKO KaMHel1, no KOTOPbIM, OCTOPO)l(HO


cTynaSl, BbI TO)l(e MO)l(eTe nonaCTb Ha )lpyrol1 6eper. TaK BOT: 3TI1 KaMelllKI1 11
eCTb aHMor nO)lCKa30K. 06pa3eu BbITIOnHeHI1S1 3a)laHI1S1 npI1BO)lI1TCSI B ypOKe
" Modern Life".

qaCTb III

noc0611S1 BKnJO'IaeT TeCTbI (c KnJO'IaMI1) Ha neKCI1'1eCKI1I1 I1 rpaMMa

TI1'1eCKI1I1 MaTepl1M, BbITIOnHeHl1e KOTOPblX O'leHb none3HO MSI ycnelllHol1 nO)l


rOTOBKI1 K BCTynl1TenbHOMY 3K3aMeHY no aHfnl111cKoMY Sl3bIKy. Oc060e BHI1Ma
Hl1e B TeCTOBblX 3MaHI1S1X Y)lenSleTCSI TaK Ha3bIBaeMblM Tl1nl1'1HbIM 01lJl16KaM'>
yqalUI1XCSI.
Bce TeCTbl pa3)leneHbl Ha Tpl1 rpynnbI B COOTBeTCTBl111 C Tl1nOM TecToBoro 3a
)laHI1S1:

I)

TecTbl Ha HaXO)l(JleHl1e O)lHOI1 rpaMMaTI1'1eCKOI1 I1nl1 neKCI1'1eCKOI1 01ll116KI1

B '1eTblpex nO)l'lepKHyTbIX '1aCTSIX npeMO)l(eHI1S1

2)

(A, B, C, D).

TeeTbI Ha BocnOnHeHl1e npOnYlUeHHOI1 '1acm npeMO)l(eHI1S1 (filling in the

gaps) 113 '1l1cna npe)lnO)l(eHHblX '1eTblpex Bapl1aHTOB

(A, B, C, D - multiple

choice);

3)

TecTbl Ha HaxO)l(JleHl1e COOTBeTCTBYJOlliero CI1HOHI1Ma (113 '1l1cna npeMO

)l(eHHbIX '1eTblpex Bapl1aHTOB -

A, B, C, D - multiple choice);

OC06CHHO nOllC3HbI TCCTbI, CBH3aHHbIC C rpaMMaTI1'ICCKI1M MaTCpl1aJlOM. 113BCCTHO, 'ITO

('Y3I1aeaIlUe 1I (<3IIOi/Ue

:no

pa3HbIC BClUl1. B TCKCTC npOI1CXOjJ.I1T

Y3HaBaHI1C rpaMMaTl1'1CCKOrO HBllCHI1SI. 3TO Y3HaBaHI1C jJ.aJlCKO HC BCCrJI.a ncpcxo


JI.I1 T B <pa3Y 3HaHI1SI, Hc06xoJI.I1MOrO B TOM CllY'laC, KOrJI.a '1CllOBCK nbITaCTCSI pca
lll130BaTb CBOH HaBbIK rOBOpCHI1SI I1lll1 nl1CbMa. I1HbIMI1 CllOBaMI1, B11JI.CHI1C rpaM
MaTI1K11 - 60llblUce B OTJI.CllbHOM

npCMOlKCHI1I1, BHe CBSI311 C lUl1POKI1M KOHTCK

CTOM, HClKClll1 B TCKCTC, Kama caMO cra COlleplKaHl1e nOllCKa3bIBaCT npaBl1llbHOC


OCMblCllCHI1C rpaMMaTl1'1CCKOH <pOPMbI. 113 '1l1Clla TeCTOBblX 3anaHI1M Ha npOBCp

YCBoeHI1H rpaMMaTl1'1eCKoro MaTCpl1aJla OC06CHHO nOlle3HbI 3anaHI1SI


Ha HaXOlKllCHl1e OWI16KI1. 06JI.YMbIBaHI1C '1eTblpCX rpaMMaTI1'1CCKI1X SIBllCHI1H (A),

Ky CTCneHI1

(8), (C) 11 (0), B OllHO 113 KOTOPbIX BCTpOCHa OWI16Ka, pa3MbIWJlCHI1SI no nOBO

llY Tara, 'ITO npaBI1J1bHO, a 'ITO HCnpaBI1JlbHO, He06xOlll1MOCTb M0611J11130BaTb npl1


3TOM 1l0BOllbHO 60llbWOH 3anac CBOI1X c06CTBeHHbIX rpaMMaTl1'1eCKI1X n03HaHI1H -

BCC 3TO BalKHO MH 3aKpCnllCHI1SI 11 KOHTPOJIH npOHllCHHOfO rpaMMaTl1'1CCKOrO Ma


Tepl1aJla. ElUC B XV! I BCKC npCKpaCHO CKa3aJl n03T:
Errors, likc straws, upon the surface flow,
He who would scarch for pearls must dive below.

(John Dryden)
OllHO 06lUec 3aMe'laHl1e,

TO'lHCe peKoMeHllaUI1SI. npelKlle '1eM BbI peWI1Te, Ka


'1eTbIpCX npeMaraeMblX B TCCTC Bapl1aHTOB OTBeTa SIBJlHeTCSI npaBl1llbHblM,
y6elll1Tccb B TOM, 'ITO BaM a6collIOTHO HceH CMbICll npCMOlKeHI1SI, Han KOTOPbIM

KOH I13

I3bl pa60TaeTC. TOJlbKO nOJIHaH np03pa'iHOCTb 3Tora CMbIClla, nOHI1MaHl1e 3Ha'le

BXOllSIlUl1X B era COCTaB, nOMOryT BaM Bbl6paTb


npOTI1BHOM clly'lae I1MeCT MCCTO TO, 'ITO npl1HHTO Ha3bI
BaTb rallaHl1eM Ha KO<pCMHOH rYlUe.
HI1H Bcex lleKCl1'1CCKI1X elll1HI1U,

npaBl1llbHblH OTBeT. B

B noco61111 coxpaHHeTCH npaBOnl1CaHI1C I1CTO'lHI1Ka. OrcIOlla - HCKOTOPblH pa3H060H B Hanl1CaHl111 OllHI1X 11 Tex lKe CllOB. Hanpl1Mep,

color 11 colour; center 11 centre

11 T.n. ABTOP npl1HOCI1T rlly60KyIO 6J1aroJI.apHOCTb npo<peccopy JlI1Jl11 CepreeBHe rOK


ca1l3e 3a 1lI06e3Hoe pa3peWCHI1e BOCnOJlb30BaTbCH MaTepl1aJlaMI1 113 noc0611SI L.

Goksadze et al. A Practical Course in Current English Grammar. Part l. Tbilisi, 1 986.
11, HaKOHeu, nOCllellHee. Bbl, HaBepHoe, YlKC 3HaeTe, CKOllbKO y Bac OCTaJlOCb
BpeMeHI1 110 BCTynl1TellbHoro 3K3aMeHa. Pa3lleJll1TC MaTepl1aJl noc0611SI Ha COOT
BCTCTBYlOlUee '1I1CJlO MeCHUCB, HCllellb I1 llHeH. Pa60TaHTe He cnewa, HO perymlp
HO. KaBaJlepl1HCKI1M HaCKOKOM H3bIK, KaK Bbl, KOHe'lHO, 3HaeTe, He B03bMeWb.
cnCWI1 MeMCHHO. 3TY noroBopKY PI1MCKI1H I1MnepaTop ABrycT
Festina lente
-

nOBTopSill OC06CHHO '1aCTO.


I1TaK, B 1l06pbIH 'lac! B 1l06pbIH nyrb!

Aemop
7

* * *

rJIy60KO)'BIDKaeMble KOJIJIem - npenO.11 aBaTeJII1 aHrJIl1HCKOrO 1I3bIKa! AsTOP Bbl


pIDKaeT CKpOMHYJO Ha.uelK..1lY Ha TO, 'ITO .11aHHOe noc06l1e, no KpaHHeH Mepe B ero
OT.11eJIbHbIX '1aCTlIX, MOlKHO I1CnOJIb30BaTb He TOJIbKO KaK caMoyql1TeJIb, HO 11 Ha
Kypcax I1JII1 B rpynnax, rOTOBlIIllI1X a611rypl1eHTOB K Bcrynl1TeJIbHOMY 3K3aMeHY
110 aHrJIl1HCKOMY 1I3bIKy. ABTop 6Y.11eT I1CKpeHHe 6JIaro.11apeH TeM, KTO, pa60Tall C
noc06l1eM, Haau.eT B03MOlKHOCTI1 ero YJIyqllleHl1l1 11 B03bMeT Ha ce611 TPY.11 C.11eJIaTb
3TO B nl1CbMeHHOH <!JopMe, Hanl1CaB B 113.11 aTeJIbCTBO:

129085,

MocKBa, npOe3.11

OJIbMI1HCKOro, .11 . 3a, OOO ACTpeJIb .


.ll:OKTOP <!JI1JIoJIOrl1'1eCKI1X HayK, npo<!Jeccop

H.M. Pa3HHKHHa

It is by studying others that


we

learn about ourselves.

Part I
REVISING GRAMMAR
AND VOCABULARY

Unit 1
SAMUEL FIN LEY BR EESE MORSE

Samuel Morse ( 1 79 1 - 1 8 72) accom


plished something that is rarely accom
plished: he achieved fame and success in
two widely different areas. Throughout
his youth he studied art and after gradu
ating from Yale University he went to
London where his early artistic efforts
met with enthusiastic approval. In Lono
don
he was awarded the gold medal for

figure of Hercules, and some of his paint


ings were selected for exhibit by the Royal
Academy. Later in life, after returning to

America, M orse became known for his

portraits. His portraits of the Marquis de


Lafayette today are on exhibit in the New
York City Hall and the New York Public
Library.
In addition to his artistic accomplishments, Morse is also well-known today
for his work developing the telegraph and what is known as Morse Code. He
first had the idea of trying to develop the telegraph in 1 8 32, on board a ship
returning to America from Europe. It took eleven long years of ridicule by his
associates, disinterest by the public, and a shortage of funds before Congress
finally allocated $30,000 to Morse for his project. With these funds, Morse
hung a telegraph line from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore, and on May 24,
1 844 a message in the dots and dashes of Morse Code was successfully trans
mitted.
II

Vocabulary
to accomplish (smlh) -

)\06I1TbC>I

( ..'0-.1.);

CO BepWI1Tb

(_1110-.1. ); an accomplishment -

)\OCTI1-

)l(eHHe

rarely - pe)\KO
to achieve fame and success - )\06I1TbC>I cnaBbl 11 ycnexa
throughout one's youth - BCIO (CBOIO) MOnO)\OCTb
to graduate from - 3aKOHYI1Tb Bblcwee Y'le6Hoe 3aBe)\eHl1e
an approval - 0)\06peHl1e
to award - HarpalK)\aTb (_eM-A.)
an exhibit - 3KCrT03J.1UIHI, BbiCTaBK3
in addition to - nOMI1MO
ridicule - OCMeSIHHe, HaCMeWK3
shortage - HeXBaTKa
to allocate - aCCHrHO B3Tb; OTBO,nI1Tb KaKYIO-JI. llaCTb nCHer Ha 4TO-Jl.
a message in the dots and dashes - nOCnaHl1e B BI1)\e TOyeK 11 Tl1pe

Usage Notes
B npO'lHTaHHOM BaMH TeKCTe BCTpe'laeTCH rJIaroJl to select: some of his paint
ings were selected for. . . . B '1eM COCTOHT pa3HHua MelK,lly fJlaroJlaMH to select H to
choose? To select 03Ha'laeT BbI6HpaTb '1TO-JlH60 TlllaTeJlbHO, OCMOTpHTeJlbHO, C
TeM '1T06bI B pe3YJlbTaTe nOJly'lHTb '1TO-JlH60 HaHJlY'llllero Ka'leCTBa HJlH He'lTO
HaH60Jlee npHeMJleMOe, nOl(XOl(lllllee .
To choose 03Ha'laeT B3HTb Ol(HH H3 l(ByX HJlH 60Jlee npel(MeTOB (B llIHPOKOM
CMbICJle 3Toro nOCJlel(HerO CJlOBa). HanpHMep: Of two evils, choose the lesser. - 113
06yX 30/1 6b/6upau MeHbwee.

Reading Comprehension
I. According to the passage, in his early life, Morse concentrated on preparing

for which of the following careers?


(A) A career as an inventor.
(B) A career as an artist.
(C) A career as a telegraph operator.
(0) A career developing Morse Code.
2. According to the passage, which of the following best describes the develop
ment of the telegraph?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)
12

It was a long and difficult process.


It happened almost overnight.
Morse's friends were highly supportive of his work.
Money was not a problem in the development of the telegraph.

Exercises
I. B npO'lI1TaHHOM BaMI1 TeKcTe naCCI1BHaH KOHCTPYKUI1H BCTpe'laeTCH He
CKOJlbKO pa3.
Translate into Russian.

accomplished something that is rarely accomplished


In London he was awarded the gold medal
Some of his paintings were selected for
A message . . . was successfully transmitted

_
_
_
_
_
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_
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_

_
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_

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_

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_

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Passive.

I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

(invent) in the fifteenth century.


The printing press
Last night I
(invite) to a party by a friend from Scotland.
(visit) by millions of tourists every year.
Spain and Portugal
(invade) by Napoleon.
Italy and Russia
(change) every month.
The menu in that restaurant
Many people
(kilT) in road accidents every year.
(found) in 1 945.
The United Nations

3. B TeKCTe Bbl CTOJlKHYJlI1Cb C CYIlleCTBI1TeJlbHblM disinterest - omcymcm8ue


UHmepeca. C nOMOlllblO npl1CTaBKI1 dis- 06pa3YlOTcH CJlOBa, I1MelOllIl1e 06paTHoe
3Ha'leHl1e TOMy, KOTopoe Bblpll)l(eHO KopHeBoti OCHOBOti CJlOBa.
Translate into Russian the following pairs of words:

to appear - to disappear
to agree - to disagree
an advantage - disadvantage
an ability - disability
to satisfy - to dissatisfy
to approve - to disapprove
to assemble - to disassemble
order - disorder

_
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_

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_

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_

4. Sum up the contents of the text in five Russian sentences and translate them into English. The first
three sentences have been done for you.

Model:
After graduating from Yale University
Morse worked in London as an artist
and sculptor.
His artistic efforts were enthusiastically
approved there.

I. nocJle OKOH'laHI1H

YHI1BepCI1TeTa
Mop3e pa60TaJI B 1l0HlioHe KaK xy1l0lKHI1K 11 CKYJlbnTOp.
2. Era xYllO)J(eCTBeHHble np0l13BelleHI1H
6bIJlI1 oueHeHbI TaM O'leHb BbICOKO.
13

In

1 8 32

he suddenly had the idea of de

3. B 1 8 32 r. eMY HemKl1llaHHO npl1WJla B


fOJlOBY MblCJlb 0 C03llaHI1I1 TeJlerpacjJa.

veloping the telegraph.

4. B

Te'leHl1e

I I JleT 06weCTBO He Mor

JlO nOH5ITb BaJKHOCTI1 ero 11306peTe


HI151.

5.

HaKoHeu, KOHrpecc BbllleJlI1Jl eMY


lleHbfJ1, 11 nepBa51 TeJlerpacjJHa51 JlI1HI151 3apa6oTaJla B

1 844

rOllY.

5. What is your opinion? Write a short composition the lirst sentence of which is:
"A talented man can achieve success if

6.

_______________
_

Another question for a short comllOsition:


What factors help a talented man (if not a genius) gain fame and success in his

own lifetime?

Unit 2
THE I NVENTION OF THE PHONOG RAPH

The invention of the phonograph happened quite by acci


dent. Thomas Edison moved to Menlo Park, New Jersey, in
1876, where he established an industrial research laboratory.
There Edison worked on a carbon telephone transmitter to im
prove the existing Bell system. In that laboratory a year later
Edison invented the phonograph while trying to improve a tele
graph repeater. He attached a telephone diaphragm to the
needle in the telegraph repeater to produce a recording that
could be played back. After some improvements to the machine,
he recited "Mary Had a Little Lamb" and played the recogniz
able reproduction of his voice to an astonished audience.

Vocabulary
a phonograph

- q,oHorpaq"

npellweCTBeHHHK rpaMMoq,OHa

'l:

Ha )OHorpaq,c MOlKHO fibl1l0 3anH CblBaTb H BocnpOH3BOllHTb 3BYK C nOMOlUblO BO KoDbIX UH1IHH!lPOIl.

to happen by accident - npOH30ilm c1IY4aAHO, Henpe!lBH!leHHO


a research laboratory - HaY4HO-HCC1IellOBaTe1lbCKa51 1IafiOpaTOpH5I
to attach - npHKpen1l5lTb, npHcoellHHflTb
a needle - HrJla
to recite - .n.eKJIaMI-1pOSaTb; l(HTaTb l-ITo-n. Bcnyx, no naMHTH, oco6eHHO

B npHcyrcTBJ.1l1 cny

walOlUe aYllHTo pHH

Usage Notes
B caMOM Ha'lane TeKCTa 0 $OHOrpa$e I1CnOJlb30BaHO cymeCTBI1TeJlbHOe acci
dent: quite by accident. nOJle3HO nOCTaBI1Tb B OD,I1H pHD, TpI1 cymecTBI1TeJlbHblX -

an event, an incident 11 an accident -

11

pa306paTbCH B I1X 3Ha'leHI1J1X:


15

an event :no Ba)KHOe Co6bITl1e) (an important happening);


an incident
3TO .npOI1CWeCTBl1e (Co6bITl1e), I1MelOlUee BTopOCTeneHHoe
-

3HatteHHe, 3nH30A

(a happening of secondary importance, an episode);

an accident

3TO HemKI1AaHHan 6en.a, HeCtt3CTHb


. IA cnyttaA. KoropblA npH411Hner reJieCHOe

nOBpe)l(,lJ,eHl1e, yrpaTY, CTp3113Hl1e HJiI1 CMeprb,


E.g.: Twenty people were killed in the railway accident.
06paTlITe BHI1MaHl1e Ha cnOBOC04eTaHI1e

by accident.

OHO 03Ha4aeT cnY 4aiiHo, ('by

chance').
E.g.: You might cut yourself (nope3aTbc) by accident: you wouldn't cut yourself on purpose.
The invention happened quite by accident.

EbIJIO 6bI nOJIe3HO 3anOMHHTb HeCKOJIbKO npeDJIolKeHHI1, B KOTOPbIX HCnOJIb3ye TcH rnaroJI to happen. n epe BellHTe 3TH npeDJIOlKeHHH.
I . Something very strange happened.
2. I was afraid that something terrible might happen to me.
3. What the teacher had predicted didn 't happen.
4. One day something very sad happened.

_
_ _ _ ___

__________
_

_ _ __ _ _ _ _____
_

5. Then something happened that made me very angry.

________
_

6. I don't know what's happened to him. He should be here by now.

Remember! Something happens to someone/something (NOT *):


What's happened to the clock? It's not working.

Reading Comprehension
I . Which is the best title for the passage?
(A) Thomas Edison's Many Inventions
(8) I mprovements in the Telephone and Telegraph
(C) The H istory of Menlo Park
(D) A Surprise Invention
16

2. According to the passage, the invention of the phonograph


(A) was quite unplanned.
(B) was Edison's principal project.
(C) was surprising to no one.
(0) took many years.
3. According to the passage, how was the phonograph made?
(A) With a telephone needle and a recorder.
( B) From a recording of a telegraph.
(C) With only a telegraph repeater.
(0) From a combination of telephone and telegraph parts.
4. According to the passage, how did Edison test his new invention?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)

He
He
He
He

made improvements to the machine.


used a carbon transmitter.
read a children's rhyme.
reproduced the audience's voice.

Exercises
1. B TeKCTe 0 oHorpae I1CnOJlb30SaHa opMa zepYHouR. OpaKTl1'JeCKl1H lK113HeHHbIH 11 npoeCCl10HaJIbHbIH (npenOJlaSaTeJlbCKI1H) OnbIT aBTopa JlaHHoro no
C06111I rOBOpl1T 0 TOM, 'ITO 113Y'laIOIUl1e rpaMMaTI1'1eCKl1H CTPOH aHrJlI1HCKoro 1I3bI
Ka nO'leMY-To C'II1TaIOT 3Ty HeJIl1'1HyIO OPMY maroJla O'leHb TPYJlHOi1. OJlHa)KJlbI,
6ece.uYlI C Y'leHl1uei1 JleCliTOro KJIaCca, 1I YCJlblIUaJIa CJleJlyIOIUee: "MOll nOJlpyra
TaK XOpOIUO, TaK XOPOIUO 3HaeT aHrJlMi1cKyIO rpaMMaTMKy. BOT 6bI M MHe TaK! OHa
3HaeT JlalKe repYHJlI1i1!! Ha caMoM JleJle, repYHJlMi1 He CJlOlKHee M He npOIUe JlPY
fl1X HeJlI1'1HbIX OPM maroJla - npl1'1aCTMlI, I1HMHMTMBa.
npM nepeBOJle Ha PYCCKl1i1 1I3bIK npeJlJlolKeHMi1,' COJleplKaIUMX repYHJlI1i1, 06paIUai1Te BHMMaHMe Ha npI13HaKl1, C6J1l1lKaIOIUMe repYHJlMi1 C CYIUeCTBMTeJlbHbIM:
HaJIl1'me npeJlJlora HenOCpeJlCTBeHHO nepe.u repYHJlMaJIbHoi1 OPMOi1, HaJIM'IMe
TaM lKe npMTlIlKaTeJlbHOrO MeCTOI1MeHMlI MJlM CYIUeCTBMTeJlbHOrO B npl1TlIlKaTeJlb
HOM nMelKe, HaJIl1'1Me JleTepMMHaHTOB (onpeJleJlMTeJlei1) mna no, any, this, that,
much u op.:
-

Translate into Russian.

I. ['m thinking of buying an electric toothbrush.

_
_
___ __ ____

2. My brother is talking about starting a pop group.

_____ __
_
_

[7

3.

We succeeded in finding the place.

_____ _____ _

4. On opening the cupboard we found a kitten inside.

_
_
__

5 . We appreciate your inviting us.


6. John's staying away complicates the problem.
7. There is no telling what he thinks.

8. Not much building


9. This trearing us

2.

_
_ _
__
_____

_______ __
___ _
_
___

is going on now.

__ ___ __
_ ______ _
_

all like children is a little offensive.

Cpell.11 npI13HaKOB, C61111)1(alOLUI1X repYHll.11H c r1l ar01l OM , Hall.O npe)l(ll.C

Bcero YKa3aTb Ha TO, '-ITO repyHll.11 II

06pa30BaHHblH OT nepeXOJIHOrO mara-

1Ia, I1MeeT OPMY 3aJJora - aKTI1BHOrO 111111 naCCI1BHOrO, a TaK)I(C ncpctleKT


IIblC OPMbI.

Translate into Russian.

I. Visiting
2.
3.

people is nicer than being visired.

_
_
_
_
_
_
_ __ __
__

No one njoys being disturbed in the middle of the night.

He prided himself on having never been bearen at chess. (ro bear


ll.aTb).

In the following sentences you will find these forms of the Gerund:

entertaining
being entertained
Pelfecr Gerund Active - having entertained
Pelfecr Gerund Passive
having been entertained

Simple Gerund Acrive -

Simple Gerund Passive -

18

_ ____ _

--

noGe)l(

Translate into Russian (the Russian for entertain is 'npHHHMan., OKalblBaTb rOCTenpHHMCTBO' ).

I. Marian is proud of entertaining important writers.

_
____
_
_
_ __

2. Marian is proud of having entertained important writers.

_
____ ___

3. Marian is proud of being entertained by important writers.


4. M arian is proud of having been entertained by important writers.

__
_
_

3. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

4. Creative Work

Do you happen to remember the story of any invention? Write a few sentences
about it. I f not, write a few sentences that could throw some light on the biography
of a scientist, Russian or foreign. You could use a Russian encyclopedia for children
or adults to obtain the necessary information.

19

Unit 3
N IAGARA FALLS

N iagara Falls, one of the most famous


North American natural wonders, has long
been a popular tourist destination. Tourists
today flock to see the two falls that actually
comprise Niagara Falls: the 53-meter high
Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the
Niagara River and the 55-meter high Ameri
can Falls on the U . S . side of the river.
o
.
Most visitors come between April and
October, and it is quite a popular activity
to take a steamer out on to the river and
right to the base of the falls for a close-up
view. It is also possible to get a spectacular
view of the falls from the strategic locations
along the Niagara River such as Prospect
Point or Table Rock, or from one of the four observation towers which have heights
up to 500 feet.
Tourists have been visiting N iagara Falls in large numbers since the 1 800's. Be
cause of concern that the large number of tourists would destroy the natural beauty
of this scenic wonder, the State of New York in 1885 created Niagara Falls Park in
order to protect the land surrounding American Falls. A year later Canada created
Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of the Niagara, around H orseshoe Falls.
,

Vocabulary
a rail BOilOn3,ll
a natural wonder 'IYilO npl1pOilbl
a popular tourist destination 3ii. nonYJlnpHbl1l
-

20

TYPltCTCKI1A MapWPYT

tourists nock to see

..

6onbilloe KOnl1eCTBO TYPI1CTOB CTeKaeTcn (clOlla) .!lnn Toro, To6bl

YBl1llCTb ...

to take a steamer ceeTh Ha napoxo.n.


a spectacular view
BneaTJWIOUlee 3penl1Ule
because of concern
B CDH3H C 6ecnOKoAcTBOM
a scenic wonder )f<l1BOnHCHoe lJY.n.o
-

Usage Notes
B npO'lI1TaHHOM BaMI1 TeKCTe CJlOBO wonder BCTpeTI1J10Cb ABa pa3a: a natural
wonder 11 a scenic wonder. nOJle3HO 3anOMHI1Tb CJleAyKlIlll1e Bblpa)f(eHI1H:
no wonder HeYlll1BI1TenbHo
it is little/small wonder tbat...
He np"XOlll1TCn Ylll1BnnTbcn TOMY, TO . ..
a wonder lasts but nine days (proverb) Bce npl1ellaeTCR (6YK8.: YllO .!lnI1TCR nllUlb lleBnTb llHC:!'t)
I wonder wby I1HTepeCHO, noeMY...
-

Reading Comprehension

I. According to the passage , which best describes N iagara Falls?


(A) Niagara Falls consists of two rivers, one Canadian and the other American.
( B) American Falls is considerably higher than H orseshoe Falls.
(C) The Niagara River has two falls, one in Canada and one in the U.S.
(0) Although the Niagara river flows through the U.S. and Canada, the falls
are only in the U . S.
2. The passage implies that tourists prefer
(A)
(B)
(C)
( 0)

to
to
to
to

visit Niagara Falls during warmer weather.


see the falls from a great distance.
take a ride over the falls.
come to Niagara Falls for a winter vacation.

3. What is a "steamer" (see the second paragraph)?


(A)
( B)
(C)
( 0)

a bus
a boat
a walkway
a park

4. According to the passage, why was Niagara Park created?


(A) To
(B) To
(C) To
(0) To

encourage tourists to visit Niagara Falls.


show otT the natural beauty of Niagara Falls.
protect the area around N iagara Falls.
force Canada to open Queen Victoria Park.
21

Exercises
1.

B caMOM Ha'laJJe TeKCTa Bhl CTOJlKHYJUlCb C I1CnOJlh30BaHI1eM rpaMMaTI1'1e

CKOro BpeMeHI1 Present Perfect has long

been a popular tourist destination. 3TO Bpe

Mil, KaK Bhl, nO-BWJ.I1MOMY, YJKe 3HaeTe, 06pa3yeTciI C nOMOlliblO BcnOMOraTeJlbHO

have/has 11 TpeTheH <pOPMbl CMblCJlOBOrO marOJla, B llaHHOM cJlY'Iae


rJlaroJla to be - has (long) been. nO'IeMY 3lleCb I1CnOJlb30BaHO BpeMiI Present Per
fect? nOTOMY, 'ITO ry PI1CTbl 11 paHbUJe npl1e3JKaJJI1 nOJl1060BaTbCiI Hl1arapcKI1M BO
llonanOM, 11 ceuac npOllOJlJKalOT lleJIaTb TO JKe caMoe. OTClOlla 11 CTpaHHoe, Ha nep
BhlH B3fJlilll, npOTl1BOpe'lI1BOe Ha3BaHI1e 3TOfO BpeMeHI1: Present (HacmOflUi,ee) Perfect
(npoUJeoUJee, 3aeepUJeHHoe) . OllHaKO 31'0 He elll1HCTBeHHblH CJlY'laH ynoTpe6J1eHI1i1
BpeMeHI1 Present Perfect. ClleJlaB ynpaJKHeHl1e I, KOTopoe npellJlaraeTCiI HI1JKe, Bhl
ro maroJla

yBl1lll1Te, 'ITO Present Perfect I1CnOJlb3yeTciI TaKJKe llJIH 0603Ha'leHI1i1 .neHCTBI1H, KO


Topoe 3aKOH'II1J10Cb TOJlbKO 'ITO: rlle Tbl 6bIJl?'> (T.e . .no HacToillllero MOMeHTa), Tbl
YJKe n03aBTpaKaJJ?'> (T.e. K llaHHOMY MOMeHry), nO'ITY YJKe npI1HeCJlI1?'> (T.e. K llaH
HOMY MOMeHry, KOflla iI 3analO 31'01' Bonpoc).
06paTI1Te BHI1MaHl1e Ha nopHllOK CJlOB BOnpOCVlTeJlbHoro npellJlOJKeHI1i1, B KO
TOPOM I1CnOJlb30BaHO BpeMiI Present Perfect:

Have

06paTI1Te TaKJKe BHI1MaHl1e Ha MeCTO OTpl1uaHI1i1


JlOJKeHI1I1:

written your letter?


not B OTpl1uaTeJlbHOM

you

npell

I have not written my letter yet.

Rewrite the sentences using the verbs in brackets in Present Perfect.

I. Where you (be)? - I (be) to the dentist.

(have)

2.

You

3.

The post

4.

You

(see)

breakfast? - Yes,

(come)?

_ __________
_

Yes, it

my watch anywhere? - No, I'm afraid

_
___
__

_ __

5 . I (not finish) my letter yet.


6. He just ( go) out.

_____
_
___ ___________

2. B nOCJlellHeM a63aue TeKCTa Bhl CTOJlKHYJlI1Cb C I1CnOJlb30BaHI1eM BpeMeHI1


Present Perfect Continuous: Tourists

have been visiting...

n03BOJllO ce6e BcnOM

HI1Tb 3nl130ll 113 CBoeH ne.zrarOfl1'1eCKOH npaKTI1KI1, Korlla yqeHI1K, paCCepJKeH


HblH TpYllHOCTlIMI1 ynoTpe6J1eHl111 aHfJlI1HCKI1X BpeMeH, B ceplluax BOCKJlI1KHYJl:

22

Hy BOT, MaJlO Toro, 'ITO Present Perfect. T aK e we 11 Co ntin u ous '

"

VlIHepecHo.

YTO TeM caMblM OH naJl nOBOJlbHO 'leTKoe onpeneJleHl1e 3Toro Bpe Me H I1 : nei1cf'
BI1TeJlbHO, B Present Perfect Continuous coxpaHHeTCiI MbICJlb'O TOM. 'ITO KaKoe

TO nei1cTBl1e npol1CXOnl1JlO paHbwe, npOI1CXOill1T 11 ceH4ac (06 3TOM Mbl TOJlbKO


'ITO r oBO PI1Jl I1 Bblwe), 11 K TOMY lKe Ha 3Ty MblCJlb HaKJ13nb1BaeTC51 ewe Oill1H

CMblCJlOBOH OTTeHOK: ileHCTBHe (B I13HHOM CJlY4ae

KaK cjJaKm, a KaK npoll,ecc.

isiti ng ) npenCTaBJHleTCH

lie

MHonle npenollaBaTeJlI1, 06bHCHHH CBOI1M Y'leHI1KaM

BpeMCHa rpynnbl Continuou s, r OBo pHT: :31'0

lKl1BomlCYlowee BpeWI, T.e. Bpe

MH. Pl1cYlolJlee nepen fJla3aMI1 3pIHeJIH ('IHTaTeJlH!CJlYlllaTeJlfI) KaKOi-JlI160 npo


uecc, neHcTBHe.

Put the verbs in brackets in the P resent Perfect Continuous and translate the sentences.

I. I

(make)

flo ur (IYKa).

2.

Her phone

__ _

cakes. That is why my hands are all covered with

_
____
_ __
_
_
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___

______

(ring) for ten

m i nut e s.

wonder why she doesn't

answer it.

3. He

_____

(overwork). That

4. Have you seen my bag anywhere? I

5.

He

_____

alphabet yet.

3.

(study)

is why he looks so tired.

_____

(look)

__

__
_

for it for ages.

Russian for two years and doesn't even know the

__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ ______ ____
_

Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
Sec Model on p. 13.

23

4.

What is your opinion? Write


lowing:

short composition the first sentence of which could be the fol

In Russia there are quite a lot of natural wonders. Unfortunately, since some of
them have been neglected
_____________ ______
_

S.

One more suggestion for

short composition:

What arguments can you offer in favour of protecting some of the natural won
ders in Russia?

Unit 4
THE EARLY HISTO RY OF THE WHITE HOUSE

The White House, the official home of


the United States President was not built
in time for George Washington to live in
it. It was begun in 1 792 and was ready for
its first inhabitants, President and Mrs.
John Adams, in 1 800. When the Adamses
moved in, the White House was not yet
completed and the Adamses suffered many
inconveniences.
Thomas Jefferson, the third president,
improved the comfort of the White House
in many respects and added new architec
tural features such as the terraces on the
east and west ends.
When British forces burned the White House on August 24, 1 8 14, President Madi
son was forced to leave, and it was not until 1 8 1 7 that then President James Monroe
was able to return to a rebuilt residence. Since then, the White House has been
occupied by each U . S . President.

Vocabulary
an inhabitant o6WTaTenb
to suffer many inconveniences
then President James Monroe
-

rcpneTb MHO}f(CCTBO HeYJIo6cTB


TorllawHwl! npe3wIleHT illKeHMc MOHpo

Usage Notes
HanoMHHaHHe: rJlaroJlbI to arrive, to go, to return c CYllleCTBI1TeJlbHbIM home
ynoTpe6J1i1IOTCil 6e3 npe)l)lora to IiJlIi at:
25

Let's go home and have something to eal.


We arrived home at six o'clock.
We arrived ar rheir house at six o'clock.

CpaBHlfTe:

Shall we go home or shall we go TO your h ouse?


James Monroe was able /0 rerum TO a rebuilr residence.

Reading Comprehension
I. Why did George Wash ington NOT l i ve in the White H ouse?
(A)

It

had been burned by the British.

(B) H e d i d not like the architectural features.


(C) H e did not want to suffer the inconvenience that t h e Adamses had suf
fered.

(0) Construction

had not yet been completed.

2. According to the passage, when James Monroe came back to the White House,
it had been
(A) rcpressed.
(B) reconstructed.
(C) relocated.

(0) reserved.
Exercises
I. B
Perfect

reKcre :31'oro YPoKa Bbl CTOlIKHYlIHCb C


Passi ve:

rOBopHlIH.

be

has been occupi e d .

marollbHoH

0 BpeMel-l11

HanoMHlo BaM, 'ITO 061aJl rP0pMYlla

B coorBercrBYloweM BpeMCI-I H,

liHue H

Present

QJopMoB
Perfect

P resen t

Mbl

y'>Ke

nUCCU6a raKOBa: rllaroll to

'IHClIe

CMblCJlOBOH

maroll B

cl>ople npWlaCTHii npowellwero BpeMeHH (rpeTbii rjJopMa maroJla) . rJlarOJI ro

be BO BpeMeH H
been; occupied

Present

Perfect, rpeTbe JlYlllO, CllHHCTBeHHoe 'IHClIO - has

TpeTbll rjJopMa npaBHJlbHoro rJlarOJla

TO occupy. 06paTHTe

oc060e BHHMaHl1e Ha op<jJorpacpl1lO to occupy - occupied: 6YKBa

y,

eClIl1 oHa

CTOHT nocfle COrJlaCHOH, nepexoJ\l1r B i H rOflbKO 3arCM npH6aBlIileTCll OKOH


'laBHe -ed.
Bbl, HaBepHoe, Y)I(e 3aM eTI1f 1H, 'ITO B CllY'lae naCCHBa npOI1CXOllI1T, rOBopli
leTa<jJopWleCKH, O'leHb 4eTKoe p,13rpal-IWleHHe DeTDeH BlIaCTH:
THKY 6epeT H a ce6i1 rllaroll

6CIO rpaMMa

TO be (DpCMiI, JlHUO, 'IHClIO), a 6eCb C M blClI - COOT

BercTBYIOWI1H rllaroll B cjJOpMe npl14aCTI1i1 npOUJellllJero BpeMeHI1. KaK Bce Mbl


XopOWO 3HaeM, 4eTKoe pa3rpaHWle H He BeTBeH BlIaCHI n03 DOlllleT ycnewl-Io
ynpallmrrb rOCYllapCTBO M . B 06f1aCHI rpaMM aTHKI1 :31'0 npl1BOllHT K CllYI-IKUI10-

26

H I1pOBaHI110 TaKI1X <jJOPM, KOTopble nOHHTHbl , np03pa'lHbI 11 n03TOMY JlerKO yc


Bal1BalOTCiI 113Y'laIOLUI1MI1 i13bIK.
Translate the following sentences into Rusian paying attention to Present Perfect Passive.

1 . This property has already been sold.


2. Her hair has been dyed (to dye

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ __
_

OKpaLUI1BaTb, KpaCI1Tb).

3. My attention has been held by a man with a scar (a scar

_ _ ___
_

LUpaM) .

_
_
_

4. New opinions have been opposed.

2. Write passive versions of the following sentences.

I . People have given George a lot of presents for his birthday.

_ __ _ _
_

2. Someone has told me that story before.


3. They have asked us that question many times.
4. No one has given me an answer.

________
_
_
_

_
_ __
_
_ __
_
__
_
_
__
_
_

5. They have not asked me my opinion.

_____________
_

6. Someone has paid him $2,000 to remain silent.

____
_____
_

7. Have they asked the director about that?


8. Have they taught you how to do it?

_ _ ________
_
_
_
_

06paTl1Te BHI1MaHl1e Ha TO, 'ITO B l(aHHOM YPOKe I1CnOJlb30BaHa YCI1J1I1TeJlbHail


(3M<jJaTl1'1eCKail) KOHCTPYKUI1i1: it was not until . . . that . . . CooTBeTcTBYIOLUee yn
pa)!(HeHl1e npI1BOl(I1TCl! Ha c.

31.
27

3. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

4.

What is your opinion?

What arguments could you offer in favour of (or against) naming the residence of
the Russian Government in Moscow "The White House"? Your short composition
could begin with the following sentence:
"In my opinion, some of our attempts to imitate American traditions and cul
ture are . . .
"

Unit S
THE BEG I N N I N G OF REFORM
IN AMERICAN EDUCATION

At the beginning of the nineteenth


century, American educational system
was desperately in need of reform. Pri
vate schools existed, but only for the very
rich, and there were very few public
schools because of the strong sentiment
that a child who would grow up to be a
laborer should not "waste" his time on
education but should instead prepare
himself for his life's work. It was in the
face of this public sentiment that edu
cational reformers set about their task.
Horace Mann, probably the most famous of the reformers, felt that there was no
excuse in a republic for any citizen to be uneducated. As Superintendent of Educa
tion in the state of Massachusetts from 1 837 to 1 848, he initiated various changes
which were soon matched in other school districts around the country. He extended
the school year from five to six months and improved the quality of teachers by
instituting teacher education and raising teacher salaries.
Although these changes did not bring about a sudden improvement in the edu
cational system, they at least increased public awareness to the need for a further
strengthening of the system.

Vocabulary
to be in desperate need of smth - CHnbHO
a private school - yaCTHall WKona
for the very rich - Jl)lll caMblX 60raTblX

(oTyanHHo) HYlK.LlaTbcII B yeM-n.

29

a laborer - pa604HH
to waste one's time - rp3THTb BPCMSl JP". nonycT)'
to set about smth - H3q3Tb llen3Tb I-ITO-ll .
an excuse - onpaB1l3HHe
to match - npHBOllHTb B COOTBeTCTBHe: these changes were soon matched in other school districts - n01l.06HbIC 113MCHCHJHl 6blJlH BBcn.eHbI J.1 B lI.pyniX MeCT3X
to extend a school year - npOllllHTb Y4e6HblH rOll
to improve the quality of smth - yJlyqlllHTb Ka4eCTBO 4erO-Jl.
to institute smth - BBOIlHTb, Y4pelK.llaTb 4TO-Jl.
to bring about an improvement - npHBeCTH K YJlY4111 eHHIO
a salary - 3apa6oTHan nJlaTa
public awareness - OC03HaHHe o6111ecTBoM 4erO-Jl.
Usage Notes
B TeKCTe BbI BCTpenllIli CYllleCTBI1TeJlbHoe need: ... was desperately in need of
reform . 3TO CJlOBO npellCTaBJIHeT onpelleJIeHHYIO TPYllHOCTb npl1 nepeBOlle Ha pyc
CKI1I1 H3bIK. 06paTl1Te BHI1MaHl1e Ha B03MOlKHbie Bapl1aHTbI nepeBOlla:
There is no need to tell the police about the accident. - COBceM He 06113a
TeJlbHO C0061llaTb nOJlI1Ul111 0 CJIyql1BllleMclI (npOI1CllleCTBI1I1).
There is a great need for international understanding. - JI IOllllM pa3Hblx CTpaH
He06xOlll1MO nOHI1MaTb llPYT llpyra.
Are you in need of any assistance? - BaM HYlKHa nOMOlllb?
I don't understand their need to sell the house. - 51 He nOHI1MaIO, nO'leMY 11M
HallO npOllaBaTb CB0I1 110M.

Reading Comprehension
I . It is implied in the passage that to go to a private school, a student
needed . . .
(A) a high level of intelligence.
( B) a strong educational background.
(C) good grades.
( D) a lot of money.
2. Why is the word waste punctuated in quotation marks (KaBbI'IKI1)?
(A) The author wants to emphasize how much time was wasted on educa
tion.
(B) The author is quoting (UI1Tl1pyeT) someone else who said that education
was a waste of time.
(C) The author thinks that education is not really a waste of time.
(D) The author does not want students to waste their time on educa
tion.
30

3.

According to the passage, why did H orace Mann want a better educational

system fo r Americans'!

(A) Education at the time was so c heap.

( 13) In a republic. all the citizens should be educated.


( C ) People had nothing else to do except go to school.
( D) M assachusetts residents needed something to do w i t h t heir spare time.

Exercises
I. B n pO'IIH3HHOM

13aMH Te KCTe BCTpeTI1I1aCb YCHJ1HTeJlbHail (3M(paTWleCKa51)

KOHCTPYK I 1 Vlil it is . . . that:


II was in t he face of this public sentiment that educational reformers set about

t heir task.

13 naHH OM CJIY'lae llpH nepeBone Ha PYCCK}!H 5!3b!K Bce TpVl cIIYlKe6H blx CIIOBa
if was . . . thor

Translate the following into Russian. Not" that the emphatic construction

whell)

3aMeHillOTC!1 Hape'll1eM uAtellllo.

apart from

u.meullo

can also be rendered as mOJlbKO, ,,'aK

paJ.

it is ... that (who, "'hieh,

I . II is Tom who is in control of the situation.


2. fI is Walter who tried t o fix the broken table.

3.

II is Marvin and Madge who don't seem to agree on anything.

4. Ir is the fa mily budget Ihat gives him a constant headache.

2.

Relllelllber the epigraph to this textbook:

Ir is by studying others thar we learn about ourselves.


It cOlltaills the sallie elllphatic construction. How would you translate it into Russian?

3.

In the first sentence of the text above you have come across the numeral
these selltences spelling the nUlllerals.

the Jlilleteellfh.

\ . Columbus landed in America at the end of rhe 15rh century.


2. Neil Armst rong was the 1st man on the moon.

Rewrite

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

31

3. A friend of mine's 40th birthday is coming soon.

____
_____
_

4. My grandparents just celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary.


5. I got a watch on my 21st birthday.

_
_
_
_
_
_
_ __ ___
_
_

6. My father's 50th birthday is just round the corner.

_
__
_____
_

4.

Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

5.

What is your opinion? Write a short composition the first sentence of which is the following:

I ' m afraid, I don't know much about private schools in Russia; what little I know
shows that
_
_ _ ___ _
_
______
___
____
_
_
___
_
_

6.

Tho more suggestions for a short composition:


I . I have a few friends who go to a private school. They tell me that

_
_
___

2. What is the difference (if any) between a private school and a public school in
today's Russia?
_____________________
_

32

Unit 6
AN I NTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN CULTURE

Recently a British gentleman who was


visiting the United States said, " I don't think
it's possible to write a book about the Ameri
can character. The United States is too large;
the people and their lifestyles are too differ
ent. The country is changing too rapidly, and
the future is so uncertain. "
Perhaps he is right. It may be impos
sible to describe the average American.
For that matter, it may not be possible to
describe the typical Japanese, or Swede,
or Brazilian, or Nigerian. However, pos
sible or not, people are naturally curious
about each other, and when they meet
people from different countries, they want
to know about them: What life is like in
their country; What kind of homes they
live in; What kind of food they eat; What
their customs are?
If we visit their country, we can observe the people and how they live, and we can
answer some of these questions. But the most interesting questions are often the
hardest to answer: What do people believe in? What do they value most in life?
What motivates them? Why do they behave the way they do?
In trying to answer these questions about Americans, we must remember
two things: ( I ) the immense size of the United States; and (2) its enormous
ethnic diversity. It is difficult to comprehend the size of the country until you
have tried to travel from one city to another. If you got in a car in New York
2 3aK. 797

33

and drove to Los Angeles, stopping only to get gas, eat, and sleep, it would
take you four or five days. It takes two full days to drive from N ew York to
Florida.
On a typical day in November the national weather forecast might call for
rain in New York and snow in Chicago, while it was warm enough to swim
in Los Angeles. It is not difficult to imagine how different daily life might be
in such different climates, or how lifestyles could vary in cities and towns so
far apart.
(to be continued)

Vocabulary
the average American cpellHHll aMepHKaHeu
immense/enormous size OrpOMHhlll, rllraHTCKwll pa3Mep
to comprehend nOHflTb nORHOCTblO, JlO KOHua
to value smth ueHHTb TO-JI.
for that matter liTO K3caeTcn 3Toro, B 3TOM OTHoweHHH; B Ca1l3H C 3THM
ethnic diversity 3THweCKoe paJHoofipa3we
to he far apart HaXOIlHTbCH Ha fiOllbWOM paCCTOHHHW Ilpyr OT Ilpyra
-

Usage Notes
<1>pa30BbIM marOJI to get in ( .. .if you got in a car in New York ... ) MOJKeT 6blTb
I1CrrOJIb30BaH B HeCKOJIbKl1X 3Ha'leHI1S1X:
a) to come in, enter: He got in before the train started.
b) to be admitted: The child got in to the school after a special test. I think he
will get in without too much trouble.
c) pa3Z.: to get home: She said she would get in late tonight.

Exercises
1 . O.nHa 113 cepbe3HbIX Tpy.nHocTeH B 113Y'leHI1I1 aHml1HCKOrO Sl3bIKa - :no
TaK Ha3bIBaeMble MHOZ03Ha'lHble f/Jpa308b1e ZAaZOA bl, Ha3bIBaeMble TaKJKe ZAaZOAa
MU c nOCAeAOZOM, T.e. c Hape'll1eM .I1JII1 rrpe.nJIOroM. B TeKCTe BaM BCTpeTI1JICSI
(nOMI1MO maroJIa to get in, yrroMI1HaeMoro B Usage Notes K 3TOMY YPOKY) pa30BbIH marOJI to califor. The national weatherforecast might califor rain. BOT 'ITO
Harrl1CaJIl1 aBTopbI CJIOBapSi 'Dictionary of English Phrasal Verbs and Their Idi
oms': "The English phrasal verb has always been a headache to the foreign learner.
Combinations of verb and adverb or preposition are among the first things the
Go away, Come along, Shut up. Such ex
English-speaking child learns to say
pressions form the basis of much everyday communication. " ( Tom McArthur, Beryl
Atkins)
-

34

Translate into Russian the sentences below. To make your task easier, the corresponding meanings of
callfor are given in brackets.
I . The customers called for more beer (the literary equivalent: demand).

__

2. I ' ll call for you at seven o'clock and we can go there together (to
co llect).
_
_
_ _____ _______
____

_
_
_
_

3. She called for the books she had lent me (to collect).

_ ____
__
_

4. This job calls for a man of considerable initiative (to demand, to re


quire).
5. The work calls for patience (to demand, to require).

_
__
_
_
_
__
_

6. The present situation calls for entirely new measures (to demand, to re
quire).

2. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

3. Questions for a short composition:

1 . What effect does the geography of a country have on its people?

35

2. Does your country have different climates?

3. What effect does climate have on the lifestyles of the people in your country?

4. How is life in a small country different from life in a large one?

Unit 7
AN I NTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN C U LTU R E
(Continued)

There is a second important factor


influencing American life: ethnic di
versity. Aside from the native Ameri
can Indians who were living on the
North American continent when the
first European settlers arrived, all Ameri
cans came from foreign countries - or
their ancestors did. I n some cases,
Americans feel very strongly about
their ethnic heritage. For example, in
parts of Minnesota and Wisconsin
some people still refer to each other as
" Swedes" or " Danes" or " N orwe
gians", even though their ancestors left
their home countries and settled in the
United States a hundred years ago.
Even Americans with little knowledge of what countries their ancestors came
from, and little sense of having a particular ethnic heritage, may carry on a family
tradition without realizing what the origin of the tradition is. For example, one
family may traditionally open Christmas presents on Christmas Eve while another
always waits until Christmas morning. Neither family may realize that they are
honoring a tradition brought to the United States from another country by a long
forgotten ancestor.
(to be continued)

37

Vocabulary
ethnic diversity - 3THI1"eeKOe pa3Hoo6pa311e
a settler - KOJlOHHCT
ancestors - npeAKI1
to feel strongly about smth - npl1AaBaTb "eMY-Jl. 60JlbWOe 3Ha"eHl1e
ethnic heritage 3THI1"eeKoe HaeJleAl1e
to rerer to each other as Swedes... - 3a. Ha3blBaTb APyr Apyra WBeAaMI1
to honor a tradition - OTAaBaTb AaHb TpaAl1U1111
-

Usage Notes
1. 06panITe BHI1MaHl1e Ha TO, 'ITO a(!) second (npUAaz.) 03Ha'laeT .D;pyrOH, elUe
O.D;I1H: There is a second important factor, TOr.D;a KaK the second (noPMKoBoe '1I1C
JlI1TeJlbHoe) 03Ha'laeT BTOPOH.
2. 06paTI1Te BHI1MaHl1e Ha TO, 'ITO maroJi to influence (6AUJlmb), B OTJll1'1l1e OT
pYCCKoro 1I3blKa, He Tpe6yeT nocJle ce611 KaKOrO-JlI160 npeMora:
. . . another factor influencing American life ...
Who influenced her to do that?
nOJle3HO 3anOMHI1Tb CJle.D;YJOlUl1e, '1aCTO BCTPe'lalOlUI1eClI CJlOBOCO'leTaHl1l1: to
influence deeply, profoundly, strongly.

Exercises
1 . B TeKCTe :3Toro ypoKa BbJ CTOJlKHYJlI1Cb C marOJlOM did B POJlI1 CJlOBa-3a
MeCTI1TeJlll :
All Americans came from foreign countries - or their ancestors did.
06paTI1Te BHI1MaHl1e Ha TO, 'ITO B POJlI1 CJlOBa-3aMeCTI1TeJlll to do Mo)KeT 6bITb
I1CnOJlb30BaH TOJlbKO nocJle rJlarOJlOB B aKTI1BHOM 3a.JJore 11 HI1KOr.D;a nocJle maro
JlOB B naCCI1BHOM 3a.JJore.

1ranslate tbe following sentences into Russian. Mind the meanings of the verb to do:
1. as a notional verb aeAamb. aeiicm808amb; 2. as an auxiliary verb; 3. as a substitute for another
verb; 4. as an empbasizer of another verb.
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I. The fire has done a great deal of damage.


2. A woman's work is never done.

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3. H e does an enormous amount of good for the poor.

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4. This steak is not properly done.


5. He suffers more than you do.

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6. H e can cook as well as she does.


7. Shall I borrow this book from him?

Yes, do (11J1I1 Do, please).

8 . Who wants to play tennis this afternoon?

I do.

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9. John does enjoy his food. (cp. c John enjoys his food.

1 0. He did try to learn, although you think he didn't.


I I . Do lend me your pen for a moment, please.

1 2. Do be quiet, children.

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B '{eM BbI Bl1.llliTe pa:JHI1UY?)

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1 3 . Seldom does he try to do his work.

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14. Rarely does he come in time for the lesson.

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1 5. Not only does he speak Russian, but he speaks three other foreign languages.
16. Only when you are here do I get practice in speaking French.
1 7. Only then did I understand that.

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2. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences aDd try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

39

3.

What is your opinion?


Write a short essay on the ethnic composition of your country's population. The questions below
'will help you in your work.
1 . What different ethnic groups are there in your country?
2. Where do they live?
3. How are they different from the majority of people in your country: language?
clothing? food? music? customs?
4. What effect do different ethnic groups have on a country?

*06panlTe BHHMaHHe H a pa3JIwme B 3Ha'leHHlIX .lIByX CJlOB: ethnic ['eemk) H


national: ethnic (HJlH ethnical) 03Ha'laeT: uMelOU{uu omHOUieHue K HJlH xapaKmep
HblU OAJI zpynnbl AlO oeu, o6AaoalOU{ux 06U{UMU paC06bIMU, peAUZU03HbIMU, Jl3bIK06bl
MU, KYAbmypHblMU U HeKomopblMU 0PYZUMU epma"1U (oco6eHHOCmJlMu); national HMe
eT 60Jlee Y3Koe 3Ha'leHHe: C6J13aHHbiU C KOHzAoMepamoM AlO oeu OOHOU UAU 60Aee
KYAbmyp, pac U m.o., opzaHU306aHbiX 6 eoulloe zocyoapcm60. HanpHMep: The Aus
tralian nation. (Collins English Dictionary. Updated Edition)

Unit 8
AN INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN CULTURE
(Continued)

In spite of these very important dif


ferences, however, a strong tie binds
Americans together. That tie is a sense
of national identity - of "being Ameri
can". Incidentally, when citizens of the
United States refer to themselves as
''Americans'', they have no intention of
excluding people from Latin American
countries. There is no word such as
" United Statesians" in the English lan
guage, so people call themselves Ameri
cans. Thus, what is really a language
problem has sometimes caused misun
derstandings. Although citizens of Latin
American countries may call the people
in the United States "North Ameri
cans", to people in the United States this makes no sense at all, because the term
"North American" refers to Canadians as well as citizens of the United States.
What, then, can we say about Americans? What holds them together and makes
them feel ''American''? Is it possible to make generalizations about what they be
lieve? It is, but we must be cautious about generalizations. As we talk about basic
American beliefs, we must remember that not all Americans hold these beliefs, nor
do all Americans believe these things to the same degree. The way in which some
Americans carry out their beliefs may also ditTer, resulting in a great variety of
lifestyles. However, even in these lifestyles we find some patterns.
41

For better understanding of basic American beliefs, values, and character traits we
might refer to the wisdom of a famous observer of the American scene, Alexis de
Tocqueville ['touk,VII) ( 1 805- 1 859). Tocqueville came to the United States as a young
Frenchman in 1 83 1 to study the American form of democracy and what it might mean
to the rest of the world. After a visit of only nine months he wrote a remarkable book
called "Democracy in America", which is a "classic study of the American way of life" .
Tocqueville had remarkable powers of observation. He described not only the demo
cn'ttic system of government and how it operated, but also its effect on how Americans
think, feel, and act. Many scholars believe that he had a deeper understanding of
basic American beliefs and values than anyone else who has ever written about the
United States. What is so remarkable is that many ofthe traits of the American char
acter which he observed over 150 years ago are still visible and meaningful today.
Another reason why Tocqueville's observations of the American character are
important is the time when he visited the United States. He came in the 1 830's, be
fore America was industrialized. This was the era of the small farmer, the small busi
nessman, and the settling of the western frontier. Americans look back at this period
as the golden age of the pioneers. In hard times they speak of the moral character of
the pioneers and they remember their frontier heritage with pride. To them, this era
represents the best of the American character. The qualities and character traits
Tocqueville describes are the same ones that Americans take pride in today. He, how
ever, was a neutral observer and saw both the good and the bad sides of these qualities.

Vocabulary
identity TO)KJleCTBeHHOCTb, O,UHH3KOBOCTb, n.neHTHl.JHOCTb
iDcideDtally - MelK.l\Y npOI1M
citizeDs of the United States refer to themselves as - rpalK.l\aHe Cili A rOBOpijT 0 ce6e KaK 0. . .
to cause misunderstaDdings Bbl3saTb HellOpa3YMeHI1e (npl1secm K HenpasHnbHoMY nOHI1MaHI1IO)
this makes DO seDse ::>TO (cosepllleHHO) 6eCCMbicneHHO
to make geDeralizatioDs - llenaTb o606meHI1n
cautious OCTOPO)l(Hblil
to hold beliefs npl1llep)l(l1SaTbCn KaKI1X-n. y6eJKlle HI1il
to the same degree s olll1HaKosoil CTeneHI1
a pattern Mo,aeJlb, YCToRYHSan cxeMa
a characteristic trait - xapaKTepHan epTa, oco6eHHOCTb
the res i of the world - oCTonbHa!! aCTb Ml1pa
a way of life o6pa3 )l(113HI1
American ..dues aMepl1KaHCKl1e lIeHHOCTI1 (so S3rnijilaX Ha )l(113Hb)
pioneers nepBOOTKpblS3reJIH
froDtier heritage 30. Tp3ll11111111 speMeH nOKOpeHl1n 3an3lla C iliA
-

...

Usage Notes
06panITe BHHMaHl-le Ha TO, 'ITO maroJl to refer MOlKeT 6bITb HCnOJlb30BaH
KaK c to, TaK H c back to. B nOCJle.uHeM cJlyqae 3TOT rJlaroJl HMeeT 3Ha'leHl1e
42

ynoMIIHyrb/cKa3aTb 0 'leM-JlH60 cHoBa/BepHyrbcli K cKa3aHHoMY paHee. Ha


npHMep:
I would like to refer back to the first of my three points.
Ho: Citizens of the United States refer to themselves as ''Americans''.

Reading Comprehension
Write T if the statement is true and F if it is false according to the information.
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1 . Because ofthe great size of the United States, there are many differ
ent climates.
2. All people in the United States have the same lifestyle.
3. All people living in the United States today came from another coun
try, or their ancestors did.
4. Americans do not know or care where their ancestors came from.
5. Although Americans may be very different, there is still a strong feeling of what it means to be an American.
6. The English language has no adjective for United States and there
fore uses the term American to refer to its people.
7 . It is not possible to make generalizations about what Americans be
lieve because they are so different.
8 . Many of the characteristics ofAmericans which Alexis de Tocqueville
observed 150 years ago are still true today.
9. Many Americans think of the time when Tocqueville came ( l 830s)
as a time when Americans were at their best.

Exercises
1.

Interview two or three students in your group and ask them to complete the following:
I . Americans are

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2. They like

3. They don't really

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4. Most Americans feel


5. They act

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6. Most Americans believe in

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7. The U nited States is a country where

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8. The average American is


9. Americans today are worried about
1 0 . The most important thing in life to most Americans is
43

Then sum up their answers and write a short essay "What my friends think Americans are like."

2. B TeKCTe :3Toro ypOKa BbI CTOJIKHYJI HCb C O'leHb HHTepeCHbIM CHHTaKCH'IeCKHM


HBJIeHHeM, a HMeHHO: B pOJll1 nOllJlelKaIllerO BblcrynaeT He O,UHO KaKOe-JIH60 CJIOBO H

What is really a lan


guage problem has sometimes caused misunderstandings; What is remarkable is that many
He CJIOBOCO'leTaHl1e, a ueJIoe caMOCTORTeJIbHOe npeMOlKeHl1e:

of the traits of the American character . . . are still visible and meaningful today.

Translate these sentences into Russian.


I . That you are unique is clear.
2.

Whether we need it is a different matter.

3. What he is looking for is a wife.


4. What you need is love.

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5. How the book will sell depends on its author.

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6. That Americans are differentfrom people in my country leaves no doubt whatsoever.

3. Heo6xo,UI1MO nO,U'IepKHYTb, 'ITO I1CnOJIb30BaHI1e ueJIoro caMOCTORTeJIbHOrO


npellJlOlKeHI1R B POJII1 nOllJlelKamero 'lame BCTpe'laeTCR B nHCbMeHHOH <jJopMe pe
'111 .

B YCTHOH pa3rOBopHOH pe'll1 MbI CTaJIKHBaeMCR 60JIbmeH '1aCTblO C I1CnOJIb30-

BaHl1eM npe,UBapRlOmero (anticipatory) it.

Rewrite the sentences as in the model.


Model:

44

That the problems are immense is obvious.


It is obvious that the problems are immense.

I . That Columbus was an Italian is sometimes disputed.


2. The fact that a depression occurred was attributable partly to psychological factors.

3 . That the computer revolution is in its infancy frequently escapes comment.


4. That a tenth planet may exist is suggested by discrepancies in the motions of
Uranus and Neptune.
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5. That undercapitalization is the cause of most small-business failures is virtu


ally an economic truism.

4.

Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

5.

What is your opinion? Write a short composition as an answer to one (two, three, or all four) of the
following questions:
I . Do you think it is possible to describe an average person in your country and
what he or she believes?
2. How would you describe the traits of the people in your country?
3 . Do you think people all over the world are basically the same or basically very
different?
4. How are Americans different from people in your country?

You could begin your composition with this:


That the average person in my country is not at all 'average' seems to be obvious.
This becomes evident when we
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45

Unit 9
I NCREASE IN u . S . M E DICAL B I LLS

Medical Bills in the United States have


risen outrageously since the beginning of the
I 960s, and steps need to be taken to reverse
this trend or the average American will not
be able to afford medical care. The major
factor in increasing the cost of medical care
has been the dramatic increase in the cost
of hospital services. The rise in the cost of
hospitalization can be only partly blamed on
inflation since hospital bills in the last two
decades have risen at a considerably higher
rate than inflation.
Another factor cited by doctors as a ma
jor cause for the increase in the cost of
medical care is malpractice. Increasingly large awards for malpractice have caused
doctors to increase their rates to cover the higher malpractice insurance premiums.
Because of the large malpractice awards, doctors are also prescribing more conser
vative and more extensive and therefore more costly - treatment for patients as a
defense against malpractice claims. Whatever the causes of the wild increases in the
cost of medical care, the government needs to take strong action before it is too late
for Americans.

Vocabulary
a medical bill - C\fCT, nOll)le)l(3uudt onnaTC, 3a OKa3aHHe Me,nHUJ1HCK"X ycnyr
bills have risen outrageously eYeTa BOJpOellH HeHMOBepHO
to take steps - npHHHMaTb Mepbl; llellaTb warM B HanpaBlIeHHH
to reverse a trend nOJIHOCTbJO H3MeHHTh TCH.lleHUi11O
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...

46

the average American epe.llHlI1l aMepHKaHeu


to afford medical care HMeTb .lI.OCT3TOlJHO JI,eHer JI)1Sl Toro, lfT06bl OnJl3THTb ne1..fe HHe
a dramatic increase pe3Koe yseJIHlfeHHe
to blame (smth) on inflation 06BHHHTb HH<!>nlIUHIO B YeM-n.
to cite CCblllaTbCH , npHBO.lllITb (B KayeCTBe .llOKa3aTenbcTBa)
malpractice (npecrynHa51) He6pelKHocTb Bpaya; Bpaye6Ha51 oUJH6Ka
a malpractice claim 3aHBneHlle 0 He6pelKHocTII Bpaya (Bpaye6Holl oUJ1I6Ke)
increasingly large awards Bee 60nee B03paCTalOlUlle eYMMbl B03HarpalK.lleHllil
insurance premium e)f(erOHHblA 83HOC BJla,neJlbua CTp3xoBoro nOlB1ca B OH.ll cTpaxoBoA KOM
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naHHI1

a wild increase in the cost of medical care

6e3YMHbill pOCT CTOIIMoeTII neyeHIIH

Usage Notes
B TeKCTe BbI CTOJlKHYJlI1Cb C CYll.\eCTBI1TeJlbHbIM a cause: . . . as a major cause for
the increase in ... .
3Ha'leHl1e ::noro CYll.\eCTBI1TeJlbHOrO MO)J(}!O onpe)leJlI1Tb KaK He'lTO, 'ITO npo113BO)lI1T KaKOe-JlI160 B03)leikTBl1e 11J111 lIBJllIeTCli npl1'1I1HOll, BbI3bIBaeT KaKoe-TO
)lellCTBl1e.
CYll..{eCTBI1TeJlbHoe cause Hepe)lKO OTOlK)leCTBJlHIOT C CYll.\eCTBI1TeJlbHbIM reason,
'ITO HenpaBHJIbHo. 3Ha'leHl1e 'reason' MO)J(}!O onpe)leJlI1Tb KaK <l>aKT> KOTOPbIll npl1BO)lI1TCli B Ka'leCTBe Momuea 11J111 o6MCHeHuR 'lero-JlI160 I1JII1 )I(e Mll TOro, '1T06bI
OnpaB)laTb CBOll BbIBO)l, YM03aKJIIO'leHl1e.
nOJle3HO 3anOMHI1Tb CJle)lyIOlI..{l1e YCTOll'lI1Bble CJIOBOCO'leTaHI1H C CYll.\eCTBI1TeJIbHbIM reason:
with reason, not without reason He 6e3 OCHOBaHl1l1
to give a reason for 06bllCHI1Tb npl1'lI1HY 'lero-JI.
by reason of no npl1'1I1He
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ECJII1 Bbl npO'lTeTe npl1Be)leHHyIO Hl1)1(e rnyTKy, BbI XOPOlliO 3anOMHI1Te 3Ha
'1eHl1e CYll.\eCTBI1TeJIbHOrO 'reason':
Young man to his beloved: You are so clever and so beautiful! Why do you refuse
to marry me?
She: My friend, you have given the reasons yourself!

Reading Comprehension
I . What is the subject of this passage?
(A) The increasing costs of malpractice insurance.
(B) Factors causing the increase in US medical bills.
(C) Steps for Americans to take to obtain medical care.
(0) The outrageous medical profession.
47

2. The passage implies that a slowing in inflation would have what kind of effect

on medical costs?
(A) Tremendous.
( B) Nonexistent.
(C) Slight.
(0) Maximum.
3. What does the paragraph that might follow this passage most likely contain?
(A) A discussion of why the average American will soon be unable to afford
medical care.
(B) Forecasts of how inflation will influence medical care in the future.
(C) The tremendous increases in malpractice insurance.
(0) The steps the government could take to keep under control medical costs.

Exercises
1 . B TeKCTe BaM BCTpenmocb cYlllecTBI1TeJlbHoe practice c npl1CTaBKOH mal-.
3Ta npl1CTaBKa BCTpe'laeTCSl B CJlOBaX, npl1Hawre)l(allll1X pa3J1I1'1HbIM '1aCTSlM pe
'111, I1 I1MeeT 3Ha'leHI1S1: I . nJlOXOH, nJloxo; 2. HenpaBI1J1bHbIH , HenpaBI1J1bHO; 3. He
nO}lXO}lSllllI1H.
Add mal- to the following words and translate them into Russian (in writing):
nutrition -

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adjustment administration function treatment formation -

2. Bo BTOPOM a63aue TeKCTa BaM BCTpeTl1J10Cb Hape'll1e increasingly: increas


ingly large awards for. . . Ha 3TO Hape'lHe, HaplUlY C npyrl1MH, npHBOnHMbIMH HH
)l(e, CJle}lyeT 06paTHTb oc060e BHHMaHHe:
increasing - B03paCTalOlllHH, yseJlH'II1BalOllll1HCSI
increasingly - Bce 60Jlee H 60Jlee

large - 60JlblllOH
largely - maBHblM 06pa30M, B OCHOBHOM

bad - nJlOXOH
badly - I . CHJlbHO, 2 . MOXO

late - n03}lHHH
lately - He}laBHO, B nOCJle}lHee BpeMSI

hard - TJI)I(eJIbIH , ynOPHbIH


hardly - enBa JlH, BpSl}l JlH

near - 6J1H3KO
nearly - nO'lTH

48

heavy - TSDKeJlbIH
heavily - CHJlbHO, YC"lJIeHHO

necessary - Heo6xoD.I1MbIH
necessarily - 06i13aTeJlbHO

high - BbICOKI1H
highly - O'leHb, BeCbMa, CI1J1bHO, '1pe3BbI'IaHHO

ready - rOToBbIH
readily - JlerKO

3anOMHI1Te ell\e D.Ba BHeUlHe CXOD.HbIX, HO cOBepllleHHo pa3JII1'1HbIX no 3Ha'leHI1IO Hape'lI1i1:


successfully - ycnelllHo
successively nOCJleD.OBaTeJlbHO
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BHelllHee CXOllCTBO 3TI1X CJlOB CTaJIO npI1'1I1HOH Toro, 'ITO I1X HenpaBI1J1bHOe
ynoTpe6J1eHI1e npeBpaTI1J10Cb B TI1nl1'1HyIO OlllI16KY.

Translate into Russian. Pay special attention to -ly adverbs.


I . It is nearly time to start.
2. It is nearly ten o'clock.

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3 . He was nearly drowned.


4. The team was badly beaten at football.

5. I want your assistance badly.


6. H e recognized me readily.

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7. I could hardly understand him.

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8. We hardly ever go to the theatre.


9. Hardly anybody believes that.

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1 0 . Our team has won six successive games.


1 1 . That's hardly to be wondered at.

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49

3.

Sum up tbe contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

4.

What is your opinion?


Write a short composition (6 to 8 sentences) about the quality of private medical service in today"s
Russia. The beginning of your composition might be as follows:

' I'll begin with the opinion of my family. My granny is strongly against any pri
vate medical service. She thinks it all unreliable and unprofessional. My father says
he rather likes it because
As to me, 1
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5.

Questions for a short composition:


I . What are some of the factors that would account for the recent deterioration
of medical service in Russia?

2. What relation (if any) do you see between privatization and quality of medical

service in Russia?

50

Unit 1 0
T H E FI RST TWENTY- FOUR H O U RS

I hate the first twenty-four hours of a


bad cold. Anyone who has said, "Oh, you
just have a little cold" must never have
suffered from it. To sum it up, when I have
a bad cold, I feel pain. Even though I am
buried under four or five heavy blankets,
my feet feel like ice. Moving in small
waves up and down my legs, stomach, and
arms are hundreds of little goose bumps.
They cause me to shake and feel cold even
though inside I feel as if I am burning up.
Every muscle in my body, from my feet to
my head, aches. It is that terrible dull pain
that is constantly there even if I don't
move a finger. If I try to ignore my body
aches, I am then reminded of my cold by a very sharp pain I feel in my throat
when I swallow.
The most unpleasant part of the cold, however, occurs from my neck up. My
head hurts. I am always sneezing, coughing, blowing my nose, and wiping my wa
tery eyes. It seems as if the pain is to keep a person so busy blowing and wiping that
he or she will forget being sick. It doesn't work. So there I lie feeling too sick to
move. My doctor doesn't want to see me because what I have "isn't serious". My
coworkers and friends don't want to see me because I "might be catching". Wh o
can blame them? I'd give anything not to be around myself during those first twenty
four hours!
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Vocabulary
to be buried - (30.) B nepeHOCHOM CMbICne
a catching disease - 3apa3HaH 60ne3Hb
a cold - npOCT)'lla
goose bumps - MypallIKH
to swallow - rnOTIlTb
to sneeze - 4l1X3Tb
to cough [knfl - KallInHTb

6bITb noxopOHeHHbIM nOll OlleHnaMH

Usage Notes
1 . 06panITe BHHMaHHe Ha TO, 'ITO marOJl to feel + infinitive HCnOJlb3yeTcH 6e3
'1aCTHl.{bI to.
He Z060pume: I could feel his heart )Q: beat.
F060pume: I could feel his heart beat HJlH: I could feel his heart beating.
IIoMHHTe:

eCJlH maroJIblfeel, make (3aCTaBJIJlTb), see, watch, hear HCnOJlb3YIOTCH B naCCHBe, '1aCTHlla 'to' ,llOJl)KHa 6blTb HCnOJIb30BaHa. E.g.:
He was seen to leave the house.;
H e was heard to speak English.
But: I saw him 0 leave the house; I heard him 0 speak English.

2. 3anoMHHTe, 'ITO CJle.uyeT rOBopHTb: to remind a person of something, HO He:


to remind a person something.
He Z060pume: Please remind me that later.
F060pume: Please remind me of that later.
Exercises
1. Make up your own sentences using infinitives after the following verbs: 1. see;
2. hear; 3. feel; 4. can; S. could; 6. may; 7. might; 8. must; 9. let; 10. make.
2. B TeKCTe YPOKa BbI CTOJIKHYJlHCb C I1CnOJIh30BaHHeM MO,llaJIhHOrO marOJla
must, nOCJIe KOToporo CJIe,llyeT He 06hl'lHhIM, a nep<jJeKTHblH HH<jJHHHTHB (KOHe'l
HO, 6e3 '1aCTHl.{hl to): ... must never have suffered from it.

Translate into Russian paying attention to different meanings of must + perfect infinitive.
a) must + perfect infinitive means necessity in the past <He06xo.!lI1MOCTh B npollIJlOM):

You must have lived here for five years in order to apply for a residence per
mit. - BaM HMO 6bIJIO npOlKHTb 3,lleCb nHTb JleT .!lJlH Toro, '1T06bl nOJlY'lHTh
BH,ll Ha lKHTeJIbCTBO.
To become a professor, you must have published several books.
To get a full pension, an employee must have contributed to the fund for at least
twenty years.
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b) must + perfect infinitive means probability or certainty <BepoliTHoCTb


peHHoCTb):

11J111

yBe

A: They quarrelled quite often and whenever they quarrelled they threw chairs at
each other.
B: They must have broken a lot of chairs. ,ll,OJDKHO 6bITb, OHI1 CJlOMaJll1 MHOro
CTYJlbeB.
He must have left his umbrella on the bus (meaning: he can't have left it any
where else).
John must have missed his train; the train leaves at 10. 1 5 and he left the house
as late as five past ten.
When they returned from their holidays they looked very refreshed; they must
have had a good time while they were away.
When I first met my new neighbour he said he was George Washington; he
must have been crazy or drunk.
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c) must not + perfect infinitive often means a deduced decision or judgement (JlO
rWleCKI1H BbIBO.ll., lIBJ1l1JOll.\I1I1cll pa3YMHbIM 06bllCHeHl1eM):
Mr. Green mustn 't have received my letter, otherwise he would have replied
before now. - Ml1cTep rpl1H, CKopee Bcero, He nOJlY'l11Jl Moe nl1CbMo. B npo
TI1BHOM cJlyqae OH YlKe npl1CJlaJI 6bI OTBeT.
George must not have been consulted, or else we wouldn't have such a weak
scheme in front of us now.
3.

Sum up tbe contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

4.

What is your opinion?


1) Does the writer describe the cold in a logical order that is easy to follow? Explain.

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2) Do you agree with the writer's description of a cold? What would you add to or change about the
description?

06panITe BHHMaHHe Ha TO, 'ITO Mll oTBeTa Ha nepBbIH Bonpoc BaM nOHlI,llO 611TCli pa3JIH'JHble coellHHHTe1lbHble C1l0Ba: first, then, at that time, over that period
of time; in that case; that being so, besides, after that; from then on H IIp.
s.

Fill in the blanks with one of the following linking words:


firsl place; as a resull.

because oJ; for example; however; in Ihe

There are a number of possible explanations for the decline in service standards
, many people in the 1 970's insisted on buying
in the United States.
high inflation.
everything at the lowest possible price
stores and other businesses which offered extra services either changed their approach,
by reducing sales personnel, or, in many cases, went out of
business.
, as inflation declined in the 1 980s, some customers began
to complain that they could no longer get good service when they wanted it.
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Unit 1 1
EDUCATI O N

Life in the twenty-first century


demands preparation. Today, indi
viduals in any country must have
adequate schooling to prepare them
for their work as well as their respon
sibilities as citizens. With this in mind,
national leaders everywhere are plac
ing more emphasis on the education
of the young.
All over the world, government officials, teachers and parents are working hard
to give children the best possible preparation for their own future and for that of
their country.
Although the basic aims may be the same, the actual organization of educational
systems varies from country to country. For instance, in Great Britain children
normally begin their primary schooling at the age of five, and go on" to a secondary
school at the age of eleven. At present, they are required by law to stay at school
until they are sixteen.
Those boys and girls intending to continue their education at universities or
colleges will remain at school until they are seventeen or eighteen.
The normal course for a BA or BSc degree lasts for three years, although some
universities may demand an extra year; some subjects, for example, architecture and
medicine, traditionally have a much longer course.
Many young people who leave school early will continue their education at tech
nical colleges, and this is particularly true of those who study engineering and com
"
mercial subjects. These students may well be working already in business or indus
try, and they combine part-time studies with paid employment.
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Vocabulary
schooling 06pa30BaHHe
to place emphasis on smth npHllaBaTb '.eMy-n. oc060e 3Ha4eHHe
primary schooling Ha4MbHoe 06pa30BaHHe
a degree 30. YlleH3n CTenCHb
an extra year JlOnOJIHHTeJlbHblA ron
employment pa60Ta, cn)'lK6a ( n o HaAMY)
part-time HCnOJIH3n CTaBKa (l13CH1.4Han 33HflTOCTb)
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Usage Notes
I . It would be useful to know that to go on might be used in a number of mean

ings:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

'to
'to
'to
'to
'to

proceed': They went on to the next item on the agenda.


continue talkings': Some people just go on and on.
happen': Just what's going on here?
pass ' : Time goes on.
behave ' : What a silly way to go on!

2. BA is an abbreviation for Bachelor ofArts, a degree conferred on a person who


has successfully completed his undergraduate studies, usually in a branch of
the liberal arts or humanities.
BSc is an abbreviation for Bachelor of Science, it is a degree conferred on a
person who has successfully completed his undergraduate studies in some
branch of the sciences.
Exercises
I. B nOCJleJlHeM npeJlJlOlKeHHH TeKCTa BbI HaWJlH CJlOlKHOe CJlOBO part-time.
nOJle3HO 06paTHTb BHHMaHHe Ha YCTOH'lHBble BblpalKeHH5I H CJlOBOCO'leTaHH5I, B
KOTopble BXOJlHT MHOr03Ha'lHOe (!) part.
Translate into Russian.
The greater part of his time is devoted to

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For the most part she stays at home after 9 p.m.


This book is good in parts.

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The glass was three parts full.

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The journal comes out in weekly parts.

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Nouns and verbs are parts of speech.


I 'll have no part in it.

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I have done my part in the business.


There are no objections on my part.
I 'm a stranger in these parts.

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The wall is part brick and part stone.

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They parted friends.


He hates to part with his money.

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2. Insert prepositions of time: aI, on, in, for, during, after, before, from, until, by, up 10.

1 . The museum is closed


Mondays. Otherwise, it opens every day of
1 7.00.
the week
9 hours, and remains open to the public
All the visitors must be out of the building
1 7.05.
2.
the summer month, the reading room will only be open
1 2.
8 a.m.
four hours, namely
the mornings,
3. A: How long have these regulations been in force?
B:
about six months,
last January.
4. Jackson was born
New Year's Day,
the morning of January 1 st, 1 9 1 2 .
5.
two hours we waited at Z for further instructions. At last, a signal
dawn.
came, shortly
6. We're open
1 0 o'clock
6 o'clock
the week and
then
Saturdays
10 o'clock
2 o'clock.
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3.

Sum up the CODtents of the text in several


. Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model OD p. 13.

of.

Quesions for

sbort composition:

I . Is education important to people in today's Russia?

2. Which subjets, besides architecture and medicine, traditionally require much

longer study? Why?

3. Do you think part-time studies motivate students to study hard?

S8

Unit 12
PERSONAL SPACE

Different countries have different rules for


personal space - that is, when people touch; how
close they stand when they are speaking to one
another; how close strangers sit; how people be
have on elevators, etc.
People are usually not consciously aware of
these rules, but they become very uncomfortable
if the rules are broken and "their space' is en
tered without permission.

Rule: Americans have a bubble of space around


their bodies which is about an inch thick. This
bubble of space must not be broken by a stranger.
If American strangers touch each other acciden
tally, they mutter an apology such as " Pardon me",
" Excuse me", "Oh, I'm sorry", or just "Sorry".
Rule: When standing in elevators, Americans usually face the door, speak quietly,
and try to avoid touching one another. If a stranger enters an elevator where there
is only one other person, he or she will stand on the opposite side of the elevator. As
more people get on the elevator, they occupy the comers first and then try to dis
perse themselves evenly throughout the available space.
Vocabulary
space npOCTP.HCTBO
tbe available space
J.lMelOlUeeCH
to be consciously aware of smth
accidentally cnY4.11Ho
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B HaJIJ.l4J.1H npOCTP.HCTBO
OTIl.B'Tb ce6e OT4eT B 4eM-n.

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to mutter an apology
np"HeCTI 113BI1HeHI1e (TI1XI1M rOJlOCOM, CKoporOBopKoA)
try to avoid touching one another CTapalOTCH He .uorpamoaTbCH .uo .upyroro 4eJlOBeKa
try to disperse themselves evenly
nblTalOTCH pacnpe.ueJlI1TbCH paBHOMepHO
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Usage Notes
1. Different means 'not the same, unlike' (oppos. - like, similar): Different coun
tries have different rules.

Various means 'several, many'; it stresses the number of things, more than
their unlikeness:
Do you understand this joke ?
" H ave you much variety at your canteen?"
"Yes, we have three different names for one and the same dish."

2. Remember! Something comfortable gives comfort, oppos. - uncomfortable:


People become very uncomfortable if. . .
Something convenient suits one's time and needs, oppos. - inconvenient.
Translate into English.

y06Hoe BpeMH -

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y06Hoe MecTO -

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Hey06Hoe KpeCJlO y06HaH 06YSb -

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y06Hoe paCITHCaHHe (time-table) -

Reading Comprehension
I . In what meaning is the word consciously used in the passage:
People are usually not consciously aware of . . . ?
(A) being awake, not sleeping
(B) giving emphasis to a particular fact or phenomenon
(C) carefully
(D) knowingly

bubble used in the passage:


Americans have a bubble of space around their bodies ?

2. In what meaning is the word

(A) something lacking stability


(B) an unreliable scheme
(C) a very thin ball of liquid filled with air or gas
(D) a thin film
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3. In what meaning is the word mutter used in the passage:


They mutter an apology such as. . . ?
(A) to say something in a low tone
(B) to make a continuous low. sound
(C) to express sympathy
(0) to express displeasure

Exercises
1. BepoliTHo, BaM }')Ke 113BeCTHo, 'ITO B aHfJII1I1CKOM 1I3blKe naCCI1BHali KOHCT
PYKI-ll1l1 Mo)t(eT I1CnOJIb30BaTbCli co 3Ha'lI1TeJIbHO 60JIbllll1M '1I1CJIOM fJIaroJIOB 11 B
3Ha'lI1TeJIbHO 60JIbllleM '1I1CJIe CJIy'laeB, HelKeJII1 B PYCCKOM 1I3blKe (HanpI1Mep, B
TeKCTe: their space is entered without permission).
Fill in the blanks using tbe verb in bold type in its passive form. Translate the sentences.

1 . Most British people do not drink a lot of coffee, but a lot of tea
everywhere in the country.
2. Most English housewives make Christmas puddings (the famous 'plum puddings'). These puddings
several months before Christmas.
3. Englishmen love to eat roast beef. However, a lot of lamb
in England, too.
4. Women sometimes wear a colourful tartan (WOTJIaHJ\Ka - KJIeT'IaTali wepCTliHali TKaHb) skirt called a 'kilt'. In Scotland, kilts
by men, too,
sometimes.
5. In Galicia in Spain people play an instrument called the 'gaita'. Similar inin Scotland.
struments, bagpipes,
6. In North Wales many people speak \\elsh. In the West of Scotland, Gaelic

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7. In the USA sportsmen bunt animals with guns. In Britain some animals (eswith dogs but without guns.
pecially foxes)
8. People in Britain keep cage birds, such as canaries, as pets, but pigeons
only as racing birds.
9. On New Year's Eve in Britain, people often have parties and sing songs, and
at midnight the famous Scottish song 'Auld Lang Syne'
by people
everywhere (Auld Lang Syne old times, times past, esp. those remembered
with affection or nostalgia; 6YK6.: old long since).
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2 . Use the verbs i n brackets i n the passive. Translate the sentences into Russian. Don't forget that
sometimes passive forms are often translated into Russian by active forms.

I . Ask no questions and you (tell) no lies.

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2. If you are punctual, you (spare) a great deal of work and worry.
3 . I (tell) that Bill (offer) quite a good job but wouldn't take it. He was a fool to
refuse, he (not give) such a chance again.
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4. It (talk) about a great deal at the time.


5. We (not make) such a fuss of when I was young.
6. The bed (not sleep) in.

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3. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

4. Answer the following questions. Question 7 is a suggestion for a short composition.

\ . If you are alone in an elevator and someone comes in, where does he or she

: 2.
3.
4.
5.
. 6.
7.

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stand?
As more people enter the elevator, where do they stand?
Do people talk to one another?
How loudly do they speak?
Do strangers touch?
What happens in a crowded elevator when someone in the back has to get off?
How does it all compare with the space rules in your country?

Unit 13
I N DIAN CLIFF DWELLINGS

The Indian cliff dwellings of the southwestern


United States are a source of interest and mystery
for archaeologists. Located in the Four Comers
area of the U.S., where Colorado, Utah, Arizona,
and New Mexico meet, the cliff dwellings were
constructed from approximately 1050 to 1 300 A C.
The cliff dwellings are whole series of neigh
bouring rooms built in layers into the sides of
cliffs. The sleeping rooms of the cliff dwellings
were very small, often only one to two meters
wide and little more than one meter high, and they were built in complexes of up to
several hundred rooms together. The front rooms of the complexes were considerably
larger. These larger rooms were apparently the rooms where daily life took place.
When the cliff dwellings were first found by explorers, they had been abandoned.
Archaeologists today are uncertain as to when or why they were abandoned and
where the inhabitants went. There is some evidence, however, that the inhbitants
left the cliff dwellings near the end of the thirteenth century because of a serious
drought that is known to have occurred in the area from 1 276 to 1 299. Archaeolo
gists believe that the inhabitants could have left the cliff dwellings to move south
west and southeast. Today the descendants of the cliff dwellers are probably mem
bers of the I ndian tribes of that area.

Vocabulary
a cliff dwelling lIGImllue B OTBeCHOH CKane
an explorer HCCJlen.oa3rel1b; nyrewecTBeHHHK no HeHCCnell.Oa3HHblM MeCTaM
built in layers into BCTpoeHHb!e pllJlaMH B
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to abandon nOKHHyrb, OCT3BHTb TO HnH HHoe Mecro 6eJ K3KI1X-1l.


an inhabitant o6HTaTenb (KaKoro-n.) Mecn; CM. TalOKe c. 25
evidence D.OK3J3TellbCTB3; n.a HHbIe
a drought [draut I - Jacyxa
to occur
HMeTb MeCTO, npoHcxo,nI1Tb
descendants nOTOMKH
a tribe nneM"
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HaMepeHI1H BepHyrbcfI HaJa,n

Usage Notes
1 . A.C.

ante Christum (Aam.: ,no XpHcTa)

CpaBHHTe: A.D. HlIH AD 0603Ha'laeT lOObl, omcumbl8aeMb(e 8nepeo am npe,n


nOJlaraeMOro ro,na pOJK,neHHlI XpHcTa. 3TO - a66peBHaTypa Mll anna domini. TaK,
70 A.D. 03Ha'laeT B J1eTO rocno,nHe, T.e. B 70 ro,ny om POJK,neCTBa XpHcToBa.
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B.C. HlIH BC a66peBHarypa, 0603Ha'laIOIl{ali lOObl, /Comopble omcumbl8alOmCJl


Ha3ao am npe,nnOJlaraeMOro ro,na pOJK,neHHlI XpHcTa, T.e. 00 XpHcTa. HanpHMep:
ro,nbl llGI3HH Ue3apll: Caesar was born in 1 00 and died in 44 B.C.
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2. N.B. 06paTHTe BHHMaHHe Ha TO, 'ITO B CJlOBaX THna to occur, to refer B >op
Me nporne,nwero BpeMeHH 6)'KBa r y,nBaHBaeTClI: occurred, referred.
3. B TeKCTe YPOKa BCTpe'laeTCli CJlOBO room.

a room 3TO '1aCTb ,nOMa HJlH 3,naHHlI, OrpaHH'IeHHali CTeHaMH: neighbouring


rooms - coce,nHHe KOMHaTbl.
room
3TO npOCTpaHCTBO, KOTopoe 3aHliTO HlIH MOllCeT 6bITb 3aHliTO KeM-J1.
HlIH '1eM-J1.: Is there room for me in the car? This table takes up too much room.
a seat 3TO KaKOH-TO npe,nMeT, Ha KOTOPbIH MOllGlO ceCTb: cryJl, cKaMeHKa.
place 3TO KaKall-TO '1aCTb npOCTpaHCTBa: I can't be in two places at once.
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Reading Comprehension

I . According to the passage, what were the cliff dwellings like when the explor
ers first found them?
(A) Heavily decorated.
(B) Full of daily life.
(C) Empty.
(D) Attractive.
2. According to the passage, what do archaeologists believe caused the cliff dwellers
to abandon their homes?
(A) A lack of food.
(B) Warfare with neighbouring tribes.
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(C) A desire to find a safer location.


(0) A shortage of water.
3. According to the passage, which of the following are the archaeologists cer
tain about?
(A) Why the clifT dwellers abandoned their homes.
( B) That a drought occurred in the Four Corners area from 1 276 to 1 299.
(C) Where the inhabitants of the clifT dwellings went.
(0) When the clifT dwellers abandoned their homes.

Exercises
1 . B TeKCTe ,nOfO YPOKa BbI CTOJIKHYJIHCb C OPMOH nepeKTHofo HHH
HHTI1Ba:
. . . the inhabitants could have left the clifT dwellings . . .
. . . a serious drought that is known to have occurred i n the area . . .

B CJIellYIOlUl1X npl1MepaX 06paTI1Te BHHMaHl1e Ha TO, 'ITO nepeKTHblH I1HH


HI1TI1B YKa3bIBaeT Ha lleHCTBHe, npeaUJecm8ylOee TOMY, KOTOpoe Bblp<VKeHO fJIa
rOJIOM B JIWIHOH opMe.
Translate into Russian.
I . She is said to have married early.

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2. She was said to have married early.


3. If Kitty marries at the age of 1 6 , she will be said to have married early.

2. Pa3JJWIHe MelKllY npOCTbIM H nepeKTHbIM HHHHHTHBOM OT'IeTJIHBO BHll


HO B CJIellYIQlUl1X llByx npl1Mepax:

Muriel believes Bob to be a thief.


Muriel believes Bob to have been a thief.
ilPOCTOH HHHHI1TI1B nOKa3bIBaeT, 'ITO CYlKlle HHe MIOpl1eJI OCTaeTCli B CHJIe H
CeH'IaC (Bob is a thief at present), TOflla KaK nepeKTHbIH HHHHHTI1B YKa3bIBaeT
Ha CJIeD,yIOlUee: TO, 'ITO M IOpHeJI llYMaeT (nOJIaraeT) CeH'IaC, 6bIJIO CnpaBell]JHBO B
OTHOlUeHHI1 E06a TOJIbKO B KaKOH-TO MOMeHT B npOlllJIOM: MOlKeT 6bITb, CeH'IaC
OH YlKe 60JIbllle He BOp.
) 3. 797

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Translate into English.

I . I'm sorry not to have come on Thursday.

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2. It's good to have fmished work for the day.

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

3. To have lived all one's life in a small village gives one a rather limited outlook.
4. He seems to have missed the train.

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

5. I appear to have made a small mistake.


3. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

4. What is your opinion?

When a child did you read books about American Indians? Unfortunately, at
present most children prefer watching TV to reading fiction. What solution to the
problem could you offer?

Unit

14

T H E AMERICAN MON ETARY SYSTEM


OF T H E 1 7TH AND 1 8TH CENTUR I ES

In the American colonies there was little


money. England did not supply the colonies
with coins and it did not allow the colonies to
make their own coins, except for the Massa
chusetts Bay Colony, which received permission
for a short period in 1 652 to make several kinds
of silver coins. England wanted to keep money
out of America as a means of controlling trade:
America was forced to trade only with Englan p
as it did not have the money to buy products
from other countries.
The result during this pre-revolutionary period was that the colonists used vari
ous goods in place of money: beaver pelts, Indian wampum, and tobacco leaves
were all commonly used substitutes for money. The colonists also made use of any
foreign coins they could obtain. Dutch, Spanish, French coins were all in use in the
American colonies.
During the Revolutionary War, funds were needed to finance the war, so each of
the individual states and the Continental Congress issued paper money. So much of
this paper money was printed that by the end of the war it was virtually worthless.
As a result, trade in goods and the use of foreign coins still flourished during this
period.
By the time the Revolutionary War had been won by the American colonists,
the monetary system was in a state of total disarray. To remedy this situation,
the new Constitution of the United States, approved in 1 789, allowed only
Congress to issue money. The individual states could no longer have their own
money supply.
67

A few years later, the Coinage Act of 1 792 made the dollar the official currency
of the United States and put the country on a bimetallic standard. In this bimetallic
system, both gold and silver were legal money, and the rate of exchange of silver to
gold was fIXed by the government at sixteen to one.

Vocabulary
monentary system - )leHelKHaa CHCTeMa
a means - CPC.llCTBO, cnoco6
to be forced to do smth
6bITb BbIHYlKJleHHblM (c)leJIaTb 'ITO-JI.
goods - TOBapbI
beaver pelts W KypKH 606pOB
a wampum ['wDmpom]- OlKepeJIbe 113 paKOBHH (y uHoeulle8)
a substitute for smtb - 3aMeHHTeJIb 4erO-JI.
Dutch - rOJIJIaH)lCKHR (He rryraTb C Danish )laTCKHA!)
virtually - <!>aKTH4ecKI1. Ha caMOM )leJIe
worthless (was virtually worthless) - H114ero He CToallIHA; He HMeIOllIHil HHKaKoA ueHHOCTH
to nourisb
rrpOUBeraTb
to be in a state of total disarray - HaXO)lHTbCa B COCToaHHH rrOJIHOrO 6eCrrOpa)lKa (paccTpoli-

cTBa)

to remedy smth - HcrrpaBHTb (rrOJIOlKeHHe BellIeA)


to issue money - rrYCKaTb )leHbrH B 06pallIeHHe
money supply - KO}lH4eCTBO )leHer. HaXOMllIHxca B 06pallIeHHH

B JII060A )laHHbIA MOMHT Bpe

MeHH. (OD.HH 113 OCHOB HbIX npHHUHnOB MOHeTapH3Ma COCTOHT B TOM, l.fTO POCT KonWICCTsa
.neHer, npCSbIWaIOLUJ.1A CKOPOCTb 3KOHOMHlfeCKoro pOCTa , SISJUIeTCH OCHOBHoR npHl.JHHOA
HH<!>JIaUHH.)

Usage Notes
1 . 06paTiHe BHHMaHHe Ha TO, 'ITO cYlllecTBHTeJlbHoe money HMeeT <!>OPMY
ellHHcTBeHHoro '1HCJla H 6cezaa CO'leTaeTCJI C marOJlOM B ellHHCTBeHHoM '1HC
it; HH B KoeM cJly'lae
J1e H MeCTOHMeHHeM B ellHHCTBeHHoM '1HCJle (money
He they).
-

He Z060pume: All his money kept in the bank.


F060pume: All his money is kept in the bank.
2. 06paTHTe BHHMaHHe Ha TO, 'ITO to supply a person with smth HMeeT B Ka'leCT
Be CHHOHHMa to provide a person with smth:

England did not supply the colonies with coins.


3. 06parnTe BHHMaHHe Ha TO, 'ITO to allow 6J1H3KO no 3Ha'leHHIO H HCnOJlb30BaHHIO K maroJlY to permit. HanpHMep :
H e allowed/permitted him to stay here.
England did not allow the colonies to make their own coins.
68

4. HeCKOJIbKO CJIOB 0 npOI1CXOlKlle HIUI CJIOBa aOAJ/ap:

XVI BeK - 113 HI1)I(HeHeMeUKoro (Low German) daler, llaJIee - 113 HeMeUKoro
Taler, Thaler. nOCJIeAHl1e IlBa CJIOBa SlBJISlJOTCSI cOKpameHHoM <j>OPMOM OT
'loachimsthaler coin'. 3Ta MOHeTa 'JeKaHI1JIaCb 113 MeTaJIJIa, np0l13BOlll1MOrO B
'loachimsthal Jachymov - ropolle, KOTOPblM ceti'lac HaXOlll1TCH Ha Teppl1TOpl111
qeUlcKoM Pecny6JII1K11.

Reading Comprehension
I . The passage indicates that during the colonial period, money was
(A) supplied by England.
(B) coined freely by the colonists.
(C) scarce.
(D) used extensively for trade.
2. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was allowed to make coins
(A) continuously from the inception of the colony.
(B) throughout the seventeenth century.
(C) from 1 652 until the Revolutionary War.
(D) for a short time during one year.
3. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a substitute for
money during the colonial period?
(A) Wampum.
(B) Cotton.
(C) Tobacco.
(D) Beaver furs.
4. According to the passage, what happened to the American monetary system
during the Revolutionary War?
(A) The Continental Congress issued gold and silver coins.
(B) Individual states were not allowed to issue money.
(C) So much paper money was circulated that it lost its value.
(D) American money replaced trade in goods and foreign coins.

Exercises
1. B 3TOM ypOKe BbI BCTpeTl1JIl1Cb c marOJIbHOM <j>OPMOM Past Perfect (had
+ 3-H q,opMa CMbICJIOBOrO maroJIa) Passive: ' By the time the Revolutionary
War had been won by the American colonists .. . ' . Korlla ynoTpe6JISleTCSl Past
69

Perfect? 311ecb MbI CTaJlKMBaeMClI C OllHHM H3 HaH60JIee pacnpOCTpaHeHHbIX


CJIyqaeB ynoTpe6JIeHI151 llaHHoro BpeMeHH, a HMeHHO C TeM CJIyqaeM, Korlla
lleticTBHe 3aBeplIleHO (3aKOHqeHo) K onpelleJIeHHOMY MOMeHTY B npOlIlJIOM.
3TOT MOMeHT MOlKeT 0603HaqaTbClI KOHCTpYKUHeti THna by 1 0 o'clock (K I O
qaCaM) HJIH, KaK B HalIleM CJIyqae, ' By the time the Revolutionary War had
been won by . . . '
)lPYfHM xapaKTepHbIM CJIyqaeM ynoTpe6JIeHHlI BpeMeHI1 Past Perfect lIB
JIlIeTClI CJIellYIOIUall cHTyaUI1lI: OnHCblBaIOTClI KaKMe-JIH60 npOHCIlIeCTBHlI (co6bITHiI, lleticTBHlI) B npOIlIJIOM. npHqeM OllHO H3 3TI1X lleticTBl1ti npOH30IlI
JIO paHblIle llpyroro; TO lleticTBl1e, KOTopoe npOH30IlIJIO paHblIle, nepeliaeTClI
C nOMOIUblO cPOPMbI Past Perfect, a TO, KOTopoe n03lKe, - C nOMOIUblO
cPOPMbI Simple Past. HanpHMep: I came home at six and found she had done
all her work.
B npHMepe ' By the time the Revolutionary War had been won by ... ' MbI I1MeeM
lleJIO C naccHBHoti cPOPMOti BpeMeHH Past Perfect. HanoMHIO BaM 0 MeTacPope, 0
pa311eJIeHHI1 BeTBeti BJIaCTH (CM. npelibIllYIUl1e YPOKH): BCIO rpaMMaTHKY 6epeT
Ha ce611 BcnoMOraTeJIbHblti fJIarOJI to be, 3TO OH npHHI1MaeT cPOPMY BpeMeHH Past
Perfect, a BeCb CMbICJI nepeliaeTClI fJIarOJIOM to win B TpeTbeti cPopMe (T.e. B cPopMe
npWIaCTl1l1 npOIlIelilIlero BpeMeHH).
nOeTaabTe rnaronbl a

CK06KJ1X a 1j>0pMe Past Perfect Tense.

I . When I got home, the others already


(finish) eating.
(speak) to the girl before he spoke to her on the
2. Peter never
plane.
3. By the time she got back to the shop the next day, someone else
(buy) the coat she wanted.
(not get married) when we first met them.
4. Tom and Susan
5. By the time we reached the station, the train already
(leave).
6. It
(begin) to rain before she took a taxi.
7. When all the guests
(leave), Derek arrived.

_
_
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_
_

2. Use the verbs in brackets in the appropriate form - Simple Past or Past Perfect.

I . After a long forced march, Caesar _____ (enter) the town only to find
(make) the long march
(flee) : he
that the enemy
in vain.
2. Columbus _____ (gaze) at the land that he
(come)
so far to seek: he
(see) nothing but the ocean for five long
weeks.
______

70

3. When Queen Victoria _____ (die) in 190 1 , she _____ (reign)


for over 60 years.
4. We all _____ (realize) what a lucky escape we _____ (have).
(man(understand) how he
5. None of ills teachers
age) to, fail at the examination.
6. I
(call) at the manager's office, but
(discover) I
(miss) him. H e
(go out) for lunch.
just
(set out) to look for the two climbers ( aJIbmiHl17. A search party
(leave) their hotel early that morning and who still
CTbl ) , who
_____ (not return) .
(see) the answer to the problem that
8. The scientist suddenly
_____ (occupy) ills mind for the last two months.
(decide) to continue with a design that
9. The Company
_____ (stand) the test of time.
3. Rewrite in the passive.

I . Someone had told me that story before.

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_
_
_
_
_
_

2. People had given George a lot of presents for his birthday.


3. They had taught Jane's daughter Latin and Greek.
4. They had offered that writer the Nobel Prize.

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_
_

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_
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_

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5. They had not offered Clara any money for her painting.

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4. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate tbem into English.
See Model on p. 13.

71

5. Questions for

short composition:

I. What is the meaning of the word wooden in the idiom wooden money?

2. What definition could you suggest for the term

hyperinflation?

NOTE: Russian idioms CMompume, '1m06bl eac lie HaiJY!1U, He iJaeaiime eoiJumb
ce6R 3a HOC, cmapaiimeCb He nonacmbCR I/O yiJO'lKY are often translated as
don't take any wooden money (rum nickels), aMep. pa3z.

Unit 1 5
THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM

It is the role of the Federal Reserve, known simply


as the Fed, to control the supply of money in the U.S.
through its system of twelve regional Federal Reserve
Banks. Many commercial banks belong to the Federal
Reserve System and as members must follow the Fed's
reserve requirements, a ruling by the Fed on the per
centage of deposits that a member bank must keep ei
ther in its own vaults or on deposit at the Fed. If the
Fed wants to change the money supply, it can change
reserve requirements to member banks; for example, an
increase in the percentage of deposits required to be kept
on hand would reduce the available money supply.
Member banks can also borrow money from the Fed, and an additional way that the
Fed can control the money supply is to raise or lower the discount rate, the interest rate
at which commercial banks borrow from the Fed. An increase in the discount rate would
reduce the funds available to commercial banks and thus shrink the money supply.
I n addition to using reserve requirements and the discount rate to control the
money supply, the Fed has an additional powerful tool: open-market operations.

Vocabulary
on hand HMelOlUHl\cH B HanHqHH; to keep (money) on hand paCnOnaraTb HanHqHblMH cpellCTDaMU
a deposit BKJlaJl KJlHeHTa B KpellHTHoM yqpelKl\eHHH (8 BHlle lleHer HnH ueHHblX 6YMar)
a vault xpaHHnHlUe: 6onbwoll cell", HnH cell",OBaH KOMHaTa 6aHKa
money supply lleHeJl(HaH Macca
the discount rate yqeTHan CTaBKa: CTaBKa, no KOTOpoil ueHTpanbHblll 6aHK rOTOB npellOCTIIU
nHTb KpellHTbl 6aHKaM (HHCTPYMeHT lleHeJKHO-KpellHTHoll nonHTHKH)
interest rate npoueHTHan CTaBKa: nnaTa 3a KPCllHT B npoueHTHOM Bblp3JKeHHH B paCqeTe Ha
OllHH rOll
-

73

borrow money - 6paTb )leHbrH 8Jal\Mhl


ruling - nOCTaHOBlIeHHe, pellleHl1e, npH.HJ1MaeMOe
to shrink - YMeHbwaTbCH, CTaHOBl1TbCSJ MeHbwe
to
a

KeM-TO, KTO 06lTanaeT BlTaCTMO

Usage Notes
1. to keep (the percentage of deposits that a member bank must keep . . . ) means
'to possess', 'to have in one's possession', while to hold means 'to have in the hands',
'to support with the hand'. E.g.:

You may keep this; I don't want it back, but


The girl was holding her father's hand.
2. It would be useful to remember the following collocations (fixed non-idiomatic phrases and constructions) with the adjective available:
to be easily available
to be readily available
the information is available to anyone
to make something available
Are you available for a meeting tomorrow?
3. The definition of money to burn is: 'very much money; more money than is need.ed'.
Illustrative sentences:
M y uncle is so rich that he has money to burn. ( He is extremely rich.)
My friend buys anything he wants. He acts as if he has money to burn. ( He acts
as if he has a lot of money.)
=

Related expression: made of money

very rich

Reading Comprehension
I . According to the passage, the main purpose of the Federal Reserve System is to...
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

increase reserve requirements.


increase or decrease the amount of money available.
increase the number of Federal Reserve Banks.
increase the money kept on deposit by member banks.

2. The passage implies that a lowering of the discount rate would lead to . . .
(A) an increase i n the money supply.
(B) a decrease in borrowing from the Fed by commercial banks.
(C) a decrease in the money available.
(D) an increase in the reserve requirement.
74

Exercises
1. B TeKCTe BbI CTOJIKHYillICb C marolloM to raise (Jro - npaBI1JIbHbrn marOJI ): to raise
or lower the discount rate. npeno}laBaTeJ1bCKIDI OTIbIT nOKa3bIBaeT, 'ITO HepeDJ<I1 CJJY'IaH,
KOr}la yqaIUI1eClI He pa3rpaHI1'lI1!lalOT }lBa marOJIa: nepexoilHbIH maroll to raise 11 Hene
pexoilHbIH maroll to rise, KOTOPbIH lIBJUIeTClI HenpaBI1JIbHbIM: to rise - rose - risen.
Use one of these verbs in the sentences below.

I . What time did you get up from bed? - I _____ at 6 a.m.


from the table at
half past I I p.m.
his eyes.
3. What was the matter with him? He barely
4. H e
t o his full height.
their hand."
S. The chairman said, "Will all in favour
6. "Of course he recognized me. He
his hat."
7. "You should
above petty (MellKI1H, HI1.'1TOlKHbIH) jealousy. "
in my mind.
8. A new picture
the temperature to 70C .
9. The lab assistant
10. The news
my hopes.
on our left.
I I . A rage (rplIila) of hills
1 2. Don't you
your voice!
a cloud of dust.
1 3 . The carriage (KapeTa)
2. The party was long and a bit tiresome. We

_____

_____

_____

2. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

3.

Write a short composition the first sentence of which is:

" If I had money to burn, I 'd


do if you were made of money)

_____

(mention at least three things you'd

_______
_____
___ ___
_

75

Unit 16
T H E FORGOTTEN LETTER

We Americans have forgotten how to write letters


as a means of keeping in touch over long distances
with people we care about. This is sad but not at all
surprising. The principle cause for our shift away from
letter writing can be summed up in two words: the
telephone. The telephone has caused us to put away
our pens and paper because it is generally more con
venient and immediate for both the sender and the
receiver. The end result has been that we are now
reaching each other more quickly but not necessarily
more effectively.
M ost people prefer calling to writing because it
takes less time. The American culture places a great
deal of emphasis on accomplishing things as quickly
and efficiently as possible. So, it is not surprising
that we would place a ten-minute phone call to let a loved one know what is
going on in our lives rather than spend an hour explaining details in a three
page letter.
In addition, telephoning is more convenient because there is less work involved.
When using the phone, we merely dial and begin to talk. At the end of the conver
sation, we hang up the receiver and the task is completed. When writing a letter,
however, we must first find a pen, writing paper, an envelope, then write the letter,
address it, get a stamp for it, mail it, and after that wait who knows how long for a
reply. Left to choose between the more expensive one-step telephone call and the
cheaper multistep letter, the majority of us are willing to pay for the convenience of
talking on the phone.
(to be continued)

76

Vocabulary

to keep in touch with someone nOMeplKHBaTb CBHlb C KeM-Jl.


to care about someone
HHTepeeOBaTbeH KeM-Jl . ; HenblTblBaTb HHTepee K KOMY-Jl.
sad neaJlbHblll
a shift away from
OTXOil OT
not necessarily H e ofiH3arellbHO
to call 3BOHHTb no TeJleq,OHY
to place a great deal of emphasis on smth npHilaBaTb oc060e 3HaeHHe 'leMY-Jl.
to accomplish things il06HBaTbcH '1ero-Jl.
rather than
CKopee, lIeM; a He
there is less work involved 3TO CBH3aHO C MeHbWHMH YCHllIHIM H
merely TOJIbKO, JIHlUb
to dial
Ha6paTb HOMep TeJleq,oHa
to hang up the receiver nOBeeHTb TPy6KY
a stamp
MapKa

Usage Notes
1 . Don't say: Would you please check whether I have for)Q:tten a black handbag
in Room 2 1 .
Say: Would you please check whether I have left a black handbag in Room 2 1 .
Don't use forget if you mention a place. E.g.: If the keys aren't in your jacket,
you must have left them somewhere.
I 've left all my money at home.
2. Prefer to, not prefer

n: to prefer (doing) smth to (doing) smth else

E.g.: I prefer drawing to painting.


Why do you prefer the theatre to the cinema?
H e normally prefers classical music to rock.
Most women prefer breast feeding to bottle feeding.
Compare:

I 'd rather live in the North than in the South.


Most women would rather go out to work than stay at home all day.

Reading Comprehension
I . In what meaning is the word calling used in the text? (see the second para
graph)
Many people prefer calling to writing letters.
(A)
(8)
(C)
(D)

giving a name to
speaking loudly in order to make someone hear
going to another man's house
telephoning
77

2. In what meaning is the verb to reach used in the text? (see the first paragraph)
We are now reaching each other more quickly.
(A) to arrive at or get to a person, place, etc.
(B) to extend as far as (E.g. : mould (lUIeceHb) has reached the ceiling)
(C) to come to a certain condition ( E.g.: to reach the point of starvation)
(D) to extend in influence (E.g.: the Roman conquest reached throughout England)
3. In what meaning is the noun means used in the text? (see the first paragraph)
.. . As a means of keeping in touch over long distances.
(A) method or instrument used to obtain a result or achieve an end
(B) measure
(C) considerable wealth
(D) income

Exercises
1 . B TeKCTe YPOKa BbI CTOJIKHYJII1Cb C I1CnOJIb30BaHI1eM rrpl1JlaraTeJIbHbIX, Ha
pe'lI1H I1 I1X CTerreHeH cpaBHeHI1H: it is generally more convenient and immediate; we
are now reaching each other more quickly; not necessarily more effectively; it takes
less time; telephoning is more convenient; there is less work involved; the more expen
sive one-step telephone call; the cheaper multistep letter.
Put the right form of the adjective in brackets into each of these sentences.

as James (good).
I . John is a good violinist but he's not
2. Fortunately the news was not
as we expected (bad).
3. That TV programme was even
than the one we saw yesterday,
which was bad enough (nasty).
4. Niagara Falls is one of
sights in the world (fantastic).
man I have ever met (wise).
5. He was
6. Young Mary is becoming
every day (pretty).
result in the whole
7. You got zero in that test, Billy; that was
class (bad).
than the one you've got on, Mary; why
8. Your blue skirt is much
don't you change into it? (nice)
in the world (tasty).
9. I think Swiss chocolate is
as Switzerland (mountainous).
10. Germany is not
_____

_____

_____

2. Paraphrase the following sentences according to the model.

Model:
A cat is faster than a mause. A mouse is not as fast as a cat.
The garden is more attractive than the house. - The house js not as attractive as
the garden.
-

78

I . I think football is more exciting than chess.

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_
_
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_
_
_
_
_
_
_

2. The plane is more expensive than the train.


3 . The climate in Europe is more temperate than the climate in North Africa.
4. Moscow is colder than London.

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_
_
_
_
_
_

5. The Rhine is longer than the Thames.

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_
_

6. Paris is really more interesting than Manchester.


7. Diamonds are harder than pearls.
8. Athens is older than Rome.

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_
_
_
_
_
_

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_

9. A humming-bird is smaller than a sparrow.

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_
_
_

10. My handwriting is more legible than Susan's.

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_
_
_
_
_
_
_

3. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

4. A question for discussion or a short composition:

What effect (if any) does the telephone have on your life?

79

Unit 1 7
THE FORGOTTEN LETTER
(Continued)

A less obvious but equally important reason why


people prefer using the telephone is that it is more
immediately satisfying than a letter. A phone call
gives a more complete picture of how each person is
doing. During a telephone call one can, for example,
tell whether the other person is angry, nervous, or
reserved. This kind of information might be totally
lost in a letter.
Communicating over the telephone also feels more
complete because it is spontaneous. A two-way con
versation is occurring. The speakers can discuss until they feel that they have under
stood each other. When I was in college, my parents would call me every Sunday
afternoon so that my mother could hear for herself that I was "really OK". For her,
my letters were informative, but she didn't feel we had truly made contact with each
other until she could talk to me and hear my voice in the receiver.
Because a telephone call is quicker and gives immediate pleasure, I'm afraid that
we are beginning to forget the benefits of letter writing as a means of communica
tion. A letter offers some advantages that a phone call does not. The writer can, for
example, think carefully about what he wants to say. It gives him the chance to
remember things he might forget in a spontaneous conversation. It also provides
him with the time to organize his thoughts into a logical and comprehensible order.
In other words, he has the lUxury of saying exactly what he wants, the way he wants.
In addition, a letter can be kept and enjoyed several times. Once a phone call is
finished, however, you are left only with its memories. On lonely nights far away
from home, reading a few letters from family and friends can be very comforting.
80

Vocabulary
a reserved person CllepJKaHHblH "eJIOBeK
a receiver TeJIeq,OHHaJI Tpy6Ka
gives immediate pleasure cpa3y JKe llOCTaBJIeT YllOBOJIbCTBl1e
the benefits (of letter writing) npel1MymecTBa
a means of communication cpe.uCTBO o6weHlui
a comprehensible order nOHHTHblH (Bpa3YMI1TeJIbHbIH) nopllOK
luxury POCKOWb
to enjoy smth
nOJ1y"aTb OT "erO-J1. YllOBOJ1pCTBHe
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Usage Notes
1. comprehensible is 'that can be understood'. Its synonyms are: understandable,
clear, coherent, intelligible.

comprehensive is I . 'including a great deal'. Its synonyms are: extensive, full, in


clusive, all-embracing; 2. 'able to understand a great deal'.
E.g.: A comprehensive account or description is one that is full and complete.
I f a person has a comprehensive mind, he is able to understand many different
things.
2. I t would be useful to remember that every is mostly used when the members
of a group or class have something in common, and are thought of together.

Each is used when the members of a group or class are thought of separately, as
individuals. E.g.:
A phone call gives a more complete picture of how each person is doing.
Complete the following sentences in English paying special attention to the use of each and every.

1 . Ka)I(lla51 p03a of the bouquet is of a different colour.


Ka)I(lla51 p03a has thorns.

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2. Ka)I(lla51 KHHra that is published should be worth reading.


Ka)I(lla51 KHHra on the shelf is worth reading.

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3. KalKll,a5I KOMHaTa in this building has two windows.


Ka)I(lla51 KOMHaTa is furnished in its own way.

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Remember:

each of KIDKllbIH 113 (every is never used in this phrase)


Ha KIDKllOM mary
at every step
every now and then BpeMli OT BpeMeHI1
each other J].pyr ]:{pyra
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Reading Comprehension
1 . In what meaning is the word reserved used in the text:
... the other person is reserved (see the first paragraph)
(A) kept for future use by a particular person
(B) cool or formal in manner
(C) silent
2. In what meaning is the word benefits used in the text:
. . . to forget the benefits of letter writing (see the third paragraph)
(A) something that stands in the way
(B) advantages
(C) payments or series of payments
3 . In what meaning is the word to enjoy used in the text:
A letter can be enjoyed several times (see the third paragraph):
(A) to receive pleasure from
(B) to maintain
(C) to offer

Exercises
1 . B TeKCTe ypoKa BbI BCTpeUiJII1 CJIOBO whether: One can tell whether the
other person is angry . . 3TOT COI03, BepHee, ero ynoTpe6JIeHI1e 11 nepeBOJ]., I1HO
rJ].a KaJKyrcli Y'laml1MClI O'leHb CJIOJKHbIMI1. Ha caMOM J].eJIe :no He TaK. KaK
BbI MOJKeTe y6e]:{I1TbClI, OCHOBHble cnoc06bI nepeBo]:{a COlO3a whether CBOJ].lITCli
K TpeM OCHOBHbIM CJIY'laliM. DepeBe]:{I1Te CJIeJJ.YlOml1e npeMOJKeHl1l1 Ha pyc
CKI1H 1I3bIK:
.

a) 'IaCTHIa JIU
I . He asked whether he could help.

2. I wonder whether he will do it himself or whether he will ask you.

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3. I don't know whether it is true or not.

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4. He is i n doubt whether he should wait.

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b) 6yb oHa (CHryaIUlIl); 6y TO (CJlyqaH) H T.n.


1 . I n any situation, whether it is simple or complex, one must make a decision.
2 . ... whether by accident or design (6Yb TO CJIy'laiiHOCTb I1J1I1 HeT)

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c) He3aBHCHMO OT

I . This is what I think, whether right or wrong.


2. I will go there whether the day is fine or not.

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2. 06paTI1Te BHI1MaHl1e Ha TO, 'ITO COlO3 whether MOJKeT 6bITb 3aMeHeH COlO30M
if B TaKOM npeMOJKeHI1I1, KaK: Ask him whether (if) he can come.

Whether I1cnoJlb3yeTcH nocJle MHOrl1X npl1J1araTeJlbHbIX


HbIX. Hanpl1Mep:

11

pH.ua cywecTBI1TeJlb-

to be doubtful (anxious, uncertain) whether ...


to be in doubt whether .. .
the question whether ..
.

Translate into English.

I . 51 cnpOCI1J1, noii.ueT JlI1 OH C HaMI1 (whether

J1J\11

if).

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2. 51 He 3HalO, npl1.ueT JII1 OHa (whether I1JII1 if).


3. Bonpoc B TOM - I1.uTI1 I1JII1 OCTaBaTbCH (whether).
4. 3TO 3aBI1CI1T OT Toro, 6y.uy JII1

II

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cBo6oeH cerO.QHH Be'lepOM (whether).

5. MeHH He I1HTepecyeT, comaCHbI BbI I1JII1 HeT (whether).

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3. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

4.

What is your opinion?

I . What would you consider to be the primary characteristics of the telephone as


one of the means of communication?

2. Enumerate and discuss a variety of pragmatic functions of the telephone (book


ing tickets, for example).

3. Are you satisfied with the telephone service in your country/city/town/district?

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Unit 18
J U ST WHAT IS A VACATION ANYWAY?

A vacation is generally seen as a very positive


experience. In fact, when a person says, " I 'm on
vacation" or " I'm leaving for my vacation," we all
smile and offer our congratulations to the lucky
guy. It's as if we collectively agree upon what this
man is about to experience. It is my argument,
however, that we do not agree upon what makes
up a vacation. In fact, I believe that most of us
don't even understand what a vacation truly is.
Many people seem to think that a vacation is
merely a two-week holiday from their place of
employment. Well, a vacation cannot be defined
in terms of "two weeks off" . First of all, some
people get a four-week vacation while others get
only one. Some people get no days off from work but still manage to take a very nice
vacation from time to time. What about the people who don't "go to work" such as
mothers at home? Their idea of a vacation may be a weekend break from their chil
dren. The break may be a short time, but this makes it no less of a vacation for the
person taking it.
Other people consider a vacation to be a period of rest. While a vacation is often
a time of relaxation and quiet thoughts, it certainly doesn't have to be so. How
many times have you gone back to work or school from a vacation more exhausted
than when you left? For many people, taking a vacation means action - swimming,
hiking, boating, running, driving. If they are not moving, then it really isn't a vaca
tion to them.
(to be continued)

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Vocabulary
anyway B R1ofioM ClIY4ae, BO BCnKOM ClIY4ae
to offer one's congratulations
n0311paBHTb KOro-lI.
a lucky guy 30. c4aCTlIHB4HK
to be about to do smth
cofiHpaTbcR CllellaTb 4TO-1l.
merely TonbKO, J1HWb
exhausted
H3MY4eHHblll, H3MolKlle HHblA
hiking JllI HTellbHaR nporyllKa 3a ropolloM JllI R YIlOBOllbcTBHn HlIH TpeHHpoBKH
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Usage Notes
It would be useful to remember that:
vacation - is a regular period of freedOl:n from work or duty, while
vocation - is the form of life to which one is called

Reading Comprehension
I . What choice, (A), (B), (C) or (0), is closest in meaning to the adverb merely?
(see the second paragraph)
(A) nothing more than
(B) very early
(C) quietly
(0) peculiarly
2. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the noun employment? (see
the second paragraph)
(A) the services (of)
(B) high position
(C) one's usuai work, business or profession
(0) superiority

Exercises
1. B TCKCTC :rroro ypoKa I1CnOJIb30BaH <pPa:JOBbIH rJIarOJI to make up: ... we do not
agree upon what makes up a vacation. KaK OTMe'laJIOCb Bblwe, <ppa:JoBble rJIaroJIbl lpytl
Hhl nJIll Y4awHXCll no nnYM npW!l1HaM: Bo-nepBblx, <ppa30Bbrn maroJI caM no ce6e, KaK
npaBI1JIO, 11t1110MaTH'leH. BO-BTOPbIX, OH, TOlKe KaK npaBI1JIO, MHoro3Ha'leH.
Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the meanings of the verb.

i . BHOBb YCTaHOBI1Tb xopowl1e OTHOWeHl1iI:

They have made up.

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Let's kiss and make up.

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2. I1.CnOJlb30BaTb KOCMeTltKY}):
The actors were making up when we arrived.
(CYJl.l. make-up

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cosmetics)

3. ypaBHoBe UUlB aTb; CJly)IOITb npOTliBOBeCOM; HeHrpaJllt30BaTb neHCTBlte}):


The government says it will make up your loss in profits this year. _

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He gave us 1 0 to make up the deficit.

4. BblnYMaTb, COqHHHTb :
He made the story up.

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It's a made-up story from beginning to end.

5.

llIHTb (ooeJICoy)}):
They make up clothes as well as sell materials.
Notice: " Customers' own material made up here."

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6. 06pa30BbIBaTb; COCTaBJIJITb}) (B 3TOM 3HaqeHlIH waroJi to make up HCnOJlb30BaH B TeKCTe YPoKa):


The various parts make up a coherent whole.

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The book will be made up by expert printers.

7. KoMneHcHpoBaTb}):
I 'll make it up to you for all you have suffered.

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(06paTHTe BHHMaHHe Ha HaJIHqm:: it Me)f(AY make H up.)


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8 . YJlalKHBaTb:
They have made up their quarrel at last.
9. CTeJlHTb nOCTeJlb (6e3 (I) nocnen02a up)
As you make your bed, so you must lie on it (a proverb).

Hornby (with a little smile): Well, are you enjoying the land of promise as
much as you said I should?
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Norah: We've both made our bed and we must lie in it.

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2. AHfJlHHcKHe npe.llJlOfH Tpe6YlOT K ce6e nOCToHHHOro BHHMaHHH co CTOpO


Hbl Y'lamerOCH. 06bHcHeHHH B ynoTpe6J1eHHH npe.llJlOrOB MaJlO 'ITO t(aIOT, 3t(eCb
npOCTO HylKHa nOCTOHHHaH npaKTHKa H KOHTPOJlb CO CTOPOHbl npenOt(aBaTeJlH.
Choose the right preposition out of the given alternatives to complete the following:

I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

(on, at, to)?


Who is she looking
(oj, off, from) cheese.
This is a nice piece
(in, at, on) June.
Our holidays are
(at, to, ) the news.
They're listening
We came here
(on, at, in) 1 965.
(by, with, from) him?
What's the matter
(in, oj, into) the bathroom.
Your glasses are
(on, onto, into) the river!
Stop him! He's going to jump
No large ships can go
(over, across, under) that bridge.
It's time for coffee. All the students are coming
(off, out oj,
out) their lessons.
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3. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

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4.

What is your opinion?


Write a short essay on the topic .,In my opinion a true vacation is . . . ". The following questions may
serve as an outline of your essay:

I . What is truly a vacation in your opinion? In the opinion of your friends?


2. How long is your vacation?
3. Do you agree that vacation is always a positive experience?
4. What is the difference between days off and a vacation?

Unit 1 9
J UST W HAT I S A VACATION ANYWAY?
(Continued)

Some people think that vacation isn't a vacation


unless they have gone away somewhere. To support
this, invariably the first question we ask someone after
his or her vacation is, "Oh, where did you go on your
vacation?"My parents faU into this category of vaca
tioners. Not only do they tend to go somewhere on
their vacation, but they often plan up to a year in ad
vance where they'U be going next. Not aU people like
to "get away", though. Many like to stay home during
their holiday, yet they have no less of a vacation than
my wandering parents.
The last group of vacationers feel that the vacation
is a time to catch up on aU the things they normaUy
don't have time to do. This, to me, seems like work,
but to others it is truly a vacation. These are the people
who will teU you, " I had the most wonderful vacation.
I got the house painted, cleaned out the garage, and fixed the broken fan and vacuum
cleaner!" I know that this cannot be the true definition of a vacation because I take
a vacation every year, and I would never paint my house during one.
WeU, then, just what is a vacation? A vacation is a time to le ave (to vacate) . In
other words, it is an indeterminate amount of time in which a person departs from
his or her ordinary routine to do something out of the ordinary. So, a vacation is not
a two-week break from the office, a ride down a river, or a trip to a new city al
though any of these things could be included in one. Vacations are simply a chance
to change for a while. That is why, regardless of their form, we like them so much.
. ., .

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Vocabulary
unless

ecnl1 He

06paTI1Te oc060e DHI1MaHl1e Ha OTpl1uaHI1e

He. B

npouecce nepeBolla Ha PycCKI1A mblK 0 HeM

HepeJlKO 3a6blBalOT.

invariably Hel13MeHHO
to fall into a category
nonaCTb B KaTerOp"1O
to plan in advance
nnaHl1pOBaTb 3apaHee
to wander nepe.llBH raTbCSI C MeCTa Ha MeCTO 6eJ
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KaKOH-J1w60 onpe.neJ1eHHOA ueJll1

11J11. 1

nyHK

Ta Ha3HalJeH H$I

routine 3aBelleHHbiA nopnlloK;


regardless of He3aBI1CI1MO OT
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onpelleneHHblfi pelKl1M; YCTaHOBI1BWanCn npaKTI1Ka

Usage Notes
to catch up (on/with something) means 'to do the things that you should have
done before, so that your work is up to date'
E.g. : Why don't you stay at home tonight and catch up on some of
your homework?
Compare:

Don't get too far behind with your homework or you 'll never be able
to catch up.

Exercises
. 1 . B TeKCTe YPoKa CJlOBO one I1CnOJlb30BaHO L\Ba pa3a. nepBblti pa3 B POJlI1 CJlO
Ba-3aMeCTI1TeJJ5I, KOrL\a OHO 3aMeH5IeT cYlllecTBI1TeJlbHoe vacation, L\lI5I TOro '1T06bI
L\aHHOe cyweCTBI1TeJlbHOe He nOBTOp5ITb L\BalKll bI B OL\HOM 11 TOM lKe npeL\llOlKeHI1I1:
I know that this cannot be the true definition of a vacation because I take a
vacation every year, and I would never paint my house during one.
H BTOPOti pa3 one

B TOti lKe <PYHKIlI1I1:

. . . although any of these things could be included in one.


Insert one or ones in the following sentences:

I . I want a dictionary, not an expensive


A small
will do.
2. Do you know Mark's new address? I 've only got the old
3. This is a compromise, not a very satisfactory
4. A strong mind sees things in their true proportions; a weak
views them through a magnifying medium, which, like the microscope, makes
an elephant of a flea, magnifies all little objects, but cannot receive the great
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5 . There were only hard chocolates left; we've eaten all the soft

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6. H e keeps his postage-stamps in a fireproof safe. H e has some very rare


7. It's been a long and hard winter, the worst

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I can remember.

2. B TeKCTe ypOKa BbI CTOJIKHYJIHCb C npHJIaraTeJIbHbIM indeterminate, HMelOlUHM OT


pHUaTeJIbHYIO npHCTaBKy in-. LijJyme oTpHl.l,aTeJIbHbIe npHCTaBKH: im-, ilc, ir-, un-, non-.
Translate the following:

ability - inability

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accuracy - inaccuracy

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action - inaction
active - inactive

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adequate - inadequate
advisable - inadvisable

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appropriate - inappropriate
artistic - inartistic

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attentive - inattentive

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calculable - incalculable
capable - incapable

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competent - incompetent

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3. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English.
See Model on p. 13.

4. Questions for a short composition:

I . What vacations are not vacations in your opinion?

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2. What is your own definition of a vacation?

3. Do you agree with the writer's definition of a vacation? Why? Why not?

When giving your own interpretation ofthe term vacation some expressions might
be useful:
To me the term is ...
What I mean by the term is that it means ...
In this context the term signifies ..
In this situation the term refers to ..
For this purpose the term is considered to be ...
.

Unit 20
T H E CHARACTERISTICS OF B U S I N ESS

Two words are essential to understand the


meaning of business to Americans: "private"
and "profit ". Business institutions are directly
or indirectly owned by private persons. Pri
vate ownership distinguishes them from gov
ernment-owned and operated institutions.
The statement by President Coolidge
seven decades ago, "The business of America
is business , " still points to an important
truth today - that business institutions have
more prestige in American society than any
other kind of organization, including the
government. Americans believe, for example, that businesses are more efficient
and well-run than the federal government. Why do business institutions possess
this great prestige?
One reason is that Americans view business as being more firmly based on
the ideas of competition than other institutions in society. Competition is not
only good in itself, it is the means by which other basic American values
such as individual freedom, equality of opportunity, and hard work are pro
tected.
Competition protects the freedom of the individual by ensuring that there
is no monopoly of power. In contrast to one all-powerful government, many
businesses compete against each other for profits. Theoretically, if one busi
ness tries to take unfair advantage of its customers, it will lose to a compet
ing business which treats its customers more fairly. Where many businesses
compete for the customers' dollar, they cannot afford to treat them like
inferiors.
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Vocabulary
to own
BlIalleTh (UMyuecm80M, q,UPAfOU U m.a.)
to distinguish smth from smth OTlIH"aTh "TO-ll. OT "ero-ll.
a decade n..eCHTHJlCTHe (3TO C}lOBO - TaK Ha3bIBaCMblH JIO)l(HbIA ,npyr nepeBO.ll1..J: HKal>. K
)KaJlCH 11 10 MHOfl1C Ylf3lUl1eCfI nepCBoanT ero K3K oelCaaa .)
to possess
l1MCTb, 06Jlan.3Tb
a competition
KOHKYPeH UJHT
basic American values
OCHOBHblC (6a30Bble) 3MCPl1K3HCKl1e UCHHOCTH
equality of opportunity paBeHeTBO B03MOlKHoereif
to ensure o6eCnC1..f H OaTb, rapaHTI1pOS3Tb
fair 4CCTHbIH, cnpaac.llJl l1BblH
to afford to do smth
n03BOllHrh ee5e ellellarh "TO-ll.
inferiors 3a. mo.nl1 SToporo COpT3 (moiJu, 3QHUMGJOLUe HU3Koe nOAOJICeHue)
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co-

Usage Notes
npl1JTaraTeJTbHOe own I1MeeT 3Ha'leHl1e 'belonging to you' I1JTI1 'only to be used
by you'. 3TO npl1JTaraTeJIbHOe I1CnOJIb3yeTcil JTI160 nepell KaKl1M-JII160 cynrecTBI1TeJIbHbIM, JII160 B CJIOBOCO'leTaHI1I1 of your/my/his, etc. own. E.g.:
I wish I had my own car.

I wish I had a car of my own .

.upYfl1e npl1MepbI:
I didn't have a room of my own but had to share one.
Timothy has decided that he wants a bicycle of his own.
I now have enough money to buy my own car.

Exercises
l.

Do you agree or disagree with each of the statements below? Write the number (from +2 to -2)
that indicates how you feel:

+ 2
+ I

I
-2
-

Strongly agree
Agree
No opinion or don't know
Disagree
Strongly disagree

I . Business people who start a successful business from scratch are heroes (from

scratch - c HYJTiI; Ha rOJTOM, nycToM MecTe).

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2. I admire a person who is a boss more than a man who must answer to others.
3. I would like to own my own business.
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4. A medical doctor has more prestige than a businessperson.


5 . Women and men make equally good bosses.

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6. I would rather have a man for a boss than a woman.


7. The place where I live is more important to me personally than where I work.
8. I would take a job I liked for less pay over a job I didn't like for more pay.
9. I would work on an assembly line in a factory if the pay were good.

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1 0. All things considered, socialism is better for a country and its people than
capitalism.
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2. Fill in the blanks with some or any.

I . We wanted to make _____ sandwiches but we found we hadn't got


_____ bread.
meat on the table and the dog ate it while I was out.
2. I left
3. He got out his pen to sign the cheque but there wasn't
ink in it.
dry wood to get the fire started.
4. Please fetch me
5 . The expansion plans sounded wonderful, but unfortunately the company didn't
money to pay for them.
have
6. Don't leave
food in the fridge when you go away on holiday.
music I had never heard before.
7. At the concert last night they played
second-hand machinery
8. To try to save money, the firm bought
at a sale.
pay.
work so you can't expect
9. You haven't done
10.
French wine is quite sweet.
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3. B TeKCTe ypOKa Bbl HaUIJlI1 CJIO)l(]ioe CJIOBO al/-poweiful BceMoryu!l1i-h>. 00JIe3HO 06paTHTb BHHMaHHe Ha Il.pYfHe CJIOJKHble CJIOBa, nepBblM KOMnOHeHTOM KO
TOPbIX HBJIHeTCH MeCTOHMeHHe al/.
Translate.

all-(a)round (the world) All Fools' Day (April the 1st)

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all fours (we found him on his all fours)


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all-important (crucial, vital)

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all-inclusive (including everything)


all-over (the surface)
all right

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4. Sum up the contents of the text in several Russian sentences and try to translate them into English .
See Model on p. 13.

5. Questions for a short essay:

I . Do you think people are motivated to work harder when they will increase

personal profit, or when they are worldng together toward a common goal
under a socialist system?

2. Is the economy of your country basically capitalist or socialist? What are the
advantages and disadvantages of both?

4 3.K. 797

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3. What kind of respect do busineses and business people have in your country?
Why is this so?

4. If you were looking for a job with a business in your country, how would you
go about it? How important are family reputation and connections?

5 . What is the best way to get rich in your country?

6. What qualities should a good business person have, in your opinion?

7. What personal qualities would you like your boss to have?

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8. How would you feel about having a woman as your boss?

6. Some further suggestions for writing.


I . Americans believe in "upward mobility, " that is, in moving up the ladder of
success within a business or changing jobs in order to move up. What Ameri
can values do you see in this philosophy: self-reliance, optimism, a belief in
progress, competition? Discuss the concept of upward mobility and compare
it with the system in this country.

2. How do you believe upward mobility affects the way employers treat their
employees? Do you think there would be a difference in the attitudes employ
ers have about employees if they knew that these employees wOUld work for
them all their lives? Compare and contrast these two systems: a system where
employees are guaranteed lifetime employment versus one in which employ
ees change jobs in order to advance to a higher position.

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7. What is your opinion?

Most businesses in America require those applying for a job to submit a resume,
that is; a summary of their work experience, education and qualifications. Jerrold G.
Simon, psychologist and career development specialist at Harvard Business School,
who has counseled over a thousand people in their search for jobs, has written an
article to tell you how to go after the job you really want. The article, " How to Write
a Resume" , was printed as an advertisement in a news magazine. Throughout the
article is the implied message, ' You must sell yourself'. That is, you must assert yourself
and convince a prospective employer that you are the best person for the job.
'Who am I? What do I want to do?' Writing your resume forces you to think
about yourself.
The most qualified people don't always get the job. It goes to the person who
presents himself most persuasively in person and on paper. So just don't list where
you were and what you did. This is your chance to tell how well you did. Give num
bers, statistics, percentages, increases in profits.
Would following this advice get you a good job in your country? What American
values do you see at work here? If you were trying to 'sell yourself in a resume, what
points would you make?
I.
2.
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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1 0.

Part II
SUMMING UP

Text 1
MODERN LIFE

Is life really better than it was 1 00 years ago? It is certainly true that people live
longer than they used to, travel faster than they could, and own more things than
they did. We have made great progress in industry, science and medicine. But we
still have to put up with noise, overcrowding and bad air. They are still a basic part
of modern life.
But industry and modern life do not have to be enemies of beauty. Progress
needn't be ugly. We can have beauty and open countryside just as much as
people did 1 00 years ago. Perhaps, in some ways, we need them even more.
H owever, things like open land, clean water, and good air are getting scarcer
and scarcer.
Bbl , KOHe'IHO, 3HaeTe, 'ITO CJlOBO npozpecc lIBJ1l1eTCli B PYCCKOM 1I3blKe 3a
I1MCTBOBaHHblM (113 JlaTI1HCKoro SJ3blKa - pri5gressus). H aLlO nOMHI1Tb, 'ITO 3TO
CJlOBO MO)l(eT nepeBOlIl1TbCSJ TaK)l(e C nOMOU(blO 1I3blKOBbiX cpelICTB He3aI1MCT
BOBaHHoro xapaKTepa. Hanpl1Mep: ycnex, np006U:JICeHUe 6nepeo, yoa'fa, xopoUJue
pe3Yllbmambi. nOJle3HO 3HaTb, 'ITO YMeHl1e nOJlb30BaTbCli POlIHblM 1I3blKOM 3TO Heo6xOlII1MOe (B03MO)l(HO, rJlaBHoe) YCJlOBl1e OBJlaLleHl1l1 I1HOCTpaHHblM
1I3bIKOM.
Translate paying special attention to phrases with the word progress.

I . He is making good progress in his studies.

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2. Is there any way to facilitate your progress in English? 3. Our progress in business is not as rapid as we would like it to be.

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4. Some aspects of the technological progress were discussed at the conference. -

5. They have made progress in solving the problems of air pollution.


6. Negotiations are in progress.

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Write several English sentences which sum up the contents of the text. The lirst three are done for
you as a model. Use the hints in Russian.
Model:

I . People live longer. theytravel faster and own

0 npeHMYll.leCTBax cOBpeMeHHoil lKI13HH.

more things.
2. People have to put up with noise. bad air

0 HeilOCTaTKax cOBpeMeHHoH lKH3HH.

and overcrowding.
3. People should learn how to preserve nature.

3aJlaqH COBpeMeHHoA )KOJlOrHH.

4.

1.JHCTbln B03.llYX M 'tHeTaS)' Bona H}')KHhI


HaM ceAl13C, KaK H paHbwe.

A question for a short composition:

What enemies of beauty, besides those mentioned in the passage, do you know
and would like to discuss?

Text 2
HYG IENE

Hygiene has always been a touchy subject in hospitals. Rules of cleanliness must
be kept here more than in any other public place. Not so long ago, an attack was
made against long-haired surgeons by a doctor writing in the ' British Medical Jour
nal ' . He accused them of wearing caps "which perch inadequately on hairy heads. "
The trouble is that hair, even when washed regularly, contains particles of Staphy
lococcus and these carry bacteria.
And what about these other places, such as restaurants, where rules of hygiene can
affect the public? Chefs wear taU hats, though no one would suggest waiters should do so.
It is a pity that hair, the crowning glory of so many beautiful women and the
envy of the bald man, should also be the happy home of Staphylococcus .
Ha nepBbIH B3fJJHJl, CJIOBO attack Kll)I(eTCl! npOCTbIM lUll! nepeBOila. Ha ca
MOM lIeJIe, :no He TaK. BbI B 3TOM y6emlTeCb, eCJII1 nonp06yeTe nepeBeCTI1 CJIe
IlYJOll{l1e npelUlO)l(eHI1l!:
Translate into Russian, paying special attention to the word attack.

I . An attack was made at dawn. -

2. Who is leading the attack? -

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3. A full-scale attack started at midnight.

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4. The attack was unprovoked. 5 . The enemy's attack failed/succeeded.

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6. He made a violent attack on his opponent.


7. It was a fatal heart attack. -

II

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I1HcPoPMalll1l! lUIl! Tex, KTO I1HTepecyeTCl! npOI1CXO)l(IleHl1eM CJIOB: B aHrJII1H


CKI1 H l!3b1K CJJOBO attack npl1wJIo 113 cPpaHllY3CKoro l!3blKa B XVI B.
1 05

Write three sentences which sum up the contents of the text. The lirst sentence is done for you.
I . Rules of hygiene must be kept in hospitals
more than in any other public place.
2.

3.

Heo6xollHMOCTH co6mollcHHSI npaOHJl


f1HHeHbI B 6011bHHuax.

Heo6xOllHMOCTH co6nlOlleHHn npaBHn


nfH1CHbi B pCCTopaHax H Ka<l>e.

BOllOChl lIC}lOOCKa 5IBlHIJOTCfI MCCTOM 0611TaHWSJ CTa(HnOKOKKonblx 6aKTepHA.

A question for a short composition:


What rules of personal hygiene do you consider most important?
.

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Text 3
A POLITE REQU EST

If you park your car in the wrong place, a traffic policeman will soon find it.
You will be very lucky if he lets you go without a ticket. However, this does not
always happen. Traffic police are sometimes very polite. During a holiday in Swe
den, I found this note on my car: " Sir, we welcome you to our city. This is a 'No
Parking' area. You will enjoy your stay here if you pay attention to our street signs.
This note is only a reminder." If you receive a request like this, you cannot fail to
obey it!
CnpaBe1I.Jll1BO C'lI1TaeTCIl, 'ITO 3HaHI1e YCTOH'IHBLIX CJlOBOCO'leTaHHH (KoHe'l
HO, nOMI1MO 3HaHI1l1 rpaMMaTI1'1eCKOrO CTPOli 1I3bYKa) IIBJ1l1eTCIl KpaeYTOJIbHblM
KaMHeM npouecca OBJIaD,eHI1I1 I1HocTPaHHblM 1I3bIKOM. B npl1Be.ll.eHHOM Bblwe KO
POTKOM TeKcTe aBTop Bbl.ll.eJTI1JI rJIaroJI to fail (cooTBeTcTBYJOwee cYUJecTBI1TeJIb
Hoe - failure): You cannot fail to obey it! - 1I.JI1I TOro, '1T06bl BbY 3anOMHI1JII1 11 no
B03MOlKHOCTI1 'lame I1CnOJIb30BaJII1 YCTOH'II1Bble CJIOBOCO'leTaHI1I1, BKJIIO'IalOml1e
.lI.aHHblH rJIarOJI 11 CYUJeCTBI1TeJIbHoe.
Translate.

I . He failed in business.

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2. He failed to see the seriousness of the problem.


3. They experienced a failure.

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4. The whole project was a hopeless failure. -

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107

5. The student failed at an examination. -

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6. The patient's failure to respond to treatment was discouraging. -

A question for a short composition:


Discuss the proverb: Politeness (civility, courtesy) costs nothing.
TaK )].eUleBO (Ii He ueHIiTCli TaK BbICOKO) , KaK Be)[(J[IiBOCTb.

HWlTO He CTOIiT

Write four English sentences which sum up the contents of the text. Use the hints in Russian.
I.

o wTpa<jJax (fines) B cnY4ae HanpaB'lnb


HoR napKOBKH BaweA MaWHHbl.

2.

o pa3JIH'mOM

nOseltCHHH npH 3TOM no

JIHueAcKHX B pa3HbiX CTpaHax.

3.

o nonHueRcKHX, oTBe4alOWHX 3a npaBH


na YJ1H4HOrO IlBHlKeHHH B WBeUHH.

4.

Be}K)lHBOCTL MO)Ker 6blTb CliJlbHee wTpa


<jJOB.

Text 4
FASTER THAN SOUND

Once a year a race is held for old cars. A lot of cars entered for this race
last year and there was a great deal of excitement just before it began. One of
the most handsome cars was a Rolls- Royce Silver Ghost. The most unusual
car was a Benz which had only three wheels. Built in 1 8 8 5 , it was the oldest
car taking part.
After a great many loud explosions, the race began. Many of the cars broke down
on the course and some drivers spent more time under their cars than in them!
A few cars, however, completed the race. The winning car reached a speed of forty
miles an hour - much faster than any of its rivals. It sped downhill at the end of the
race and its driver had a lot of trouble trying to stop it.
The race gave everyone a great deal of pleasure. It was very different from mod
ern car races but no less exciting.

Pay attention to phrases with the word trouble. Translate tbe sentences into Russian.
I . H e has caused us much trouble. -

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2. What is he doing?! H e is just asking for trouble. 3. She has a lot of trouble with her back. 4. We got into

trouble during our trip.

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5 . She got herself into serious trouble with the police.

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109

6. I took the trouble to check on her story.

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7. I managed to get out of trouble. 8 . We had trouble with neighbours over the noise they were making.
9. Try to keep out of trouble.

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to. Don't trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.

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Write three Russian sentences summing up the contents of the text.


J.

06 04eHb cTapblx MaWI1HaX, KOTopble


TeM He MeHce npJ.1HHM31OT Y'-l3CTHC B
3BTorOHK3X.

2.

o ,CYllb6e. craPblX MaWI1H,

KOTopble

np"

HHM3fOT Yll3CTHe B rOHK3X.

3.

lJYBCTB3X. KOTOPblC B03HHK31OT Y

JHO

,llC H, Ha6nJO,/l3lOLUHX 33 roHK3MH 04CHb


CTapblX M3WHH.

A question for a short composition:


Why do most people feel a kind of tenderness to old cars?

Text 5
THE WORLD OF P ERCEPTION

The world of perception presents a surprisingly rich experience of stimulation. It


has been estimated that vision alone confronts the human eye with 7,500,000 dis
tinguishable colors. I f to colors are added other dimensions of vision such as per
ception of form, lightness and space, the perceptual world emerges as a potential
collection of a lot of stimulations.
Although vision may be the richest of the senses, hearing itself has been esti
mated to provide approximately 340,000 discriminable tones. Smell, touch, pain,
taste, and other remaining senses contribute to a richness of perception that lies
beyond the province of understanding as well as imagination.
It can be shown that the ability to discriminate colors improves with possession
of the vocabulary for labeling the color perceived. In the absence of iabels, discrimi
nation is poorer. To an extent not usually recognized, perception resides in the per
ceiver and not in the external world.

Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to phrases with 10 pro.ide.
I . What are you going to do

to

provide for your family?

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2. Blankets were provided for the refugees. 3 . They were provided with proper equipment.
4. Students must provide their own textbooks.
5 . She had three children to provide for.

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III

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TeM 113 Bac, KTO I1HTepecyeTclI npOI1CXOlKl\eHl1eM CJlOB, 6Y)leT nOJle3HO 3HaTb,
"ITO rJlaroJl to provide 3al1MCTBOBaH B aHfJll1HCKHH 1I3bIK 113 JlaTbIHI1.

Questions for a short composition:


I . Develop the author's idea stated in the last sentence of the passage that per
ception resides rather in the perceiver than in the external world.

2. Discuss the proverb 'Beauty

is in the eye of the gazer'.

Write three sentences summing up the contents of the text.


I.

o 60rarcTBc oUlYUleHHA,

2.

H eKoropble

nepeJ\aBaeMblx
HaUlHMW opraHaMH YBCTB.

ocrpory

3.

UH q,Pbl. nOKa3blBalOUlHe
HaUl "X opraHOB YBcrB.

CBSl3b ocrpOTbl Toro H)B1 HHoro opraHa


lJ YBCTB c pa3MepOM cnOBapn. KOTO
pblM BnaJIeer enOBeK.

Text 6
T H E W O R L D ' S LANGUAGE - U N EXPECTED TRAPS

English is full of unexpected traps for the foreigner. Any language where the
unassuming word 'fly' signifies an insect, a means of travel, and a critical part of a
gentleman's clothing is clearly asking to be spoiled by making bad mistakes.
Imagine being a foreigner and having to learn that in English one tells a lie but
the truth, that an American who says ' I could care less' means the same thing as
someone who says ' [ couldn't care less', that a sign in a shop saying 'All items not
on sale' doesn't mean literally what it says (that every item is not on sale) but rather
that only some of them are on sale, that when a person says to you, "How do you
do?" he will be taken aback if you reply, with perfect logic, " How do 1 do what?"
The complexities of the English language are such that even native speakers
cannot always communicate effectively, as almost every Briton learns on his first
day in America. Indeed, Robert Burchfield, editor of the "Oxford English Diction
ary", created a stir in linguistic circles on both sides of the Atlantic when he an
nounced his belief that American English and British English are "drifting apart
so mercilessly that one day the two nations may not be able to understand each
other at all."
06panITe BHHMaHHe Ha CYllleCTBHTeJlbHOe a means. KaK 3TO HH CTpaHHO,
HO B e.!lHHCTBeHHOM 'lHCJle OHO HMeeT 4>OPMY MHO)l(eCTBeHHoro 'lHCJla C OKOH'la
HHeM -s: one means -five means. B TeKCTe Mbl HaXO.!lHM: a means of travel.
Translate into Russian.

I . The means was fair (foul). -

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2. It was an effective means.

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113

3. The end does not justify the means. 4. Do they have the means to buy such a large house? 5. She lives beyond her means. -

Write three English sentences which sum up the contents of the text.
l.

HeKOTopble TpY.llHOCTH aHfJ1HI1CKOrO RJbl


Ka, C KOTOPbIMI1 CTaJlKHOaerCH I1HO
CTpaHeu.

2.

KOHKpeTHble npHMepbl OWH6oK.

3.

Pa3nHYH MelKLlY 6PHTaHCKHM H aMepH


K3HCKHM OapHaHTaMH 3HfJlH AcKOrO
R3b1Ka.

A question for a short composition:


The title of the passage has the word trap in it. Use the idiom to walk into a trap
(nonacTb B 1l0BYlllKY) to describe some of the difficulties you might have had in
your everyday activities.

Text 7
ENG LISH PUBS

Pubs are supposed to be the Englishman's favourite meeting place, where he can
get together with a few friends over a pint of beer and talk about football, or horse
racing, or business or whatever else occupies his thoughts.
You notice that the pub is the Englishman's meeting place, not the English
woman's. Even in our liberated times it is still not quite respectable for a woman to
go into a pub alone: she must have a man to escort and protect her. Pubs are in
tended mainly to provide for male interests, which are often pretty narrow.
However, most Englishmen have their local where they can escape from the pres
sures of family life or work, and if they are lucky, tell their troubles to a pretty barmaid.
Indeed, many men dream of retiring from their 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. jobs and buying a little
country pub, where they imagine they will be the host of a seven nights a week party.
This dream usually dies with cleaning up spilled beer at one o'clock in the morning.
Still, there is a pub for every type of man, from the city sophisticate to the rural
primitive, and a man for every type of pub.
naBaHTe 06paTI1M BHI1MaHl1e Ha CYllleCTBI1TeJlbHOe dream 11 COOTBeTCTBYIO
lUl1H maroJi to dream. 3TI1 CJlOBa He npl1Ha.Ll.lIelKaT K 'fI1CJlY TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIX TPY.u
HbIX CJlOB, YCBoeHl1e KOTOPbIX Tpe6yeT YCI1J1I1H. O.uHaKo 11 B 3TOM cJly'fae 3HaHI1e
YCTOH'fI1BbIX CJlOBOCO'feTaHI1H BeCbMa nOJle3Ho.
Translate into Russian.

I. Do you remember Martin Luther King's famous words: "( have a dream that one
day this nation will rise up, live out the true meaning of its creed: we hold these

truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal." (Washington, 27 Aug. 1 963)

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2. H e can interpret dreams.


3 . It was a bad dream.

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4. Her dreams have been achieved.

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5. It was his dream to become a teacher.


6. It was only a dre am that he might be elected.
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7. It was beyond her wildest dreams.

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Write four English sentences which sum up the contents of the text.
I.

nHBHaH (UAU 6ap) - H3J1106J1eHHOe Me


eTa OT,ablxa aHrnWlaH.

2.

nHBHble (6apbl ) nocewalOTCH, B OCHOB


HOM, M}?KHHaMH ( He lKeHWHHaMH ) .

3.

Eece.lla c .llPY3bflMH B nHBHO nOMoraeT


CHflTb ycnlJlocTb H CTpecc.

4.

Me4Ta MHOfWX aHrnWI3H .

Questions for

short composition:

I . Camus (a French novelist, dramatist, and essayist) said, "Without work all
life goes rotten. But when work is soulless, life stifles and dies." What kind of
work is soulless? When does work stifle and kill?

2. When and how do people in Russia escape from the pressures of family life
and work? Draw an analogy with Englishmen and their pubs.

1 16

Text 8
E N G LAND , I RELAN D , SCOTLAN D , WALES

Off the northwest coast of Europe lie two large islands. The larger one, an irregu
lar triangle about 1 , 200 kilometres in length is called 'Great Britain ' , the other, to
the west, which is roughly rectangular is ' I reland' . Since 1922 most of Ireland has
been an independent republic which took the name Eire' ['aIT;)] in 1 937. Eire has a
separate ( Roman Catholic) history and culture, although the two countries are very
close. The northeast corner of Ireland, sometimes known as 'Northern Ireland',
sometimes as 'Ulster', is a part of 'The United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland '. Officially it is not a country, but a province.
Great Britain is divided into three countries: ' England', 'Scotland' , and 'Wales'.
Citizens of the United Kingdom are known as ' British', and a useful short form for
the United Kingdom is ' Britain', but the people who live in these islands tend to
think of themselves as ' English' or ' Scottish' or 'Welsh' . (In Northern I reland defi
nitions are more complicated - 'British' would be a very politically-loaded self
description.) You can often hear remarks like, ' I 'm half English, half Welsh' , or 'my
parents were both Scots but I 've lived in England almost all my life, so I suppose
I'm English' .
OfipaTJ1MCll K C)'ll.l.eCTBJ1TeJIbHOMY half, ynoTpefiJIeHJ1e KOTOporo TpefiyeT He
KOToporo nOJICHeHJ1l1.
Read the explanation in English.

The use of the preposition of is necessary when a pronoun follows. When a noun
follows, the of may be omitted, e.g. half (oj) the audience; half (oj) the students.
However, compare: she spent half (oj) the money; she spent her half of the money; half
of it (of the room) was occupied by a grand-piano.
Note the constructions: a half hour, half an hour, it is half past four (in telling
time).
1 17

Questions for a short composition:


I . What do you happen to know about the kind of violence caused by the reli
gious conflict between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland?

2. What do you happen to know about a similar dispute over Nagorno-Karabakh?

3. What in your opinion are the roots of religious antagonism?

Write three English sentences which sum up the contents of the text.
I.

OPH11lH"" H CeBepHaJI I1pnaHll"" - "aCTH


06bellHHeHHoro KoponencTBa BenH
K06pIHaHHH H CeBepHo I1pnaHllHH.

2.

BeJI HK06pHTa HIH1 , D C B O K) Q\lepe,nb,


"MeeT B CBoeM COCTase AHrn"IO.
WOTnaHllHIO " Y3JIbC.

3.

AHrRH"aHe (OCTpO) "YBCTBYIOT CBOIO Ha


UI10HaJlbHYfO npHHa.LI.JIeJKHOCTb K AHr
JI"". WOTnaHll"" "n" Y3nbCY.

1 18

Text 9
SCOT LAND

Scotland has a long history of independence. When Romans marched north


wards across the country in 55 A.D. they found it impossible (or impractical) to
subdue the tribes who lived in the north. Eventually they built a wall (some of which
still stands today) right across the country, separating Roman Britain from an area
which roughly corresponds to present-day Scotland.
The kingdom of Scotland has existed for many centuries (Think of" Macbeth", based
on an historical character in eleventh century Scotland!) and despite repeated attempts
by the English at conquest, the two countries were eventually united peacefully.
I n the early sixteenth century an English princess married a Scottish king, and a
century later after the death of Queen Elizabeth of England, the Scottish James
inherited the English throne as well. He was the son of Mary Queen of Scots about
whom Russians, like Germans, are absurdly sentimental.
Mary Queen of Scots was a menace to everyone including herself (this was the
view of her son as well as almost everyone around her), capable of treason, murder
and sheer stupidity.
After James united the thrones in 1 603, the two countries continued to be inde
pendent and sometimes at war with each other until they were united in an Act of
Union in 1 708.
CYlllecTBI1TeJlhHoe

view (this was the view of her son) I1HTepecHo c TO'lKI1


3peHI111 npl1J1araTeJlbHbIX, KOTopble OHO K ce6e npI1TlIfI1BaeT.
Translate:

cheerful view

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optimistic view
grave view

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modern view

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old-fashioned view
outdated view

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pessimistic view
advanced view
contrary view

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conservative view
liberal view

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progressive view

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philosophical view
popular view

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political view
radical view
reactionary view
unpopular view

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A question for a short composition:


What does the author of the passage mean by being 'absurdly sentimental about
Mary Queen of Scots'? Have you read any fiction portraying her as an indisputable
heroine and sufferer?

Write four English sentences summing up the contents of the text.


I.

PUMJlHHe He CMOrJH1 nOKopHTb WOTJl aH


D.HIO.

2.

WOTnaHlUlH HMeeT llpeBHlO1O H 3anyraH


HYIO HCTopHIO.

3.

nocne CMepTH 6e31leTHoA (childless ) KOpO


neObl EnH3aoeTbi I aHrnHAcKHA npe
CTOn nepewen K WOTnaHllUY LllKeAMcy,
CblHY WOTnaH1lCKOA KoponeBbl M3pH.

4.

Mary, Queen of Scots - cnopHaH (disput


able) qlH rypa 0 oueHKe HCTOpH KOO.

Text 1 0
AMERICAN PATTERN O F THI N KI N G

Foreign students are frequently described by American instructors as lacking


'analytical thinking'. [n writing papers, theses and dissertations, the students tend
to be subjective and descriptive. They avoid analysis and, when compelled to do so,
make inappropriate generalizations.
A less frequent complaint - usually made about some European students, is that
they are too theoretical and ignore methods for collecting data. These two observa
tions suggest that the preferred American pattern of thinking - that which is domi
nant in the academic world and, to a great extent, represents the cultural norm lies in-between theoretical speculation and empirical description.
Americans are distrustful of theories which seem remote from some kind of ap
plication. The role of concepts and ideas in American life is to provide direction for
instrumental activity.
Ways of thought are judged and tested by their ability to be put into practice. The
role of the American intellectual over the span of American history has been uncer
tain. He has been consistently pressed to show the utility of his ideas and theories unlike the intellectual in many countries of Europe who earns respect for his work
separate from its practicality.
C)'ll.\eCTBI1TeJlbHOe lack 11 fnafOJl to lack BXO.1lHT B pH.1l YCTOH'-II1BbIX CJlOBOCO

'-IeTaHI1H. BBI1.1lY TOro '-ITO lack/to lack HBJlHIOTCH '-IaCTOTHbIMI1 CJlOBaMI1 KaK B nl1Cb
MeHHoH, TaK 11 B YCTHOH pe'-ll1, nOJle3HO nOTpeHl1pOBaTbcH B I1X nepeBO.1le Ha pyc
CKI1H H3bIK.
Translate into Russian.

[ . He couldn't come for lack of money. -

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2. He was not imprisoned for lack of evidence.

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121

3 . There was no lack of water.


4. He lacks foresight.

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5. This is a subject on which information is lacking.


6. Information is badly lacking.

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Write three English sentences summing up the contents of the text.

I.

2.

3.

MHCHI1C aMCpl1KaHCKHX npenO)l3B3TC


nett: HHOCTpaHHblC YlJ3WHCCH He1l0C
T3TOlI HO 3Han11TJ1lIHbl B eaoeM MbIW
JICHHH.
Ewe O.ll HO MHCHHC 3McpHKaHCKHX npe
no.naS3TcncA: ytjalUWCCJJ In Enponbl
C1U1WKOM Tcopentl.fHbl B eBoeM MbIW
nCHIHt.
THnJ.1liHOe aMcpHK3HcKoe MblwnCHMC 06H33TCJIbHan CBSI3b c npaKTHKoA.

A question for a short composition:

Give some illustrations showing that the value of a theory cannot always be es
timated by its practicality.

Text 1 1
THE OYSTER'S TEAR

"The pearl", an old saying used to go, "is the oyster's tear". This is more poetic
than accurate. The pearl is formed in oysters (or other shellfish) when a foreign
body or a grain of sand is introduced. It is made of exactly the same substance as the
lining of the shell, or mother-of-pearl.
First this grain of sand accidentally lodges itself in a weak place in the lining.
The lining, as a matter of course, grows over it. In most cases, when this happens,
you will merely find a lump in the lining, but when a second accident takes place
the lump is dislodged, and it begins to roll about in the shell. The rolling rounds and
polishes it. When the little ball assumes its final spherical form we have a true pearl .
But this does not happen too often. The crew of one boat opened a week's catch 35,000 pearl oysters. Out of all these, how many pearls? Twenty-one. And of these
twenty-one - only three were good enough to be sold as gems.
At the beginning of the 20th century a man named Nishikawa, produced a truly
spherical cultured pearl, but at great effort and expense, which excluded his using
the process commercially. Nishikawa's work, however, contributed greatly to the
mounting knowledge of pearl production .
.llJUI :3Toro TeKCTa CJ].eJlaeM I1CKJIIO'IeHl1e 11 3aHMeMcll He pa3JII1'1HbIMI1 yc
TOH'II1BbIMI1 CJlOBOCO'leTaHl1l1MI1, a TOJlbKO OJ].HOH KOHCTPYKlll1ei1 used to, KOTopall
I1MeeT 3Ha'leHl1e I1MeTb 06bIKHoBeHl1e, B npOlllJlOM. E.g.:
I used to take the bus. - 51 06bI'IHO e3J].11J1 Ha aBT06yce.
It used to be said that ... - EbIBaJlO rOBOpl1J1l1, 'ITO . . .
He used to say that ... - O H roBapl1BaJI, 'ITO . . . (OH HepeJ].Ko rOBOpl1J1, 'ITO ... )
Make up sentences with the given word combinations + used 10

Model:
going to school
When I was a child I used to go to a school in Rome.
1 23

I . going on holiday

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2. liking sweet cakes

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3 . visiting National Gallery in London


4. riding a bicycle

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5. having a bad cold every winter

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6. going to the movie twice a week

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7. working in a factory
8. being late for work
9. having English lessons every day

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Write four English sentences summing up the contents of the text.


I.

06pa30oaHHe lKeM4YlKH H bl Ha4HHaeTCH


co cnY4aAHoro nonaaaHHH neC4HH
KH

2.

yCTpHUY.

BTOpoA 3Tan

06pa30BaHHH lKeM4YlKH

Hbl - MaJleHbKI1H wapHK nepeKaTbJ


oaeTCH (to roll)

yCTpHue H, TaKHM

06pa30M , oKpyrnHeTcH

3.

H nonHpyeTCH.

ECTeCTBCHHan )KeM4Y)KHHa - 60nbwaR


pe)lKOCTb.

4.

B HaCTOHwee opeMH lKeM4yr MOlKeT npo


H3BO)lHTbCH HCKYCCToeHHblM 06pa30M.

Questions for a short composition:


I . Is there any pragmatic aspect, besides decorating oneself, of wearing gems?

2. What are your favourite gems?

1 24

Text 12
COM M U N I CATION P HASES

When learning a new language, learners appear to pass through at least three
kinds of communication phases: one-way, partial two-way, and full two-way.
In one-way communication, the learner listens to or reads the target language but
does not communicate back. The communication is one-way, toward the leamer,
not from the learner. Listening to speeches and radio programs, watching films and
most television programs and reading books and magazines are examples of one
way communication.
In partial two-way communication, the learner may respond orally to someone,
but the communication is not in the target language. The response may be in the
leamer's first language or may be nonverbal, such as a nod or other physical re
sponse.
In full two-way communication the learner speaks the target language, acting as
both recipient and sender of the message in the target language.
Learners appear to tend toward these types of communication at different times
during the learning process.
B nepBOM npeWIOlKeHl111 TeKCTa I1CnOJIb30BaH fJIarOJI to pass: to pass
through . . . communication phases. 06paTl1Te BHI1MaHHe Ha TO, KaK pe3Ko MeHlIeT
Cll 3Ha'leHHe :'lToro maroJIa B 3aBI1Cl1MOCTI1 OT roro, B KaKoe JIeKCI1'1eCKOe OKpy
lKeHl1e OH nona,n;aeT.
Translate into Russian.

1 . At the table: 'Pass me the sugar' or 'Pass the sugar to me' (3Ha'leHl1e: to hand).
2. He can pass for a Frenchman (3Ha'leHl1e: to be accepted as).

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1 25

3 . A significant look passed between them (3Ha'lemle: to be exchanged).


4. They passed from one subject to another (3Ha'leHl1e: to shift).

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5. The judge passed sentence on the accused (3Ha'leHl1e: to deliver).

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6. They passed over her when promotions were handed out (3Ha'leHl1e: to disre
gard).

Write three English sentences summing up the contents of the text.


I.

2.

O.n:HOCTOPOHHSHI KOMMYHHKaUliJl: l{TeHHC,


CJ1ywaHHe PaJlHO, npOCMOTp <jJHJ1bMOS
H TeJ1eSH3HOHHbIX nporpaMM.

----

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3.

qacTHHaH llBYCTOPOHHHH KOMMYHHKa


UHH: peaKUHH S SHlle, HanpHMep,
KHBK3, OTBCTa Ha PO.ll H OM H3bIKC,
3HaK3 PYKOH 11 T.n. (TaK Ha3bIsaCMaH
Hesep6aJ1bHaH KOMMYHHK.aUHH).
nOJIHaH .llSYCTOPOHHJIH KOMMYHI1K3WHI:
awHllcH rosopHT/nHweT Ha HHO
crpaHHOM H3bIKC, BOCnpl1HHMaCr I1H
<jJ0pMaUHIO H nepellaeT ee.

A question for a short composition:


You are a student of English , aren't you? What communication phase are you
passing through at the moment? What challenges do you meet?

Text 13
LANGUAGE LEARN I N G

Language learning is a two-way street. Learners, and all the mental machinery
they come with, comprise one dimension. The environment, including the teacher,
the classroom, and the surrounding community, is the other. During the last 1 0 years
the focus was mostly on the learner. In the last few years, the pendulum has begun
to swing in the other direction; researchers are paying attention to the environment
surrounding the learner.
A natural language environment exists whenever the focus of the speakers is on
the content of the communication rather than on language itself. An ordinary con
versation between two people is natural, and so are natural verbal exchanges at a
store, a bank, or a party.
The participants in these exchanges care about giving and receiving information
or opinions, and although they use language structures, they do so with virtually no
conscious awareness of the structures used. Likewise, reading for information or
entertainment, or film or television viewing are also natural u.ses of language. All
these activities provide the participants with natural exposure to the language.
(to be continued)

+ B npI1Ben;eHHOM BbIllle TeKCTe I1CnOJIb30BaHO CYll!eCTBI1TeJIbHOe awareness:


with virtually no conscious awareness of ... . npl1JIaraTeJIbHOe aware 11 COOTBeTCT
BYJOlUee CYll!eCTBI1TeJIbHOe awareness npl1HaAJIelKaT K 'lI1CJIY ClIOB, KOTopble He C'lI1TaIOTcli JIerKl1MH AJIIi nepeBon;a Ha PYCCKHH II3bIK. B 3TOM Bbl cMolKeTe y6en;HTbcli
caMH, Koma Ha'lHeTe nepeBon;HTb CJIen;YJOIUHe npeAJIOlKeHI1I1.
Translate into Russian.

1 . He was painfully aware of his recent failure.

1 27

2. They were aware of the difficulties.

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3. He was aware that the deadline had passed.

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4. There is a general awareness that smoking is harmful.


5. I am well aware of the dangers.

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6. He became aware of someone following him.


7. I passed him without being aware of it.

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Write tbree Englisb sentences summing up the contents of the text.

I.

B npeno.naBaHHH J13blKa nocne,nHHe 10 lIeT


ynop llenanClI Ha Y'IIITenlI.

2.

B nocnellHee BpeMlI aKueHT CMeCTHnClI


H a Y'lalllerOClI.

3.

YlJeHble Cl.JHTaJOT, lITO YlJalllHHCfI HY>Klla


eTcn B ecreCTBeHHOM norpY)KeHHH
B H3Y'1aeMbIll l!3bIK.

Text 14
LAN GUAGE LEAR N I N G
(Continued)

Students who report a year's study abroad usually perform best; those who report
a summer or a tour abroad perform next best; and both of these groups outperform
those who have never studied in a host country but only in a formal foreign lan
guage learning environment (such as learning French in the United States).
The host language environment (such as French in France or English in the
United States) is one which permits learners to talk about issues relating to their
lives in the new environment. It provides maximum opportunities for natural lan
guage exposure.
With careful planning, natural language exposure can also be made available within
a foreign language environment. When it is, language learning results improve no
ticeably. For example, students learning English in Egypt and Lebanon improved
differently over time: students who had experienced learning academic subjects in
English (such as biology, chemistry or physics) improved steadily over time, while
those who studied English only in a formal language classroom situation did not
improve as steadily.

U sing a content subject, such as biology, to expose students to a new language is


a way of providing natural exposure to the language. The focus ofthe participants is
on the content - biology - and this is the necessary ingredient for a natural lan
guage environment.

B 3TOM TeKCTe HCnOJIb30BaHO cymecTBHTeJIbHOe opportunity: . . . maximum op


portunities for . . . . TpYllHOCTb B HCnOJIb30BaHHH 3TOro CJIOBa COCTOHT B TOM, 'ITO
H3yqalOlllHe H3blK He Bcema '1eTKO pa3rpaHH'IHBalOT 3Ha'leHHH CJIOB

opportunity H

possibility.
Opportunity

3TO llJaHC, 6JIaronpHHTHoe, nOllXOllHlllee, BblrOllHoe CTe'leHHe

(KoM6HHal\HH) 06CTOHTeJIbCTB .
5 3.K. 797

1 29

Possibility - 3TO B03MOlKHOCTb CJleJlaTb, ocyureCTBMTb 'lTO-JlM60. MelKJlY TeM


06a CJlOBa MOryr nepeBOJlMTbCH Ha PYCCKHH H3blK OJlHMM M TeM )l(e cywecTBM
TeJlbHblM 603MO:JICHOcmb.
Translate into Russian paying attention to phrases with opportunity.

1 . He was smart enough to seize the opportunity. 2. He has found new opportunities there. 3 . He has lost a wonderful opportunity.
4. It was a lost opportunity. -

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5. No opportunity should be missed. -

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6. It is the government policy to give all citizens an equal opportunity (chance). 7. We had an opportunity to visit our parents. 8 . I had no opportunity to thank him.

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9. Ring me up if you get the opportunity. 10. He let slip a golden opportunity. -

Write four English sentences summing up the contents of the text.


l.

PaHee OCHOBHoe BHHMaHHe B o6yLJeHI1l1


H3bIKaM YlleJIlIJIOCb y"aweMYCH.

2.

3.

113y"eHHe H3bIKa B eCTeCTBeHHbIX yCJIO


BI1SlX.

4.

POJIb npe6bIBaHIIH B CTpaHe H3y"ae


Moro R3b1Ka.

1 30

HaCTOSIll(ee SpeMJI BHI1MaHHe npeno


,aasaTeJleti cocpe,aOTOl(eHO Ha Jl3b1KO
BoA cpelle, B KOTOpyIO BXOllHT PHll
<j!aKTopOB. HanpHMep . . .

Questions for a short composition:


I . What wo.uld you consider to' be the primary characteristics o.f "natural expo
sure" ?
.

J.

2. Why wo.uld students studying academic content (in chemistry, physics, biol
o.gy, etc.) improve more steadily in English skills than students studying En
glish as a foreign language only?

3. Discuss the proverb: "The to.ngue alo.ne is eno.ugh to' kill a man".

Text 15
' EI N I MAGE P ROBLEM' A N D ' DAS CAS H - FLOW '

Nowadays the world continues expropriating words and phrases from the English
language. Already Germans talk about 'ein Image Problem' and 'das Cash-Flow' .
Italians program their computers with 'il software', French motorists going away for
a 'weekend break' pause for 'Ies refuelling stops' , Spaniards have a 'flirt', and the
Japanese go on a 'pikunikku'.
For better or worse, English has become the most global of languages, the lan
guage of business, science, education, politics, and pop music. For the airlines of
157 nations (out of 1 68 in the world), it is the agreed international language of
discourse. In India, there are more than 3,000 newspapers in English.
The six member nations of the European Free Trade Association conduct all
their business in English, even though not one of them is an English-speaking country.
When companies from four European countries - France, Italy, Germany and
Switzerland formed a joint truck-making venture called Ivecco in 1 977, they chose
English as their working language because, as one of the founders sardonically ob
served, ' It puts us all at an equal disadvantage. '
06paTilTe BHI1MaHl1e H a CO'leTaeMOCTb cymecTBI1TellbHoro advantage. 06 0T
pl1l..(aTellbHoti npl1CTaBKe dis- (disadvantage) MbI roBOPI11111 BbIIlIe, CM. c. 92.
Translate into Russian.

I . Our team had the advantage of experience.

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2. Her connections gave her an advantage over the others. 3. It was to a mutual advantage.

1 32

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4. His wealth was an obvious advantage to us. 5 . This method has the advantage that...

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6. She managed to turn the whole situation to her advantage. 7. Let's take advantage of favourable conditions! -

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8. The picture can be seen to better advantage from here. -

Write three English sentences summing up the contents of the text.

I.

AHrnHllcKHi! - nJblK M eJK.llYHapOIlHoro


o6weHHH.

2.

npHMepbI npOHHKHOBeHHH OTllenbHblX


aHrnHilcKHX cnOB B IlPyrHe H3blKH
EBponbl H A3HH.

3.

npHMepbl o6nacTei! lIGI3HH (nonHTI1Ka.


fiH3Hec, ofipa30BaHHe H .np.). B KOTO
pbJe npOlJHO Bowen aHrmu1.cKHA S13bIK.

YBalKaeMblli a6HTYPHeHT! "pHBeIlHTe BawH e06CTBeHHble npHMepbl npoHHKHoBeHHB allmHlicKoro


B

PycCKHli BlblK.

I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A question for a short composition:
How does the situation described in the passage compare with that in the Rus
sian language? Give examples.

133

Text 16
W HAT TO DO?

A major problem at the office is that workers who do not smoke must share
offices with people who do.
Of course, it is not possible to assume that my coworker will quit her job just
because I don't like the fact she smokes. I am not prepared to quit my job either.
I am certainly not going to take up smoking, since I am an asthmatic.
So, let's look now at the more workable solutions. I could ask my coworker not
to smoke. This does not seem to be the best solution. It would probably make her
angry. Even if she agreed to try, there is no guarantee that she would be successful.
We work in a high-pressure job, and she says that she smokes to help relieve tension.
I considered moving my desk to a different corner in the room so that I was no
longer facing my coworker's desk. This doesn't seem like a very good solution be
cause I will still be able to inhale the smoke no matter where I am in the room. This
would also probably make my coworker angry because 1 would constantly be re
minding her that I don't like her smoking. So, what to do? What would be a pos
sible solution?
Do you think the following could solve the problem: I feel that the best one is to
ask if I can move to another room to work. If my coworker is forced to quit smok
ing, her ability to work will be hurt. If I have to continue to smell smoke, my ability
to work will be lessened. We can agree to meet at a "neutral location" for short
periods of time when we need to work together. My coworker will not smoke during
those times. In this way we can both do our jobs and be happy in our working en
vironment.
+ B 3TOM ypOKe MbI 06paTHMcll He K YCTOM'lHBbIM CJIOBOCO'leTaHl1l1M, a K rpaM
MaTH'leCKoMY HBJIeHHIO, a HMeHHo K KocBeHHoM pe'lH: she says that she smokes to
help relieve tension. ,UaBaMTe CLleJIaeM CJIeL\YlOlllee ynp1UKHeHHe, B KOTOPOM KOC
BeHHaH pe'lb, KaK H B TeKCTe 'What to Do', BBOLlI1TCli marOJIOM to say B HaCTOll-

1 34

meM (Simple Present) BpeMeHI1. CJle)lOBaTeJlbHO, B npl1)laTO'lHOM npeJl)JO)l(eHI1I1


HeT He06xo)lI1MOCTI1 B KaKOM-JlI160 C)lBl1re BpeMeH:
Alan is coming to spend a few days with the Smiths. He phones from the station. Betty Smith answers.
She reports Alan's remarks to her husband while the conversation is still going on.

Model:
Alan: I ' m phoning from the station.
Betty: He says he's phoning from the station.

I . I 've just arrived.

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2. We were delayed two hours by a blocked line.


3. The station is packed with football fans from my home town.
4. I can hardly hear you; they are making such a noise.
5 . I 'll try to get a taxi.

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6. But this may take some time as all the football fans seem to want taxis too.
(Use it for this.)
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7. I may have to leave my luggage in the station and get a bus.


8. I hope to be with you in about an hour. (Use us.)
9. I have a French girl with me called Marie.

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10. Her brother asked me to look after her.

Write three English sentences summing up the contents of the text.

I.

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2.

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npofineMa: KypmlUIM H HeKypHlIIHM co


rpY.IlHHKaM npHXO.lU1TCH HaXO,llI1TbCSI
BO BpeMH pafioTbl B OIlHOn H TOn lKe
KOMHaTe.

CymeCTBycr HeCKonbKO cnoco60B pellle


HHH :non np06neMbI, HO Bce OHH OKa3bIBalOTCH HeIlOCTaTO'lHbIMH. nO'leMY?

1 35

3.

HMeeTCJJ OIHIH pallH KMbHbIA cnoco5 pe


weHHJJ np05neMbl, npH KOTOPOM HH
YbH H HTepeCbl He YlUeMnJlIOTCJI. Ka
KOS 3TOT crroco6?

Questions for a short composition:


I . Do you share your office with people who smoke?

2. How does smoking relate to the frequency of lung cancer?

Text 1 7
ANOTHER P ROBLEM TO SOLVE

My neighbor lives in an older, energy-inefficient home. He is retired and has a


limited income. This year the gas company increased its rates for heating by 9 per
cent. It has been a very cold winter this year. Yesterday Mr. Larson told me that he
can't afford to pay his last bill. He is very worried that the gas company is just going
to shut off his gas with no warning. He doesn't know what to do.
I do not recommend that my neighbor just ignore the bill and wait to see what
happens. The gas company is a business. If the customer doesn't pay, the business
will stop providing the gas. There will be no communication between the company
and the customer.
It is also not a very wise idea to take out a loan to pay for the heating bills. My
neighbor has a limited income because he is retired. He probably couldn't get a
loan even if he tried. If by chance he got the loan, my neighbor would have to pay
back the loan with interest. This means that he would be responsible for paying out
even more money than now, which he doesn't have.
Using the fireplace and electric heaters is a better idea than the first two. For
some people, it might even be the best solution. For my neighbor, however, it just
isn't practical. He is an older man and isn't able to cut, stack, and carry large amounts
of wood to keep the fireplace working. Also, his house is not well built. For this
reason the fireplace and heaters might keep some areas warm, but the house would
still be chilly and drafty, which is not healthy for an older person.
This leaves, then, the solution where my neighbor contacts the gas company,
explains the situation, and tries to work out a payment plan that is agreeable to him
and to the company.
B nOCJlenHeM npeD.JiOlKeHIHI :3Toro TeKcTa BbI CTOJlKHYJlMCb C cPpa30BbIM rJla
rOJlOM to work out: ... my neighbor ... tries to work out a payment plan . . . ,LlaHHbli1
cPpa30Bbli1 fJlaroJi (BnpO'leM, KaK M 60JlblllMHCTBO npymx cPpa30Bblx fJlarOJlOB)

137

JJ:OBOJIbHO CJIOlKeH Mll nOHHMaHl1l1 l1, CJleJJ:OBaTeJlbHO, nepeBOJJ:a Ha PYCCKJ1i1 113bIK.


)l,aBai1Te pa36epeMClI B 3Ha'leHI-II1 maroJla to work out.
B TeKCTe, KOTOPbli1 BbI TOJIbKO 'ITO npO'lJlI1, 3TOT <i>pa30Bbli1 maroJl I1CnOJlb30BaH B 3Ha'leHI1I1 BbInOJIHI1Tb HaMelKall.\l1e JJ:ei1cTBl1l1 C TeM, '1T06bI npI1i1TI1 K npa
Bl1JIbHOMY peIlleHI1IO, Hai1m npaBI1J1bHOe peIlleHl1e (to find smth by performing
the proper actions).
Translate these two examples into Russian.

I just can't work out on the map where we are. He worked out all the answers. -

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KpoMe Toro, to work out MOlKeT 6bITb I1CnOJlb30BaHO B 3Ha'leHI1I1 <,npeycneTb


(to succeed 11 to come right).
Translate into Russian.

The plan worked out. The crossword puzzle does work out after all. (HcnOJlb3yMTe 3JJ:eCb pa3rOBopHoe
CJlOBO nOAY'wemCJI.) _
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To work out B 3Ha'leHI1I1 <'peIllI1Tb MbI HaXOJJ:I1M B CJleJJ:YIOll.\eM npl1Mepe:


He worked out all the equations. -

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B 3Ha'leHI1I1 <'I1C'IepnbIBaTb, I1CTOll.\aTb, onycToIllaTb 11 TOMY nOJJ:06HbIX


HaXOJJ:I1M 3TOT maroJl B CJleJJ:YIOll.\I1X JJ:ByX npl1Mepax:
The old man is completely worked out. They worked out that stratum of oil long ago. -

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nOJIe3HO TaIOKe 3anOMHI1Tb, 'ITO to work in MOlKeT 6bITb I1CnOJIb30BaHO:


I) B 3Ha'leHI1I1 COTpYJJ:HI1'1aTb, Koonepl1pOBaTbclI C KeM-Jl.:
She works in with the team as much as possible. -

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2) B 3Ha'leHI1I1 BKJlIO'IaTb:
When he wrote his essay, he worked in several quotations. -

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C1>pa30Bbli1 maroJl to work on nOJle3HO 3anOMHI1Tb B CJleJJ:YIOll.\I1X 3Ha'leHl1l1X:


I ) <,npoJJ:OJIlKaTb pa60TaTb (cpaBHI1Te C to go on):
They worked on into the night. 2) <,6bITb 3aHliTbIM KaKoi1-Jl. pa60Toi1:
He is working on a new book. The child was working on a jigsaw puzzle. 1 38

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Write four English sentences summing up the contents of the text.


I.

Ml1crep JIapcoH - crapblA 4enOBeK, lKl1Ber Ha He6onblllYlO neHCI1IO.

2.

np06neMbl, C KOTOPblMI1 OH cTonKHyn


CH: B K3KOM nOMe OH )KI1BeT; K3KOBa
6bwa npOWe.ll1ll3H 311M3; K3KOB3 nJI3T3 33 ra3, KOTOPblM MHCTep ll. 060r
peBaeT CBoA llOM.

3.

B03MOlKHble nyrl1 pellleHI1R npo6neMbl.


n04eMY Bce OHI1 He3q,q,eKrI1BHbl?

4.

3q,q,eKTI1BHbIA nyrb pellleHI1R npo6ne


Mbl - cOTpYllHHlJeCTBO C ra308011
KOMnaHl1eA.

A question for discussion or a short composition:


What problems do retired people face in your country?

Text 18
MELATO N I N
An advertisement i n the check-out counter o f a large drug store i n Chicago runs:
"You have seen it on TV and read about it in major national publications. Buy a
bottle today and see for yourself why melatonin has everyone talking."
Why are they talking? By some accounts, a single melatonin pill will cure or
prevent cancer, heart disease, diabetes, cataracts, AIDS, depression, schizophrenia,
epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and influenza. It will improve your sex life, reverse the
ageing process and help you to sleep better and lose weight. Clearly, this 'natural'
compound is no less than the fountain of youth.
Such wild claims have been made in the past for other compounds, and will no
doubt be made in the future. They are similar to those made by salesmen who rode
their covered wagons from town to town in the Wild West of nineteenth-century
America selling 'snake oil' as a miracle cure.
How did a great deal of serious and medically important research turn into the
'melatonin craze '? The short answer is simple: scientists went public writing books
and articles for a general audience and giving interviews on radio and television.
This of course is precisely what scientists should be doing in the current climate of
'distrust of science' and at a time when public and government support of science
is diminishing.
Indeed, it is clearly the duty of the many scientists whose careers are heavily
dependent on taxpayers' money to inform the public of the possible benefits of
their work and the importance of scientific research in general. But in spreading
this message, scientists must be careful not to cross the 'truth-in-advertisement
line' by exaggerating the significance of a few selected studies to the point where
the public receives an unbalanced and potentially dangerous view of the present
state of knowledge .
B TeKCTe ' Melatonin' MbI HaXOlll1M q,pa30BbII1 maroJI to turn into B 3Ha'leHI1I1
npeBpaTI1TbCH BO 'ITO-JI.: " How did a great deal of serious and medically impor-

140

tant research turn into the melatonin craze?" no cpaBHeHl110 c Il.PYrl1MI1 <ppa30BbI
MI1 marOJIaMI1 c nOCJIeJIOraMI1 turn c pa3JIWIHbIMI1 nOCJIeJIOraMI1 npell.CTaBJIlIeTClI
Il.OBOJIbHO npOCTbIM il.JIlI OCMbICJIeHl1lI 11 nepeBOll.a Ha PYCCKI1H 513bIK. BaM He CO
CTaBI1T TpYll.a nepeBeCTI1 11 3anOMHI1Tb CJIeiJ.YlOwee:
I ) turn down - B 3Ha'leHI1I1 OTKa3aTb:
The committee has turned down his application.

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I'm afraid we must turn down your kind offer of help. He was turned down by several publishers. -

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2) turn down - B 3Ha'leHI1I1 YMeHbWI1Tb, COKpaTI1Tb (no CI1JIe , B KOJII1'1e


cTBe):
She turned the gas down.

3) turn in

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B 3Ha'leHI1I1 JIOlKl1TbC5I cnaTb (pa3e.):

We usually turn in about midnight. -

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4) turn inside out - BbIBepHYTb HaI13HaHKY , <<nepeBepHyTb BBepx Il.HOM:


He turned his coat inside out.

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The detectives turned the place inside out. -

5) turn off - B 3Ha'leHI1I1 3aKpbITb KpaH, BbIKJIIO'II1Tb (BOIl.Y, cBeT)>>:


She turned the tap off

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They turned off the water supply. -

Turn off the gas, please. 6) turn on

BKJIIO'II1Tb , OTKPbITb KpaH:

Turn on the water, please.

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They have turned the supply of electricity on.


7) turn on

The deal turns on a matter of timing. -

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B 3Ha'leHI1I1 3aBI1CeTb on:

The whole project turns on one man.

8) turn out

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B 3Ha'leHI1I1 OKa3aTbC5I:

It turned out that she had known him for years. -

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9) turn out - B 3Ha'leHI1I1 BbIKJIIO'II1Tb (cp. Bblwe turn off) :


Turn out the lights when you leave. -

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141

1 0) turn out - B 3Ha'leHHH (<nPOH3BO)lHTb'):


The factory turns out cars. I I ) turn out

B 3Ha'leHHH HCKJIIO'IHTb (H3 KJIy6a, YHHBepCHTeTa H np.)>>:

They turned him out of the club. 1 2) turn out - B 3Ha'leHHH C)leJlaTb TlllaTeJlbHYJO y60PKY,):
They turned the room out completely. -

1 3) turn over

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B 3Ha'leHHH nepe)laTb; BbI)laTb (nOJlHl(HH),):

She turned him over to the police. -

06paTHTe BHMaHHe Ha H)lHOMaTH'IeCKI1e Bblpa)KeHHJI:


to turn something over in one's mind, KOTopoe 03Ha'laeT "to think something
over carefully";
to turn over a new leaf, KOTopoe 03Ha'laeT (<nepeBepHYTb CTpaHHl(Y'), Ha'laTb
HOBYJO lKH3Hb ("to begin again, to start afresh").

1 4) turn up - B 3Ha'leHHH nOllBHTbClI, 06HapYJKHTbClI ('IaCTO HeOlKH)laHHo)>>:


Oh, that lost paper will turn up somewhere. These things always turn up eventually, don't worry. -

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1 5) turn upside down - B 3Ha'leHHH nepeBepHYTb BBepx )lHOM (cp. TaKlKe BbI
we to turn inside out):
The police have turned the place upside down in an effort to find him. -

Write four English sentences summing up the contents of the text.


I.

'ITO rOBoplfT peKlIaMa 0 neKapCTBe Me


naTOHHH?

2.

nOqeMY cepbe3Hoe MelilfUIfHCKoe Ifccne


.nOB3HJ.1e npeBpamaeTCH B MenaTO
HIfHOBoe 6e3YMlfe>?

3.

.ll.OJIr YlIeHblX - He npecTynaTh nopor, 33


KOTOPbIM TalfTcn nOTeHUlfanbHan
onaCHOCTb 06M3H3.

142

4.

HaCKOJ1bKO Boo6me peKnaMa MOlKeT 6blTb


npaB.1lHBOil?

A question for a short composition:

What does the author of the passage mean by 'wild' claims (for cure-all drugs)?
See the third paragraph.

Text 1 9
I NTERESTI NG TRAITS

In England everything is the other way round. On Sundays on the Continent


even the poorest person puts on his best suit, tries to look respectable, and at the
same time the life of the country becomes gay and cheerful; in England even the
richest peer or a motor-manufacturer dresses in some peculiar rags, does not shave ,
and the country becomes dun and dreary.
On the Continent there is one topic which should be avoided - the weather; in
England, if you do not repeat ' Lovely day, isn't it?' at least two hundred times a day,
you are considered a bit dull.
On the Continent Sunday papers appear on Monday; in England - a country of
exotic oddities - they appear on Sunday. On the Continent people use a fork as
though a fork were a shovel; in England they turn it upside down and push every
thing - including peas - on top of it.
On a continental bus approaching a request stop the conductor rings the ben if
he wants his bus to go on without stopping; in England you ring the bel1 if you want
the bus to stop.
On the Continent stray cats are judged individual1y on their merit - some are
loved, some are respected; in England they are universal1y worshipped as in an
cient Egypt.
On the Continent people have good food; in England people have good table
manners. On the Continent public orators try to learn to speak fluently and smoothly,
in England they take a special course in Oxonian stuttering ('Oxonian' means 'of or
relating to Oxford or Oxford University').
On the Continent learned persons love to quote Aristotle, Horace, Montaigne
and show ofT their 'knowledge' ; in England nobody quotes Latin and Greek authors
in the course of a conversation, unless he has never read them.
On the Continent almost every nation, whether little or great, has openly de
clared at one time or another that it is superior to al1 other nations; the English fight
144

heroic wars to combat these dangerous ideas without ever mentioning which is re
ally the most superior race in the world.
Continental people are sensitive and touchy; the English take everything with an
exquisite sense of humour - they are only offended if you tell them that they have
no sense of humour.
On the Continent the population consists of a small percentage of criminals, a
small percentage of honest people and the rest are a vague transition between the
two; in England you find a small percentage of criminals and the rest are honest
people. On the other hand, people on the continent either tell you the truth or lie;
in England they hardly ever lie, but they would not dream of telling you the truth.
Many continentals think life is a game; the English think cricket is a game .

B 3TOM nOCJleilHeM TeKcTe IIaBaHTe eme pa3 BepHeMcll K rpaMMaTI1Ke 11 06-

paTI1M Harne BHI1MaHl1e Ha TOT Tim BOnpOCI1TeJlbHOrO npe.lJ)lOlKeHHlI, KOTOPblH B


PYCCKOH rpaMMaTl1'leCKOH Tpa,aHUHH Ha3blBalOT no-pa3HoMy: paC'IJleHeHHble BO
npoCbl, pa3neJlHTeJlbHble BonpOCbl, nH3"bIOHKTI1BHble BonpoCbl, - a B aHrJlHHCKOH
rpaMMaTI1'1eCKOH Tpa,aI1UHI1 - disjunctive questions, tag-questions.
B npHBOnHMOM BbIWe TeKCTe Mbl HaxOnHM: Lovely day, isn't it? - flpeKpacHblu oeHb,
lie npaooa flU ? 06paTHTe BHHMaHHe Ha TO, 'ITO B pa3roBopHOH pe'll1 Ha'laJIO npell.llOlKe
Hl1l1 It is a (lovely day) - MOlKeT onYCKaTbCli. HanpHMep, Horrible weather, isn't it?
Complete the following tag-questions adding the tags required.

I . It's cold,

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
1 2.
1 3.
14.

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Tom has a car,
I may take it,
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You can come,
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He should drive slowly,
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You knew that,
?
He plays well,
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She used to live here,
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I was right,
?
He likes it,
?
You won't be long,
?
She didn't find it,
They aren't allowed to play cards here,
?
She doesn't know you,

Write seven English sentences summing up the contents of the text.


I.

BOCKpeceHbC H 3 KOHTHHCHTC
nHH.

2.

06CYJKJl,CHHC nOrO.ll bl H3 KOHTHHeHTC 11


B AHrnHH.

11 B

AHf

1 45

3.

OTHOlUeHHe K KOWK3M - H3 KOHTHHCH


Te H B AHrJlHH.

4.

OTHoweHHe K llHTHP003HIHO JI3THHCK"X


H .npeOHerpelJeCKI1X aSrOpOB H3 KOH
Tl1HeHTe 11 B AHrm1H.

5.

AHrJlHCKOe qYBeTBO IOMopa.

6.

KaK aHrJlHqaHe OTHOCTC K Hilee 0 npe


BOCxollCTBe OIlHOIi paebI H3.ll Ilpyro.

7.

3HaMeHHTblIi aHrJl HlieKHIi 3llpaBbI


CMbICJl - common sense ( CM. nOCJlell
HIOIO eTpOqKY TeKeTa).

A question for discussion or a short composition:

Compare interesting traits discussed in the passage above with some of those
typical of Russia.

Part III
GRAMMAR
AND VOCABULARY TESTS

Test A
Each sentence below has four underlined words or phrases marked (A) , (B), (C), and (D) . Identify th.
on. underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct.

1 . I . Americans tend to see the world in simple terms, especial in matters involv(A)

(B)

(0)

(C)

ing action.

2. Preventive medical measures requires the individual to anticipate a future


(A)

(B)

event and connect it with present conditions and actions.


(C)
(0)

3. The fact is that when we travel abroad, most of us becomes more patriotic.
(A)

(0)

(C)

(B)

4. The book is a collection of articles published between 1 970 and 1 995 in


(A)

(B)

"Science" and many another magazines.


(0)
(C)

5. N obody having no more to say, the meeting was closed.


(B)

(A)

(0)

(C)

6. His coming is of no use no longer.


(A)

(B)

(C)

(0)

7. It is better to have loved and lost 1hrn never to have loved at all.
(A)

(B)

(0)

(C)

2. I . was no possibility of take a walk that day.


(0)
(C)
(B)
(A)

2. In ill common usage, the word chaos mean utter confusion.


(A)

(B)

(C)

(0)

149

3. The news I have received are good.


(A)

(B)

(0)

(C)

4. I am waiting fur more informations about this matter.


(A)

(0)

(C)

(B)

5. He cannot afford a better apartment as he has few money left.


(0)

(C)

(B)

(A)

6. I am interesting in English and French.


(B)

(A)

(0)

(C)

7. My little brother will go to the school next year.


(A)

(C)

(B)

(0)

8. One should to mind his own business.


(A)

(B)

(C)

(0)

9. This is the boy which is always late.


(A)

(0)

(C)

(B)

3. 1 . Peoples "urn" and "er" when hesitating in their speech.


(A)

(B)

(0)

(C)

2. Religion and politics interests him equally.


(A)

(B)

(0)

(C)

3. The Thailander is !! member of a culture which is usual described as rural


(A)

(B)

(C)

and traditional.
(0)

4. Our neighbours asked Kathy and me to look after her children.


(A)

(B)

(C)

(0)

5. I don't dance much now, but I use to l\..lQ1 .


(A)

(B)

(C)

(0)

6. Not long ago, it occurred a sudden revolution in public taste.


(A)

(B)

(C)

(0)

7. Over the next few years various telescope surveys are expected find more
(B)

(A)

(C)

than a million new galaxies.


(0)

8. Ten thousands Englishmen lived QJl this island.


(A) .

1 50

(B)

(C)

(0)

9. All children should start learning a language other then their own at pri(A)
(B)
(C) (0)
mary school.

10. He has written a book the name of which [ have completely forgot.
(A)

(B)

(C)

(0)

4. I. This diamonds are more valuable than those.


(A)

(B)

(C)

(0)

2. Man have always a thinker.


(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)

3. The room was fill with smoke.


(B) (C) (0)

(A)

4. Some metals are magnetic and anothers are not.


(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)

5. A lot things will be changed while I am away from my native cou ntry.
(A)

(B)

(0)

(C)

6. 11 will be summer three month from now.


(A)

(B)

(C)

(0)

7. There were thousands of peoples at the football match.


(A)
(C) (0)
(B)
8. The streets of London are fu ll of white, black and brown people who
W

(B)

originates from all over the world.

(0)

(C)

5. l . No subject appears to be more widely discussed in Europe these days than


(A)

(B)

(C)

those of national identity.


(0)

2. Ifyou scenes of British life on television, or if you stand in a street in


(B)

(N

central London you will be instantly aware of British mix population.


(0)
(C )

3. Forty years ago seeing a black man on a London bus was a rarely
(A)

(B)

(C)

(0)

excitement.

151

4. The influx of non-white people .inJQ Britain have had very striking effects
(C)
(0)
(A)
(B)
on British attitudes, culture and values.

5. Irish Catholics emigrated in hundreds of thousand to Britain bringing with them


(0)
(B)
(C)
(A)
a Catholic culture which is quite diffe rent from English Protestantism.

6. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Britain build up a powerful


W

(8)

(C)

Empire which was ruled from London.

(0)
7. Ve ry few of the colonise peoples had an opportun ity to settle in Britain
(A)

(8)

(C)

until after the Second World War.


(0)

8. Thousand of people left Britain to work in the Empire as administrators,


(A)

(8)

civil engineers, teachers, farmers, missionaries and traders.

(0)

(C)

6. I . In 1 786 George 'Mtshington write that he wished some plan might be adopted
(A)

(8)

(C)

"by which slavery may be abolished by slow, sure and imperceptible degrees" .

(0)
2. Gefferson, Madison and Monroe, all Virginians, and other leading Southern
statesman, made similar statements.
(8)

(C)

(A)

(0)

3 . As late as 1 808, when the international slave trade was abolished, there was
(A)

(8)

many Southerners who thought that slavery would soon end.


(C)

(0)

4. Most Americans assume that nature is material and exploitable and this
(A)

(8)

assu mption is relate to the fact that Americans usually desire material com
(C)

fort and possessions.

(0)
5. People should have shelter, clothing, warmth and all of the other means
( 8)
)
)
that makes the individual materially comfortable.
(0)

152

6. Progress rest on the belief tha! there is something better than our own way
(D)
(8) (C)
(A)
of life.

7. The human body contains hundred of thousands of different types of protei n.


(A)
(D)
(C)
(8)

7. I . About seven thousand years ago, at the beginning of what was to became known
(A)

(8)

as the Neolithic age, England wasoccupied by hunters who lived on wild animals.

(D)

(C)

2. Then, about six thousand years ago, these Stone Age hunters were joined by
(A)

other people immigrants from the Continent, small men and women rarely
(8)

more then 5ft in height who brought with them a different way of life.
(C)
(D)

3. The population of England remained small and settlements were


(A)

widely scattered until for reasons not yet understood, in about 1600 BC,
(8)

(D)

(C)

thousands more people appeared.

4. The population, it has been estimated, rise to about one million Qy 1500 Be.
(A)
(8)
(C)
(D)

5. At the beginning of the late Bronze Age, yet another immigrants arrived,
(A)

bringing with them skills and ornaments of a quality which had never been seen
(8)

(D)

(C)

in England before.

6. In about 800 BC, at the beginning of the Iron Age, other settlers arrived
(A)

(8)

from the Continent, at the first in small groups, then in larger bands.
(C)
(D)

8. I. Scotland has it's own legal and educational systems, and there is an auto no(e)

W ( 8)

mous Scottish Parliament.

(D)

2. From the Scottish point of view London is a long way away, and the small
(A)

(8)

group of Scottish M P 's were able to do few to advance Scottish interests.


(C)

(D)
1 53

3. Recently the Scottish Nationalist Party have been very successful at elections.
(B)

(A)

(C)

(0)

4. At the end of the century the Scottish Nationalist Party demands a separate
(A)

Parliament for Scotland and more greater independence i n economic affairs.


(C)

(B)

(0)

5. The Scots can certain claim that they take education more seriously than
(N

(B)

(C)

the English: more of their pupils stay on at school, more go to University.


(0)

6. The cities of Scotland, a relatively poor country, show great official respect
(

for traditions of learning. Edinburgh and Glasgow both cultured cities.


(0)

(C)

7. For the last quarter of a century, Northern Ireland have been synonymous
(C)

(B)

(A)

with 'the Troubles'.


(0)

8. After centuries ofstruggle, Ireland finally win the right to independence in 1922.
(B)

(A)

(C)

(0)

9. The minority ofCatholics were badly treat politically and legally for many years.
(A)

(B)

(C)

(0)

9. I . The success Marie Curie has achieved was the isolation of radioactive elements
(A)

of polonium and radium. 11 was her brilliant insight that radioactivity were
(C)

(B)

a property of individual atoms.


(0)

2. The distance between what we know and what we wish to know is too great,
(C)

(B)

(A)

for us, and we fill them with believing.

(0)

3. For Americans, the world is composed of facts - not ideas. Their process of
(A)

thinking is generally inductive, beginning with facts and then preceding to


(B)

ideas.

1 54

(0)

4. I n the United States the practice followed requires that a sign announcing
(A)

(8)

the road repairs be placed at the last point at which the motorist may chose

(0)

(C)

an alternative route.

5. It is not the road repair that is announce, but the last choice available to
(8)

(C)

the motorist because of the repairs.

(0)
6. I n other parts of the world the sign is placed so that it accurate indicates the
(A)

(8)

(C)

site of the repairs, thus ignoring the motorist's ability to make choices.

(0)

10. I . Soon after the United States' entrance into the war, the major hotels in
(8)

(C)

Atlantic City was transformed into mil itary barracks.

(0)
2. The value of precious gems is determined by its hardness, color, and brilliance.
(A)
(8)
(C)
(0)
3 . The colour blue gradually merges into green. The difference between
(A)

(8)

the two is continuous since no boundary does not exist which clearly sepa(C)

rates them.

4. The dog is surely both an animal and more then an animal; he is a pet and
(A)
(8)
(C)
(0)
companion of man.

5. Astronomers do not know how much galaxies there are, but it is thought
(A)

(8)

(C)

that there are millions or pe rhaps billions.

(0)
6. A water molecule consists from two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
(A)
(8)
(C)
(0)
7. The amount of copper sulfate used in the experiment depends from the
)

(8)

(C)

intensity of the heat.

(0)
I SS

8. There exists more than 2,600 different varieties of palm trees, ID1h varying
(C)
(B)
(0)
(A)
flowers, leaves, and fruits.
1 1 . I . Jane in the habit of llill;. walks before breakfast.
(C)
(B)
(A)
(0)
2. When question, she denied l! member of the group.
(A)
(B)
(C) (0)

3. John think that the wisest policy is not to interfere.


(0)
(A)
(B)
(C)
4. In the seventeen century private teachers instructed the daughters of rich
(A)

Philadelphians in French, music, dancing, painting, singing, grammar and


(B)

(C)

sometimes even book keeping.


(0)
5 . In Philadelphia, numerous private schools taught languages, mathematic
(B)

(A)

(C)

and natural science, there were also night schools for adults.
(0)
6. Forests in Kenya are not been conserved and under 1!rulli1.
(0)
(A)
(B) (C)
7. Anybody who the literature of the British Empire knows that the
(A)

colonised black peoples were regarded


(
)
the white people.

as

capable, less intelligent than


(m

8. More than forty per cents of blacks and Asians were born in London and
(A)

(B)

llli< as much Londoners as their white neighbours.


(C)

(0)

12. I . The state of New Mexico lin.Q1 densely population, with an average of
(C)
(A)
(B)
(0)
four people per square kilometer.
2. Plant cuttings who are in water will develop roots and can then be
(C)
(
W
planted .i!u.Qil.
(0)
1 56

3. Lead poisoning can result if 1Q much lead builds UD in the body.


(D)
(A)
(8)
(C)
4. The average salt content of seawater is more than three percents.
(8)
(C)
(D)
(A)
5 .fu: the middle of the third centurv, AD, London had become the administra.

(A)

(C)

(8)

tive as well commercial capital of the Roman province of Britain.


(D)

6. Latin was the official language; and most well-educate people spoke it
(A)

as well as Celtic which remained the language of the poor, though many
(C)
(
Latin words were incoIDorated into it.
(D)
7. Whether or not King Arthur lived it is impossible now to say. But that
(A)

there came at this time a British leader of extraordinary power there seem
(C)

(8)

to be little doubt. No other name in Britain is encountered so often,


except that of the Devil.
(D)
8. When King Alfred died in the 900, England was united as never before. His
(A)

(C)

(8)

successors did what they could to continue his work.


(D)
13. I . In quantum mechanics a physical quantity has JlQ reality, or 'being' J.!!l1il an
(A)

experimenter measures value.


(D)

(C)

(8)

2. Einstein insisted that unmeasured quantities must exist in some definite state,
(A)

even though we might not to know what that state .is.


(8)
(C)
(D)
3. To control behaviour, the central nervous system employs approximate one
(A)

(8)

(C)

trillion ( 1011) neurons, all connected in networks too complex tobeunderstood


(D)

fully.
1 57

4. Small birds increase their fat reserves in winter as insurance against reduced
(A)

(8)

or unpredictable food supplies: fat is accumulated daily from feeding and utilize
(m

(C)

overnight.

5 . It is in the troposphere, the lowest part of the atmosphere, that wind, stormy.
(8)

and other kinds of weather take place.

(0)

(C)

6. The isotopes of one element can have different weighs.


(C)
(0)
(8)
(A)
7. Do you think the new tax changes will effect you much?
(A)
(8)
(C)
(0)

8. The difference in performance between the two computers is negl igent.


(A)
(8)
(C)
(0)
14. I . On the floor of the Pacific Ocean are hundred of flat-topped mountains
W

(8)

(C)

more than a mile beneath sea level.

(0)
2. Sirius is the most brightest star in the sky with an absolute magnitude about
(
)
twenty-three times that of the sun.

(0)

(C)

3. Some of the most useful resistor material are carbon, metals, and metallic alloys.
(0 )
(C)
(8)
(A)
4. Alloys of gold and copper has been widely used in various types of coins.
(0)
(A)
(C)
(8)
5. Wales is less than half the size of Estonia but it has twice the population
(C)

(8)

(A)

(nearly 3 millions people).

(0)

6. The polite word for describing people whose ancestors came from Africa
(A)

(8)

used to be 'Negro'. This is no long so. The standard polite word is 'black'.
(C)

(0)

It exists as both noun and adjective.

1 58

7. You can travel through the southwest of England and believe that everyone
(A)

in the country are white, whereas in some districts of London you will think
(B)

(C)

that well over half the population is black.


(0)
8. G. H . Pratt used special therapy early in the 20th century when he brought
W

(B)

(C)

tuberculosis patients together to discuss its disease.


(0)
15. I . One of the requirements for foreign students whose native language .lli not
(A)

English and who wish to enter American universities are to take the
(B)
(C)
(0)
TOEFL.
2. One ofthe world's best-known conductors, he have performed in public since
(C)

(B)

(A)

the age of five.


(0)
3. There are no known society in which left-handed people predominate.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)
4. The recession which has been attributed to a variety of factors, have resulted
(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)
in the highest unemployment levels since the Great Depression.
5. One of the key factors in improving golf scores are concentration.
(0)
(B)
(C)
(A)

6. Only one Qf all the states in the United States are larger than Texas.
(B)
(C)
(0)
(A)
16. I . A very high proportion of British homes have small gardens attached and
(A)

those people without much space but many enthusiasm can rent allotments
(B)

(C)

(land for private cultivation) quite cheaply.


(0)
2. About 44 per cent of the British population claims to spend time gardening.
(C)
(0)
(B)
(A)
1 59

3. Until recently. the British enjoyed less holiday time then most European
(B)
(C) (D)
(A)
nations.
4. Nowadays, virtually every full-time employee are entitled to four weeks or

(B) (C)
(A)
more of paid holiday (excluding Sundays and any half or full free days
(D)
included in the contract).
5. Much of this free time will be soend at home or visiting relatives, especially
(C)
(D)
(B)
(A)
at Christmas.

6. 'Taking a holiday' means go away from home for at least a few days.
(B)
(D)
(C)
(A)
7 . Group holidays, whether in holiday camps in Britain or in hotels in Spain,
(A)
(B)
are not expensive, and therefore offer the possibility of a proper holiday to
(C)
people with fewer money.
(D)

8. The nearest term for the Russian word 'dacha' would be 'country cottage'.
(

But country cottages are owned in Britain by a small minority, and most of
(C)
them are to far away to be visited more than three or four times a year.
(D)

17. I . There is a style ofthinking referred as associative or relational.

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

2. Members of different cultures possesses various ideas of ITillilY.


(B)
(A)
(D)
(C)
3. Man is just another form of life and do not possess unique attributes which
(A)
(B)
set him apart from other forms of life.
(C)

(D)

4. The middle-class American usually

of himself as an individual,
(A)
(B)

success as his goal, and doing as his prefer activity.


(C)
(D)

1 60

5 . People should have shelter, clothing, warmth and all of the other means
(A)

that makes the individual materially comfortable.


(B)
(C)
(0)

6. In India, on the other hand, the stress on spiritual grace rather than on
(C)
W
(m
material comfort is ready observed.
(0)
18. I . Because business is competitive, many American believe that it is more
(m

supportive of freedom than government, even though government leaders


(C)

are elected by the people and business leaders are not.


(0)
2. Many Americans believe that competition is as important, or even more important,
(A)
(B)
then democracy in preserving freedom.
(C)

(0)

3. So closely is competitive business associate with freedom in the minds of


(B)
(C)
(A)
most Americans that the term "free enterprise" rather than the term "capi
(0)
talism" is most often used to describe the American business system.
4. Competition in business isbelieved to strength the ideal of equalityof opportunity.
(B)
(C)
(0)
( \)
5 . Competition is seen as an open contest of speed where success goes to
(A)

the fastest person regardful of his or her social class background.


(B)
(C)
(0)
.

6. Business is viewed as an expression of the idea of equality of opportunity


(B)

(A)

rather than the aristocratic idea of inherit privilege.


(C)

7. Competition is seen by most Americans as encouraging hard work. If two


(A)

businessman are competing against each other, the one who works harder is
(C)
(0)
(B)
likely to win. The one who is lazy is likely to lose.
. 6 33K. 797

161

8. Because businessmen must continually compete against each another, they


(A)
must develop the habit of hard work in order not to fail.

(8)

(0)

(C)

19. I. Parents smoke risk rising sickly children who make slower progress in
W
)
reading, writing and other learning.

(C)

(0)
2. Margaret Thatcher was sililll Prime Minister the country had had Eden
(8)

(A)

resigned

(C)

in 1 957.

(0)

3. Irving Berlin his famous "Oh How I Hate to Get Up in the Morning"
(A) .

(8)

in the U,S. Army

ill!J:ing World War 1 .


(0)

(C)

4 . Temperatures that are 12 high to be measured on a mercury thermometer


(8)
(C)
(A)
(0)
can be measured on a pyrometer.

5. AIiG snakes, lizards can be found on all continents Antarctica.


(0)
(C)
(A)
(8)
6. The United States imports Jill carpet wools because of domestic wools are
(A)

too fine and soft for

(C)

(8)

carpets.

(0)

7. In his "Autobiography", Benjamin Franklin presents the American hero,


(A)

(B)

(C)

his life to the pursuit of happiness.

(0)

"

"

"

.' , 1 ;

Test

B
' -..-.'

The sentences below are incomplete. Choose the one word or phrase, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D),
that best completes each sentence.

1. I . Rarely

_____

located near city lights or at lower elevations.

(A) observatories are


(B) are
(C) in the observatories
(0) are observatories
2. There are geographic, economic, and cultural reasons why
.
,
around the world.

_
,,--"_
_
,"

(A) diets differ


(B) do diets differ
(C) are diets different
(0) to differ a diet
3. Located behind
the two lacrimal glands (a lacrimal gland
secretes tears and lubricates the surface of the eye).
(A) each eyelid
(B) in each eyelid
(C) each eyelid are
(0) each eyelid which is

4 . In the U.S.
and highways.

approximately four million miles of roads, streets,

(A) there
(B) is
(C) because of
(0) there are
1 63

5. Potassium has a valence of positive one because it usually loses one electron
with other elements.
when
(A) does it combine
(B) it combines
(C) in combining
(0) combination
2. I . Unlike the earth, which rotates once every twenty-four hours,
once every ten hours.

_
_
_
_
_

(A) the rotation of Jupiter


(B) the occurrence of Jupiter's rotation
(C) Jupiter rotates
(0) Jupiter's rotating
2. Many economists argue that to avoid an economic depression the governspending and lower interest rates.
ment
(A) is
(B) higher
(C) increase
(0) should increase
3.

_____

(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)
4.

were first viewed through a telescope by Galileo.

Jupiter has four moons


Jupiter's four moons
Jupiter surrounded by four moons
Surrounded by four moons, Jupiter

New Jersey's proximity to New York, it is an important link


in the nation's transportation system.

_____

(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)

Since
Resulting
However
Because of

5 . When
of impulses from many of the neurons in one part of
the brain, an epileptic seizure occurs.
_____

(A) the simultaneous bursts


( B) simultaneously burst
(C) there are simultaneous bursts
(0) simultaneously bursting

1 64

3. I .

united effort is needed if the problem of the "underground


economy" is to be resolved.
_____

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

It is a
A
There is a
An

2. Located in Florida,

_____

is the oldest city in the United States.

(A) is St. Augustine


(B) the city of St. Augustine
(C) St. Augustine it
(D) Where St. Augustine

a tenth planet may exist is suggested by discrepancies in the


motions of Uranus and Neptune.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

4.

the predicted "W" particles do exist was proved in the partice accelerator.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

5.

It is the fact that


In fact
That
The fact

The fact is
In fact
That is
The fact that

_____

is sometimes disputed.

(A) Columbus was an Italian


(B) That Columbus was an Italian
(C) An Italian that was Columbus
(D) That Columbus an Italian was attributed partly to psychological fac
tors
4. I . The green house effect occurs

___ ___

heat radiated from the

sun.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

when does the earth's atmosphere trap


does the earth's atmosphere trap
when the earth's atmosphere traps
the earth's atmosphere traps
1 65

2. It is possible for a microscope

_____

one or two lenses.

(A) has
(B) have
(C) to have
(0) that has
3.

appears considerably larger at the horizon than it does overhead is merely an optical illusion.
(A) The moon
(B) That the moon
(C) When the moon
(0) The moon which

4. February normally has twenty-eight days,


_____ ,

but every fourth year,

has twenty-nine.

(A) there
(B) its
(C) is a leap year
(0) a leap year
5. Aspirin

_____

from the bark of willow trees.

(A) was first extracted


(B) it was flfst extracted
(C) extracted
(0) first extracted
6. A scientific process

_____

to turn natural gas into animal feed.

(A) have been developed


(B) it has been developed
(C) have developed
(0) has been developed
7.

there, the southwest desert contains a remarkable variety of


flora and fauna.
(A) Although rarely rains
(B) It rarely rains
(C) Although it rarely rains
(0) Sometimes it rains

8.

_____ ,

litmus paper turns blue.

(A) If in an alkali it is dipped


(B) If is dipped in an alkali
1 66

(C) Is dipped in an alkali


(D) If it is dipped in an alkali
9. Peas

_____

lose much of their flavor.

(A) which overcooked


(B) have been overcooked
(C) which they have been overcooked
(D) which have been overcooked
10.

_____

, nitroglycerine is extremely volatile.

(A) It is highly effective


(B) H ighly effective it is
(C) While highly effective
(D) H ighly while effective
I I . The doctor,

_____

, apologized.

(A) his mistake realizing


(B) he realized his mistake
(C) realizing his mistake
(D) realized his mistake
5. I . :----:land.

_
_
_

twelve million immigrants entered the U.S. via Ellis Is-

(A) More than


(B) There were more than
(C) Of more than
(D) The report
2.

variety of flowers in the show, from simple carnations to the


most exquisite roses.
(A) A wide
(B) There was a wide
(C) Was there
(D) Many

3.

that Emily Dickinson (a famous U.S. poet, 1 830-86) wrote,


only twenty-four were given titles and only seven were published during her
lifetime.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Of the 1 ,800 poems


There were 1 ,800 poems
Because the 1 , 800 poems
The 1 ,800 poems
1 67

4. The Decimal System, currently used in libraries throughout the world,

all written works into ten classes according to subject.

_____

(A) dividing
( B) divides
(C) it would divide
(D) was divided
5. Among bees
(A)
(B)
(C)
( D)

6.

_____

a highly elaborate form of communication.

occur
occurs
it occurs
they occur

_____

heated by solar energy have special collectors on the roofs to

trap sunlight.
(A) A home is
(B) Homes are
(C) A home
( D) Homes

6. I .

Hale Telescope, at the Palomar Observatory in Southern California, can photograph objects several billion light years away.
(A) Through the
( B) With the
(C) U sing the
(D) The

2. Without the proper card installed inside the computer,


possible to run a graphical program.

_____

im-

(A) is definitely
(B) because of
(C) it is
(D) is
3. At the end of the nineteenth century, Alfred Binet developed a test for measuring intelligence
served us the basis of modem I Q (intelligence quotient).
(A) has
(B) it has
(C) whose
(D) which has

168

4. The benefit

the study is that it provides necessary information to anyone who needs it.
(A) of
(B) which
(C) that
(D) because

7. I . The algebra of sets


(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)

Boolean algebra.

is called
which is called
known as
called

2.

William Shakespeare is the most widely known.

(A) With all writers in English


(B) All writers in English
(C) All of the writers in English
(0) Of all writers in English
3. The Cathedral of Seville enjoys the distinction
medieval cathedral in the world.

_____

the largest

(A) of being
(8) to be

(C) being
(0) it being
4.

_____

to develop immunity to rheumatism fever.

(A) It not being possible


(B) It is not possible
(C) Not possible
(0) Is not possible
5. The fuel used in nuclear-powered ships is usually uranium in either the metallic
_
_
_
_
_

(A) as well as the oxide form


(B) but also the oxide form
(C) or the oxide form
(0) and the oxide form
6. The rhinoceros (Hocopor) has a rather poor sense of smell, nor

_
_
_
_
_

(A) can it see well


(B) it well can see

1 69

(C) it can see well


(D) well can it see
8. I . To achieve independence

_____

the goal of many nations since the

end of the Second World War.


(A)
(B)
(C)
( D)
2.

it has been
which has been
has been
is

_____

from San Diego to the Mexican border.

(A) Few miles


(B) It's not far
(C) Not far
(D) There is not far
3.

_____

people in Scotland and Wales to be called English.

(A) It offends
(B) There offends
(C) They offend
( D) Offends
4.

_____ the match had to be


(A)
(B)
(C)
( D)

5.

Because
Because
Because
Because

postponed.

snowing
was snowing
there was snowing
it was snowing

_____ in Rorida in the winter.


(A) There is usually warm
(B) Is usually warm
(C) It is usually warm
(D) Though it is usually warm

6.

in the 1 970's that America's steel industry was suffering from


a number of structural disadvantages.

_____

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
170

It became obvious
There was obvious
It became be obvious
An obvious problem

7.

______ no type of plant immune to attack by insects.


(A) It exists
(B) There exist
(C) Because there exists
(D) There exists

8.

_____

penguins in the Arctic.

(A) There are no


(B) No
(C) There are not
(D) Are not
9. Probably _____ Iittle oil left under the North Sea by the year 2000.
(A) will be
(B) there will be
(C) it will be
(D) there will have
10. Many doctors believe cures for many forms of cancer _____ soon.
(A) will discover
(B) they will be discovered
(C) will be discovered
(D) have been discovered soon.
9. I . Overexposure to the sun causes

_____ health problems.

(A) various
(B) among
(C) over
(D) of
2. Birds head south to warmer climates when

_
_
_
_
_

(A) is cold weather


(B) does cold weather come
(C) cold weather comes
(D) comes cold weather
3. Drying of meats and vegetables is no longer considered one of
of preserving food.

_
_
_
_
_

(A) the ways are useful


(B) the ways most useful
(C) the most useful ways
(D) most are useful ways
171

4. Aspirin is used

_____ constriction of the blood vessels.

(A) the counteraction


(B) to counteract
(C) counteract
(0) counteracting
5. Composing more than forty percent of the diet, fats are
the body for energy.

_____ by

(A) using specifically


(B) used specifically
(C) specific use
(0) the use specific
10. I .

_____

London Bridge was then rebuilt as part of a tourist attrac-

tion.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)

It was sold to an Arizona manager


To an Arizona manager selling
Sold to an Arizona manager
Selling to an Arizona manager

2. Presbyterian minister, college professor; and _____ , James Naismith


is best remembered as the inventor of basketball.
(A) he was athletic director
(B) directing athletics
(C) athletic director
(0) directed athletics
3. Exceeding speed limits and
causes of automobile death.

_____

safety belts are two common

(A) not to wear


(B) failing to wear
(C) don't wear
(0) not having worn
4. I n recent times, the invention which has most changed the face ofthe world ,

most influenced the industrial development of the world, and


is the automobile.
(A) most affected its culture
(B) most affecting its culture
(C) with most effect on its culture
(0) most to effect its culture
172

_
_
_
_
_

5.

a person wears eyeglasses, the more dependent on them he


or she tends to become.
(A) When
(B) The longest
(C) The longer
(0) If

1 1 . I . In an internal combustion engine,


cylinder.

_____

and air are heated inside a

(A) and gasoline vapor


(B) both gasoline vapor
(C) gasoline vapor additional
(0) besides gasoline vapor
2. In November of 1 863, the city of Atlanta
famous " M arch to the Sea".

_____

during Sherman's

(A) was completely burned


(B) completely was burned
(C) it was burned completely
(0) completely burned it
3.

have captured the spirit of the conquest of America as well


as James Fenimore Cooper.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)

Few writers
The few writers
The writers are few
Few are the writers

4 . Prospectors rushed to Nevada in 1 859

_____

was discovered there.

(A) after gold soon


(B) soon after gold
(C) gold was soon after
(0) they found gold
5.

heat from the sun is trapped near the earth's surface , the
greenhouse effect occurs.
(A) Not
(B) When
(C) That
(0) What
1 73

12; 1. The growth of hair

_
_
_
_
_
_

cyclical process, with phases of activity

and inactivity.
(A) it is
(8) is a
(C) which is
(0) a regular
2. The fire _
' '-.
'
' '..:..

_
.
_
_
_

to have started in the furnace under the house.

(A) is believed
( 8) that is believed
(C) they believe
(0) that they believe
3. I n Roman numerals,

_____

symbols for numeric values.

(A) are letters of the alphabet


( 8) letters of the alphabet are
(C) which uses letters of the alphabet
(0) in which letters of the alphabet are
4. The legal systems of most countries can be classified
mon law or civil law.
:(I

;1 . , .

(A)
(8)
(C)
(0)

_____

com-

;:

as either
either from
either to
to either

S. One difference between mathematics and language is that mathematics is


precise

_
_
_
_
_

(A) language is not


( 8) while language is not
(C) but language not
(0) while is language
13. I . The sea fish 'medusa' is often popularly called a jellyfish because it
_____

(A)
( 8)
(C)
(0)
1 74

jelly.

looks rather like


looks like rather
which looks rather like
which looks like rather

2. Therapists are currently using mental imagery in the hope that it might prove
in the treatment of cancer.
_____

(A) helpful
(B) for help
(C) helpfully
(0) with the help
3. Somerset Maugham, a novelist,
about a restless man seeking
inner understanding in "The Razor's Edge".
(A) who wrote this
(B) who wrote
(C) when he wrote
(0) wrote
4.

cockroach (TapaKaH) is the pest in need of eradication is


generally agreed upon by housing authorities everywhere.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)

5.

When the
It is the
That the
The

the jaguar used to roam (6poaHTb) freely in the southwestern United States.
,

(A) It is now found only in Central and South America


(B) Now finding in Central and South America
(C) To be found in Central and South America
(0) Now found only in Central and South America

Test C
Each sentence below has an underlined word or pbrase. Below each sentence are four other words or
phrases marked (A), (B) , (C), and (D). You are to choose the one word or pbrase tbat best keeps the
meaning of tbe original sentence if it is substituted for tbe underlined word or phrase.

1 . I . The new accounts offered by the bank are compounded semi-annually.

(A) every year


(8) every six months
(C) every two years
(0) every half month
2. The conference is governed by its newly elected board.
(A) ruled
(8) chosen
(C) advised
(0) watched
3. According to scientists, it is possible that another Ice Age will SQQIl be
upon us.
(A) some day
(8) now
(C) in the near future
(0) undoubtedly
4. Although salamanders are sometimes mistaken for lizards, the two are not
related.
(A) from the same family
( 8) the same size
(C) of similar appearance
(0) attached
1 76

5. The members of the committee were assembled quickly.


(A) advised
(B) informed
(C) gathered
(0) confused
6. No one knows exactly how many Pacific islands there are, but geographers
estimate that there are up to 30,000.
(A) to the point
(B) precisely
(C) approximately
(0) appropriately
7. The largest cactus in the United States is the saguaro cactus found in the
areas surrounding the Gulf of California.
(A) around
(B) across
(C) within
(0) near
8. The first recognized Olympic Games were held in 776 B.C.
(A) celebrated
(B) viewed
(C) acknowledged
(0) cheered
9. The barometer is used by weather forecasters todetect changes in air pressure.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)

determine
mystify
announce
reduce

1 0 . From Pavlov's work on conditioned responses in dogs came the stimulus


response theory of behavior.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)

thought
philosophy
feelings
conduct

2. I . Quality control is an essential aspect of the manufacturing process.

(A) an alternative
(B) an introspective
1 77

(C) an encompassing
(D) a necessary
2. Frank Borman was the commander of the Apollo 8 space flight when it
circled the moon in 1 968.
(A) travelled to
(B) went round
(C) reached
(D) spanned
3. When Benjamin Franklin became the first American postmaster general in
1 775, he worked to improve the frequency and reUability of mail delivery.
(A) satisfaction
(B) opportunity
(C) dependability
(D) extent
4. A human body requires more nutrients in cold weather because more en
ergy is necessary to maintain body temperature.
(A) surpass
(B) preserve
(C) equip
(D) reach
5. Some economists are proposing that the United States institute a consump
tion tax rather than an income tax.
(A) in addition to
(B) in place of
(C) at the expense of
(D) alongside
3. L Scientists measure the microscopic distances between atoms in microns.
(A) visible
(B) tiny
(C) machine-Uke
(D) unmeasured
2. The Lewis and Clark expedition left St. Louis in 1 804 and travelled 7,700
miles enroute to the Pacific Coast.
(A) away from
(B) returning to
178

(C) on the way to


(0) leaving
3. The three main kinds of tea differ in the method used to process the leaves.
(A)
(8)
(C)
(0)

instructions
procedure
development
variety

4. The speed of light is considered by scientists to be a fundamental constant.


(A) basic
(8) contradictory
(C) bright
(0) well-known
5. A chameleon is a kind of lizard known for its ability to change .
(A) scope
(8) magnitude
(C) span
(0) hue
6. The ostrich (cTpayc) egg is the largest egg of any nonextinct bird, while the
smallest egg is the egg of the hummingbird (KOJII16pl1).
(A)
(8)
(C)
(0)

living
dead
flying
vanished

7. Henry Ford is known for mass producing the Model T, thus making it avail
able to the average American.
(A) known to
(8) desired by
(C) obtainable by
(0) constructed for
4. I . In the United States, election campaign spending and contributions are regu

lated by the Government.


(A)
(8)
(C)
(0)

buying
taxation
donations
charities
1 79

2. There are three key elements in Darwin's theory of natural selection.


(A) crucial
(B) intangible
(C) stated
( D) retractable

3. Three major United States television networks, ABC, CBS, and N BC, are
headquartered in New York City.
(A) in competition in
(B) centered in
(C) moving to
(D) broadcast from
4. Many desert animals have made adaptations that are strikingly similar to
those of desert plants.
(A) predominantly
(B) precipitously
(C) forcefully
(D) remarkably
5. Oats (oBec) were often harvested with a machine called a combine.
(A) ground
(B) packaged
(C) gathered
(0) planted

5. I . Practitioners of behavioral medicine encourage patients to be responsible


for their own health.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

urge
enlighten
allow
adhere

2. H eterogeneous catalysts are widely used in petroleum production.


(A)
(B)
(C)
(0)
180

strongly
extensively
weightily
narrowly

3. In some countries, nuclear power produces up to two-thirds of the neces


sary electricity.
(A)
(8)
(C)
(D)

makes
receives
dissipates
manages

4. Diffusion occurs at a slower rate in liquids than in gases.


(A) percentage
(8) speed
(C) time
(D) amount
5. A two-thirds majority in Congress is required if a bill is to become law.
(A) necessary
(8) desirable
(C) acquired
(D) optional
6. I . While endeavoring to find a new route to India, Columbus discovered
America by accident.

(A) sailing
(8) failing
(C) trying
(D) hoping
2. Many countries nowadays restrict the exportation of genuine archaeologi
cal artifacts (an artifact is smth made or given shape by man, such as a tool
or work of art, esp. an object of archaeological interest).
(A) particular
(8) rare
(C) authentic
(D) costly
3. Aside from its reproduction on the one-dollar bill, the reverse (06paTHaH
cTopoHa) of the Great Seal of the United States has hardly been used.
(A) Except for
(8) Since
(C) As a result of
(D) I n addition to
181

4. After the tremendous improvements of recent years, the hugeness of the


first computers is almost shocking to us today.
(A)
(8)
(C)
(0)

slowness
primitive appearance
ugliness
vast size

5. After attempting to join a religious order in 1 862, Auguste Rodin finally


yielded to his inclination to pursue an artistic career.
(A) resisted
(8) understood
(C) gave in to
(0) returned to

TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION


OR COMPOSITION

Topic 1: You never had a weight problem. In the past few months, however, you
have put on a lot of eight that you can't seem to lose. Write a short composition
in which you offer the best solution to losing unwanted pounds.

lbpic 2 : Over the past year the number of crimes has risen dramatically in your
neighborhood. Write a short composition in which you offer the best solution to
decrease the number of crimes where you live.

183

Topic 3: Imagine that you have a friend who has a very low opinion of himself or
herself due to an unhappy childhood. Write a short composition in which you offer
the best solution to help your friend get a strong self-image.

Topic 4: Imagine that you have an abnormal fear of heights (dark places, flying,
or whatever). Write a short composition in which you offer the best solution to get
rid of this problem.

Topic 5: Imagine that you received a bill from a furniture company that says you owe
them 500 dollars for some furniture that you bought last month. Your name is on the
bill, but you have never even been inside that store. You have never bought any furniture
there. Write a short composition in which you offer the best solution to this problem.

1 84

Topic 6: Interview at least three of your friends and ask them about their work.
Ask each one the following questions, record their answers and after that write a
short composition in which you offer your personal point of view about some com
mon features characteristic of present -day employment in your country:

I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
1 0.

What is your present employment?


How long have you worked there?
What other jobs have you had?
Did you work to earn money as a child, teenager, or college student?
Would you consider the job you now have to be a permanent job?
Do you have a college/university degree or vocational training for the job you
hold now?
How useful is a college/university degree in your line of work?
Have you ever changed careers? Would you ever consider doing so?
Is it good to change jobs?
When should people change jobs - under what circumstances and for what
reasons?

ANSWER KEY

Part I. Revising Grammar and Vocabulary


Reading CompreeDsioD
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit

1. S.F.B. Morse - I B; 2A
2. The Invention of the Phonograph - 1 0 ; 2A; 3D; 4C
3. Niagara Falls - I C; 2A; 3B; 4C
4. The Early History of the White House - 1 0 ; 2B
5. The Beginning of Reform in American Education
1 0; 2C; 3 B
8. An Introduction to American Culture - 1 - T; 2 - F; 3 - T; 4 - T; 5 - T;
-

6 - T; 7 - T; 8 - T; 9 - T
Unit 9.

Increase in U.S. Medical Bills - 1 B; 2C; 3D


12. Personal Space - 1 0; 20; 3A
Unit 13. Indian Cliff Dwellings - I C; 20; 3B
Unit 14. The American Monetary System of the 17th and 18th Centuries
Unit

I C;

20; 3B; 4C
Unit 15.
Unit 16.
!lnit 1 7.
Unit 18.

The Federal Reserve System - I B; 2A


The Forgotten Letter - 1 0; 2A; 3A
The Forgotten Letter (continued) - I B; 2B;
Just What Is a Vacation Anyway - lA; 2C

3A

Part III. Grammar and Vocabulary Tests


Test A
1 . (C) - especially 2. (A) - require 3. (D) - become 4. (D) - other 5. (B)
any more 6 . (C) - any 7. (C) - than
2. I . (C) - taking 2. (C) - means 3. (C) - is 4. (C) - information 5. (C) - little
6. (B) - interested 7. (C) - to school 8. (C) - mind 9. (C) - who
3. 1 . (A) - people 2. (B) - interest 3. (B) - usually 4. (D) - their 5. (C) - used
to 6. (B) - there 7. (C) - are expected to find 8. (B) - thousand 9. (B) other than 1 0. (D) - forgotten

1.

186

4. 1 . (A) - these 2. (8) - has 3. (C) - filled 4. (C) - others S. (A) - a lot of
6. (C) months 7. (C) - people 8. (C) - originate
S. 1 . (0) - that 2. (0) - mixed 3. (0) - rare 4. (C) - has had S. (8) hundreds of thousands 6. (8) - built up 7. (8) - colonised 8. (A) - thou
sands
6. 1 . (A) - wrote 2. (8) - statesmen 3. (8) - there were 4. (C) - is related
S. (0) - make 6. (A) - rests 7. (8) - hundreds
7. 1 . (8) - to become known 2. (C) - than 3. (A) - its 4. (8) - rose S. (A) other 6. (C) - at first
8. I . (8) - its 2. (C) - little 3. (8) - has been 4. (8) - much greater S. (A) certainly 6. (0) - are 7. (8) - has 8. (C) - won 9. (C) - treated
9. I . (C) - was 2. (0) - it 3 . (0) - proceeding 4. (0) - choose S. (A) - an
nounced 6. (C) - accurately
10. 1 . (0) - were 2. (8) - their 3. (0) - exists 4. (0) - than S . (A) - how many
6. (C) - consists of 7. (C) - on 8. (A) - exist
1 1 . 1 . (C) - taking 2. (A) - questioned 3. (A) - thinks 4. (A) - seventeenth
S. (C) - mathematics 6. (A) - being 7. (A) - reads 8. (A) - per cent
12. 1 . (8) - populated 2. (A) - which 3. (8) - too 4. (0) - percent S. (0) - as
well as 6. (A) - well-educated 7. (C) - seems 8. (A) - (died) in 900
13. 1 . (0) - its 2. (C) - know 3. (C) - approximately 4. (0) - utilized S. (8) storm 6. ( 0) - weights 7. (C) - affect 8. (0) - negligible
14. I . ( 8) - hundreds 2. (A) - the brightest 3. (C) - materials 4. (A) - have
S . (0) - million 6. (0) - no longer 7. (8) - is 8. (0) ...,. their
IS. 1 . (C) - is 2. (8) - has performed 3. (A) - there is 4. (0) - has resulted
S . (C) - is 6. (C) - is
16. I . (C) - much 2. (C) - claim 3. (C) - than 4. (8) - is S. (8) - will be spent
6. (C) - going away 7. (0) - less 8. (0) - too far away
17. I . (C) - referred to 2. (8) - possess 3. (8) - does not possess 4 . (0) - pref
erable or preferred S. (8) - make 6. (0) - readily
18. I . (8) - Americans 2. (C) - than 3. (8) - associated 4. (C) - to strengthen
S. (C) - regardless 6. (0) - inherited 7. (8) - businessmen 8 . (8) - one
another
19. I . (8) - raising 2. (A) the sixth 3. (C) - serving 4. (C) - too S . (A) - like
6. (C) - because 7. (C) - devotes
-

Test B
I . (0) 2. (A) 3. (C) 4. (0) S. (8)
1 . (C) 2. ( 0) 3. (B) 4. (0) S . (C)
I . (8) 2. (8) 3. (C) 4. (0) S. (8)
1 . (C) 2. (C) 3. (8) 4. (0) S. (A) 6. (0) 7. (C) 8. (0) 9. (0) 1 0 . (C) I I . (C)
S. 1 . (A) 2. (8) 3. (A) 4. (8) S. (8) 6. (0)

1.
2.
3.
4.

187

6. I .
7. I .
8. I .
9. I .
10. I .
1 1 . I.
12. I.
13. I.

(0) 2. (C) 3. (0) 4. (A)


(A) 2. (0) 3 . (A) 4. (B) 5. (C) 6. (A)
(C) 2. (B) 3. (A) 4. (0) 5. (C) 6. (A) 7. (0) 8. (A) 9. (B) 10. (C)
(A)
(C)
(B)
(B)
(A)

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

(C)
(C)
(A)
(A)
(A)

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

(C) 4. (B) 5. (B)


(B) 4. (A) 5. (C)
(A) 4. (B) 5. (B)
(B) 4. (A) 5. (B)
(0) 4. (C) 5. (0)
Test C

(B) 2. (A)
(0) 2. (B)
(B) 2. (C)
(C) 2. (A)
5. 1 . (A) 2. (B)
6. 1 . (C) 2. (C)
1. I .
2. I .
3. I.
4. I .

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

(C) 4. (A) 5. (C) 6. (B) 7. (A) 8 . (C) 9. (A) 10. (0)


(C) 4. (B) 5 . (B)
(B) 4. (A) 5. (0 ) 6. (A) 7. (C)
(B) 4. (0) 5. (C)
(A) 4. (B) 5. (A)
(A) 4. (0) 5. (C)

B I B LIOG RAPHY
Dictionaries
I . Collins English Dictionary. Updated Edition. Harper Collins Publishers, 1994.

2. Collins Paperback Thesaurus. H a rpe r Collins Publishers, 1998.

3. Collins Dictionary of English Phrasal Verbs and their Idioms. By T. McArthur and Beryl Atkins.
Collins, LLT, 1992.

4. Longman Dictionary of Common Errors. New Edition, Longman, 1996.


5. The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. By A.S. Hornby, E.V. Gatenby,
H . Wakefield. London. Oxford University Press.
6. The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English. By M . Benson, E.

Benson, R. IIson.

7. The Penguin Dictionary of English Synonyms and Antonyms. Penguin Books, 1 992.
8 . The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, 1 99 1 .
9. EonblUOU aHzno-pyccKUU cn08apb 8 {J8YX mOMax. nOli 061UHM PYKOBOIICTBOM npo<j>eccopa
I1 . P. ranbneplIHa. M . , 1 972.
10. PyccKo-aHZRuucKUU cn08apb. nOli 061UIIM PYKOBOIICTBOM npo<j>eccopa A.11. CMHpHHUKoro.
M . : PYCCKHIi lI3blK, 1985.
I I . PyCClw-aHZRuucKUU cn08apb. nOli pell. P.c. llarnllwa. l1:maHHe lieclIToe. M.: PyccKHA lI3blK, 1997.
1 2 . A.B. KYHUH. AHrJlo-pYCCKHA <j>pa3eOJlOrH'leCKHA CJlOBapb. 11311. 4-e, nepepa60TaHHoe H 110nOJlHeHHoe.
1 3. Cno8apb-MuHUMYM {JnR ,meHUR HaY'Hou numepamypbl Ha aHZRuucKOM R3blKe. COCT. : A.B. MH
xeeBa, E.C. CaBHHoBa, E.C. CMwpHoBa, A. I1 . 'lepHan. 11311. 6-e. M., 1985.

Textbooks
I . Bryson, B. Mother Tongue. The English Language. Penguin Books, 1990.
2. Coffey, M . P. Communication through Writing. Prentice Hall, Inc. 1987.

3. Curry,

D.

f/lustrated American Idioms. Washington, D.C., 1994.

4. Fitikides, T.J. Common Mistakes in English (with exercises). Longman, 1996.


5. Goksadze L., et a!. A Practical Course in Current English Grammar. Tbilisi University Press, 1989.
6. Hewitt, K. Understanding Britain. M., .Bblcwan WKOJla., 1 994.
7. Kearny, E . N . , Kearny, M.A., Crandall, J.A. The American Way. An Introduction to American

Culture. New Jersey, 1984.


D .R., Adelman, M.B. Beyond Language. New Jersey, 1 9 8 2 .
9. Phillips, D. Longman Practice Testsfor the TOEFL. Longman, 1 988.
10. Stewart, E.C. American Cultural Patterns: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Intercultural Press, 1 985.
I I . M. Py6uoBa. IlonHblu KYpc aHZRuucKOZO R3blKa. Y,e6HuK-caMoy.umenb. 11311. BTopoe . M.:
KaHoH, 1996.
8. Levine,

1 89

CONTENTS

Part I. Revising Grammar and Vocabulary


Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit
Unit

].
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
]2.
13.
14.

Unit ]5.
Unit ]6.
Unit 17.
Unit ]8.
Unit ]9
Unit 20.
.

1 90

].
2.
3.
4.

.:.......................... 9

Samuel Finley Breese Morse

. . .
..
The Invention of the Phonograph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Niagara Falls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Early History of the White House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Beginning of Reform in American Education . . . . . .
An I ntroduction to American Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
An Introduction to American Culture {cant.) ..............

.
An Introduction to Americari Culture (cont.)
Increase in U.S. Medical Bills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The First Twenty-Four Hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indian Cliff Dwellings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The American Monetary System of the 1 7th
and 1 8th Centuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Federal Reserve System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Forgotten Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Forgotten Letter (cant.) ..
.. .
.
. . .
Just What Is a Vacation Anyway? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Just What Is a Vacation Anyway? (cant.) .....................
The Characteristics of Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..............

......

...

.....

......

....

Part II. Summing Up


Text
Text
Text
Text

.......

...

... .

.....

..

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........

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......

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....

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....

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. .
..

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II
IS
20
25
29
33
37
41
46
51
55
59
63
67
73
76
80
85
90
94
101

Modern Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 03
Hygiene
l OS
A Polite Request .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 07
Faster Than Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 09
......................................................................

Text
Text
Text
Text
Text
Text
Text
Text
Text
Text
Text
. Text
Text
Text
Text

5. The World of Perception

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
IS.

16.
1 7.
18.
19.

.
..
III
The World's Language - Unexpected Traps .
1 13
...
. . ..
.
.
. .
. I I 5.
English Pubs
England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales
..
.
... 1 1 7
Scotland ..
. .
.
.
.
.
1 19
American Pattern of Thinking
121
The Oyster's Tear
.
...
.
. 1 23
Communication Phases . . .
.
1 25
Language Learning
.. .
..
.. 1 27
Language Learning (cont.)
. ...
..
1 29
' Ein Image Problem' and 'das Cash-FloW' .
. 132
What t o Do?
.
.
..
.
..
1 34
Another Problem to Solve
...
.. .
1 37
Melatonin
: . . . . . . .......... 1 40
Interesting Traits .
..
...
..
1 44
........................

.....

............

..

......

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..

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. .

..........

..

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.. ..........

.......

....

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.....

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......

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....................................

.....

. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..

......

......

. . . .. . . .

. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........

....................

.....

......

.....

...

........

...........

...

. . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........

.........

..............

..........

. .. . . .

..

...

..........

........

........

...

.....

..................

. . . ...... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

...

.....

...................

III. Grammar and Vocabulary Tests


Test A
Test B
Part

......

......

................

...... . . . . . . . . . . ..........

. 1 47
.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Test C .
..

.....

.....

..

. .... . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.....

.......

1 49
1 63
1 76

. .
.
. 1 83
Topics for Discussion or Composition
.
..
. . .
1 86
Answer Key
Bibliography . .. . .
, ........... .................................. ....... 1 8 9
.............

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....

....

...

........

..

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..........

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