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First of all, I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher

Madam Bibiana Toh Siew Siew as well as our principal Mr. Nicholas Bamphield who
gave me the chance to do this wonderful project on the topic Technology in Food
Production, which also helped me in doing a lot of research. I came to know about so
many new things. I am really thankful to them.
Secondly I would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in
finishing this project within the limited time. They give their support for me by a lot of
Thanks again to all who helped me.

To determine technology in food production regarding quality and quantity of
food and technology development in food processing.

In a world where the richest fifth eat 45 per cent of all meat and fish, while the
poorest fifth consume just five per cent, and where four out of five malnourished children
live in countries with food surpluses, there are clear problems in distribution. This means
that any effort to improve agricultural productivity must go hand-in-hand with measures
that address inequality.
The technology options appropriate to rural food producers and herders
includes direct seeding, hydroponic, aeroponic and many other techniques appropriate to
their circumstances.
Youll come to learn a great deal if you study the insignificant in depth
-Odysseus ElytisWe never knew the truth of about something if we ourselves does not have the
initiative to look for it. This topic is one of the most important topic not just in the
syllabus but also in our daily life. It is about food that is something that we eat. We must
know how make it better so that we will produce best generations for the future.

Section A: Quality and Quantity of Food
(a) The need to improve the quality and quantity of food
The population of Malaysia stands at about 25 million today. By the year 2020, the
countrys population is expected to reach 70 million. The rapid increase in the countrys
population imposes a greater demand on food supply. There is a need to improve the
quality and quantity of food production to meet the demands of the growing population.

(b) Efforts to diversify food production with examples

As discussed earlier, a balanced diet is essential for good health. A balanced
diet can be achieved by diversifying the types of foods we take. For this reason, the
government has carried out various campaigns to encourage the people to consume food
from diverse sources.
Ulam is a type of salad which includes fresh leaves, fruits and other plant parts
which are eaten raw. Examples of ulam include pegaga (Centella asiatica), shoots of
papaya, kacang botor, petai (Parkia speciosa) and kemangi (Ocimum sanctum). They are
rich in minerals ions, vitamins and fibre. Some of these plants are also used in the
preparation of herbal medicines and drinks.
The main sources of proteins include chicken, fish and meat. Rabbit meat is
rich in protein but low in fat and cholesterol. The meat has a soft texture and is suitable
for young children. Ostrich meat is nutritious, rich in protein and low in fat. Freshwater
fish like tilapia, jelawat and haruan are low in cholesterol. Fish protein is easily digestible
and is much needed by growing children for healthy development.

(c) Methods in food production

Various methods are employed to improve the quality and quantity of food production in
the country. Examples where technology can be used are:
(i) Direct seeding
(ii) Hydroponics
(iii) Aeroponics
(iv) Breeding
(v) Tissue culture
(vi) Genetic engineering
(vii) Soil management
(viii) Biological control

(i) Direct seeding

Direct seeding is a method by which seeds are sown directly into the soil by using special
machines. The seeds are covered with soil as they are being sown. This method does not
involve transplanting of seedlings and therefore results in less damage to the roots of the
seedlings. The plants achieve faster growth and this increase the yield. Less water is
needed to irrigate the fields. This method is widely used in the planting of paddy to obtain
higher yields of rice.

(ii) Hydroponics

Hydroponics is a commercial technique for growing certain crop plants in culture

solutions rather than soil. The roots of the plants are immersed in a solution which
contains all the marconutrients and micronutrients required by the plants in the correct
proportion. The culture solution is aerated to provide sufficient oxygen for respiration.

(iii) Aeroponics

Aeroponics is a modified technique of hydroponics. In this method, the plants are

suspended in a special chamber with the roots exposed to the air. Nutrient solutions are
sprayed onto the roots of the plants at suitable intervals. This enables the plant roots to
absorb more oxygen in between the periods of spraying. Plants achieve faster growth
because the culture solutions provide nutrients in a form that can be readily absorbed by
the roots.

(iv) Breeding
Breeding of plants

In the breeding of plants, different plant species with certain beneficial characteristics are
selectively bred. The resulting varieties of plants inherit the beneficial characteristics of
both parent plants. These plant may have increased nutritional value, shorter maturity
time, higher yields, greater resistance to disease and climatic changes and better
adaptations to local environmental conditions. In Malaysia, the most widely planted
variety of oil palm is the Tenara sp. It is a variety produced by crossing the parents
varieties of Dura sp. and Pisifera sp. Tenara sp. possesses the beneficial characteristics of
both Dura sp. and Pisifera ap.

Animal breeding

Animal breeding involve the cross-breeding of two different breeds of animals. Animals
have been selectively bred to increase the yields of milk, meat and other farm products.
In Malaysia, the hybrid cattle called Mafriwal is bred in farms for its milk. Mafriwal is a
cross between a Friesian cow and Sahiwal bull. Mafriwal produces more milk with low
fat content. Many varieties of goats, sheep, chickens and ducks have also been cross-bred
in Malaysia.

(v) Tissue culture

Tissue culture is a technique in which an entire plant can be regenerated from the cells or
tissues of a parent plant. The cells or tissues taken from the parent plant are grown in a
sterile culture medium or culture solution which contains the necessary nutrients and
growth hormones. Plantlets which are produced can then be transplanted to nurseries.
Tissue culture of plant tissues enables commercial propagation of clones which have all
the beneficial characteristics of the parent plant or which have undergone manipulation
via genetic engineering. This method helps increase the agricultural yield of many crop
plants like papayas, pineapples and starfruits.

(vii) Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering is a technique that has great potential in improving the quality and
quantity of food to meet the needs of an increasing world population. This technique
enables the characteristics of an organism to be altered by changing the genetic
composition of the organism. It involves the transfer of beneficial genes from one
organism to another organism. For example, genes from plants can be inserted into the
DNA of animal cells and vice versa. The genetically modified organism (GMO) is called
a transgenic organism. Developments in the genetic engineering have enabled transgenic
crop plants such as wheat, tomatoes, legumes, soya beans and potatoes to be cultivated
commercially. These crop plants contain genes from other organisms to enhance their
growth or nutritional properties. For example: golden rice

Golden rice is a transgenic rice in which the gene that codes for the synthesis of betacarotene has been transferred from the daffodil plant. As a result, golden rice has a higher
content of beta-carotene and is orange in colour. Beta-carotene is needed for the synthesis
of vitamin A which is essential in a balanced diet.
(vii) Soil management

Another method of increasing productivity is to practise proper soil management. Soil

should be cultivated in a controlled manner so that not all minerals are removed from it at
any one time. Proper soil management includes the following:

Regular addition of organic or inorganic fertilisers to return nutrients to the soil.

Ploughing, which helps increase aeration in the soil.
Practising crop rotation.
Reducing soil erosion and leaching of nutrients from the soil.
Addition of organic matter which promotes humus formation and improves soil

Crop rotation

Crop rotation is to maintain and improve soil fertility and prevent the build-up of pests
peculiar to any crop species. Crop rotation involves cultivation of different plants in
succession on the same plot of land over a period of time. For example, legumes, leafy
plants, plant that bear fruits like watermelons and root plants like onion and garlic can be
planted in a typical four-stage rotation.

(viii) Biological control

Biological control is the control of pests through the use of natural predators. Biological
control is beneficial as it reduces the use of chemicals (in pesticides) and is environment
friendly. Some examples of biological control are as follows:

Owls and snakes have been used successfully to control the rat population on oil
palm plantations.
The population of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia sp.) is controlled by
introducing the cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorum)

Section B: Technology Development in Food Processing

(a) The necessity of food processing
Food processing is the process of preparing food to make it more attractive, more
palatable and to last longer. Food has to be processed so that it can withstand long periods
of transportation and storage. Nearly all kinds of foods can be processed. Food
processing has developed into an important component of the food production industry.
One of the main purposes of food processing is to preserve food by overcoming the
factors that cause food spoilage. Foods have to be processed:

To extend their lifespan so that they can be stored for future use.
To avoid wastage.
To prevent the spread of diseases due to contamination of food, which can cause
food poisoning.
To ensure there will be a continuous supply of food for the population.
To increase their commercial value.
To prevent bacterial and fungal decay.
To diversify the uses of food substances. For example, milk can be processed to
produce a variety of dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, ice cream, butter and

(b) Food processing technology



Cooking is the process of preparing food by applying heat, selecting, measuring, and
combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure for producing safe and edible food. The
process encompasses a vast range method of methods, tools and combination of
ingredients to alter the flavor, appearance, texture or digestibility of food. Factors
affecting the final outcome include the variability of ingredients, ambient conditions,
tools and the skill of the individual doing the actual cooking. Applying heat to food
usually, though not always, chemically transform it, therefore changing its flavour,
texture, consistency, appearance and nutritional properties. Methods of cooking that
involve the boiling of liquid in a reacceptance have been practiced at least since the 10th
millennium BC, with the introduction of pottery.

Preservation using salt or sugar

- Salt
Salting is the preservation of food with dry salt. It is related to pickling (preparing food
with brine, example: salty water). It is one of the oldest methods of preserving food and
two historically significant such foods are dried and salted cod (usually referred to as salt
fish) and salt-cured meat. Salting is used because most bacteria, fungi and other
potentially pathogenic or organisms cannot survive in a highly salty environment, due to
the hypertonic nature of salt. Any living cell in such an environment will become
dehydrated trough osmosis and die or become temporarily inactivated.
- Sugar
Sugaring is a food preservation method similar to pickling. Sugaring is the process of
desiccating a food by first dehydrating it, then packing it with pure sugar. This sugar can
be crystalline in the form of table or raw sugar, or it can be a high sugar density liquid
such as honey, syrup or molasses. The purpose of sugaring is to create an environment
hostile to microbial life and prevent food spoilage. Sugaring is commonly used to
preserve fruits as well as vegetables such as ginger. From time to time sugaring also has
been used for non-food preservations. A risk in sugaring is that sugar itself attracts
moisture. Once a sufficient moisture level is reached, native yeast in the environment will
come out of dormancy and begin to ferment the sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
This leads to the process of fermentation. Although fermentation can be used as a food
preservation method, it must be intentionally controlled, or the results will tend to be



Fermentation in food processing typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol

using yeast, bacteria or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. More general
definition of fermentation is the chemical conversion of carbohydrates into alcohols or
acids. When fermentation stops prior to complete conversion of sugar to alcohol, a stuck
fermentation is said to have occurred. The science of fermentation is known as zymology.
Fermentation usually implies that the action of the microorganisms is desirable and the
process is used to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine, beer, and cider.
Fermentation is also employed in preservation to create lactic acid in sour foods such as
pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurts. The main purpose of food fermentation are:
- Enrichment of the diet through development of a diversity of flavors, aromas and
textures in food substrates.
- Preservation of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid, alcohol, acetic acid and
alkaline fermentations.
- Biological enrichment of food substrater with protein, essential amino acids, essential
fatty acids and vitamins.
- Detoxification during food-fermentation processing.
- A decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements.


Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food,
which prevents the growth of microorganisms and decay. Drying food using the sun and
wind to prevent spoilage has been known since ancient times. Water is usually removed
by evaporation (air drying, sun drying, smoking or wind drying) but, in the case of
freeze-drying, food is first dried and then water is removed by sublimation. Bacteria and
micro-organisms within the food and from the air need the water in the food to grow.
Drying effectively prevents them from surviving in the food. It also creates a hard outerlayer, helping to stop micro-organisms from entering the food. Many different foods are
prepared by dehydration. Good examples are meat such as prosciutto (a.k.a. Parma ham),
bresaola, and beef jerky. Dried and salted reindeer meat is a traditional Sami food. First
the meat is soaked or pickled in saltwater for a couple of days to guarantee the
conservation of the meat. Then the meat is dried in the sun in spring when the air
temperature is below zero. The dried meat can be further processed to make soup. Fruits
change character completely when dried. For example: the plum becomes a prune, the
grape a raisin, figs and dates are also transformed. Drying is rarely used for vegetables
for use in the household however dehydrated vegetables are often found in commercially

packaged meals made for backpackers, hunters, military and others. The exceptions to
this rule are bulbs, such as garlic and onion, which are often dried. Also chilies are
frequently fried. Edible and psilocybin mushrooms, as well as other fungi, are also
sometimes dried for preservation purposes, to affect the potency of chemical components,
or so they can be used as seasonings. For centuries, much of the European diet depended
on dried cod, known as salt cod or bacalhau (with salt) or stockfish. It formed the main
protein source for the slaves on the West Indian plantations, and was a major economic
force within the triangular trade. Dried shark meat, known as Hakari, is a delicacy in


Pasteurization is a process which slows microbial growth in food. The process was
named after its creator, French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur. The first
pasteurization test was completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard on April, 1862.
The process was originally conceived as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring.
Unlike sterilization, inventor Nicholas Appert, pasteurization is not intended to kill all
pathogenic micro-organisms in the food or liquid. Instead, pasteurization aims to reduce
the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease (assuming the
pasteurization products is refrigerated and consumed before its expiration date).
Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because it adversely affects the
taste and quality of the product. Certain food products are processed to achieve the state
of commercial sterility. Pasteurization typically uses temperatures below boiling since at
temperatures above the boiling point for milk, casein, micelles will irreversibly
aggregate. There are two main types of pasteurization used today: High temperature /
short time HTST and Extended Shelf Life (ESL) treatment. Ultra High Temperature
(UHT or ultra-heat treated) is also used for milk treatment. Pasteurization methods are
usually standardized and controlled by national food safety agencies. These agencies
require milk to be HTST pasteurized in order to qualify for the pasteurization label. These
are different standards for different dairy products, depending on the fat content and the
intended usage. For examples, the pasteurization standards for cream differ from the
standards for fluis milk and the standards for pasteurizing cheese are designed to preserve
the phosphates enzyme, which aids in cutting. Products that can be pasteurized are
cheese, water, milk, beer, eggs, almonds ,juice.


Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food is processed and sealed in an
airtight container. The process was first development as a French military discovery by
Nicholas Appert. The packaging prevents microorganisms from entering and proliferating
inside. Form a public safety point of view, foods with low acidity need sterilization under
high temperature. To achieve temperatures above the boiling point requires the use of a

pressure canner. Foods that must be pressure canned include most vegetables, meats,
seafood and dairy products. The only foods that may be safely canned in an ordinary
boiling water bath are highly acidic ones with a pH below 4.6, such as fruits, pickled
vegetables, or other foods to which acidic additives have been added.


Refrigeration slows bacterial growth. Bacteria exist everywhere in nature. They are in the
soil, air, water and the foods we eat. When they have nutrients, moisture, and favorable
temperature, they grow rapidly, increasing in numbers to the point where some types of
bacteria can cause illness.

(c) The effects of processed food on health

Processed food is normally devoid of nutritional contents. This is because the
vitamins and nutrients have been destroyed during the heating process. In addition,
Processes food contains many chemicals in the form of food preservatives, flavouring,
colouring, stabilisers, and others. Some of these chemicals are harmful to health.
It is advisable to consume more fresh organic fruits and vegetables than
processed food. When choosing processed food, it is a good practice to read the food
labels to determine the type of chemicals present in the food. In this way, we are aware of
the type and the quality of the processed food before consuming it.

This folio is about nutrition. It covers two main topics. First topic is concern
more in technology in food production which stress on the method use to improve the
quality and quantity of food production. While second topic is about technological
development in food processing which describe the necessity for food processing and the
food processing technology with the effects of processed food on health.
In conclusion, nutritious food is in order to gain a healthy and best quality of
life. Hence, we have to hold hand working on this matter so that we can share the profits

1) Text book
Gan Wan Yeat, Manoharan a/1 Subramaniam, Azmah Binti Rajion, 2005. Biology
Form 4. Kuala Lumpur: Bakaprer Sdn. Bhd.
2) Internet

By completed this folio, I have received much knowledge which are not as
anticipating. I learnt and realised that the initiative of imporving quality and quantity of
food and the efforts to diversify food production are quite significant as it needs to meet
the demands of the growing population in Malaysia. In addition, there are eight means to
improve quality and quantity of food production which are direct seeding, hydroponics,
aeroponics, breeding, tissue culture, genetic engineering, soil management, and biological
Secondly, this is the first time I went through the whole section of the syllabus
with my own effort. As in my understanding, food processing is the process of preparing
food to make it more fine-looking, delicacy and last longer. Some of these ten food
processing technology is complicated, which are pasteurization, UHT, fermentation but
some is simply constructed ranged from cooking, drying, pickling, treating with salt or
sugar, canning, freezing and refrigeration. Hence, sometimes they bring hazard effects on
In conclude, I am really appreciate the golden chance that is given by my
teacher in-charge Madam Bibiana which made the first in my secondary school life.