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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ejmsol

cracks

Qinkai Han, Fulei Chu*

Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 3 June 2011

Accepted 15 March 2012

Available online 30 March 2012

When the rotor rotates at a constant speed, the transverse crack opens and closes alternatively, due to

gravity, and thus a breathing effect occurs. This variance in shaft stiffness is time-periodic, and hence

a parametrically excited system is expected. The parametric excitation from the time-varying stiffness

causes instability and severe vibration under certain operating conditions. Current research mostly

focused on the rotor with single transverse crack. There are few studies on the multi-cracked rotor

system. In fact, the interaction between the multiple parametric excitations with various phasing and

amplitude, which are induced by the multiple breathing transverse cracks, would make the instability

behavior of the system differ distinctly from that of the single cracked rotor system. Moreover, how the

instability regions change with various crack breathing mechanisms should also be investigated. Thus,

the parametric instability of a rotor-bearing system with two breathing transverse cracks is studied in the

paper. First, the nite element equations of motion are established for the cracked rotor system. Two

types of crack breathing mechanisms, of which one is more accurate (new) and the other is empirical

(old), are adopted in the nite element formulation. Then, a generalized Bolotins method is introduced

for determining the boundaries of the primary and secondary instability regions. Based upon these,

instability analysis for a practical used rotor-bearing system with single and two cracks are conducted,

respectively. The instability regions induced by the single transverse crack with new and old breathing

mechanisms are compared with each other. For the two-cracked rotor system, the variations of the

unstable boundaries with crack depths, orientation angles and positions are observed and discussed in

detail. It is shown from the results that the dynamic instability of the two-cracked rotor-bearing system

indeed have some unique features that differ from that of the single cracked rotor system.

2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Parametric instability

Rotor-bearing system

Two transverse cracks

Various crack breathing mechanisms

1. Introduction

The effect of the presence of the transverse crack on the

dynamics of the rotor has been a focus of attention for many

researchers. If undetected early, such cracks can pose a potential

source of catastrophic failures. Many researchers have therefore

conducted extensive investigations on the dynamics of cracked

rotor over the last four decades. Early research progress could be

found in (Wauer, 1990; Gasch, 1993; Dimarogonas, 1996). More

recently, in depth literature reviews on the dynamical modeling

and analysis of cracked rotors were published by Papadopoulos

(2008) and Bachschmid et al. (2010), respectively.

When the rotor rotates at a constant speed, the transverse crack

opens and closes alternatively, due to gravity, and thus a breathing

effect occurs. This variance in shaft stiffness is time-periodic.

* Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: hanqinkai@hotmail.com (Q. Han), chu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

(F. Chu).

0997-7538/$ e see front matter 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.euromechsol.2012.03.003

Hence, the dynamic behavior of the rotor with breathing transverse cracks could be modeled by a coupled set of second-order

linear differential equations with periodic coefcients. This type of

system is often referred to as the parametrically excited system. The

parametric excitation from the time-varying stiffness causes instability and severe vibration under certain operating conditions. Thus,

many attentions have been paid to study the determination of

operating conditions of parametric instability in cracked rotor

dynamic analysis. To name a few, Meng and Gasch (2000) investigated the stability and the stability degree of a cracked Jeffcott rotor

supported on different kinds of journal bearings. Gasch (2008)

presented an overview stability diagram of a Laval rotor having

a transverse crack. Fu et al. (2002), Dai and Chen (2007) and Chen

et al. (2007), respectively, carried out nonlinear dynamic stability

analysis of a rotating shaft-disk system with a transverse crack. In

their model, the mass of elastic shaft, the additional displacements

caused by the crack, the geometric nonlinearity of the shaft and

asymmetrical viscoelastic supports were taken into account based

181

upon the energy theorem and Lagrange equation. The above analysis

focused on the study of simple systems with few degrees of freedom

to gain a qualitative insight into the instability phenomena.

With the successful utilization of nite element models in the area

of rotor dynamics, the parametric instability analysis were also

extended to nite element cracked rotor-bearing systems (Sekhar

and Dey, 2000; Sinou, 2007; Ricci and Pennacchi, 2009). Sekhar

and Dey (2000) studied the variation of the rst stability threshold

limit with crack parameters and shaft internal damping. Sinou (2007)

conducted the stability analysis by applying a perturbation to the

nonlinear periodic solution, and analyzed the effect of crack on the

rst three instability regions. Ricci and Pennacchi (2009) evaluated

the stability of a steam turbo generator rotor for different values of

rotating speed and crack depth. In these studies, the adopted

breathing model of the transverse crack was either switching (Gasch,

1976) or harmonic (Mayes and Davies,1984), which have been proved

to be approximate and rough in modeling the crack breathing

behavior. More recently, the actual breathing mechanism was presented and new breathing functions of the breathing crack were

introduced by Al-Shudeifat and Butcher (2011). It is shown that the

new breathing functions are considerably more accurate than the

previously used functions. Thus, after considering the accurate crack

breathing mechanism, how the parametric instability changes would

be one of the purposes of the paper.

As the literature shows, extensive efforts have been devoted to

the rotor with a single transverse surface crack. When more than

one crack appears in a rotor, the dynamic characteristics of the

system have not gained sufcient attentions. Tsai and Wang (1997)

and Sekhar (1999), respectively, employed the transfer matrix

method and nite element method to analyze the natural

frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of a continuous multicracked rotor system. The effects of both relative distance along axis

and/or orientations of cracks were considered. Wu et al. (2005)

two transverse cracks. For a stationary shaft with two cracks, the

coupled bending vibrations on the horizontal and vertical planes

were discussed by Chasalevris and Papadopulos (2008). Sekhar

(2008) gave a comprehensive summary on the identication

methods for the multi-cracked beam and rotor systems. However,

in the above analysis, the multiple cracks are all assumed to be open

and the breathing behavior is not taken into account. Only Darpe

et al. (2003) studied the effect of two breathing cracks on the

unbalance response of a simple Jeffcott rotor, and the parametric

instability was not addressed in their study. Actually, due to the

multiple breathing transverse cracks, there are multiple parametric

stiffness excitations in the rotor system. As the orientation, position

and depth of various cracks are different, so the multiple parametric excitations might have various amplitudes, phases and

Fig. 1. Rotor having two transverse surface cracks (a) and the crack orientation in the

circumference (b).

Fig. 2. Schematic diagrams of the cracked element cross-section: (a) before rotation

and (b) after the shaft rotates. The dashed area represents the crack segment of crack 1.

182

instability of the rotor system.

Thus, the parametric instability of a rotor-bearing system with

multiple (two) transverse cracks is studied in the paper. First, the

nite element equations of motion are established for the cracked

rotor system. The new breathing functions, presented by AlShudeifat and Butcher (2011), are used in formulating the timevarying nite element stiffness matrices of the cracked elements.

In order for comparison, the widely used harmonic breathing

function, named the old breathing mechanism, are also given in the

paper. Then, a generalized Bolotins method (Turhan, 1998) is

introduced for determining the boundaries of the primary and

secondary instability regions. Based upon these, instability

computations for a practical used rotor-bearing system with single

and two cracks are conducted, respectively. The unstable regions

induced by the single transverse crack with new and old breathing

mechanisms are compared with each other. For the two-cracked

rotor system, the variations of the unstable boundaries with crack

depths, orientations and positions are observed and discussed in

detail. Finally, some useful conclusions are given.

2. Mathematical modeling of rotor-disk-bearing system with

two transverse cracks

2.1. Two transverse cracks with new breathing mechanism

IX s IXA1 s IXA2 s

IY s IYA1 s IYA2 s

(1)

A1

A2

where IXY

s and IXY

s are the area moments of inertia of the

areas A1 and A2 s about the xed X and Y axes. Hence, the area

k1ce

12I X

6 0

6

6

6 0

6

E6

6lIX

36

l 6

6 12I X

6 0

6

6 0

4

6lIX

0

12IY

6lI Y

0

0

12I Y

6lI Y

0

0

6lI Y

4l2 IY

0

0

6lIY

2l2 IY

0

6lI X

0

0

4l2 I X

6lI X

0

0

2l2 I X

12I X

0

0

6lI X

12IX

0

0

6lI X

0

12I Y

6lI Y

0

0

12I Y

6lI Y

0

I X s IX s Yce s2 Ace s

I Y s IY s Xce s2 Ace s

0

6lI Y

2l2 I Y

0

0

6lI Y

4l2 I Y

0

(2)

where Xce s and Yce s are the centroid coordinates of Ace s relative to the xed X and Y axes. Al-Shudeifat and Butcher (2011)

studied the actual breathing mechanism of the transverse surface

crack, and presented accurate expressions for both I X s and I Y s.

Here, their results are adopted as

IX s I I I 1 f1 s

(3)

IY s I I I 1 f1 s 2I I1 I 2 f2 s

(4)

closed, I 1 I Ixc A1 e2 and I 2 I Iyc are the time-invariant

area moments of inertia of A1 about the centroid X and Y axes at

s 0, where Ixc and Iyc are the area moments of inertia of the crack

segment about the xed X and Y axes, and e is the centroid location

on the xed Y-axis. According to the geometry of the cracked crosssection, the Ixc , Iyc , A1 and e could be, respectively, expressed utilizing

the non-dimensional crack depth m1 h1 =R and shaft radius R as

Ixc

in Fig. 1. The two cracks with various depths h1, h2 are assumed to be

some distance apart axially. Besides, crack 1 oriented from crack 2

at an angle of b in the circumference.

Without loss of generality, the edge of crack 1 is assumed at zero

angle with the xed X-axis at t 0 as shown in Fig. 2(a). The

constant rotational speed of the rotor is denoted by U. A dimensionless time-variable is introduced as s Ut. As the shaft starts to

rotate, the crack angle with the negative Y-axis is changed by time

to s as shown in Fig. 2(b). In the following, the time-periodic stiffness element matrix induced by crack 1 is introduced rst. The

stiffness element matrix of crack 2 could also be obtained by taking

into account the crack orientation angle b.

In order to get the stiffness matrix of the cracked rotor element,

the area moments of the overall cross-sectional area Ace s of the

cracked element about the centroid X and Y should be determined

rst. The Ace s includes two parts: the left uncracked area A1 at

s 0 and the area of the closed portion of the crack A2 s, which

is time-variable and starts to appear as the crack starts to close.

Thus, the area moments of inertia of Ace s about the xed X and Y

axes are calculated as

stay parallel to the xed X and Y axes during rotation are given as

pR4 R4

8

1 m1 2m21 4m1 1 g sin1 1 m1

R4

1 m1 2m21 4m1 3 g 3 sin1 g

12

A1 R2 p cos1 1 m1 1 m1 g

Iyc

2R3 3

g

3A1

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

p

where g m1 2 m1 . The breathing functions f1 s and f2 s in

Eqs. (3) and (4) are given as (Al-Shudeifat and Butcher, 2011)

f1 s coss=2=m

f2 s

(9)

q1 q2

2

q2 q1

!

s

X

cosiq2 cosiq1

s

cosi

i2

i1

(10)

p

q1 tan1 e R1 m1 =R m1 2 m1

is the angle at which the crack start to close, and the upper end of

the crack edge reaches the compression stress eld. When the shaft

rotates at q2 p=2 cos1 1 m1 , the crack becomes fully

closed. According to the results in Ref. (Al-Shudeifat and Butcher,

2011), the positive numbers should be m 8 and s 4 to meet

3

6lI X

0 7

7

7

0 7

7

2l2 I X 7

7

6lIX 7

7

0 7

7

0 7

5

4l2 I X

(11)

matrix of the cracked element of the cracked rotor system is written

as

By substituting Eqs. (3) and (4) into Eq. (11), one can rewrite the

crack element matrix as

183

Ref. (Lalanne and Ferraris, 1998). The matrices M, C, G, K, K1 s and

K2 s are each of dimension 4(N 1) 4(N 1).

(12)

state which is equivalent to the uncracked element stiffness matrix.

The matrices k11 and k12 of crack 1 are the secondary stiffness

matrices that appear due to the breathing crack. They are found via

Eqs. (3), (4) and (11) as

12

6 0

6

6 0

6

EI11 6

6l

1

k1 3 6

12

l 6

6

6 0

6

4 0

6l

0

12

6l

0

0

12

6l

0

0

6l

4l2

0

0

6l

2l2

0

6l

0

0

4l2

6l

0

0

2l2

12

0

0

6l

12

0

0

6l

0

12

6l

0

0

12

6l

0

0

6l

2l2

0

0

6l

4l2

0

3

6l

0 7

7

0 7

7

2l2 7

7

6l 7

7

0 7

7

0 5

4l2

(13)

0

60

6

60

6

EI22 6

0

1

k2 3 6

l 6

60

60

6

40

0

0

12

6l

0

0

12

6l

0

0

6l

4l2

0

0

6l

2l2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

6l

0

0

12

6l

0

3

0

07

7

07

7

07

7

07

7

07

7

05

0

0

6l

2l2

0

0

6l

4l2

0

(14)

element stiffness matrix could be gained similarly with that of

crack 1 by taking into account the crack orientation angle b as

k21

(15)

k22

where

and

are the secondary element stiffness matrices of

crack 2, which are computed by substituting m2 h2 =R for m1 in

Eqs. (13) and (14).

2.2. FEM model of the rotor-disk-bearing system

The uncracked rotor element matrices are derived based upon

the EulereBernoulli beam theory. Without considering the unbalance and gravity forces, the FEM equations of motion of the cracked

rotor-disk-bearing system with two breathing surface cracks are

written in matrix form as

_ s K K1 s K2 s qs 0

U2 Mqs UC UGq

(16)

displacement vector, qTi ui yi fyi fxi is the single node displacement vector consisting of translational and rotational displacements

about the X and Yaxes for i 1, 2,/, N 1, M is the global mass matrix,

K is the global stiffness matrix of the uncracked system,

K1 s K11 f1 s K12 f2 s and K2 s K21 f1 s b K22 f2 s b

represent the time-periodic stiffness matrices induced by the two

12

12

cracks, in which K1 and K2 are the secondary stiffness matrices of

zero entries except for the element of crack 1 or 2 where the entries

12

12

1 2

1 2

in K2 , UG and C are the

equal to k1 in K1 and equal to k2

global gyroscopic and damping matrices. Only the bearing (external)

damping is considered, and the internal damping is beyond the

concept of the paper. The single element mass, stiffness and

sufcient attentions in the past. The harmonic form of the

breathing crack function proposed in Ref. (Mayes and Davies, 1984)

to describe the breathing mechanism of the crack in a cracked rotor

system has been widely accepted and used in the literature. Here,

the harmonic breathing mechanism is also introduced for parametric instability comparisons with the new breathing mechanism.

The old breathing function is given by

1

1 cos s

2

f s

(17)

The plus sign of the cosine term in this function is used when

the crack is fully open and symmetric with the negative Y-axis at

s 0. The function can be used in Eqs. (3) and (4) by assuming

f1 s f2 s f s which yields

I X s I I I 1 f s

(18)

I Y s I I I 2 f s

(19)

Eqs. (18) and (19) are exactly the same as the equations derived

for the area moments of inertia for the cracked element of a similar

cracked rotor system with a breathing crack in Ref. (Al-Shudeifat

et al., 2010). Hence, using the old breathing function in the literature given in Eq. (17) for approximating the breathing mechanism

of a cracked rotor is also considered in the analysis in order for the

comparison with the results obtained by using the accurate

breathing functions.

The stability of the solutions of Eq. (16) will be studied via the

Generalized Bolotin Method described in Ref. (Turhan, 1998). This

method is based on the Floquet theory and gives the stability

boundaries on a two-dimensional parameter space. Thus, evoke

rst the Floquet theory according to which a solution of Eq. (16) can

be written as a product of an exponential part and a 2p periodic

part. Representing the periodic part by its complex Fourier series

expansion, this solution can be written as

qs ers

N

X

qk ejks

(20)

k N

p

where j 1, r represents the Floquet (or characteristic) exponent and qk are the complex Fourier coefcients vectors. By representing K1 s and K2 s by their complex Fourier series

expansions up to the n th harmonic and substituting Eq. (20) into

Eq. (16), one can have

N h

X

k N

n

X

N

X

p n k N

21

coefcients matrices related to K1 s and K2 s, respectively.

Harmonic balance of Eq. (21) requires the following innite set of

algebraic equations to be satised

184

Table 1

Physical parameters of rotor-bearing-disk system used in Ref. (Al-Shudeifat et al.,

2010).

n

X

p n

r2 D0 r E0 E1 F0 F1 2 F2

U

U

U

y 0

(23)

where y /qT2 ; qT1 ; qT0 ; qT1 ; qT2 /T is an innite column vector,

and D0, Ei, Fi are innite dimensional partitioned matrices made up

of 4(N 1) 4(N 1) sub-matrices given by

Description

Value

Description

Value

Radius of the rotor

Density of rotor

Modulus of elasticity

Bearing stiffness

0.724 m

0.01588 m

7800 kg/m3

2.1 1011/m2

7 107 N/m

Disk inner radius

Density of disk

Mass of the disk

0.0762 m

0.01588 m

2700 kg/m3

0.571 kg

could be gained by solving the polynomial eigenvalue problems. If

the boundaries of U1i (primary instability region) are of interest, the

innite matrices in Eq. (27) are represented as

k;r

k;r

d

d

d

Dk;r

0 M kr ; E0 2jkM G kr ; E1 C kr ;

k;r

k;r

1

2

2

d

d

d

Fk;r

0 k M jkG kr ; F1 jkC kr ; F2 K kr Kp Kp

(24)

in which dkr is the Kronecher delta and the superscripts k and the

superscripts k and r refer to the hyper-row and column indices. In

order for Eq. (16) to admit a non-trivial solution of form Eq. (20), the

determinant of the coefcientss matrix of Eq. (23) must vanish

2

(25)

This equation can be used to calculate the U values corresponding to stability boundaries on a parameter space, which has U

as one of its components, provided that the value of the Floquet

exponent r on those boundaries is known. The starting points of

simple instability regions (denoted by Uni ) at the rotating speed axis

could be written as (Nayfeh and Mook, 1979)

2

n

Uin ui

(26)

in which ui is the ith whirling frequency of equivalent timeinvariant rotor system. When the system is at the boundaries of

U1i ; U3i ; U5i ; / (called the sub-harmonic parametric resonance

boundaries), the value of one of the characteristic exponents would

be j/2. For the boundaries of U2i ; U4i ; U6i ; / (called the harmonic

parametric resonance boundaries), a certain characteristic exponent takes the zero value. Putting r j/2 or r 0 into Eq. (25), one

could have the sub-harmonic and harmonic parametric resonance

boundaries respectively

det

j

1

1

j

1

F 1 E1 2 F 2 0

F0 E0 D0

U

2

4

2

U

1

1

det F0 F1 2 F2 0

0

;

M

E0

E1

C

0

0

;

C

(29)

F0 4

2

M jG

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

5;

0

M jG

K K1 K2

6 1 0 2 0

F2 4 K1 K1

K12 K22

K11 K21

K K10 K20

K11 K21

jC

F1 4 0

0

3

0 0

0 0 5;

0 jC

3

K12 K22

7

K11 K21 5

1

2

K K0 K0

(30)

n 1; 2; 3; /

M

0

Eq. (28) are written as

is used here as shown in Fig. 3. The undamped rotor-bearing-disk

system is divided into 18 elements. The left and right disks have

the same geometrical dimensions. The values of the physical

parameters are given in Table 1.

In the following, the instability boundaries obtained by the

generalized Bolotins method are veried with numerical results.

1000

900

2

2

800

(27)

(28)

1

1

1

0

det r2 D0 r E0 E1 F0 F1 2 F2

2jM G 0

;

0

G

M jG 0

jC 0

; F1

;

F0

0

0

0

0

#

"

K11 K21

K K10 K20

F2

K11 K21 K K10 K20

D0

700

1

600

500

400

300

200

2

i

=/2

i

100

0

500

1000

(rad/s)

1500

2000

1

0.8

U2

U1

0.6

0.4

0

1360

1471 (2)

0.2

1411 (1)

1380

Bolotins method

DSTM method

1400

1420

1440

(rad/s)

1460

1480

1500

1520

1

0.8

1

U2

U2

0.6

0.4

713 (1)

0

690

728 (2)

0.2

Bolotins method

DSTM method

700

710

720

(rad/s)

730

740

750

Fig. 5. Comparisons between instability regions obtained by the generalized Bolotins method and DSTM method: (a) Primary instability regions (U11 and U12 ); (b) Secondary

instability regions (U21 and U22 ).

1

0.8

0.6

U1

0.4

0.2

0

1340

U2

1

Old breathing mechanism

1360

1380

1400

1420

1440

1460

1480

1500

(rad/s)

1

0.8

0.6

U1

2

U2

0.4

0.2

0

680

Old breathing mechanism

690

700

710

(rad/s)

720

730

740

Fig. 6. Four instability regions of the cracked rotor system with new and old breathing mechanisms: (a) Primary instability regions (U11 and U12 ); (b) Secondary instability regions

(U21 and U22 ).

186

1

0.8

U2

U1

0.6

0.4

crack in elment 6

crack in elment 9

crack in elment 12

crack in elment 15

0.2

0

1360

1380

1400

1420

1440

(rad/s)

1460

1480

1500

1520

1

0.8

U2

U1

0.6

0.4

0.2

crack in elment 6

crack in elment 9

crack in elment 12

crack in elment 15

0

690

700

710

720

730

740

750

(rad/s)

Fig. 7. Four instability regions of the cracked rotor system with various crack locations: (a) Primary instability regions (U11 and U12 ); (b) Secondary instability regions (U21 and U22 ).

1

0.8

U2

U1

0.6

0.4

c =0

b

cb=1e4

cb=3e4

0.2

0

1380

1400

1420

1440

1460

1480

1500

(rad/s)

1

cb=0

cb=1e4

cb=3e4

0.8

U1

0.6

U2

0.4

0.2

0

695

700

705

710

715

720

(rad/s)

725

730

735

740

Fig. 8. Effect of bearing damping upon the four instability regions of the cracked rotor system for the crack in element 6: (a) Primary instability regions (U11 and U12 ); (b) Secondary

instability regions (U21 and U22 ).

The rest contents are divided into two parts: one crack and two

cracks. In the rst part (one crack), comparisons between the

instability regions of the cracked rotor system with new and old

breathing functions are conducted to show how the instability

changes after considering the new breathing mechanism. Moreover, the effects of crack location (in various rotor elements) and

bearing damping on the instability regions is also discussed. For the

second part (two cracks), the variations of the instability regions

with crack orientation angle and location are investigated in detail.

4.1. Validation

For the undamped rotor system without crack, the rst pair of

whirling frequencies u1 (backward) and u2 (forward) varying with

the rotating speed are shown in Fig. 4. In the paper, the primary and

secondary instability regions, related to the u1 and u2, are considered and denoted by U1i and U2i (i 1, 2), respectively. From Eq. (26),

one can see that the starting points of these instability regions at the

rotating speed axis are just the intersections between the whirling

frequency lines and the lines of ui U=2 and ui U, which is

shown in Fig. 4. The values are determined as: U11 1411 rad/s,

U21 1471 rad/s, U12 713 rad/s and U22 728 rad/s.

When the crack 1 is considered and locates at element 6, the

boundaries of the primary and secondary instability regions on the

U m1 plane are computed using the generalized Bolotins method,

as shown in Fig. 5. In order for validation, the discrete state transition matrix (DSTM) method is utilized to determine the instability

regions point by point. The key issue of this method is how to

obtain the DSTM of the parametric system. Here, a numerical

methodology presented by Friedmann et al. (1977) is used to estimate the DSTM. The computational results are also plotted in Fig. 5.

187

Moreover, the computed starting points of various instability

regions (as marked in the gure) are just the ones obtained through

the whirling analysis of the uncracked rotor system. Thus, the

instability boundaries obtained by the generalized Bolotins

method in the paper are correct and believable.

4.2. Rotor system with one crack

Here, the undamped rotor-bearing-disk system with crack 1 is

considered, and the cracked element is set to be 6. The primary and

secondary instability regions with new and old crack breathing

mechanisms are computed and plotted in Fig. 6, respectively. When

the crack depth m1 is zero (without parametric excitation), the four

instability regions with new breathing mechanism have the same

starting points with the ones with old breathing mechanism. As the

m1 is increasing, the difference becomes more and more obvious.

Basically, the four instability regions with old breathing mechanism

all lean to the left (low rotating speed range), compared with the

ones with new breathing mechanism. Thus, the estimated instability rotating speeds would be relative lower if the old crack

breathing mechanism is adopted.

Actually, the crack would appear in arbitrary locations of the

rotor. For the crack in element 6, 9, 12 and 15, the primary and

secondary instability regions are plotted in Fig. 7, respectively. With

the crack location varying from element 6 to 15, the ranges of most

instability regions (except U22 ) are rst increasing and then

reducing. As the crack is in element 9, the instability ranges have

relative greater values. This is because: for the rst pair of whirling

frequencies, the maximum modal deformations appear at the

midpoint of the rotor system (just element 9 and 10). With the

1

=0

=/2

=3*/4

=

0.8

U1

0.6

U1

0.4

0.2

1380

1400

1420

1440

1460

1480

1500

1520

(rad/s)

1

0.8

=0

=/4

=/2

=

U2

U2

2

0.6

0.4

0.2

695

700

705

710

715

720

(rad/s)

725

730

735

740

745

Fig. 9. Effect of crack orientation angle upon the four instability regions of the cracked rotor system for the crack 1 in element 6 and crack 2 in element 13: (a) Primary instability

regions (U11 and U12 ); (b) Secondary instability regions (U21 and U22 ).

1

=0

=/2

=3*/4

=

0.8

1

U1

U2

1

0.6

0.4

0.2

1380

1400

1420

1440

1460

1480

1500

1520

(rad/s)

1

0.8

=0

=/4

=/2

=

U1

2

U2

2

0.6

0.4

0.2

695

700

705

710

715

720

(rad/s)

725

730

735

740

745

Fig. 10. Effect of crack orientation angle upon the four instability regions of the cracked rotor system for the crack 1 in element 8 and crack 2 in element 13: (a) Primary instability

regions (U11 and U12 ); (b) Secondary instability regions (U21 and U22 ).

1

=0

=/2

=3*/4

=

0.8

U1

1

U2

1

0.6

0.4

0.2

1380

1400

1420

1440

1460

1480

1500

(rad/s)

1

=0

=/4

=/2

=

0.8

1

U2

U2

2

0.6

0.4

0.2

700

705

710

715

720

725

730

735

740

(rad/s)

Fig. 11. Effect of crack orientation angle upon the four instability regions of the cracked rotor system for the crack 1 in element 4 and crack 2 in element 13: (a) Primary instability

regions (U11 and U12 ); (b) Secondary instability regions (U21 and U22 ).

the crack would have greater impact on the dynamic behavior of

the rotor system. Thus, the instability regions would hold the

widest speed range for the crack in element 9.

The bearing damping is ignored in the above discussions. The

damping coefcients of the bearing in two transverse directions are

set be equal and denoted by cb. Two values of cb (10,000 and

30,000 N s/m) are considered in the analysis. The instability

boundaries of the rotor system for the crack in element 6 are

plotted in Fig. 8. The results without bearing damping (cb 0) are

also given in the gure for comparisons. From Fig. 8, one can nd

that the instability regions are all attenuated by the damping,

especially for the shallow surface crack. It is indicated that the

parametric instability induced by small surface crack is not obvious

in actual practice. Moreover, the secondary instability regions U21

and U22 seem more sensitive to the damping. The U22 has disappeared even for low bearing damping value (cb 10,000 N s/m),

as shown in Fig. 8(b).

4.3. Rotor system with two cracks

When the two cracks appear in the rotor simultaneously, the

relative position and orientation angle might have great impact

upon the parametric instability of the system. The crack 2 with

m2 0.4 is xed in element 13, while the crack 1 would appear in

element 6, 8, 4 and 2. The corresponding instability regions are

plotted in Figs. 9e12, respectively. The typical values of crack

orientation angle are chosen as: b 0, (p/4), (p/2), (3p/4), p.

Due to the existence of crack 2, one can see from Fig. 9 that the

U11 , U12 , U21 and U22 are regions rather than points as the m1 0. Under

different orientation angles, increasing m1 would bring different

inuences to the various instability regions. When b 0, the

189

primary instability regions U11 and U12 are widened continually with

the m1 increasing, as shown in Fig. 9(a). Although the U11 and U12 are

still broadening for b p/2, the increasing extent is evidently lower

than that of the b 0. Continuing to increase b 3p/4, the scopes of

U11 and U12 are rst slightly reduced and then increased with the m1.

The reduction phenomenon becomes obvious by setting b to be p.

The ranges of U11 and U12 are reduced rapidly until m1 is increased to

0.4 (equals to the value of m2 ). In this case, the U11 and U12 are just

points (called the zero unstable points, ZUPs). Continuing to

increase the m1, the U11 and U12 reappear and become wider gradually. From Fig. 9(b), one can nd that the ZUPs of the secondary

instability regions U21 and U22 arise when the b equals to p/2. When

b p, the ranges of U21 and U22 are increased continuously with m1,

which overlap with the case of b 0. This might be explained as:

the system has 2T-periodic solution in the primary instability

regions, while in the secondary instability regions the solution is

T-periodic (Nayfeh and Mook, 1979). Thus, the variation of the

primary instability regions with b is 2p-periodic, and the ZUPs

would appear when b p. For the secondary instability regions, the

cycle is p and the ZUPs could be found as b p/2.

From Figs. 10 and 11, one can nd similar phenomena for the

instability regions varying with b. However, the values of m1 corresponding to the ZUPs are different, indicating that the relative

position of the two cracks also has impact on the parametric

instability of the rotor system. The value of m1 is lower than 0.4 for

crack 1 in element 8. If the cracked element is 4, the value of m1 is

greater than 0.4 (about 0.6), even greater than 1 for U12 in Fig. 11(a).

As the crack 2 is in element 13, so the symmetrical element about

the rotor midspan is element 6. Thus, for the crack 1 in element 6,

the m1 m2 due to the geometrical symmetry, as shown in Fig. 9.

When the crack 1 is more close to crack 2 (in element 8, Fig. 10),

increasing the m1 to achieve the ZUPs is relative easy and m1 < m2.

1

=0

=/2

=3*/4

=

0.8

U1

1

U2

1

0.6

0.4

0.2

1400

1410

1420

1430

1440

1450

(rad/s)

1460

1470

1480

1490

1

=0

=/4

=/2

=

0.8

U1

2

U2

2

0.6

0.4

0.2

705

710

715

720

(rad/s)

725

730

735

Fig. 12. Effect of crack orientation angle upon the four instability regions of the cracked rotor system for the crack 1 in element 2 and crack 2 in element 13: (a) Primary instability

regions (U11 and U12 ); (b) Secondary instability regions (U21 and U22 ).

190

If the position of crack 1 shifts to the left (i.e. in element 4, Fig. 11),

then it is relative hard to approach the ZUPs and m1 > m2 because

the crack 1 is far from the crack 2. Continuing to shift the crack 1 to

the left, (i.e. element 2 in Fig. 12), one can see that there is no ZUPs

for the m1 in the range 0e1 and the variation of b has lower inuence on the unstable regions.

5. Conclusions

The parametric instability of a rotor-bearing system with two

transverse cracks is studied utilizing the generalized Bolotins

method. Some conclusions are summarized as follows:

1 Considering the new crack breathing mechanism presented by AlShudeifat and Butcher (2011), the obtained instability regions

differ distinctly from that of the old (harmonic) breathing mechanism. Basically, the estimated instability rotating speeds would

be relative lower if the old crack breathing mechanism is adopted.

2 Most instability regions would hold wider speed range for the

crack in (or near) the midspan of the rotor system. With the

crack approaching the bearing points, the instability regions

are reduced gradually.

3 The instability regions are all attenuated by the bearing

damping, especially for the shallow surface crack.

4 When the crack orientation angle is around p, the existence of

one crack would attenuate the primary instability regions

induced by the other crack. For the secondary instability regions,

similar attenuation occurs for the orientation angle around p/2.

5 The relative position of the two cracks on the rotor also has

signicant effect on the parametric instability. When the two

cracks are symmetrical about the rotor midspan, the two crack

depth values are the same for the system at ZUPs. If one crack

moves towards (or away from) the other crack, the required

crack depth values for the ZUPs are lower (or greater) than the

other crack depth values.

Acknowledgments

The research work described in the paper was supported by the

National Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10732060

and 51075224, and the State Key Laboratory of Tribology under

Grant No. SKLT2010C04. The rst author would also express sincere

thanks for the support from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 20100480012).

References

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