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All forms of chromatography work on the same


They all have a stationary phase (a solid, or a liquid

supported on a solid) and a mobile phase (a liquid or a
gas). The mobile phase flows through the stationary
phase and carries the components of the mixture with
it. Different components travel at different rates. We'll
look at the reasons for this further down the page.

In paper chromatography, the stationary phase is a

very uniform absorbent paper. The mobile phase is a
suitable liquid solvent or mixture of solvents.
Paper chromatography is one method for testing the
purity of compounds and identifying substances.

COPPER (ii) SULFATE/ cupric sulfate, copper sulfate

It is soluble. For sulphate salts, all are soluble except
Lead Sulphate, Calcium Sulphate, Barium Sulphate and
also Silver Sulphate.
Copper II sulfate (CuSO4) is an ionic compound; a
combination of a cation (positive ion) and an anion
(negative ion). In this compound, the cation is only the
copper II, Cu+2.
highly water soluble, i.e it dissolves very easily in water.
Copper sulphate is soluble and will dissolve in water. All
sulphates are soluble.
Copper(II) sulfate is a blue solid when hydrated
(attached to water molecules). It is whitish when
anhydrous (not attached to water molecules).[2] When
hydrated, it normally has five water molecules attached
to it. It can be dehydrated by heating it.[3][4] When
water is added to it, it gets hydrated again. When it is
in air, it absorbs water vapor and becomes hydrated,

Chemical properties
It is a weak oxidizing agent. It reacts with most metals
to make copper and a metal sulfate.[5] For example, it
reacts with iron to make copper and iron(II) sulfate.
Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu

Gelatin is a protein food additive obtained by hydrolysis

of collagen, the most common animal protein.
Hydrolysis refers to any process using chemical
denaturing through the use of water.
Collagen doesn't dissolve in water in its natural form, so
it must be modified to make gelatin. Manufacturers
grind the body parts and treat them with either a
strong acid or a strong base to dissolve the collagen.
Then the pre-treated material is boiled. The materials
are washed and filtered repeatedly. During this process,
the large collagen protein ends up being partially
broken down; the resulting product is a gelatin solution.
That solution is chilled into a jelly-like material.
Gelatin is just a processed version of a structural
protein called collagen that is found in many animals,
including humans. Collagen makes up almost one-third
of all the protein in the human body. Collagen is a
fibrous protein that strengthens the body's connective
tissues and allows them to be elastic that is, to stretch
without breaking.
Gelatin can come from the collagen in cow or pig
bones, hides and connective tissues. Today, the gelatin
in Jell-O is most likely to come from pigskin.
Collagen doesn't dissolve in water in its natural form, so
it must be modified to make gelatin.

In the gelatin protein, three separate chains of amino

acids (called polypeptide chains) have lined up and
twisted around each other.
What happens to gelatin when you add boiling water?
The energy of the heated water breaks the weak bonds
that hold the gelatin strands together. The helical
structure unwinds, and you're left with free-floating
protein chains. When you add cold water and
refrigerate the Jell-O mixture, the chains begin slowly to
reform into the tight triple helix structure. As it cools,
the mass acts like a sponge, soaking up the water you
added. But in some places, there are gaps in the helix,
and in others, there is a tangled web of polypeptide
chains. The chains form a sort of net, and the net traps
water inside pockets between the chains. The protein
net is strong enough that the Jell-O holds the shape into
which it's molded. But because of the water trapped in
the pockets, the Jell-O has the "jiggle" that kids love.
Scientists call the form of Jell-O at this stage a colloid,
or the substance formed when tiny particles are
dispersed within a solution.

The multiple properties of gelatin make it very
versatile. It is part of the hydrocolloid family,
substances which, in aqueous solution, impede the
mobility of water and thus affect the texture. It is
obviously a gelling agent and its product is thermoreversible, that is to say, it melts under the effect of
heat. The relative strength of gels formed by various

gelatins is measured on a scale called "Bloom". Gelatin

is also a thickening and a foaming agent. It allows the
retention of water, stabilizes emulsions, or can form
protective films.
Collagen doesnt dissolve in water in its natural form,
so it must be modified to make gelatin.
The main property of gelatin is to form a thermoreversible gel. In order to do this, it must first be
dissolved in water at about 50C (122F). Gelling occurs
when cooling at temperatures below 15C (59F).
Unlike agar-agar gels, gelatin liquefies at a temperature
of about 35C (95F), allowing it to melt quickly in the
mouth, a much appreciated property during tasting.

The gelling properties may be offset by an excessive

concentration of salts, acids or alcohol in the
preparation. The gelatin should not be poured in a
boiling solution because too much heat will destroy its
properties. Neither should the gelatin preparation be
frozen, because the thawed product will have lost its
properties and become crumbly.
Gelatin is a colloid because you can easily introduce
another substance into the liquid form and it will
congeal with that substance upon cooling. The gelatin
will still be considered stable.

Gelatin is a colloid because it's particles are too large to

dissolve completely into a solution. Instead, it disperses
evenly and is suspended when mixed with a liquid.

It is a colloid because it is sugar crystals suspended in

water and does not separate.

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