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Title 8 : Development of Teacher Professionalism

Learning Outcomes
Explain the concept of life long learning.
Implement action research to integrate reading, reflective practice, and
collaborative research process.
Incorporation of added value through lifelong learning in teaching and
Makes reflection and planning to improve yourself as a teacher
Displaying the characteristics of collaboration and consultation in carrying out
group work.
Accessing information from various sources to increase professionalism in
8.0 Introduction
Malay proverb that says 'Seeking knowledge from the cradle to the grave ' means,
the need to seek knowledge should not stop until we die. The meaning is very broad
expression which suggests that the quest for knowledge is a claim that should be
drawn starting from the beginning of human life is a human person until this the end
of world. The maxim is reflected Lifelong Learning was inspired earlier by our
ancestors before. In addition, the other saying there called 'Seek knowledge even
reach China. China at one time considered to be at the end of the world. A trip to
China is so far and time consuming for months. Why to China? Chinese people at
that time had come to Malaya in particular Melaka to trade and hence, the Malays
saw Chinese wisdom and discernment. No doubt, if we're going to be learned, and
we have to learn from the wise even further, but the problem is not much need to be
a reason in the search for knowledge.
8.1 The concept of Lifelong Learning
The concept of Lifelong Learning and the concept of discovery of knowledge is not a
new thing spoken of, but the concept has been around since time immemorial, as
evidenced by the creation of the proverbial saying in every community.
It is also stressed the importance of seeking knowledge in every religion. In Islam, it
is very clear through the words of the Prophet, which means:
point the way to face for up to heaven.' The Holy Prophet of Islam reflects that how
heavenly rewards to those who seek knowledge, because knowledge is very
important in building a human being, bring people with good things. The concept of
Lifelong Learning also discussed by Basil Yeaxlee and Edward Lindman (1926)
asserted that education is the constant in human life. Lifelong learning means selfmotivation towards search and knowledge enhancement 'voluntary personal or

professional needs. Every teacher must have a passion and a strong ambition to
continue to increase our knowledge of life in the chest. Learning can occur in formal
or informal. All teachers need to update their knowledge and skills in ensuring the
development and teacher professional development in line with the changes and
challenges of the time to time. Quoting Pat Basset, President of the National
Association of Independent Schools (2009) that there is a strong correlation directly
between teacher professional development on student achievement. Changes taking
place in today's era of globalization requires each teacher to master knowledge and
skills in the field of information technology. At the same time the soft elements can
unable to be ruled out altogether as soft elements geared towards human values and
spiritual strength that will balance the demands of human life. So every teacher
should have a plan in the form of self-study programs and opportunities available to
be grabbed by the teachers in order to enhance their knowledge and skills.
Ongoing training for teachers is an approach in Lifelong Learning. The program
Lifetime Learning is attending seminars and workshops, participate in short courses
and long courses, engage in consultation , reading, doing research, visits to schools
and benchmarking visits, participate in projects run by community ministries and
organizations and associations active in academia as Linguistic Society, Historical
Society, and the Geographical Society.
8.2 Personal Learning Plan
Figures in the field of education as Zaba, Professor Tan Sri Dr. Awang Had Salleh,
Tan Sri Dr. Wan Zahid and latest late Dato ' Razali Ismail (Former Director of BPG
and Deputy Minister of Education) and many other major figure in the field of
education because they can play a role as a human able to flip the mind and create
awareness to the community. How can they afford a big role in education? They are
individuals who work tirelessly to discover knowledge even if they already have a
degree and work comfortably. Through the knowledge possessed by them, these
figures play their role successfully. Development in education requires each teacher
to increase their knowledge and skills in line with current demands. So, Lifelong
Learning is a practice that is very accurate and the teachers need to practice in their
lives . As the teacher is an example and role model closest to the students, then
learn how to learn (learn how to learn) should be shown through behavior and action
by the teachers themselves. In the concept of Lifelong Learning, we can no longer
limit the pursuit of knowledge across time and place, that only through learning in
childhood that occurs in classrooms alone. Instead of learning to occur throughout
life in a variety of situations, in addition to the development of information and
communication technologies in the quest for knowledge today is not impossible.
Lifelong learning requires teachers to be prepared with a personal learning plan that
includes the following:
(a) Learning at Home is regarded as informal learning. Learning at home is usually
handled by parents or tutors. Learning can occur through the supervision of a
curriculum that has been approved. At the present time there are a number of
educational programs that can take place at home, including online learning,
otherwise known as online learning (OLL) is an approach that allows one to proceed
without having to be at a college or university to interact face to face with a teacher

or lecturer. And learning modules are also becoming popular these days and a lot of
helping students achieve academic success.
(b) Adult Education in the form of learning among adults through courses or
advanced studies programs whether at college or university. Opportunity to increase
knowledge also happen in the work place, often referred to as the Staff Development
Training (LPS) to improve the efficiency and competence in their respective careers.
Among adults can improve their knowledge and skills in a particular area of interest
and preferred by them for personal enrichment. Learning among adults who have
retired more focused on the study of religion and learning that happens in a mosque
or surau. Retirees often attend classes read the Quran and Tajweed, In Arabic,
translation and fields of religion which has not been able to learn them at a young
age. In the 1960s, Adult Class was initiated by the government to address the
problem of illiteracy among Malaysians. Target Class Adult students are adults who
voluntarily attend classes held at the community hall in a village in the afternoon to
learn literacy, reading and writing. Teacher in-charge has been teaching courses in
teacher training colleges around the country. The government's efforts are successful
when most of the illiterate adults to read and write. These days, there are computer
classes organized by certain organizations to ensure that our society IT literate.
(c) Continuing Education is very similar to the concept of Adult Education is more
focused on an effort to pursue his studies at a college or university to earn a
certificate, diploma or advanced degree either full time or part time . Continuing
education is an opportunity for anyone to achieve higher education. In Malaysia,
continuing education is increasingly attracting the interest of many graduates. The
number that has a second degree (Masters) and third degree (PhD) increases every
year. Many universities now offer programs for those who want to continue their
studies on a part-time weekend typically begins on Friday evening to Sunday. There
are various methods of continuing education, including learning that occurs in
traditional learning that is conducted in classrooms and laboratories. Nowadays,
learning) Remote wine (D) J) are gaining popularity as practicable with the help of
video footage and filling materials CD-ROM , Witoelar programs , online learning
(OLL), internet and interactive courses online (Interactive Online Courses).
(d) Knowledge Worker focused on professional development and career training.
Knowledge workers yardstick of knowledge and ability of a person in the work being
carried out by them. They should have plenty of information on the scope of their
employment to be able to analyze, design and develop their areas of expertise.
Conducting research skills enable them to identify problems and make
recommendations to overcome an organization is able to acquire quality and achieve
goals. A teacher should explore their career fields related to pedagogy (pedagogical
content knowledge), subject matter (subject content knowledge), psychology
students and matters involving classroom management. As such, action research is
a way that allows teachers to deepen the teaching profession so as to introduce the
latest techniques and methods in the education system boost.
(e) Self Learning Environments (CO) in the form of a learning system that requires
students to manage and control their own learning. Students need to understand and
define learning goals, managing their own learning and are willing to interact with
others in ensuring that the learning process to achieve the goal. Learning experience

in formal and informal is the perfect combination of a self- learning environment.

Students should have the social skills that enable them to communicate with others
in order to share knowledge and cross-border institutions to acquire a variety of
sources. The concept of Lifelong Learning through the PPK is something new and is
consistent with the concept of e -learning is introduced.
8.3 Reading Culture
Who can deny that the wisdom of a man strongly supported by the reading ?
Developed and successful nation is a nation that makes reading as a culture in their
lives. Islam emphasizes the practice of reading through al- Alaq verse 19 which says:
Read in the name of thy Lord who created, He has created man from a clot,
Read, and your Lord is the Most Generous, Who taught by the pen (read- write),
Taught man that which he knew not.'
Allah says through Surah al- Alaq clearly shows that people need to read in order to
master the knowledge that no man knows for reading drives build perfection of life.
In 1988, the Prime Minister at the time, namely Dato 'Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamed
has launched a themed year Readers 'Reading Knowledge Bridge'. In his speech, he
stressed that there was no reason for anyone to not gain knowledge through reading
various facilities given to read were available and we can not accept the
consequences of ignorant people do not read. Even in the speech, the Prime
Minister also urged the teachers to practice reading to ensure that they are
constantly updating their knowledge as their role as educators and role models to
students in school.
Nowadays, too many resources available reading, reading is not just limited through
books, magazines and newspapers (hard copy) alone, but also, through reading
various internet can do. Teachers in other countries especially in the developed
countries make reading as a routine in their lives so they can discuss issues and
matters without hesitation. Their ability to throw the idea, to grasp the issues and
analyze a permasiilahan reflects the image of a brilliant educator, berihnu and
insightful. Therefore, teachers in Malaysia should polish up the image of reading
teachers Malaysia to ensure that teachers are isolated from other professional
To ensure that teachers are able to manage their time not neglecting the practice of
reading, following a few guidelines can be thought of and practiced:
(i) Allocate time to read every day for at least 10 minutes at a time and can make
free practice at breakfast or afternoon tea. If you can provide four times a day using
10 minutes at a time, this means you have used 40 minutes a day to read. For
example , in the morning 10 minutes (during breakfast), noon 10 minutes (after
lunch), afternoon 10 minutes (during the afternoon) and night before going to bed 10
minutes. The proposal is minimal and you can take a longer time, especially at night
even when you're lying in bed before sleep.
(ii) Make sure you bring a book to anywhere you go because if you feel bored while
waiting for someone or waiting for instance when waiting for the bus , either while
traveling in a bus , commuter train, car or plane , while waiting for their turn in bank

or clinic, or while waiting for the arrival of students to the class.

(iii) Reduce other activities vanity and fill the time with useful activities such as
reading. In addition, avoid wasting time watching TV is too old, lying or sleeping, a
yarn without a clear purpose, window shopping or playing video games.
(c) Find a quiet space and not be disturbed while reading. You need to make sure
that you have a corner or a comfortable reading area. With it, you can read in a calm
and able to focus on reading. If the conditions in the house a little less comfortable
and snug, you can read under a shady tree or beside a peaceful lake.
(d) Prepare a list of reading material that you have identified and make a note to get
it. Sometimes we visit we noticed a bookstore or book promotion, but we are not
ready to buy it. By providing a list of the books you are interested in, you will try to
get one by one.
(e) Visit the book fair and book stores to foster an interest in reading. You will be
impressed by the wealth of information contained in a book. You can visit the book
shop at garage sales or you can visit second-hand bookshop.
Define your goals in reading to ensure your spirit condensed in reading. In addition
to our daily practice reading a newspaper or magazine light, we would have to
change their attitude and geared toward reading materials containing higher
knowledge. In Malaysia, a very small number of teachers read research journals
cause they thought less developed and less able to improve the quality of teaching
and career management. Teachers can only be proud of the experience and existing
knowledge alone and this will cause the pupil of our students lose interest in
8.4 Investigate
Research culture among Malaysians, particularly among the gum is not yet
comprehensive. Research is one activity that is very effective in the Lifelong
Learning memadangkan through research we started to think, plan, conduct surveys
to read a variety of materials, especially the findings of other studies, providing the
items question, analyze and write reports. Research process lead to high thinking
and analysis level to train us to become more sensitive and critical thinking. In
addition, the research allows us to uncover many new things that allow us to propose
a more action to the latest and appropriate.
For teachers, the most appropriate type of research is Action Research (PT). While
others also implement PT to improve the quality of products and services, but for
teachers, CM allows teachers to identify issues and problems related to the
management teaching and learning (T & L), discipline and attitude, leadership and
management of the school and other things the education system.
Action Research (PT) was first introduced by Kurt Lewinm(1946) when she writes
about community issues Jalam Kemmis & Mc Taggert, 1988). In 1973-1976, John
Elliot and Clem Adelmen have used the methodology of PT in the Ford Teaching
Project in an effort to help teacher use several questions in the classroom. The
research activities among teachers started in the United Kingdom by Stenhouse
(1971, 1975), along with the ' Humanities Curriculum Project ' which berpendapa

tbahawa teaching should be based on research and teacher education and integrity
can be enhanced if research in parallel with the development of the curriculum.
At the Ministry of Education, PT starts were introduced in 1989 by college lecturers.
In 1995, PT was incorporated into the curriculum of Teacher Training Diploma
Course (taking up) and Teaching Course (KPLI). Development and Policy Research
(The Department of Educational Planning and Research Development - EPRD) PT
course to have trained teachers in Malaysia since 1997. At present, various efforts
undertaken by the Ministry of Education to ensure that teachers in Malaysia PT and
be able to run IT as a culture. Through the curriculum of Bachelor of Teaching
implemented in 27 teacher training institutes (IPG), Action Research course with an
allocation of 6 hours is offered as a core course. Offer courses of 6 credit hours of
research is an effort to strengthen the capacity of graduate teachers IPG run PT
when they are in school later. As for the Bachelor Teaching and a Bachelor of
Teaching University operated by Open University Malaysia (OUM) in collaboration
with the institute offers courses Research Methodology (3 credit hours) and School
Based Research (3 credit hours). The courses provide knowledge in the research is
to help teachers IPG graduates can continue their studies at a higher level and is an
effort towards Lifelong Learning.
In addition, each year, the Teacher Education Division (BPG) along with IPG
research seminars that provide space for the institute lecturers involved in research
and presented it to share all the findings for the improvement of the institute
lecturers. For universities, research is a key task of the lecturer as well as teaching
and conducting consultancy work. Determined universities in improving the
knowledge and research that proved when four selected universities as research
universities (university research), the research institutes of Sciences Malaysia
(IISM), Universiti Malaya (IIM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Universiti
Putra Malaysia (UPM). This encouraged other universities to work hard to be able to
choose a university research as well as driving healthy competition among scholars.
We need to emulate the developed countries are constantly growing and developing
through research and innovation culture society, especially among teachers.
8.4.1 Definitions
Several definitions of action research were submitted by some experts the wellknown action research. Kurt Lewin in the 40's have begun stating that PT is a round
(spiral), which consists of planning, action, evaluation of the action. According to him,
to understand and change a practice in the community, the researcher should
involve practitioners is directly involved in the issues that are being studied in the
research process. Mc Kernan (1991), explained that PT is a method of inquiry that
led to the work of research and writing then as produced by Stephen Corey (1953) at
Teachers College, Columbia University, New York.
Several definitions of action research have been presented by several figures, which
are as follows:
(f) Elliot (1981) argues that the PT involves the study of the social situation which
seeks to improve the quality and increase the effectiveness of an action.

(g) Kemmis (1988) stated that PT be a form of self- reflective inquiry undertaken by
participants such as teachers, students or principals in a social situation such as
education, to improve the social practices and enhance their understanding of the
practice - practice.
(h) McNiff (1988) argues that the PT become a tradition that promotes teacher selfstudy practices in work and when there was an attempt to understand the reality of
the current situation and allows the researcher to explain the development of their
education .
Somekh (1988) stated that PT is the study of a social situation with a view to
improving the quality of an action (in Day 1990, p. 34). Based on the view that the
four figures, it can be concluded that PT is a study of the social situation (the
situation of education) involving participation of teachers or lecturers as researchers
with the aim of improving the quality of action and improve the practices of self.
8.4.2 Importance of Action Research
Action research is something to be encouraged and growing demand among
teachers. The importance of action research to educators is as follows:
(i) Improving the practice of R & D Self- teachers or lecturers who are directly
involved in an R & D As an educator, you will be able to identify the issues and
problems while operating P & P. Problems that appear to be among the repertoire of
questions that are so relevant and practical situations arising from R & D daily
teacher. The problem is pushing toward an improvement plan with the goal of
expand/improve the situation of practice.
(i) Focuses on a study of more specific about one of the aspects of teaching that is
also an aspect that you pay attention. For example, some of your students less
focused on teaching you and this is an indication that you are less able to attract
them to your teaching. By focusing on these aspects you will study in detail the
cause of the problem and find new approaches that are better able to attract the
attention of your students for your lessons. You will be able to track how your new
approach is successful when it is also evaluated and observed. This process
encourages the collection of information more clearly and accurately.
(j) Promote collaboration with other cultures , that you as a lecturer / teacher
personally involved as a participant in this study and may undertake a study on an
individual basis ie your pupils or colleagues you as an informant for the actions you
take. Collaboration partner is known as critical friends. This is to encourage a culture
of sharing and helping each other in an effort to increase the professionalism of the
teacher. The results of PT shared to other teachers is a positive partnership.
Moreover, action research can also be conducted collaboratively with other
researchers (teacher / lecturer) other known as a collaborator / partner researchers
with a commitment to improve, increased non - sump well and expand their
(k) Documentation and evidence of a statement made possible through action
research. An issue or problem when discussed and followed up with ways to

overcome less to attract the masses to the matter of sufficient evidence. Through
action research, a variety of methods to collect and analyze the data used as
evidence for reflection. The method of collecting the data is a personal reflection
journal , document analysis and interviews. The data analysis was performed either
quantitatively or qualitatively.
(l) PT inducing culture that make self- reflective and open minded, able to receive
and admit weaknesses and willing to improve and change, but also can improve the
practice of self. PT will involve a continuous process and progress in research
through the identification of focus and situations; develop an action plan, collecting
and analyzing data and presenting findings to others, to obtain feedback. The
findings of the reflection used to improve the plan of action or identify new situations
in the next cycle. Thus, the number of cycles may be involved in the PT.
(m) PT provides an opportunity to add value dizziness, approaching professionalism.
Through PT, all efforts were made to find the latest approaches and strategies in the
management of R & D in action every weakness improvements in the management
of R & D, the various elements of the action using renewable and explore new
approaches. Element value added services such as the use of ICT in teaching and
learning, project-based learning / Problem / game, student-centered learning and
teaching methods are elements that can boost the effectiveness of R & D In fact, the
PT itself is an added value to teachers and educators view the process PT promote
the professional development of researchers since the PT massing of planning,
analysis, reflection and problem solving.
8.5 Reflective Practice
8.5.1 Concept of Reflection
Reflective thinking is a practice to think or reflect on an experience that we
experience and recognize its implications for us. Reflective thinking is a practice that
is meant for us to empathize with the P & P. The culture of reflective thinking for
teachers can help teachers to balance our beliefs with the needs of students. When
we make a reflection, we become more aware and critical about our own practices
and is a teaching can be improved.
Through reflection, we evaluate the results of our plans and strategies in R & D. We
try to identify strengths and weaknesses. We always inculcate a positive attitude to
improve student achievement. The practice of reflection helps us to grow as a
professional and effective teacher.
Reflective teaching is important for us to understand this teaching to able to use
practical experience without neglecting the fact that there are values, assumptions,
beliefs and self perspective affects both the practice and how the practice is
experienced. Reflective teaching is a strategy to help us make an informed decision
about the theory and practice of teaching. Instead, the reflective guai always
questioning, experimenting, reassess and improve practice (Grant & Zeichner,

Reflective practice was first proposed by Donald Schon in 1993 through his book
The Reflective Practitioner who explained that reflective practice should be a
continuous process that involves consideration of the events and experiences that
are critical in life. Schon also argues that reflective practice is a learning process that
involves a high level of thinking about practice -based learning to gain a new
perspective to renew the judgment and increases the inquiry to be an assemblage.
Moon (1999) argues that reflective practice is a set of abilities and skills to explain
Briggs (1999) states that reflection as a real reflection of something that happened a
professionalal action so to improve such practice.
Claxton (1999) points out that reflection as a process of learning to learn and
improve the development of learning to learn when, how and what to do when we do
not know what to do.
8.5.2 The Importance of Reflective Practice in the Teaching Field
In the field of teaching, very important reflective practice to enhance student
teachers manage the classroom effectively. In addition, reflective practice is also
very effective in improving the professionalism of teachers in service. The following is
the importance of reflective practice in teaching:
(i) Reflective Practice is ideal for trainee teachers to strike a balance between their
own experience with the success of the previous (lecturer / senior teacher). Trainees
can read research journals or reports prior reflection to balance their experience with
the experience. Professionals to discover approaches are better suited to manage P
& P. Self- reflective practice involves consideration of the experience when applying
knowledge to practice (knowledge to practice) with the guidance of the professional
field. In this case, student teachers can assess the extent of their capacity and
capability to apply theory and knowledge learned in the classroom to classroom with
the guidance of the lecturer.
(ii) Reflective Practice is included in the Action Research (AR). As discussed in the
title AR that AR is a tool in developing a curriculum that led to the finding or ongoing
feedback related to the issues that arise in the management of schools and
classrooms. The importance of reflective practice as part of PT is when student
teachers bring feedback on student teachers during the practicum experience and
feedback or data were analyzed with the guidance of a mentor / lecturer. In carrying
out this reflection activities, student teachers also share their experiences and
insights with others that make learning more effective and student teachers thought
more open and mature.
(iii) Lecturers can guide and train student teachers in the implementation of R & D
management effectively through written reflection, journal writing, students' personal
notes and discussion groups. Kettle and Sellars (1996) analyze the reflection of
student writing and interviewing them to find that discussion with peers is the best
approach and effective when student teachers are able to challenge existing

(iv)The practice of reflective is also a self-learning (self-learning) among the teachers

in the service. Licklider (1997) found that self-learning through practice reflective
makes the teachers in the service regularly reviews the performance of R & D,
especially when teachers to lead group learning activities and peer mentoring which
causes them to constantly evaluate and revise practices and their perceptions of the
T & L accordingly, in service courses (KDP) reflective practice must address each of
the KDP program.
For teachers in service, not just reflective practice to evaluate teaching methods and
strategies alone, but also reflective practice done on teachers' attitudes and their
impact on daily practice. For Wilhelm (1996) provided an opportunity for teachers to
enhance their professionalism KDP through courses held not only encourage these
teachers reflect on their teaching but also urged the teachers reflect on the reasons
invited to see and examine the attitudes, skills development and reflect on the ethical
management practices in the classroom dj involving elements of different cultures
with their past experience.
8.5.3 Types of Reflective Practice
discussed as follows:






(i) Instant Reflective Practice (Reflection -in- Action)

Reflective Practice Instant happen while we are acting, for example when the
teacher is trying a new action to explore new unexpected events in the classroom,
testing tentative understanding and strengthen our actions have created so that we
can act in a new and more better.
Reflective Practice spot occurs in situations where our actions affect unexpected and
not part of our action plan. Instant Reflective Practice has a critical function in
influencing the way we evaluate, think and restructuring strategies, generate new
understanding and new ways of looking at problems.
(ii) Reflective Practice Up Action (Reflection-on-Action) This practice is a form of
reflection that is done after an action is taken and can occur in verbal and nonverbal. Practices such as these are retrospective and we may find this practice can
help a teacher to quickly realize the things that happen in the classroom.
(iii) Reflective Practice in Action (Reflection-for-Action) This practice occurs after an
action is taken and help teachers gain a new way of performing a task, learn new
knowledge and build theory.
The practice of reflexology is a form of systematic and deliberate actions to analyze,
build and reshape the situation of R & D in order to explore a new plan for the next
use. You may find the practice of reflection is beneficial when you take the
opportunity to chat with colleagues about your teaching.

8.5.4 Process of Reflective Teaching

When a teacher is capable of questioning his decision and actions related to R & D
management and classroom management, the teacher is actually trying to solve the
problem of R & D measures. The questions propounded to yourself motivates us on
sure things that need to be changed, to evaluate our understanding of the students
and their needs, and try to find a solution by using a new idea. Reflective teaching
can occur in two ways, namely:
(i) Reflective Journal Writing
(ii)Teaching Portfolio
Reflective Journal Writing
Journal Writing Reflection is one activity that promotes reflective thinking among
students and teachers. Have you write a journal reflection and when? Bet you did not
write them down because you were asked to write a journal reflection when you
The process of reflection and reflective action plan is the steps towards Reflective
Journal Writing an effective and meaningful. Writing is a practice of reflection in the
learning process as writing reflections led to the improvement of an action.
Ring of reflective teaching involves several steps and measures are sometimes
overlapping. Step planning a move to begin the process by identifying the problem
we need to solve. In this step, we should do naming the problem and then try to
identify the context for a closer examination and more detailed. Once we identify the
problem clearly, the next step is to act and observe whatever is happening.
Throughout the process, we need to use these questions to evaluate the evidence
based planning and teaching our students collected. Finally determine the action to
change and fix the problem.
Follow-up of reflective teaching is when teachers are involved in the practice of
reflective feel satisfied with their role in addressing the problem of classroom
management and T & L. However, as teachers we need to be realistic in dealing with
various issues and problems that arise because not all problems or issues we can
overcome as R & D is a complex activity. There are also problems that are beyond
the control and jurisdiction of us. However, there is still an action can we do to fix the
problem though is unable to handle 100 %. At the very least we have to bring our
thinking further examine the problem of making us more attentive and add to the
experience in our field, to make us more cautious in any of our actions, trying to
improve the self, the odds will change our perception of something even we try to
modify the situation of R & D in our class.
Reflective teaching is more than a thought. This process requires rational thinking to
propel change and bring about improvements in the classroom. Reflective teachers a
springboard to action research, participation in in-service training and collaboration.

The following is a story I want to share with you.

Hasrul is a student in Form 3 and was the youngest of ten siblings. His family settled
in Kampung Sungai Pencala. He studied at a secondary school located in the area
adjacent to the village elite, namely Taman Tun Dr. Ismail. In school, a student
Hasrul frequent violation of school rules and Hasrul often called by the discipline
teacher. Hasrul surrounded by friends from elite family and he swayed to the
behavior of young children who love to clubs and discos. At a young age Hasrul was
smoking and on Saturdays and Sundays him into an entertainment center located at
Damansara .
I also was one of the teachers at the school Hasrul and just hold the job as an
assistant counselor. Although I do not teach Hasrul, but I know this will be a student
because his name is frequently mentioned and often collide with it in my front room
discipline. Hasrul never greet or speak to the teachers when they collide.
I feel sympathy for these students. Looking at his young face soy tries to reveal
himself and stared at him rnasa still long. I began to see and review the student's
profile to enable me to find strategies to help. So I determined to give him the
attention and guidance, as I believe students can still be coached. Then, during the
clash with the morning when I threw a friendly smile and say hello and ask, 'How
Hasrul day?'. He was shocked and a little embarrassed as I greeted her when she
never wanted to speak to me. Every time I bumped into Hasrul , I seek him out and
take the opportunity to befriend him. After a week, I found my attitude changing
Hasrul on, he started looking at me and saluted.
One morning on the way to school I saw Hasrul who walk to school. I stop the car
and invites Hasrul and his friends up. Hasrul refuse my request seriously, I
understand as he was embarrassed because he had never entertained so before
this. Hasrul attitude towards me prove that this student is a normal human hearts,
and I'm sure he could still be formed. From day to day, Hasrul become increasingly
familiar with me. Hasrul was friendly with me, very polite attitude when confronted
me. I also ask Hasrul enter the bottom of his shirt into the pants to see updates. He
accordance with my request without protest. I approached Hasrul last effort in the
next few weeks. I do not want to rush it because they believe Hasrul be tamed
before, then I will continue to advise and guide him.
On a weekend, I suddenly received a phone call from the school counselor who
delivered the sad news to me. Hasrul involved in a fight with a group of students at
the club often visited on weekends. The fight started inside the club out of the club
destitute. Hasrul surrounded by nine students of motorcyclist. A friend of Hasrul try to
avoid the fights but his attempt was warned to leave them alone. They hit Hasrul
massacre and what is sad is that they hit the head with a chota Hasrul. Hasrul fell
limp in the street with no party willing to stop the car to give help, but only observe
the behavior of the young children. Friends of Hasrul hold Hasrul a taxi and taken to
the hospital. In the taxi, on a friend's laptop, Hasrul draw his last breath.

Portfolio Management
Portfolio management is now getting attention among educators as a tool to
stimulate reflective thinking either among student teachers, new teachers or
experienced teachers. Through the portfolio, reflections in a systematic and
analytical thinking in his own practice.
Teaching portfolio is a collection of materials such as artifacts, artifacts of R & D and
reflective writing that is designed to improve the performance of a teacher . For the
Wolf (1996), a teaching portfolio is a collection of information about a teacher
teaching practice consists of lesson plans, student work , video recordings and other
materials related to the R & D.
Portfolio management lead to effective learning as practice to develop a sense of
responsibility towards the achievement of the students themselves, encourage
independent learning and a bridge between students and their peers da / 1 other
educators. For teachers, Portfolio Management evidence to help them reflect and
think their performance as a teacher. Portfolios allow teachers to document and
explain their actions, the evidence of their professionalism and their awareness of
their actions.
Writing reflections on teaching portfolios allow teachers identifying and selecting the
experiences and re-evaluate past experience led to a change of the prevalence of
uncommon when there is modification occurs.
In teacher education, portfolio management becomes a tool to encourage students
to build knowledge and skills and to stimulate thinking about their duties in teaching.
This space is for students to critique their own actions in carrying out his duties as a
teacher. Teacher training programs in the institute makes portfolio management as a
stimulus for students to recognize their achievements in major courses and
practicum are able to produce a new understanding to the students. By using an
adapted design of Pedagogical Reasoning and Action Model Shulman (1987),
Portfolio Management students give effect to changes in student action. This model
focuses on the process of transition from student to teacher understanding,
transformation and implementation of self-assessment and develop a new
At the level of understanding, students receive input consisting of new content
knowledge through reading materials and experiences of others. At this stage,
students gather evidence in the teaching process. Critical events that occur in a
lesson encourage students to develop their ideas in teaching. These ideas are
designed for a teaching will be discussed with friends or counselors.
The process of inquiry and problem solving in a group will take place in the
interaction. At this stage, there was the process of analysis and assessment resulting
in a neater idea and meaning. After going through the process of interaction, the idea
is applied. In the application, students demonstrate their understanding of
pedagogical theory and knowledge available to them in the classroom teaching. After
performing R & D, students begin to evaluate their actions based on the objectives of
R & D.

After performing R & D, students need to revisit the experience has traveled to
construct new understanding and begin to look for alternatives to improve their
weaknesses or deficiencies. This is done in the reflection. In this process, feedback
from students, peers, mentors and other teachers as well as extensive reading will
help students make a clear self-analysis of the behavior and action taken. By asking
yourself, students will reflect on the strengths and weaknesses and find ways to
correct deficiencies. Some questions may be directed to yourself like, 'What steps do
I need to change teaching or fix? 'Is my teaching has achieved learning outcomes to
build my own?', 'How much do I pay attention to the students of my teaching?'. When
students go through this process students have built high professionalism.
8.6 Collaboration and Consultation
8.6.1 Introduction
As trainee teacher practicum, can you imagine the obstacles that you face during the
practicum? When you are faced with the obstacle, how much can you handle it alone
or you need others to help you? Realize that you need a friend, mentor and family to
support you and even help you. Your relationship with the other party in the
performance of their duties and responsibilities are known as collaborative.
Collaboration is defined as working with others in a joint project with the same goal
to be achieved. Collaboration can increase success when groups collaborate
together to share knowledge and reach consensus to solve a problem. Like students,
teachers need to be actively involved in learning and should have the opportunity to
discuss, reflect and try to make a better teaching approach.
In collaboration exists consultations. Deliberation is the last negotiations and reach a
consensus or agreement on any action taken. In a group work, discussion is very
important to build a consensus . Old adage says ' Round the water as sewer, round
man as consensus'. This proverb suggests that in any works to be carried out in
collaboration and consultation is very important to ensure the success of the work. In
fact, Islam insists consultation as an act of admirable. This is evident in the words of
the Quran by Allah SWT through as- Syuraa chapter 38 verse 42 constituents, which
and for those who receive ( observe ) the call of their Lord and establish worship,
and whose affairs are decided by discussion between them
Musyawah should be standard practice by teachers in determining a decision
together for excellent results. Brainstorming will occur and the development of ideas
to improve the quality of the teacher himself.
8.6.2 Importance of Collaborating
Why do teachers need to collaborate? Various studies and research findings suggest
that teachers need to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills in the
professional dimension in order to improve the quality of pupils' learning. One way to
achieve this is by creating professional collaboration among teachers in schools. As
suggested by Lieberman, schools unable to developed without its staff work together
(Lieberman, 1986). Many studies have found that teachers can grow professionally

through collaboration (Lieberman, 1986a, 1986b ; Hopkins et al . , 1994). Lieberman

also stressed that a school would be more successful for teachers and students
when teachers work collaboratively to solve problems and be given maximum
autonomy to carry out their work.
In addition, expertise in teaching stems from the process of sharing, trying new
ideas, reflection on practice and develop new approaches. Through collaboration,
professional development takes place as it involves the circle is related to sharing,
giving and receiving. Ideas and suggestions each individual or teachers need to be
heard, made reflection and respect.
Quality teaching occurs when a regular repertoire of strategies and planning the
content of the pupils. Through collaboration with other people, a lot of knowledge can
be shared.
8.6.3 Elements of Collaboration
the following:






The working relationship that can be developed and maintained through teacher
The belief that working together is not something to be forced but voluntary.
Increased skills and initiative is seen as a continuous process in which changes can
be implemented and supported.
Working together is seen as a scheduled activity that shows the status of the work
to be done but do not restrict the development of the individual.
Appreciation directly to the needs of those involved.
8.6.4 Ways Teacher Collaborate
(i) Team Teaching
Teachers can collaborate in many ways . One of them is team teaching. For Davis
(1957), refers to a method of team teaching lessons conducted by a group of expert
teachers or skillful in various fields to form a teaching team. They will jointly plan to
implement and evaluate all teaching activities from start to finish. In addition to team
teaching, teachers can also collaborate together to provide activities such as action
research, projects and lesson plans.
(ii) Collaboration through Technology Facilities Information and Communication
Technology (ICT)
Nowadays there are facilities to facilitate communication, relationships and human
right even at great distances from one another. TMK facility currently allows to be
created in collaboration among teachers. A variety of materials and teaching
resources, sequential linking the learning that has gone through the techniques and
strategies can be shared by teachers through ICT such as the internet, e -mail, video
conferences and so on. E-mail is one of the most sought after worldwide and

collaborate smoothly via e -mail. The sharing of information, resources, materials

and experience will able to solve issues and problems by teachers via e-mail.
(iii) Collaboration between organizations / institutions / agencies
Many authorities began establishing relationships run a program in collaboration to
improve quality and create capacity building. Collaboration between schools and the
other is very important in improving the quality of the program or activity. BPG is a
culture of collaboration in order to improve the quality of the educational program of
the teacher. BPG has a long tradition of collaboration with foreign universities in
implementing various training programs , including the program Teaching English as
Second Language (TESL) to produce BPG TESL teachers collaborate with
universities United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, where the students TESL
pursuing studies at IPG half and half study abroad. Even BPG also collaborate with
local universities in various training programs and Graduate programs.
Collaborations such as that conducted by the grant has helped the Ministry of
Education to increased skills and knowledge among officers. Experience
collaboration is a very appropriate approach in the enhancement of professionalism
and a culture of Lifelong Learning to officials.
Teachers can also create collaboration with universities or research agencies. You
have to know the importance of research in the field of education and research
efforts with others is an effort to increase the professionalism of teachers and
research skills are skills that must be mastered by educators today. Can you provide
the other collaboration relationships with educators?
8.7 In-Service Training
Circular enhance their knowledge and skills to teachers now to be attend many
courses or training, known as Training In Service (LDP). In an effort to upgrade the
teaching profession, the work highlighted in the Education Development Master Plan
(PIPP) is enhance and expand training courses for teachers in service. In
accordance with the demands of education now, the focus course services focus on
increasing knowledge and skills of teachers, especially in the smart school
management, science and technology , information and communication technology ,
curriculum management, the transformation of the curriculum , assessment and
evaluation, as well as training on current pedagogical and learning Mastery .
These courses are designed among others, to provide all the opportunity for
teachers to renew and me a little to their knowledge, improve their efficiency and
bring about a paradigm shift in their self- education issues. Teachers are also
encouraged to increase their knowledge and skills in the 21st century that integrate
thinking skills, problem solving, creative and critical thinking. Therefore, the task and
the role of teachers in keeping pace with these changes and to prevent the demise
of their knowledge and make teachers smart ICT.
Teacher Education Division (BPG) has been tasked to perform in-service training
(INSET) or In-Service Course (KDP) to teachers who are serving either in secondary
schools or teachers in primary schools. The courses offered to teachers to follow
consists of a short course in the period 3-4 days until the long course implemented

within one year. So far the grant has been able to offer a range of courses that are
mostly carried out at the Institute of Teacher Education in Malaysia.
8.7.1 The objective of the course
In-Service Course (KDP) designed and provided to the teachers in the service varies
from time to time and depending on the current needs and demands on the
education system. Ministry of Education (MOE) using KDP as one of the main
mechanisms in the delivery and meet the aspirations of the MOE. The education
system is dynamic and the changes that occur either at the local or international
implications for the country's education system. The following are the objectives of
the KDP:
(i) To expose teachers to the latest innovations in the field of education. The courses
are organized to focus on providing input to date on the latest R & D approach. In
this, the 21st century skills that emphasize current pedagogical be exposed to inservice teachers to ensure that knowledge and their knowledge up to date , eg aided
pedagogical ICT , Project Based Learning (Project Learning / PL) , Problem-Based
Learning ( Problem Based Learning / PBL) , Game -Based Learning (Games Based
Learning) . Smart Courses are also organized to equip teachers with the latest
teaching and learning approach that uses a variety of approaches that focus on ICT
skills, thinking skills and creativity in R & D.
( ii ) The courses offered are also intended to meet current demands and
requirements. Currently, the MOE is focusing on children's learning in rural and
indigenous children. Therefore, teachers should make full use of pedagogy that
coincides with the culture and environment of the pupils. Courses related with
Relevant Pedagogy and Pedagogy Culture (Culture Pedagogy) and ethnic
languages are offered to teachers working in the area to ensure a uniform and
comprehensive educational opportunities to the children of Malaysia. For example,
language courses and language Kadazan groves (organized to meet the
government's intention to provide learning opportunities to all.
( iii ) Improve the quality of teaching in the classroom by offering courses related to
emotional and spiritual management, addressing discipline and behavior problems in
children with a 'Reality Therapy' and best practices (best practices) in the classroom.
( iv ) Equip teachers with the competence to enable them to create an effective
learning environment among teachers exposed to criteria conducive learning
environment , development of resources and teaching aids are effective, attractive
and introduce activities that stimulate the mind and for the expansion of psychosocial
Lifelong Learning to upgrade their skills through courses that equip teachers with
strong leadership, self-motivation and courses related to the content knowledge and
pedagogical style.
ii.Enable teachers to cope with the challenges that exist in the field of education
through courses and workshops that discuss the challenges teachers today, the

latest issues and measures to be taken by teachers in addressing the issue of

iii.Complete knowledge and awareness of teachers on educational policies and the
government should be adjusted to the current trends and changes . For example, a
course EteMS (English for the Teaching of Mathematics and Science) offered to
teachers when MOE makes teaching Mathematics and Science in English (PPSMI)
since 2002. BPG has trained 120,000 teachers of mathematics and science teachers
consisting of Year 1 to Form 6 teachers. Similarly, when used as a component of
literature in Bahasa Melayu (KOMSAS), then of course KOMSAS conducted to
ensure that teachers are able to handle the teaching of literature in Malay.
iv . In-service programs are also aimed at enhancing teaching profession. Among the
programs implemented are Graduate Program targeting primary school teachers
have a degree. Graduate Program for teachers Teaching Diploma or Certificate
Training Program was started by PKPG in 1999, which involved cooperation MOE
teacher training colleges with IPIA. The program lasted until 2006. Starting in 2007,
PKPG terminated when the college was upgraded to an Institute of Education (ITE)
that enables the institute offers Bachelor of Teaching program began in 2007 to preservice teachers. On February 5, 200, Staff Development Committee Meeting of the
Ministry of Education has approved the program Graduate Primary Teacher (PGSR)
using different modes holiday courses (KDC) and a 4-year period PGSR using the
curriculum of Bachelor of Teaching (PISMP). PGSR first offered to teachers inservice withdrawals from November 2008.
When we look at the objectives of the KDP, now we see the courses offered. Among
them are the following:
( i )Short Course among others, Smart Course 4 weeks, 6 weeks course Add Option
for teachers of mathematics and science.
( ii ) the Service Course 14 - week course offers a wide range of fields, including
Counselling Course Primary School , Special Education courses , Dyslexia , Theatre
in Teaching and Learning, Educational Enrichment , Arts in Teaching and Learning
Malay, Remedial in Mathematics, Creative Teaching in Mathematics , Creative
Teaching in Science , Arabic , Qiraat and Teranum and Enhancing Bahasa Inggeris.
( iii ) Special Education Certification Course One Year (NPCS), which consists of
various field.
( iv ) KOMSAS Coaching Course conducted over 3 days.
( v ) coaching courses Sports and Games .
MOE policy wants in-service teachers attending the 7 day course of each year, the
grant of responsible management courses in heavy service responsibilities for
curriculum planning and monitoring the course until the implementation. This is a
formidable task because of the grant to provide courses to 380, 000 teachers in

8.8 Authentic Learning

Authentic learning is activity -based learning in the real environment that allows a
student to focus on the knowledge and skills such as thinking and problem solving
skills. Some education leaders produce authentic learning features, including
Jonassen (1991) explains that authentic learning is task-based activities that are
relevant to the actual situation, across the curriculum and to provide an appropriate
level of complexity to enable students to choose their own level of difficulty. This
means that students can study a problem, identify and define the questions and
activities related to the problem. Features authentic learning as presented by
Reeves, Herrington & Oliver (2002) is as follows:
( i ) the actual situation -based learning activities, for example, in micro-teaching,
student teachers will be given the task of implementing a teaching and learning
based on actual classroom setting where tables, chairs, blackboard arranged as
classrooms and other partners as a student in a class taught. The same applies to
students in other fields.
( ii ) Students complete the task by identifying and researching assignments that
allow students interprets openly.
( iii ) authentic learning provides opportunities for students to inspect and review
tasks within a certain time like in one day, weeks or months, and not in a matter of
minutes or a few hours.
( iv ) Through authentic learning, students are given the opportunity to study and
understand their assignments from a variety of perspectives using a variety of
sources .
( v ) Students also have the opportunity to collaborate with others while conducting
authentic learning and reflection exercise that allows students to make choices for
effective learning outcomes.
( vi ) authentic learning can be integrated and implemented across a variety of
subjects and cross-discipline that allows students to play their role as experts and
not as the sole bailiwick.
( vii ) authentic learning are also integrated in the assessment of the actual situation
rather than mock assessment (artificial assessment).
( viii ) a student -centered learning in authentic learning approach . Through studentcentered activities, they will be more motivated and try to solve the problem.
8.9 Access Information from Multiple Sources
In the era of a borderless world, a wealth of information easily disseminated and
distributed to anyone in all corners of the world. Among the younger generation, their
ability to acquire a variety of information in a timely manner a challenge for teachers
to equip themselves with information and teachers not to be left behind in this

regard. The rapid development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

provides peluamg to each individual to master a variety of information. At present,
the role of the teacher as a source of information and knowledge to students is
getting smaller as the teacher's role was taken over was by ICT. Consequently, the
role of teachers is more focused on the role of facilitator and therefore teachers
should equip themselves with the latest information to ensure the effectiveness of its
role as a facilitator.
The development of ICT enabled various information can be accessed from a variety
of sources. Among the sources that can provide students with a variety of
information is as follows:
8.9.1Program Adobe
The Adobe program is as follows:
(i)Rich Internet Application (RIA)
This resource provides learning module on line (online) course project to apply the
skills learned and books downloaded to the RIA.
(ii)Adobe Digital Careers
Teaches skills through visual design, web design and video production through the
Adobe Creative Suite.
Adobe Acrobat
Adobe Acrobat is a program through providing software to build electronic portfolios
in PDF, student course work digitally and plan for student learning.
(iv)Educational TV Channels Adobe
Adobe Education TV Channel educate, motivate, tutorial materials, innovative
techniques using Adobe software in education. Students can access hundreds of
videos, including material support tutorials.
8.9.2 ERIC Program
In addition to the Adobe program, ERIC program provided at the resource center and
library are also a source of reference that can be accessed by students. ERIC offers
more than 1.3 million bibliographic list of journals, articles and educational materials
related to the addition of a new list every week. ERIC Collection consists of
reference materials such as journals and articles, books and study materials ,
seminar papers and conference papers technical reports, policy papers and other
materials related to education.
8.9.3 ELearning
E-Learning stands for Electronic Learning, the Web Based Instruction (Web-Based
Instruction). Learning is based on the use of Internet technology for accessing the
information that led to the Smart learning. E-learning can be divided into two types,

namely, Education Portal and Knowledge Management (Ismail Zain, 2002). Through
Portal of Education, the students can access to a variety of information and learning
materials. The Local Education Portal is a Utusan web portal (www.tutor.com.my)
and Cikgu.Net (www.cikgu.net.my). This page can be accessed by students for free.
The Knowledge Management Portal also allows students to access the information
through the search space. Students can obtain information using search engines as
Yahoo (http://www.yahoo.com)
MSN (http://www.msn.com)
AltaVista (http://www.altavista.com)
Exite (http://www.infoseek.go.com/)
Find (http://www.cari.com)
Infoseek (http://www.inforseek.go.com)
8.9.4 E - Library, E - Books and E Journals
E-library or e-Library is a source of the most easily accessible to students.
Nowadays, many foreign universities and local universities provide e - library to allow
people accessing the information. Similarly, e-books and e-journals that can be
accessed only through the website provided. Students can subscribe directly
ingredients needed after selecting topics appropriate material. Google website
students can access materials that are required to type the title of the material to be
searched. For students of the institute, they can subscribe to the e - library (Digital
Library) from the Open University Malaysia (OUM), which has a collection consisting
of a total of 72,500 e -books and e - journal titles of 29.566 titles. OUM offers cheap
rates on student fees IPG as OUM is a partner of IPG and MoE in conducting some
college degree programs.
8.10 Summary
In chapter 8 you have learned some Lifelong Learning program in which among
other things discusses:
( i ) Personal Learning Plan can be chosen by the student should aim to increase
knowledge or improve the standard of education to a higher degree . Among them
are learning at home, adult education, continuing education, knowledge workers and
self-paced learning environment.
( ii ) Reading Culture as ' Reading mooring knowledge' and there are several steps in
the practice of reading that can be practiced by teachers in ensuring cultural Lifelong
( iii ) research culture and its importance as one of the activities are very effective in
Lifelong Learning through research we started to think, plan, read a variety of
materials , providing the items question , analyze and write reports.
( iv ) Learning through reflective thinking that led to the practice of thought, staring at
each action , its strengths and weaknesses, identify issues and problems and find
the steps in overcoming it.
( v ) consists of reflective teaching circles round starts with planning, acting,
observing and reflection.

( vi ) Model Pedagogical Reasoning and Action Shulman ( 1987 ) , focusing on the

transition from student teacher understanding, transformation and implementation of
self-assessment and develop a new understanding.
( vii ) Collaboration and consultation is a discussion in the group to build on the
results of an action to achieve a goal together.
( viii ) in-service courses are designed to provide opportunities for teachers to renew
and update their knowledge, improve their efficiency and bring about a paradigm
shift in their self- education issues.
( ix ) The rapid development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
provides the opportunity for each individual to access information and make
knowledgeable and competitive.
Join activity
Talk with your friends on authentic learning that once you and your friends face.
Discuss what characteristics do you think of this activity can be classified as
authentic learning activities?

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