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Explain the Pillars of International Law

The fundamental precepts, sources, or otherwise might be known as pillars of

international law include treaties, international customs (or customary laws), general
principles, equity, and other supplementary evidence.

Treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in

international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A
treaty may also be known as an (international) agreement, protocol, covenant,
convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. Regardless of
terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally
considered treaties and the rules are the same. Treaties embody the principle of
pacta sunt servanda, latin for agreements must be kept.

International Custom or Customary Law are those aspects of international law

that derive from custom. Along with general principles of law and treaties, custom
is considered by the International Court of Justice, jurists, the United Nations,
and its member states to be among the primary sources of international law. The
vast majority of the world's governments accept in principle the existence of
customary international law, although there are many differing opinions as to
what rules are contained in it.

General Principles is a source of international law which may include such legal
principles that are common to a large number of systems of municipal law. It is
common to the worlds major legal systems.

Equity is a mandate given to a judge to exercise discretion in order to achieve a

determination that is more equitable and fair. Different kinds of equity are
distinguished, namely:
a. Intra legem (within the law) the law adapted to the facts of the case;
b. Praeter legem (beyond the law) used to fill gaps within the law;
c. Contra legem (against the law) refusal to apply the which is seen as unjust.
Other supplementary evidence may be referred to UN Resolutions and non-treaty
agreements (or soft law).
These pillars of international law are based on judicial decisions and scholarly writings.

Judicial decisions are subsidiary means for the determination of the rules of
law. Decision of courts do not necessary constitute stare decisis (to stand by
things decided) however, the decisions of the International Court of Justice are
not only regarded as highly persuasive in international law circles; they have also
contributed to the formulation of principles that have become international law.

Scholarly Writings are commonly used as reference and basis of the sources or
pillars of international law. In many cases of first impression, highly qualified
writers and publicists are the authorities that can be cited. Publicists are
institutions which write on international law. The ICJ is generally reluctant to refer
to writers but they are often taken into considerations.

What is the Legal significance and upshot of establishing and providing a national
territory provision in the Constitution.
According to De Leon (2009):The neccesity of constitutional provision on National
Territory commence the delimitation of our Jurisdicton over territory.
Binding force of such provision under International Law;
There is no rule in International which requires a state to define its territorial boundaries
in its constitution. The reason is that with or without such provision, a state under
International Law has the unqestioned right to assert jurisdiction throughout the extent
of its territory. Nor is such delimitation binding upon other states who are not preculed
from claiming title to territories which they think is their own.
In any case, territorial disputes have to be settled according to the rules of International
Value of provision defining our national territory;
Nevertheless, it is important to define as precisely as possible over national territory for
the purpose of making known as to the world areas over which we assert title or
ownership to aviod future conflicts with other nations. As a sovereign States, the
Philippines can promulgate and enforce laws within our country. Every other power is
excluded from exercising foreign domination or jurisdiction without the consent of the

Acquisition of other territories. Incidentally, the definition of our National Territory

in our Constitution does not prevent the Philippines from acquiring other
territories in the future through any of the means sanctioned by International Law.

2. What is the Legal significance and upshot of establishing and providing a

national territory provision in the Constitution?
Since the constitution provided a provision for the national territory of the
Philippines, it secures a solemn guarantee that territorial integrity of the
Philippines will be respected. It also defines a necessity for future territorial
acquisition. The provision strengthens the Philippine position over its claim to
disputed territory. The legal significance is that the Philippines have jurisdiction or

right within the territory of the Philippines as stated in the provision. In effect the
Philippines can sue anyone who violates the laws within our territory.
3. Differentiate exhaustively, the National Territory Provisions of the 1935,
1973 and 1987 Constitution. Taking emphasis in the semantics used to
exemplify Philippine sovereignty and jurisdiction.
Section 1.
The Philippines comprises all the territory ceded to the United States by
the Treaty of Paris concluded between the United States and Spain on the tenth day of
December, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, the limits which are set forth in Article III
of said treaty, together with all the islands embraced in the treaty concluded at
Washington between the United States and Spain on the seventh day of November,
nineteen hundred, and the treaty concluded between the United States and Great
Britain on the second day of January, nineteen hundred and thirty, and all territory over
which the present Government of the Philippine Islands exercises jurisdiction.
The 1935 Constitution included the definition to make US acknowledge the extent of
Philippine Territory, respect its integrity and prevent its dismemberment.
The article, thus gave four points of reference for the determination of Philippine
Territory: 1.) the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898; 2.) the Treaty of Washington on
November 7, 1900; 3.) the Treaty between Great Britain and the United States on
January 2, 1930; 4.) all territory over which the present Government of the Philippines
Islands exercises jurisdiction.
By Article III of the Treaty of Paris, Spain cedes to the United States the archipelago
known as the Philippine Islands, and comprehending the islands lying within the line
drawn by the technical description of the same article. The technical description
embodied in the Treaty of Paris, however, left some doubt about the inclusion within the
ceded territory of the Batanes Islands to the north and the Islands of Sibutu and
Cagayan de Sulu to the south as well as the Turtle and Mangsee Islands. The Treaty of
Washington of November 7, 1900 corrected the error with respect to the Islands of
Sibutu and Cagayan de Sulu, and jurisdiction over the Turtle and Mangsee Islands was
clarified by the Convention concluded between Britain and the United States of January
2, 1930. The doubt with respect to the Batanes Islands, however, was left unclarified in
spite of the fact that, from time immemorial, these islands had undisputedly formed part
of the Philippine Isalnds. Hence, to remove th doubt, the 1935 Constitution added the
clause all territory over which the present (1935) government of the Philippine Islands
exercises jurisdiction.
SECTION 1. The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the
islands and waters embraced therein, and all the other territories belonging to the

Philippines by historic right or legal title, including the territorial sea, the air space, the
subsoil, the sea-bed, the insular shelves, and the other submarine areas over which the
Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction. The waters around, between, and connecting
the islands of the archipelago, irrespective of their breadth and dimensions, form part of
the internal waters of the Philippines.
Under the 1973 Constitution, It was to assert the Philippines claim to Sabah with the
inclusion of the phrase by historic right or Legal title to denote areas considered part of
our territory.
Briefly, and for the purpose of analysis, Philippine National Territory under the 1973
Constitution may roughly be divided into three groups: 1.) the Philippine Archipelago; 2.)
other territories belonging to the Philippines; 3.) Philippine waters, air-space, and
submarine areas.
A. The Philippine Archipelago.
Article 1 of the 1973 Constitution simply made reference to all the islands and waters
embraced therein. The Article, however, gave no point of reference that could delineate
the exact location if these islands and waters. On its dace, therefore, the article did not
serve as a definition of the national territory. To understand its meaning, one must look
into the volition of the Article from its first draft to its final form.
An archipelago may be defined, depending on ones utilitarian preference, either as a
cluster of islands forming a territorial unity, or as a unit of water studded with islands. In
this definition, the waters are considered adjuncts to the land area and their extent is
determined by reference to the land area.
In conclusion, Philippine Archipelago of the 1973 Constitution corresponds with the
territory defined in Article 1 of the 1935 Constitution. Thus must the 1973 definition be
understood if it is to be useful definition at all and not just a piece of patriotic assertion of
national history dating back to ancestral Madjapahit rulers. In other words, try as we
might to forget our colonial traces from our constitution, remembering history also
serves our national purpose.
B. Other territories belonging to the Philippines.
Under the 1973 Constitution, aside from the Philippine archipelago, Philippine
territory includes all other territories belonging to the Philippines by historic right
or legal title.
The history of these provisions goes back to the last clause of Article 1 of the
1935 Constitution which included all territory over which the present government
of the Philippine islands exercises jurisdiction. Section 1 of the draft of the 1973
version updated the 1935 version to read: All territory over which the
Government of the Philippine was exercises jurisdiction on July 4, 1946 as well

as territory which said government has acquired r over which it has a right. The
second graft simplified the modifications thus: all other territories over which the
government of the Philippines has been exercising jurisdiction or over which it
has a right. The final 1973 version was the draft reported out on February 17,
It will be recalled that the last clause of Article 1 of the 1935 Constitution was
intended to ensure the inclusion of the Batanes Islands within Philippine Territory.
The clause was inserted in answer to the clamor to protect and ensure Philippine
claim to territories not covered by priorr treaties. The intent was to avoid forfeiture
of these claims by their omission from the constitutional definition.
The same intent was carried over into the final draft which said all other
territories belonging to the Philippines by historic right or legal title. The word
belonging was used both in present and future sense: now or later may
belong. By historic right, batanes belonged to the Philippines because in all
history Batanes had always been part of the Philippines. By historic right, the
Marinas Islands might also belong to the Philippines depending on the historical
evidence. As for Sabah, the Philippine Jurisdiction was based on legal title
Perfected in 1962 legal title was used to mean all accepted legal modes of
acquiring territory.
The phrase all other territories was a catch-all used to cover areas linked to the
Philippines with varying degrees of certainty and firmness. It covered batanes,
which undisputedly, belonged to the Philippines it covered Sabah, over which the
Philippines had filed a formal claim over which was under investigation. It
covered any other territory which the Philippines might acquire in the future
through accepted international modes of acquisition. The clause therefore was
nothing more than an insurance clause which would be meaningful only if
supported by title extraneous to the Constitution.
C. The Territorial Sea.
The territorial sea of a state, as distinct from its inland and internal waters, consist of a
marginal belt of maritime waters adjacent to the baselines extending twelve nautical
miles outward. Outside the territorial sea are the high seas. A state exercises
sovereignty over its territorial sea subject to the right of innocent passage by the other
D. Air-Space, sub-soil, the sea-bed, the insular shelves and the submarine
The assertion in air space law was that sovereignty extended to an unlimited extent,
usque ad coelom. The development of the law on outer space modified this assertion.
Sovereignty over air space extends only until where outer space begins. The provisions
on the sea-bed and sub-soil were based on Article 2, Section 1 of the Convention on the
Territorial Sea and Contagious Zone adopted in Geneva in 1958.

It will be noted therefore that, while sovereignty is claimed over the air-space, sub-soil,
sea-bed, the insular shelves or continental shelves and other submarine areas, the
physical extent of these areas and the degree of control claimed over these areas were
left undefined. The inderterminate stance was preserved in the final 1973 version which
simply claimed air-space, sub-soil, sea-bed, the insular shelves and other submarine
areas as part of the Philippine Territory. Determination, in other words, was left to other
modes than by constitutional precept.
Section 1.The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands
and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines
has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains,
including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other
submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the
archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters
of the Philippines.
In the 1987 Constitution, the above phrase was watered down to claim ownership only
of all territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty and jurisdiction to remove
tirants with Malaysia over the Sabah issue.
The concept of territorial space embodied in the phrase Philippine Archipelago has
been left untouched by the 1987 text. The deliberations of the 1986 Constitutional
Commission focused on: 1.) whether to have a provision on national territory; 2.) what
posture to take relative to Sabah as covered by the clause all other territories belong to
the Philippines be Historic right or legal title; and 3.) how the definition of territory would
relate to the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea.
A. The first issue, which came almost as a side issue, was resolved easily enough.
In the end there was recognition of the fact that such an article would have an
educational value and there was apprehension that it would be difficult to explain
why after the 1935 and 1973 provisions on national territory the new constitution
fail to provide for one.
B. The new phraseology: and all other territories over which the Philippines has
sovereignty or jurisdiction. It was explained that the word has was of broader
scope than exercises so that it clearly allowed juridical retention of a territory
even when it was physically wrested by a stronger force. The phrase was
explained to import a durative sense, that is, it included any territory over the
Philippines then had sovereignty or jurisdiction, even if such territory should
temporarily be controlled by an invading force, and any other territory which the
Philippines might establish sovereignty or jurisdiction in the future. It clearly
therefore did not abandon any claim to Sabah or any other territory but left all
such matters to determination through international processes. The intent was to
more effectively allay the fears of those who saw the abandonment of the 1973

language as an abandonment to Sabah claim since the Philippines did not

actually exercise jurisdiction over Sabah. The 1973 phraseology had acquired a
historic meaning as embodying a claim to Sabah which, while harming diplomatic
relations with Malaysia, did not anymore force to the Philippine claim. The new
phraseology had the advantage of avoiding a phraseology which was offensive to
Malaysia while not foreclosing any claim to Sabah. Moreover, it was meant to
take care of a situation where an invading force might take away from the
Philippines temporary control over all or portion of its territory.
C. The logical sequencing and a summary of the elements that make up the
Philippine Territory was not meant to and does not add anything to the substance
of what was already contained in the 1973 definition. The 1987 Constitution
follows closely the terms of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea. Article 2
of the Convention say:
1. The Sovereignty of the coastal State extends, beyond its land territory and
internal water and, in the case of an archipelagic State, its archipelagic
waters, to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea.
2. This sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as to
its bed and subsoil.
3. The Sovereignty over the territorial sea is exercised subject to this
Convention and to other rules of international law.
4. What is meant by and Legal Ramification of the following:
A. Territories ceded to the Philippines.
By the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded to the United States the archipelago
known as the Philippine Islands, and comprehending the islands lying
within the line drawn by the technical description of the same article.
Article III. Spain cedes to the United States the archipelago known as the
Philippine Islands, and comprehending the islands lying within the
following line:
A line running from west to east along or near the twentieth parallel of
north latitude, and through the middle of the navigable channel of
Bachi, from the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) to the one
hundred and twenty-seventh (127th) degree meridian of longitude east
of Greenwich, thence along the one hundred and twenty seventh
(127th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the parallel
of four degrees and forty five minutes (4 [degree symbol] 45']) north
latitude, thence along the parallel of four degrees and forty five minutes
(4 [degree symbol] 45') north latitude to its intersection with the
meridian of longitude one hundred and nineteen degrees and thirty five
minutes (119 [degree symbol] 35') east of Greenwich, thence along the

meridian of longitude one hundred and nineteen degrees and thirty five
minutes (119 [degree symbol] 35') east of Greenwich to the parallel of
latitude seven degrees and forty minutes (7 [degree symbol] 40') north,
thence along the parallel of latitude of seven degrees and forty minutes
(7 [degree symbol] 40') north to its intersection with the one hundred
and sixteenth (116th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich,
thence by a direct line to the intersection of the tenth (10th) degree
parallel of north latitude with the one hundred and eighteenth (118th)
degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, and thence along the
one hundred and eighteenth (118th) degree meridian of longitude east
of Greenwich to the point of beginning.The United States will pay to
Spain the sum of twenty million dollars ($20,000,000) within three
months after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty.
B. All other territories belonging to the Philippines by historic right
or legal title.
Under the 1973 Constitution, aside from the Philippine archipelago,
Philippine territory includes all other territories belonging to the
Philippines by historic right or legal title.
The history of this provisions goes back to the last clause of Article 1 of
the 1935 Constitution which included all territory over which the
present government of the Philippine islands exercises jurisdiction.
Section 1 of the draft of the 1973 version updated the 1935 version to
read: All territory over which the Government of the Philippine was
exercises jurisdiction on July 4, 1946 as well as territory which said
government has acquired r over which it has a right. The second graft
simplified the modifications thus: all other territories over which the
government of the Philippines has been exercising jurisdiction or over
which it has a right. The final 1973 version was the draft reported out
on February 17, 1972.
It will be recalled that the last clause of Article 1 of the 1935
Constitution was intended to ensure the inclusion of the Batanes
Islands within Philippine Territory. The clause was inserted in answer to
the clamor to protect and ensure Philippine claim to territories not
covered by priorr treaties. The intent was to avoid forfeiture of these
claims by their omission from the constitutional definition.
The same intent was carried over into the final draft which said all
other territories belonging to the Philippines by historic right or legal
title. The word belonging was used both in present and future sense:
now or later may belong. By historic right, batanes belonged to the
Philippines because in all history Batanes had always been part of the
Philippines. By historic right, the Marinas Islands might also belong to
the Philippines depending on the historical evidence. As for Sabah, the

Philippine Jurisdiction was based on legal title Perfected in 1962/

legal title was used to mean all accepted legal modes of acquiring
The phrase all other territories was a catch-all used to cover areas
linked to the Philippines with varying degrees of certainty and firmness.
It covered batanes, which undisputedly, belonged to the Philippines it
covered Sabah, over which the Philippines had filed a formal claim
over which was under investigation. It covered any other territory which
the Philippines might acquire in the future through accepted
international modes of acquisition. The clause therefore was nothing
more than an insurance clause which would be meaningful only if
supported by title extraneous to the Constitution.
C. All other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or
In the 1987 Constitution, 1973s all other territories belonging to the
Philippines by historic right or legal title gave way to all other
territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction.
The proposal to retain the 1973 phraseology basically wanted to avoid
the impression of constitutional abandonment of the Philippines claim
to Sabah. Those who espoused the new phraseology, however,
contended that as worded the new phraseology, while prescinding from
any international claim, did not mean abandonment of any claim which
might be justifiable under generally accepted principles of international
law to which a nation subscribes.
The original phraseology proposed as substitute for the 1973 version
read thus: and all other territories over which the government
exercises sovereign jurisdiction. The phrase was bot an abandonment
of any unsettled Philippine claim.
The principal stumbling block to final approval was the phrase exercise
sovereignty jurisdiction. It was argued that the phrase could be easily read to
mean that territory not the effective control of the Philippines, such as Sabah,
would not be part of the Philippines. The new phraseology: and all other
territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction. It was
explained that the word has was of broader scope than exercises so that it
clearly allowed juridical retention of a territory even when it was physically
wrested by a stronger force. The phrase was explained to import a durative
sense, that is, it included any territory over the Philippines then had sovereignty
or jurisdiction, even if such territory should temporarily be controlled by an
invading force, and any other territory which the Philippines might establish
sovereignty or jurisdiction in the future. It clearly therefore did not abandon any
claim to Sabah or any other territory but left all such matters to determination
through international processes. The intent was to more effectively allay the fears

of those who saw the abandonment of the 1973 language as an abandonment to

Sabah claim since the Philippines did not actually exercise jurisdiction over
Sabah. The 1973 phraseology had acquired a historic meaning as embodying a
claim to Sabah which, while harming diplomatic relations with Malaysia, did not
anymore force to the Philippine claim. The new phraseology had the advantage
of avoiding a phraseology which was offensive to Malaysia while not foreclosing
any claim to Sabah. Moreover, it was meant to take care of a situation where an
invading force might take away from the Philippines temporary control over all or
portion of its territory.
5. Explain the Nine Dash Line principle being espoused by China. Does this
principle encroach or violate any international norm. If so explain
In this the 21st century, China, Asias rising regional naval power, is claiming
ownership by historical right to almost 90% of the South China Sea. Chinas claim,
represented by its 9-dashed line map, echoes the 17th century maritime claims of the
naval superpowers of that era. China is enforcing its claim through its rapidly growing
naval fleet. If left to stand, Chinas claim will bring the world back to the turbulent
maritime era 400 years ago, when nations claimed the oceans and seas and maritime
claims were settled through the naval cannon, not through the Rule of Law.
China claims indisputable sovereignty over all the waters, islands, reefs, rocks,
seabed, minerals, and living and non-living resources falling within its 9-dashed line
claim in the South China Sea. The 9-dashed line area comprises almost 90% of the
total area of the South China Sea. Chinas 9-dashed line claim encroaches on 80% of
the Philippines 200-nm exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and 100% of its 150-nm
extended continental shelf (ECS) facing the South China Sea - what the Philippines
calls the West Philippines Sea. Chinas 9-dashed line claim has similar effects on the
EEZs and ECSs of Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia facing the South China
Sea. The countries most adversely affected by Chinas 9-dashed line claim, in terms of
the size of the area encroached by the 9-dashed line claim, are the Philippines,
Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia, in that order.
Allowing China to establish the principle that states can claim territory based on what
their country has at times controlled would be disastrous for the simple reason that
borders have been fluid throughout history. As a result, there would be a never-ending
series of overlapping claims of sovereignty that would place countless states on a path
to conflict.
All of this is to say that the principle behind Chinas nine-dash line is dangerous for the
general maintenance of peace and stability in the global system. The United States in
particular, but all nations including China, would be derelict in their duties as nationstates to allow it to stand.

Public International
Atty. Porfirio DG.
Panganiban Jr.

1. Provide the current membership of UN. Be Exhaustive. Provide the office,

officers, functions and duties.
The General Assembly
The General Assembly (GA) is the main deliberative, policymaking and
representative organ of the UN.
Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security,
admission of new members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority.
Decisions on other questions are by simple majority. Each country has one vote. Some
Member States in arrear of payment may be granted the right to vote. See the list of
countries in arrears in the payment of their financial contributions.
The Assembly has adopted its own rules of procedure and elects its President for each
Functions and Powers of the General Assembly
Forum for multilateral negotiation
Established in 1945 under the Charter of the United Nations, the General
Assembly occupies a central position as the chief deliberative, policymaking and
representative organ of the United Nations. Comprising all 193 Members of the United
Nations, it provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion of the full spectrum of
international issues covered by the Charter.
It also plays a significant role in the process of standard-setting and the
codification of international law. The Assembly meets in regular session intensively from
September to December each year, and thereafter as required.
Functions and powers of the General Assembly
According to the Charter of the United Nations, the General Assembly may:

Consider and approve the United Nations budget and establish the financial
assessments of Member States;
Elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council and the members of
other United Nations councils and organs and, on the recommendation of the
Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General;
Consider and make recommendations on the general principles of cooperation
for maintaining international peace and security, including disarmament;
Discuss any question relating to international peace and security and, except
where a dispute or situation is currently being discussed by the Security Council,
make recommendations on it;
Discuss, with the same exception, and make recommendations on any
questions within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of
any organ of the United Nations;
Initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political
cooperation, the development and codification of international law, the realization of
human rights and fundamental freedoms, and international collaboration in the
economic, social, humanitarian, cultural, educational and health fields;
Make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation that might
impair friendly relations among nations;
Consider reports from the Security Council and other United Nations organs.
The Assembly may also take action in cases of a threat to the peace, breach of
peace or act of aggression, when the Security Council has failed to act owing to the
negative vote of a permanent member. In such instances, according to its Uniting , the
Assembly may consider the matter immediately and recommend to its Members
collective measures to maintain or restore international peace and
The Assembly has initiated actions political, economic, humanitarian, social
and legal which have affected the lives of millions of people throughout the world.
The landmark Millennium Declaration, adopted in 2000, and the 2005 World Summit
Outcome Document reflect the commitment of Member States to reach specific goals to
attain peace, security and disarmament along with development and poverty
eradication; safeguard human rights and promote the rule of law; protect our common
environment; meet the special needs of Africa; and strengthen the United Nations.
The search for consensus
Each of the 193 Member States in the Assembly has one vote. Votes taken on
designated important issues such as recommendations on peace and security, the
election of Security Council and Economic and Social Council members, and budgetary
questions require a two-thirds majority of Member States, but other questions are
decided by simple majority.
In recent years, an effort has been made to achieve consensus on issues, rather than
deciding by a formal vote, thus strengthening support for the Assemblys decisions. The

President, after having consulted and reached agreement with delegations, can propose
that a resolution be adopted without a vote.

General Assembly Secretariat

Under-Secretary-General for General Assembly and Conference Management



General Assembly and ECOSOC Affairs Division






General Assembly Affairs Branch

Mr. Saijin Zhang (Chief)

Mr. Alexander Lomaia
Mr. Ziad Mahmassani
Ms. Anne Kwak
Ms. Antonina Poliakova (List of speakers)
Ms. Mary Muturi (Information on plenary elections and candidatures)
Mr. Carlos Galindo (Membership of Main Committees, UN Journal)
Documents Planning Unit

Ms. Tong Xin, Chief

Mr. Valeri Kazanli
Mr. Manuel Abraham
The Security Council
Under the Charter, the Security Council has primary responsibility for the
maintenance of international peace and security. It has 15 Members, and each Member

has one vote. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with
Council decisions.
The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to
the peace or act of aggression. It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by
peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. In
some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize
the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security.
The Security Council also recommends to the General Assembly the
appointment of the Secretary-General and the admission of new Members to the United
Nations. And, together with the General Assembly, it elects the judges of the
International Court of Justice.
Security Council Presidency in 2014
The presidency of the Council is held by each of the members in turn for one
month, following the English alphabetical order of the Member States names.



End of Membership Term



31 December 2015



31 December 2015



31 December 2014



31 December 2015


Republic of Korea

31 December 2014


Russian Federation

Permanent Member



31 December 2014


United Kingdom

Permanent Member


United States

Permanent Member



31 December 2014



31 December 2014



31 December 2015

Current Members
Permanent and Non-Permanent Members
The Council is composed of 15 Members:


five permanent members: China, France, Russian Federation, the United

Kingdom, and the United States,
and ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms by the General
Assembly (with end of term date):
Argentina (2014)
Australia (2014)
Chad (2015)
Chile (2015)
Jordan (2015)
Lithuania (2015)
Luxembourg (2014)
Nigeria (2015)
Republic of Korea (2014)
Rwanda (2014)

Non-Council Member States

More than 60 United Nations Member States have never been Members of the
Security Council.

A State which is a Member of the United Nations but not of the Security Council
may participate, without a vote, in its discussions when the Council considers that that
country's interests are affected. Both Members and non-members of the United Nations,
if they are parties to a dispute being considered by the Council, may be invited to take
part, without a vote, in the Council's discussions; the Council sets the conditions for
participation by a non-member State.
The Economic and Social Council
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is the United Nations central
platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development.

ECOSOC, one of the six main organs of the United Nations established by
the UN Charter in 1946, is the principal body for coordination, policy review,
policy dialogue and recommendations on economic, social and environmental
issues, as well as for implementation of the internationally agreed development

ECOSOC serves as the central mechanism for the activities of the United
Nations system and its specialized agencies, and supervises the subsidiary and
expert bodies in the economic, social and environmental fields.

ECOSOC has undergone reforms (A/RES/61/16, A/RES/68/1) in the last decade

to strengthen the Council and its working methods, giving special attention to the
integrated and coordinated implementation of, and follow-up to, the outcomes of
all major United Nations conferences summits in the economic, social,
environmental and related fields.

ECOSOC engages a wide variety of stakeholders policymakers,
parliamentarians, academics, major groups, foundations, business sector
representatives and 3,200+ registered non-governmental organizations in a
productive dialogue on sustainable development through a programmatic cycle of
meetings. The work of the Council is guided by an issue-based approach, and there is
an annual theme that accompanies each programmatic cycle, ensuring a sustained and
focused discussion among multiple stakeholders.
The programmatic cycle of ECOSOC includes

High-Level Segment

High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) provides political leadership, guidance

and recommendations for sustainable development, follow-up and review
progress in the implementation of sustainable development commitments;

Annual Ministerial Review (AMR), held annually since 2007, assesses

progress in the implementation of the United Nations development

Development Cooperation Forum (DCF), held on a biannual basis since

2007, reviews trends and progress in development cooperation on a
biannual basis.

Integration Segment, held annually since 2014, promotes the balanced

integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable
development both within the United Nations system and beyond.

Humanitarian Affairs Segment, that takes place in alternate years in New York
and Geneva, seeks to strengthen the coordination of the United Nations
humanitarian efforts.

Operational Activities for Development Segment, held annually, provides overall

coordination and guidance for United Nations funds and programmes on a
system-wide basis.

Coordination and Management Meetings (CMM), held throughout the year,

review the reports of its subsidiary and expert bodies; promote system-wide
coordination and review of development issues; and consider special country
situation or regional issues.

Youth Forum, held annually since 2012, brings the voice of youth into the
discussion of the Millennium Development Goals and post-2015 development

Partnership Forum, held annually since 2008 and linked to the theme of the
Councils Annual Ministerial Review, aims at finding innovative ways to
collaborate with the private sector and foundations in search of solutions for the
many development challenges facing governments today.

His Excellency Martin Sajdik was elected seventieth President of the Economic and
Social Council on 14 January 2014. Ambassador Sajdik is currently the Ambassador
and Permanent Representative of Austria to the United Nations in New York.
The Trusteeship Council

The Trusteeship Council suspended operation on 1 November 1994, with the

independence of Palau, the last remaining United Nations trust territory, on 1 October
1994. By a resolution adopted on 25 May 1994, the Council amended its rules of
procedure to drop the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as occasion
required -- by its decision or the decision of its President, or at the request of a majority
of its members or the General Assembly or the Security Council.
In setting up an International Trusteeship System, the Charter established the
Trusteeship Council as one of the main organs of the United Nations and assigned to it
the task of supervising the administration of Trust Territories placed under the
Trusteeship System. Major goals of the System were to promote the advancement of
the inhabitants of Trust Territories and their progressive development towards selfgovernment or independence. The Trusteeship Council is made up of the five
permanent members of the Security Council --China, France, Russian Federation,
United Kingdom and United States. The aims of the Trusteeship System have been
fulfilled to such an extent that all Trust Territories have attained self-government or
independence, either as separate States or by joining neighboring independent
Functions and Powers
Under the Charter, the Trusteeship Council is authorized to examine and discuss
reports from the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social and
educational advancement of the peoples of Trust Territories and, in consultation with the
Administering Authority, to examine petitions from and undertake periodic and other
special missions to Trust Territories.

The International Court of Justice

The Court
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United
Nations (UN). It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and
began work in April 1946.
The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). Of the
six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one not located in New York
(United States of America).
The Courts role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes
submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it

by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.

The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine
years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. It is assisted
by a Registry, its administrative organ. Its official languages are English and French.
Members of the Court
The International Court of Justice is composed of 15 judges elected to nine-year
terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council.
These organs vote simultaneously but separately. In order to be elected, a candidate
must receive an absolute majority of the votes in both bodies. This sometimes makes it
necessary for a number of rounds of voting to be carried out.
In order to ensure a measure of continuity, one third of the Court is elected every
three years. Judges are eligible for re-election. Should a judge die or resign during his
or her term of office, a special election is held as soon as possible to choose a judge to
fill the unexpired part of the term.
Elections are held in New York (United States of America) on the occasion of the
annual autumn session of the General Assembly. The judges elected at a triennial
election enter upon their term of office on 6 February of the following year, after which
the Court proceeds to elect by secret ballot a President and a Vice-President to hold
office for three years.
All States parties to the Statute of the Court have the right to propose candidates.
These proposals are made not by the government of the State concerned, but by
a group consisting of the members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (see History)
designated by that State, i.e. by the four jurists who can be called upon to serve as
members of an arbitral tribunal under the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. In the
case of countries not represented on the Permanent Court of Arbitration, nominations
are made by a group constituted in the same way. Each group can propose up to four
candidates, not more than two of whom may be of its own nationality, whilst the others
may be from any country whatsoever, whether a party to the Statute or not and whether
or not it has declared that it accepts the compulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ. The names
of candidates must be communicated to the Secretary-General of the United Nations
within a time-limit laid down by him/her.
Judges must be elected from among persons of high moral character, who
possess the qualifications required in their respective countries for appointment to the
highest judicial offices, or are juris consults of recognized competence in international
The Court may not include more than one national of the same State. Moreover,
the Court as a whole must represent the main forms of civilization and the principal legal

systems of the world.

In practice this principle has found expression in the distribution of membership
of the Court among the principal regions of the globe. Today this distribution is as
follows: Africa 3, Latin America and the Caribbean 2, Asia 3, Western Europe and other
States 5, Eastern Europe 2, which corresponds to that of membership of the Security
Council. Although there is no entitlement to membership on the part of any country, the
Court has always included judges of the nationality of the permanent members of the
Security Council.
Once elected, a Member of the Court is a delegate neither of the government of
his own country nor of that of any other State. Unlike most other organs of international
organizations, the Court is not composed of representatives of governments. Members
of the Court are independent judges whose first task, before taking up their duties, is to
make a solemn declaration in open court that they will exercise their powers impartially
and conscientiously.
In order to guarantee his or her independence, no Member of the Court can be
dismissed unless, in the unanimous opinion of the other Members, he/she no longer
fulfils the required conditions. This has in fact never happened.
No Member of the Court may engage in any other occupation during his/her
term. He/she is not allowed to exercise any political or administrative function, nor to
act as agent, counsel or advocate in any case. Any doubts with regard to this question
are settled by decision of the Court.
A Member of the Court, when engaged on the business of the Court, enjoys
privileges and immunities comparable with those of the head of a diplomatic mission. In
The Hague, the President takes precedence over the doyen of the diplomatic corps,
after which precedence alternates between judges and ambassadors. Each Member of
the Court receives an annual salary consisting of a base salary (which for 2010
amounts to US$166,596) and post adjustment, with a special supplementary allowance
of US$15,000 for the President. The post adjustment multiplier changes every month
and is dependent on the UN exchange rate between the US Dollar and the Euro. On
leaving the Court, they receive annual pensions which, after a nine-year term of office,
amount to 50 per cent of the annual base salary.
Although the Court is deemed to be permanently in session, only its President is
obliged to reside in The Hague. However, the other Members of the Court are required
to be permanently at its disposal except during judicial vacations or leave of absence, or
when they are prevented from attending by illness or other serious reasons. In practice,
the majority of Court Members reside in The Hague and all will normally spend the
greater part of the year there.

Current Members

Peter Tomka (Slovakia)


Bernardo Seplveda-Amor (Mexico)


Hisashi Owada

Ronny Abraham

Kenneth Keith

Mohamed Bennouna

Leonid Skotnikov

Antnio Augusto Canado Trindade

Abdulqawi Ahmed Yusuf

(New Zealand)

(Russian Federation)


Christopher Greenwood

Xue Hanqin

Joan E. Donoghue

Giorgio Gaja

Julia Sebutinde

Dalveer Bhandari

(United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern

(United States of America)



Philippe Couvreur



The President and the Vice-President are elected by the Members of the Court
every three years by secret ballot. The election is held on the date on which Members of
the Court elected at a triennial election are to begin their terms of office or shortly
thereafter. An absolute majority is required and there are no conditions with regard to
nationality. The President and the Vice-President may be re-elected.
The President presides at all meetings of the Court; he/she directs its work and
supervises its administration, with the assistance of a Budgetary and Administrative
Committee and of various other committees, all composed of Members of the Court.
During judicial deliberations, the President has a casting vote in the event of votes being
equally divided.
In The Hague, where he/she is obliged to reside, the President of the Court takes
precedence over the doyen of the diplomatic corps.
The President receives a special supplementary allowance of 15,000 dollars per
annum, in addition to his/her annual salary.
The Vice-President replaces the President in his/her absence, in the event of
his/her inability to exercise his/her duties, or in the event of a vacancy in the
presidency. For this purpose he/she receives a daily allowance. In the absence of the
Vice-President, this role devolves upon the senior judge.
On 6 February 2012 the Court elected Judge Peter Tomka (Slovakia) to be
President and Judge Bernardo Seplveda-Amor (Mexico) to be Vice-President.

How the Court Works

The Court may entertain two types of cases: legal disputes between States
submitted to it by them (contentious cases) and requests for advisory opinions on legal
questions referred to it by United Nations organs and specialized agencies (advisory
Contentious cases
Only States (States Members of the United Nations and other States which have
become parties to the Statute of the Court or which have accepted its jurisdiction under
certain conditions) may be parties to contentious cases.
The Court is competent to entertain a dispute only if the States concerned have
accepted its jurisdiction in one or more of the following ways:

by entering into a special agreement to submit the dispute to the Court;

by virtue of a jurisdictional clause, i.e., typically, when they are parties to a treaty
containing a provision whereby, in the event of a dispute of a given type or

disagreement over the interpretation or application of the treaty, one of them may refer
the dispute to the Court;

Through the reciprocal effect of declarations made by them under the Statute
whereby each has accepted the jurisdiction of the Court as compulsory in the event of
a dispute with another State having made a similar declaration. A number of these
declarations, which must be deposited with the United Nations Secretary-General,
contain reservations excluding certain categories of dispute.
States have no permanent representatives accredited to the Court. They
normally communicate with the Registrar through the medium of their Minister for
Foreign Affairs or their ambassador accredited to the Netherlands. Where they are
parties to a case before the Court they are represented by an agent. An agent plays the
same role, and has the same rights and obligations, as a solicitor or avou with respect
to a national court. But we are dealing here with international relations, and the agent is
also as it were the head of a special diplomatic mission with powers to commit a
sovereign State. He/she receives communications from the Registrar concerning the
case and forwards to the Registrar all correspondence and pleadings duly signed or
certified. In public hearings the agent opens the argument on behalf of the government
he/she represents and lodges the submissions. In general, whenever a formal act is to
be done by the government represented, it is done by the agent. Agents are sometimes
assisted by co-agents, deputy agents or assistant agents and always have counsel or
advocates, whose work they co-ordinate, to assist them in the preparation of the
pleadings and the delivery of oral argument. Since there is no special International
Court of Justice Bar, there are no conditions that have to be fulfilled for counsel or
advocates to enjoy the right of arguing before it except only that they must have been
appointed by a government to do so.
Proceedings may be instituted in one of two ways:

Through the notification of a special agreement: this document, which is of a

bilateral nature, can be lodged with the Court by either of the States parties to the
proceedings or by both of them. A special agreement must indicate the subject of the
dispute and the parties thereto. Since there is neither an applicant State nor a
respondent State, in the Courts publications their names are separated by an oblique
stroke at the end of the official title of the case, e.g., Benin/Niger;

By means of an application: the application, which is of a unilateral nature, is

submitted by an applicant State against a respondent State. It is intended for
communication to the latter State and the Rules of Court contain stricter requirements
with respect to its content. In addition to the name of the party against which the claim
is brought and the subject of the dispute, the applicant State must, as far as possible,
indicate briefly on what basis - a treaty or a declaration of acceptance of compulsory
jurisdiction - it claims the Court has jurisdiction, and must succinctly state the facts and
grounds on which it bases its claim. At the end of the official title of the case the names
of the two parties are separated by the abbreviation v. (for the Latin versus), e.g.,
Nicaragua v. Colombia.

The date of the institution of proceedings, which is that of the receipt by the
Registrar of the special agreement or application, marks the opening of proceedings
before the Court. C contentious proceedings include a written phase, in which the
parties file and exchange pleadings containing a detailed statement of the points of fact
and of law on which each party relies, and an oral phase consisting of public hearings at
which agents and counsel address the Court. As the Court has two official languages
(English and French), everything written or said in one language is translated into the
other. The written pleadings are not made available to the press and public until the
opening of the oral proceedings, and then only if the parties have no objection.
After the oral proceedings the Court deliberates in camera and then delivers its
judgment at a public sitting. The judgment is final, binding on the parties to a case and
without appeal (at most it may be subject to interpretation or revision). Any judge
wishing to do so may append an opinion to the judgment.
By signing the Charter, a State Member of the United Nations undertakes to
comply with any decision of the Court in a case to which it is a party. Since, furthermore,
a case can only be submitted to the Court and decided by it if the parties have in one
way or another consented to its jurisdiction over the case, it is rare for a decision not to
be implemented. A State which contends that the other side has failed to perform the
obligations incumbent upon it under a judgment rendered by the Court may lay the
matter before the Security Council, which is empowered to recommend or decide upon
the measures to be taken to give effect to the judgment.
The procedure described above is the normal procedure. Certain matters can
however affect the proceedings. The most common case is that of preliminary
objections raised in order to prevent the Court from delivering judgment on the merits of
the case (the respondent State may contend, for example, that the Court lacks
jurisdiction or that the application is inadmissible). The matter is one for the Court itself
to decide. Then, there are provisional measures, which can be requested as interim
measures by the applicant State if the latter considers that the rights which form the
subject of its application are in immediate danger. It may further occur that a State
seeks to intervene in a dispute involving other States because it considers that it has an
interest of a legal nature which may be affected by the decision to be taken in the
dispute between those States. The Statute also makes provision for cases where the
respondent State does not appear before the Court, either because it totally rejects the
Courts jurisdiction or for any other reason. Hence failure by one party to appear does
not prevent proceedings in a case from taking their course. But in such a case the Court
must first satisfy itself that it has jurisdiction. Finally, should the Court find that parties to
separate proceedings are submitting the same arguments and submissions against a
common opponent in relation to the same issue, it may order joinder of the proceedings.
The Court discharges its duties as a full court but, at the request of the parties, it
may also establish ad hoc chambers to examine specific cases. A Chamber of
Summary Procedure is elected every year by the Court in accordance with its Statute.
The sources of law that the Court must apply are: international treaties and
conventions in force; international custom; the general principles of law; and judicial
decisions and the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists. Moreover, if the

parties agree, the Court can decide a case ex aequo et bono, i.e., without limiting itself
to existing rules of international law.
A case may be brought to a conclusion at any stage of the proceedings by a
settlement between the parties or by discontinuance. In the latter case, an applicant
State may at any time inform the Court that it is not going on with the proceedings, or
the two parties may declare that they have agreed to withdraw the case. The Court then
removes the case from its List.

Advisory proceedings
Advisory proceedings before the Court are open solely to five organs of the
United Nations and to 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations family.
The United Nations General Assembly and Security Council may request
advisory opinions on any legal question. Other United Nations organs and specialized
agencies which have been authorized to seek advisory opinions can only do so with
respect to legal questions arising within the scope of their activities.
When it receives a request for an advisory opinion, the Court, in order that it may
give its opinion with full knowledge of the facts, is empowered to hold written and oral
proceedings, certain aspects of which recall the proceedings in contentious cases. In
theory, the Court may do without such proceedings, but it has never dispensed with
them entirely.
A few days after the request is filed, the Court draws up a list of those States and
international organizations that will be able to furnish information on the question before
the Court. Those States are not in the same position as parties to contentious
proceedings: their representatives before the Court are not known as agents and their
participation, if any, in the advisory proceedings does not render the Courts opinion
binding upon them. In general, the States listed are the Member States of the
organization requesting the opinion. Any State not consulted by the Court may ask to
It is rare, however, for the ICJ to allow international organizations other than the
one having requested the opinion to participate in advisory proceedings. With respect to
non-governmental international organizations, the only one ever authorized by the ICJ
to furnish information did not in the end do so (International Status of South West
Africa). The Court has rejected all such requests by private parties.
The written proceedings are shorter but as flexible as in contentious proceedings
between States. Participants may file written statements, which sometimes form the
object of written comments by other participants. The written statements and comments
are regarded as confidential, but are generally made available to the public at the
beginning of the oral proceedings. States are then usually invited to present oral
statements at public sittings.

Advisory proceedings are concluded by the delivery of the advisory opinion at a

public sitting.
It is of the essence of such opinions that they are advisory, i.e., that, unlike the
Courts judgments, they have no binding effect. The requesting organ, agency or
organization remains free to give effect to the opinion by any means open to it, or not to
do so. Certain instruments or regulations can, however, provide beforehand that an
advisory opinion by the Court shall have binding force (e.g., conventions on the
privileges and immunities of the United Nations).
It remains nevertheless that the authority and prestige of the Court attach to its
advisory opinions and that where the organ or agency concerned endorses that opinion,
that decision is as it were sanctioned by international law.
The Secretariat an international staff working in duty stations around the world
carries out the diverse day-to-day work of the Organization. It services the other
principal organs of the United Nations and administers the programmes and policies laid
down by them. At its head is the Secretary-General, who is appointed by the General
Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, renewable
The duties carried out by the Secretariat are as varied as the problems dealt with
by the United Nations. These range from administering peacekeeping operations to
mediating international disputes, from surveying economic and social trends and
problems to preparing studies on human rights and sustainable development.
Secretariat staff also informs the world's communications media about the work of the
United Nations; organize international conferences on issues of worldwide concern; and
interpret speeches and translate documents into the Organization's official languages.
The Secretariat has around 43,000 staff members around the world (source: SecretaryGeneral's report A/67/329).
As international civil servants, staff members and the Secretary-General answer
to the United Nations alone for their activities, and take an oath not to seek or receive
instructions from any Government or outside authority. Under the Charter, each Member
State undertakes to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities
of the Secretary-General and the staff and to refrain from seeking to influence them
improperly in the discharge of their duties.
The United Nations, while headquartered in New York, maintains a significant
presence in Addis Ababa, Bangkok, Beirut, Geneva, Nairobi, Santiago and Vienna, and
UN currently has 16 peace operations, deployed on four continents. Serving the
cause of peace in a violent world is a dangerous occupation. Since the founding of the

United Nations, hundreds of brave men and women have given their lives in its service.
Ban Ki-Moon, South Korea January 1, 2007-Present Secretary General

2. Subsidiary Agencies of United Nations

General Assembly

Investment Management Division

The long-term objectives of the Investment Management Division are:

to offset the Fund's current and future pension liabilities.

to maintain an optimal risk adjusted profile; and

to diversify the portfolio with respect to asset type, currency and geographical

In accordance with Article 19 of the Regulations of the Fund, and as envisaged by the
General Assembly since the establishment of the UN's pension scheme during its first
session in 1946, the Secretary-General of the United Nations has been entrusted with
the fiduciary responsibility for deciding upon the investment of the assets of the Fund.
The Secretary-General has delegated his fiduciary responsibility to a senior UN official
referred to as the Representative of the Secretary-General for the Investments of the
Fund (RSG), who in turn is assisted by the Investment Management Division and
advised by the Investments Committee (IC).
The staff of the Investment Management Division are responsible for the day to day
management of the Funds assets under the strategic leadership of the Director.
Together, they implement the approved investment strategy and ensure that the portfolio
conforms to the approved asset allocation.
The Director and staff are all appointed by the Secretary-General and are subject to the
United Nations Staff Regulations and Rules.

Organization Structure
The Investment Management Division consists of five sections which report, through the
Director, to the Representative of the Secretary-General for Investments of the United
Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund: Office of the Director, Investments, Risk
Management, Operations and Information Systems.
The Representative of the Secretary-General for the Investments of the Fund has been
appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to act on the SecretaryGenerals behalf in all matters relating to the investment of assets of the United Nations
Staff Pension Fund, The United Nations Library Endowment Fund and the United
Nations University Endowment Fund. The RSG is responsible for representing the
Secretary-General at meetings of the Investment Committee (IC), The United Nations
Joint Staff Pension Board and other meetings where investment matters pertaining to
the United Nations Joint Staff Fund, The United Nations Library Endowment Fund and
the United Nations University Endowment Fund are being discussed.


The Investments Committee is an advisory body to the Secretary-General and consists

of 9 members (and a number of ad-hoc members) appointed by the UN SecretaryGeneral after consultation with the Pension Board and the Advisory Committee on
Administrative and Budgetary Questions of the UN General Assembly, subject to
confirmation by the Assembly.
The investments of the assets of the Fund are decided by the United Nations SecretaryGeneral after consultation with the Investments Committee and in the light of
observations and suggestions made from time to time by the Pension Board on the
investments policy.

Director of the Investment Management Division

The Director is responsible for all the investments of the UNJSPF including


Strategic direction/leadership

Management, Supervision



Economic analysis & external relations Liaison with procurement for resource

The Office of the Director is also responsible for providing the support services related
to the Directors duties as the head of the Investment Management Division.

Deputy Director for Investments

The Deputy Director is responsible for the strategic direction relating to asset allocation.
Some of the other major functions of the Deputy Director for Investments are

Management of purchases and sales of securities & funds


Portfolio monitoring

Monitoring development in financial markets

Research & financial analysis

Broker performance evaluation

Implementing responsible investment policy

Analysis of currency exposures

Analysis and execution of foreign exchange transactions.

Deputy Director for Risk & Compliance

The Deputy Director for Risk & Compliance is responsible for the strategic direction of
the risk management function. Some of the other major functions of the Deputy Director
for Risk & Compliance are -

Identification, monitoring & management of all aspects of risk include


Portfolio active risk

Operational risk

Credit risk

Market risk

Concentration (name, sector, currency etc) & liquidity risk

Quality control


Creating, implementing and monitoring compliance policy & procedures

Effectiveness of the asset allocation

Target/Long term investment objective monitoring

Portfolio turnover monitoring Reporting

Chief of Operations
The Chief of Operations is responsible for back office operations. Some of the other
major functions of the Chief of Operations are

Back-office investment operations and trade settlement

Investment transactions reconciliation and accounting

Cash projections and settlement of foreign exchange transactions

Regular reporting including the investments portion of the Funds financial


Tax recovery actions

Senior Information Systems Officer

The Senior Information Systems Officer is responsible for the development,
administration and maintenance of business information systems. Some of the other
major functions of the Senior Information Systems Officer are

Strategy & planning

Business systems implementation

Knowledge management


Data feed systems Training.

Committee on Contributions
The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by
(Article 17, paragraph 2, of the Charter of the United Nations)



The Committee on Contributions advises the General Assembly on the apportionment,

under Article 17, of the expenses of the Organization among Members broadly
according to capacity to pay. The Committee also advises the General Assembly on the
assessments to be fixed for new Members, and on appeals by Members for a change of
The Committee also provides advice on the action to be taken with regard to the
application of Article 19 of the Charter.
A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears in the payment of its financial
contributions to the Organization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the
amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for
the preceding two full years. The General Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a
Member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the
control of the Member. (Article 19 of the Charter of the United Nations)
The General Assembly shall appoint an expert Committee on Contributions

(Rule 158 of the Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly)


The Committee on Contributions is an expert Committee consisting of 18 members

(resolution 31/95 of 14 December 1976.)
In 1946, the General Assembly decided that an expert Committee on Contributions of
10 members shall be appointed by the General Assembly (resolution 14(I) of 13
February 1946). Subsequently membership increased to 12 members (2390 (XXIII) of
25 November 1968) and then to 13 (resolution 2913 (XXVII) of 9 November 1972)
1. Members are appointed by the General Assembly at the session immediately
before the date when the term of office expires. In case of vacancies,
appointments are made at next session.
2. No two members of the Committee on Contributions shall be nationals of the
same State. Members are selected on the basis of broad geographical
representation, personal qualifications and experience and serve for a period of
three years corresponding to three calendar years.
3. Members retire by rotation and are eligible for reappointment.
of the
Rules of Procedure
of the General Assembly
The members of the Committee on Contributions, no two of whom shall be nationals of
the same State, shall be selected on the basis of broad geographical representation,
personal qualifications and experience and shall serve for a period of three years
corresponding to three calendar years. Members shall retire by rotation and shall be
eligible for reappointment. The General Assembly shall appoint the members of the
Committee on Contributions at the regular session immediately preceding the expiration
of the term of office of the members or, in the case of vacancies, at the next session.
Committee For Program Coordination
In its resolution 58/269, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to
prepare, on a trial basis, a strategic framework to replace the current four-year mediumterm plan. In its resolution 62/224, the General Assembly endorsed the recommendation
of the Committee at its forty-seventh session to maintain the strategic framework as the
principal policy directive of the United Nations, which serves as the basis for programme
planning, budgeting, monitoring and evaluation, with effect from the biennium 20102011
The Committee reviews the programmes of the United Nations as defined in the
strategic framework. Specifically it reviews:

The strategic framework in the off-budget years

The programme budget in budget years*

In reviewing the strategic framework the Committee examines the totality of the

Secretary-General's work programme giving particular attention to programme changes

arising out of decisions adopted by intergovernmental organs and conferences or
suggested by the Secretary-General.

The Committee also:

assesses the results achieved from current activities,
assesses the continuing validity of legislative decisions of more than five years'
assesses the effectiveness of co-ordination with other units of the Secretariat
and members of the United Nations family
recommends an order of priorities among United Nations programmes as
defined in the strategic framework
gives guidance to the Secretariat on programme design by interpreting
legislative intent so as to assist it in translating legislation into programmes.
makes recommendations with respect to work programmes proposed by the
Secretariat to give effect to the legislative intent of the relevant policy-making
organs, taking into account the need to avoid overlapping and duplication

Committee on Conferences
The Committee advises the General Assembly on all matters pertaining to the
organisation of UN conferences. Its mandate includes:

To advise the General Assembly on the calendar of conferences;

To act on behalf of the General Assembly in dealing with departures from the
approved calendar of conferences that have administrative and financial implications;

To recommend to the General Assembly means to provide the optimum

apportionment of conference resources, facilities and services, including
documentation, in order to ensure their most efficient and effective use;

To advise the General Assembly on the current and future requirements of the
Organization for conference services, facilities and documentation;

To advise the General Assembly on means to ensure improved coordination of

conferences within the United Nations system, including conference services and
facilities, and to conduct the appropriate consultations in that regard.

To monitor the implementation of all General Assembly resolutions on the

organization and servicing of, and documentation for, conferences and meetings;

To monitor the policy of the Organization on publications, with the assistance of

the Publications Board of the Secretariat and taking into account the positions adopted
by the Committee on Information and other relevant bodies;

To report annually to the General Assembly.

The Committee on Conferences was established by the General Assembly on 18
December 1974, pursuant to resolution 3351 (XXIX). On 21 December 1988,
by resolution 43/222B, the General Assembly decided to retain the Committee on
Conferences as a permanent subsidiary organ.
At its 84th plenary meeting, on 21 December 1988, the General Assembly decided that
the Committee on Conferences shall be composed of twenty-one members to be
appointed by the President of the General Assembly, after consultations with the
chairmen of regional groups, for a period of three years, on the basis of the following
geographical distribution:

Six from African States;

Five from Asian States;

Four from Latin American and Caribbean States;

Two from Eastern European States;

Four from Western European and other States.

Committee on Information
At its 34th session, the General Assembly decided to maintain the Committee to Review
United Nations Public Information Policies and Activities, established under General
Assembly resolution 33/115 C of 18 December 1978, which would be known as the
Committee on Information.
In its resolution 34/182 of 18 December 1979, the General Assembly outlined the
mandate of the Committee on Information as follows::

To continue to examine United Nations public information policies and

activities, in the light of the evolution of international relations, particularly during the
past two decades, and of the imperatives of the establishment of the new
international economic order and of a new world information and communication

To evaluate and follow up the efforts made and the progress achieved by the
United Nations system in the field of information and communications; and
To promote the establishment of a new, more just and more effective world
information and communication order intended to strengthen peace and international
understanding and based on the free circulation and wider and better-balanced
dissemination of information and to make recommendations thereon to the General

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)

Mandate of the Committee
The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation was
established in 1955 byResolution 913 (X) of the General Assembly in response to
widespread concerns about the effects of radiation on human health and the
environment. Over the decades, UNSCEAR has evolved to become the world authority
on global levels and effects of ionizing radiation. It remains a major challenge to review
the flood of new information on radiation levels and effects and synthesize it into a
coherent picture for use by policy makers and other stakeholders.
"The General Assembly requests the Committee:"
(a) To receive and assemble in an appropriate and useful form the
following radiological information furnished by States Members of the
United Nations or members of the specialized agencies:
(i) reports on observed levels of ionizing radiation and radioactivity in
(ii) reports on scientific observations and experiments relevant to
the effects of ionizing radiationupon man and his environment already
under way or later undertaken by national scientific bodies or by
authorities of national Governments;
(b) To recommend uniform standards with respect to procedures for
sample collection and instrumentation, and radiation counting

(c) To compile and assemble in an integrated manner the various

reports, referred to in sub-paragraph (a) (i) above, on observed
(d) To review and collate national reports, referred to in sub-paragraph
(a) (ii) above, evaluating each report to determine its usefulness for
(e) To make yearly progress reports and to develop a summary of the
reports received on radiation levels and radiation effects on man and
his environment together with the evaluations provided for in subparagraph (d) above and indications of research projects which might
(f) To transmit from time to time, as it deems appropriate, the
documents and evaluations referred to above to the SecretaryGeneral for publication and dissemination to States Members of the
United Nations or members of the specialized agencies."
UNSCEAR does not address the benefits or economics of radiation technology, nor
does it set protection policy, these being within the mandate of other international
United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPOUS)
The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space was set up by the General Assembly
in 1959 ( resolution 1472 (XIV)) to review the scope of international cooperation in peaceful
uses of outer space, to devise programmes in this field to be undertaken under United
Nations auspices, to encourage continued research and the dissemination of information
on outer space matters, and to study legal problems arising from the exploration of outer
Independent Audit Advisory Committee
Legislative Mandate

Special subjects relating to the proposed programme budget for the biennium 2006
"Decides to establish the Independent Audit Advisory Committee to assist the General
Assembly in discharging its oversight responsibilities, and requests the SecretaryGeneral to propose its terms of reference, ensure coherence with the outcome of the
ongoing review of oversight and report to the Assembly at the second part of its
resumed sixtieth session on related resource requirements;"
The Independent Audit Advisory Committee of the United Nations is established as a
subsidiary body of the General Assembly to serve in an expert advisory capacity and to
assist the General Assembly in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities.
Members of the Committee are appointed in their personal capacity and are
independent of the Government that nominated them. The Committee is also
independent of the Board of Auditors, the Joint Inspection Unit and the United Nations
Secretariat. The Committee comprises an exceptional group of senior level experts with
financial, audit and/or other oversight-related activities. The Committee is responsible
for advising the General Assembly on the scope, results and effectiveness of audit and
other oversight functions, especially the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS); on
measures to ensure managements compliance with audit and other oversight
recommendations; and on various risk management, internal control, operational and
accounting and disclosure issues.

Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions

The Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions, a subsidiary
organ of the General Assembly, consists of 16 members appointed by the Assembly in
their individual capacity. The functions and responsibilities of the Advisory Committee,
as well as its composition, are governed by the provisions of Assembly resolutions 14 (I)
of 13 February 1946 and 32/103 of 14 December 1977 and rules 155 to 157 of the rules
of procedure of the Assembly. The major functions of the Advisory Committee are:
(a) to examine and report on the budget submitted by the Secretary-General to the
General Assembly;
(b) to advise the General Assembly concerning any administrative and budgetary
matters referred to it;
(c) to examine on behalf of the General Assembly the administrative budgets of the

specialized agencies and proposals for financial arrangements with such agencies; and
(d) to consider and report to the General Assembly on the auditors reports on the
accounts of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies.
The programme of work of the Committee is determined by the requirements of the
General Assembly and the other legislative bodies to which the Committee reports.
Executive Committee of High Commissioners Programme (UNHCR)
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was established on
December 14, 1950 by the United Nations General Assembly. The agency is mandated
to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee
problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of
refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and
find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate
locally or to resettle in a third country.
In more than six decades, the agency has helped millions of people restart their lives.
Today, a staff of more than 7,600 people in over than 125 countries continues to help
tens of millions of people.

Special Committee on the Charter of the United Nations and on the

Strengthening of the Role of the Organization
Mandate of the Special Committee
Under the terms of General Assembly resolution 68/115 adopted on 16 December 2013
(operative paragraph 3), the Special Committee was mandated, inter alia, to continue its
consideration of all proposals concerning the question of the maintenance of
international peace and security in all its aspects in order to strengthen the role of the
United Nations. It was also mandated to continue to consider, in an appropriate,
substantive manner and framework, including the frequency of its consideration, the
question of the implementation of the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations
related to assistance to third States affected by the application of sanctions under
Chapter VII of the Charter based on all of the related reports of the Secretary-General
and the proposals submitted on the question; keep on its agenda the question of the
peaceful settlement of disputes between States; consider, as appropriate, any proposal
referred to it by the General Assembly in the implementation of the decisions of the
High-level Plenary Meeting of the sixtieth session of the Assembly in September 2005
that concern the Charter and any amendments thereto; and continue to consider, on a
priority basis, ways and means of improving its working methods and enhancing its
efficiency with a view to identifying widely acceptable measures for future


Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the

Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
The Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the
Declaration on the Granting of Independence of Colonial Countries and Peoples (also
known as the Special Committee on decolonization or C-24), the United Nations entity
exclusively devoted to the issue of decolonization, was established in 1961 by the
General Assembly with the purpose of monitoring the implementation of the Declaration
(General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960).
The Special Committee annually reviews the list of Territories to which the Declaration is
applicable and makes recommendations as to its implementation. It also hears
statements from NSGTs representatives, dispatches visiting missions, and organizes
seminars on the political, social and economic situation in the Territories. Further, the
Special Committee annually makes recommendations concerning the dissemination of
information to mobilize public opinion in support of the decolonization process, and
observes the Week of Solidarity with the Peoples of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
Disarmament Comission (UNODA)
UNODA was established in January 1998 as the Department for Disarmament Affairs
which was part of the Secretary-Generals programme for reform in accordance with his
report to the General Assembly (A/51/950). It was originally established in 1982 upon
the recommendation of the General Assembly's second special session on disarmament
(SSOD II). In 1992, its name was changed to Centre for Disarmament Affairs, under the
Department of Political Affairs. At the end of 1997, it was renamed Department for
Disarmament Affairs and in 2007, it became the United Nations Office for Disarmament
The Office promotes:

Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation

Strengthening of the disarmament regimes in respect to other weapons of

mass destruction, and chemical and biological weapons

Disarmament efforts in the area of conventional weapons, especially

landmines and small arms, which are the weapons of choice in contemporary

UNODA provides substantive and organizational support for norm-setting in the area of

disarmament through the work of the General Assembly and its First Committee, the
Disarmament Commission, the Conference on Disarmament and other bodies. It fosters
disarmament measures through dialogue, transparency and confidence-building on
military matters, and encourages regional disarmament efforts; these include the United
Nations Register of Conventional Arms and regional forums.
It also provides objective, impartial and up-to-date information on multilateral
disarmament issues and activities to Member States, States parties to multilateral
agreements, intergovernmental organizations and institutions, departments and
agencies of the United Nations system, research and educational institutions, civil
society, especially non-governmental organizations, the media and the general public.
UNODA supports the development and implementation of practical disarmament
measures after a conflict, such as disarming and demobilizing former combatants and
helping them to reintegrate in civil society.
The United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs is structured in five branches:
CD Secretariat & Conference Support Branch (Geneva)
The CD Secretariat and Conference Support Branch (Geneva) provides organizational
and substantive servicing to the Conference on Disarmament (CD), the single
multilateral disarmament negotiating forum of the international community, and its Ad
hoc Committees.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Branch
WMD Branch provides substantive support in the area of the disarmament of weapons
of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical and biological weapons). It supports and
participates in multilateral efforts to strengthen the non-proliferation of WMD and in this
connection cooperates with the relevant intergovernmental organizations and
specialized agencies of the United Nations system, in particular the IAEA, the OPCW
and the CTBTO PrepCom.
Conventional Arms Branch (CAB)
CAB focuses its efforts on all weapons not considered WMD, including small arms and
light weapons (SALW). It is responsible for substantive conference support on the UN
Programme of Action on small arms, the Arms Trade Treaty process, and the UN
transparency registers. CAB chairs the UN-internal coordination mechanism on small
arms (CASA).
Regional Disarmament Branch (RDB)
RDB provides substantive support, including advisory services, to Member States,

regional and subregional organizations on disarmament measures and related security

matters. RDB oversees and coordinates the activities of the three Regional Centres for
Peace and Disarmament: Africa , Asia and the Pacific , and Latin America and the
Caribbean .
Information and Outreach Branch (IOB)
IOB organizes a wide variety of special events and programmes in the field of
produces UNODA
publications (such
the Disarmament
Yearbook and ODA Occasional Papers ), updates content and design of the UNODA
website, and maintains databases for specialized areas ( Status and Texts of
Disarmament Treaties , General Assembly Resolutions and Decisions and UNODA
Documents Library ).
UNODA Office in Vienna
UNODA has established an office at the Vienna International Centre with administrative
and logistical support provided by UNOV. This office was established to facilitate closer
cooperation and effective interaction in all areas of disarmament, non-proliferation and
arms control with UNOV, and with Vienna-based organizations and related specialized
agencies, such as the IAEA , the CTBTO and the UNODC, as well as with other relevant
regional intergovernmental organizations, such as the OS
International Civil Service Commission
The International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) is an independent expert body
established by the United Nations General Assembly. Its mandate is to regulate and
coordinate the conditions of service of staff in the United Nations common system (see
below), while promoting and maintaining high standards in the international civil
The Commissions mandate covers all facets of staff employment conditions, but the
type of action it is empowered to take in a specific area is regulated under its statute.
On some matters (e.g. establishment of daily subsistence allowance; schedules of post
adjustment, i.e. cost-of-living element; hardship entitlements), the Commission itself
In other areas, it makes recommendations to the General Assembly which then acts as
the legislator for the rest of the common system. Such matters include Professional
salary scales, the level of dependency allowances and education grant.
On still other matters, the Commission makes recommendations to the executive heads
of the organizations; these include, in particular, human resources policy issues.
International Law Commision

Object of the Commission

Article 1, paragraph 1, of the Statute of the International Law Commission provides that
the Commission shall have for its object the promotion of the progressive development
of international law and its codification. Article 15 of the Statute makes a distinction for
convenience between progressive development as meaning the preparation of draft
conventions on subjects which have not yet been regulated by international law or in
regard to which the law has not yet been sufficiently developed in the practice of States
and codification as meaning the more precise formulation and systematization of rules
of international law in fields where there already has been extensive State practice,
precedent and doctrine. In practice, the Commissions work on a topic usually involves
some aspects of the progressive development as well as the codification of international
law, with the balance between the two varying depending on the particular topic.
Programme of work
Under the Statute, the Commission shall consider proposals for the progressive
development of international law referred by the General Assembly (article 16) or
submitted by Members of the United Nations, the principal organs of the United Nations
other than the General Assembly, specialized agencies or official bodies established by
intergovernmental agreements to encourage the progressive development and
codification of international law (article 17). With respect to codification, the Commission
is required to survey the whole field of international law with a view to selecting
appropriate topics (article 18). In addition, the Commission may recommend to the
General Assembly the codification of a particular topic which is considered necessary
and desirable (article 18). At its first session, in 1949, the Commission decided that it
had competence to proceed with its work of codification of a topic that it had
recommended to the General Assembly without awaiting action by the General
Assembly on such recommendation. However, in practice, the Commission has
generally sought endorsement by the General Assembly before engaging in the
substantive consideration of a topic. The General Assembly may also request the
Commission to deal with any question of codification which receives priority (article 18).
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)
The core legal body of the United Nations system in the field of international trade law. A
legal body with universal membership specializing in commercial law reform worldwide
for over 40 years. UNCITRAL's business is the modernization and harmonization of
rules on international business.
Trade means faster growth, higher living standards, and new opportunities through
commerce. In order to increase these opportunities worldwide, UNCITRAL is
formulating modern, fair, and harmonized rules on commercial transactions. These

Conventions, model laws and rules which are acceptable worldwide

Legal and legislative guides and recommendations of great practical value

Updated information on case law and enactments of uniform commercial law
Technical assistance in law reform projects
Regional and national seminars on uniform commercial law

The General Assembly gave the Commission the general mandate to further the
progressive harmonization and unification of the law of international trade. The
Commission has since come to be the core legal body of the United Nations system in
the field of international trade law.
United Nations Peace Building Commission
In the enabling resolutions establishing the Peacebuilding Commission,
resolution 60/180 and resolution 1645 (2005) of 20 December 2005, the United Nations
General Assembly and the Security Council mandated it:

to bring together all relevant actors to marshal resources and to advise on and
propose integrated strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding and recovery;

to focus attention on the reconstruction and institution-building efforts

necessary for recovery from conflict and to support the development of integrated
strategies in order to lay the foundation for sustainable development;

to provide recommendations and information to improve the coordination of all

relevant actors within and outside the United Nations, to develop best practices, to
help to ensure predictable financing for early recovery activities and to extend the
period of attention given by the international community to postconflict recovery.

United Nations Board of Editors

The United Nations Board of Auditors (the Board) established in 1946 by the General
Assembly and comprised of the heads of the Supreme Audit Institutions from three
Member States, has for more than 60 years provided independent external audit
services to the General Assembly. This has involved certifying the accounts of the UN
and its funds and programmes, and providing reports covering a wide array of
managerial and value for money issues. The overarching goal of the Board is to use the
unique perspective of public external audit to both help the General Assembly to hold

UN entities to account for the use of public resources, and add value by identifying ways
to improve the delivery of international public services.

By Resolution 74 (I) of 7 December 1946, the General Assembly established the United
Nations Board of Auditors to audit the accounts of the United Nations organization and
its funds and programmes and to report its findings and recommendations to the
Assembly through the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions.
For this, the General Assembly appoints three members, each of whom must be the
Auditor-General (or officer holding the equivalent title) of a Member State. The members
of the Board have joint responsibility for the audits.
Executive Board of the United Nations Children's Fund
The Executive Board is the governing body of UNICEF, providing intergovernmental
support and oversight to the organization, in accordance with the overall policy
guidance of the United Nations General Assembly and the Economic and Social
The Executive Board reviews UNICEF activities and approves its policies, country
programmes and budgets. It comprises 36 members, representing the five regional
groups of Member States at the United Nations. Its work is coordinated by theBureau,
comprising the President and four Vice-Presidents, each officer representing one of the
five regional groups.
The Executive Board meets three times each calendar year, in a first regular session
(January/February), annual session (May/June) and second regular session
(September). Executive Board sessions are held at the United Nations headquarters in
New York.
The Office of the Secretary of the Executive Board supports and services the Executive
Board. It is responsible for maintaining an effective relationship between the Executive
Board and the UNICEF secretariat, and helps to organize thefield visits of the Executive
The Office also provides editorial and technical services for all documentation related to
Executive Board sessions and meetings, decisions, reports of sessions and the country
programme documents repository. A selection of key documents related to the work of
the Executive Board can be found under resources.

Executive Board of the World Food Programme

To support WFP, a Governance Project was initiated in 1999 and ran unti 2005. The
group consisted of representatives of the Lists and its main objectives were to
strengthen the governance of WFP and make the Board more strategic and efficient.
The group identified three areas as major functions of the Board:
Furthermore it identified responsibilities for four major interlinked frameworks:

strategy framework - contained in WFP's Mission Statement and Strategic


policy framework - contained in the updated version of the Consolidated

Framework of WFP Policies and review of policies as part of the Programme of

oversight framework - contained in the Biennial Management Plan and

oversight and operational documents as well as in evaluation papers;

accountability framework - contained in the Annual Performance Report, other

annual reports and financial documents.
These governance tools were the result of the Governance Project and constituted the
core of the action plan for the future.

Human Rights Council

The Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations
system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights
around the globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and make
recommendations on them. It has the ability to discuss all thematic human rights issues
and situations that require its attention throughout the year. It meets at the UN Office at
The Council is made up of 47 United Nations Member States which are elected by the
UN General Assembly. The Human Rights Council replaced the former United Nations
Commission on Human Rights.
The Council was created by the United Nations General Assembly on 15 March 2006 by
resolution 60/251. Its first session took place from 19 to 30 June 2006. One year later,
the Council adopted its "Institution-building package" to guide its work and set up its
procedures and mechanisms.
Among them were the Universal Periodic Review mechanism which serves to assess

the human rights situations in all United Nations Member States, the Advisory
Committee which serves as the Councils think tank providing it with expertise and
advice on thematic human rights issues and the Complaint Procedure which allows
individuals and organizations to bring human rights violations to the attention of the
The Human Rights Council also works with the UN Special Procedures established by
the former Commission on Human Rights and now assumed by the Council. These are
made up of special rapporteurs, special representatives, and independent experts and
working groups that monitor, examine, advice and publicly report on thematic issues or
human rights situations in specific countries.
Council of the United Nations University
The UNU Council serves as the governing board of the United Nations University. It is
composed of 13 appointed members, who serve six-year terms (in an individual
capacity, not as representatives of their countries), three ex officio members (the UN
Secretary-General, the UNESCO Director-General and the UNITAR Executive Director)
and the UNU Rector. The UNU Council is responsible for devising the principles and
policies that govern the Universitys operations, and for considering and approving the
UNU budget and work programme.
The UNU Council holds a regular session at least once a year, and reports annually to
the UN General Assembly, the UN Economic and Social Council and the Executive
Board of UNESCO. As of July 2014, the UNU Council had convened sixty-one times in
eighteen countries, welcomed six Rectors and established a number of subsidiary
bodies (including the Committee on Finance and Budget; the Committee on Status,
Rules and Guidelines; the Committee on the Report of the Council; and the Bureau,
which acts as the executive committee of the Council).
The United Nations University (UNU) is a global think tank and postgraduate teaching
organization headquartered in Japan. You can learn more about the history of
UNU, how the University is organized and about its current leadership.
The mission of the UN University is to contribute, through collaborative research and
education, to efforts to resolve the pressing global problems of human survival,
development and welfare that are the concern of the United Nations, its Peoples and
Member States.
In carrying out this mission, the UN University works with leading universities and
research institutes in UN Member States, functioning as a bridge between the
international academic community and the United Nations system.
Through postgraduate teaching activities, UNU contributes to capacity building,
particularly in developing countries.
Panel of External Auditors of the United Nations, the Specialized Agencies and

the International Atomic Energy Agency

The Panel of External Auditors of the United Nations, the Specialized Agencies and the
International Atomic Energy Agency was established by the General Assembly
Resolution 1438 (XIV) of 5 December 1959. It is made up of: (a) the members of
the United Nations Board of Auditors; and (b) the external auditors of the Specialized
Agencies of the United Nations and of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
The main objectives of the Panel are to further the co-ordination of the audits for which
its members are responsible, and to exchange information on audit methods and
The Panel may submit to the executive heads of the organisations audited any
observations or recommendations it may wish to make in relation to the accounts and
financial procedures of the organisation concerned. The executive heads of the
participating organisations may also, through their auditors submit requests to the Panel
for its opinion or recommendation on any matter within its competence.
United Nations Peacebuilding Commission
The Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) is an intergovernmental advisory body that
supports peace efforts in countries emerging from conflict, and is a key addition to the
capacity of the International Community in the broad peace agenda.
The Peacebuilding Commission plays a unique role in (1) bringing together all of the
relevant actors, including international donors, the international financial institutions,
national governments, troop contributing countries; (2) marshalling resources and (3)
advising on and proposing integrated strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding and
recovery and where appropriate, highlighting any gaps that threaten to undermine



1540 Committee
On 28 April 2004, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution
1540(2004) under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter which affirms that the
proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and their means of delivery
constitutes a threat to international peace and security. The resolution obliges
States, inter alia, to refrain from supporting by any means non-State actors from
developing, acquiring, manufacturing, possessing, transporting, transferring or using
nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their delivery systems.
Resolution 1540 (2004) imposes binding obligations on all States to adopt legislation to

prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, and their means
of delivery, and establish appropriate domestic controls over related materials to
prevent their illicit trafficking. It also encourages enhanced international cooperation on
such efforts. The resolution affirms support for the multilateral treaties whose aim is to
eliminate or prevent the proliferation of WMDs and the importance for all States to
implement them fully; it reiterates that none of the obligations in resolution 1540 (2004)
shall conflict with or alter the rights and obligations of States Parties to the Treaty on the
Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Chemical Weapons Convention, or the
Biological Weapons Convention or alter the responsibilities of the IAEA and OPCW.
On 27 April 2006, the Security Council extended the mandate of the 1540 Committee for
a further two years with the adoption of Resolution 1673 , which reiterated the
objectives of Resolution 1540 (2004) and expressed the interest of the Security Council
in intensifying its efforts to promote full implementation of the resolution.
On 25 April 2008, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1810, which extended the
mandate of the 1540 Committee for a period of three years, with the continued
assistance of experts, until 25 April 2011. Through Resolution 1810 (2008), the Security
Council urged the 1540 Committee to continue strengthening its role in facilitating
technical assistance, including by engaging actively in matching offers and requests for
assistance, therefore strengthening its clearinghouse function. The Security Council
also requested the 1540 Committee to consider a comprehensive review of the status of
implementation of Resolution 1540 (2004). As part of this comprehensive review, the
1540 Committee decided to hold an open meeting with broad participation from UN
Member States and relevant international organizations. The open meeting took place
at UN headquarters from 30 September to 2 October 2009 and a final document is
published on the 1540 Committee website.
On 20 April 2011, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1977, which reaffirms that
the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and their means of delivery
constitutes a threat to international peace and security, and extends the mandate of the
1540 Committee for a period of ten years to 2021. The Security Council thus recognizes
that full implementation of resolution 1540 (2004) by all States is a long-term task that
will require continuous efforts at national, regional and international levels. Resolution
1977 (2011) also provides for two Comprehensive Reviews, one after five years and
one before the end of the mandate. Additionally, the 1540 Committee is mandated by
resolution 1977 (2011) to continue to strengthen its role to facilitate the provision of
technical assistance and to enhance cooperation with relevant international
organizations. The Committee is also mandated to continue to refine its outreach efforts,
and to continue to institute transparency measures.
On 29 June 2012, the Security Council adopted Resolution 2055 (2012), which enlarged
the Group of Experts supporting the work of the 1540 Committee to up to nine (9)
Counter-Terrorism Committee

The Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) was established by Security Council

resolution 1373 (2001), which was adopted unanimously on 28 September 2001 in the
wake of the 11 September terrorist attacks in the United States.
The Committee, comprising all 15 Security Council members, was tasked with
monitoring implementation of resolution 1373 (2001), which requested countries to
implement a number of measures intended to enhance their legal and institutional ability
to counter terrorist activities at home, in their regions and around the world, including
taking steps to:

Criminalize the financing of terrorism

Freeze without delay any funds related to persons involved in acts of terrorism

Deny all forms of financial support for terrorist groups

Suppress the provision of safe haven, sustenance or support for terrorists

Share information with other governments on any groups practicing or planning

terrorist acts

Cooperate with other governments in the investigation, detection, arrest,

extradition and prosecution of those involved in such acts; and

Criminalize active and passive assistance for terrorism in domestic law and bring
violators to justice.

The resolution also calls on States to become parties, as soon as possible, to the
relevant international counter-terrorism legal instruments.
In September 2005, the Security Council adopted resolution 1624 (2005) on incitement
to commit acts of terrorism, calling on UN Member States to prohibit it by law, prevent
such conduct and deny safe haven to anyone "with respect to whom there is credible
and relevant information giving serious reasons for considering that they have been
guilty of such conduct." The resolution also called on States to continue international
efforts to enhance dialogue and broaden understanding among civilizations.
The Security Council directed the CTC to include resolution 1624 (2001) in its ongoing
dialogue with countries on their efforts to counter terrorism.
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) is a United Nations
court of law dealing with war crimes that took place during the conflicts in the Balkans in

the 1990s. Since its establishment in 1993 it has irreversibly changed the landscape of
international humanitarian law and provided victims an opportunity to voice the horrors
they witnessed and experienced.
In its precedent-setting decisions on genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity,
the Tribunal has shown that an individuals senior position can no longer protect them
from prosecution.
It has now shown that those suspected of bearing the greatest responsibility for atrocities
committed can be called to account, as well as that guilt should be individualised,
protecting entire communities from being labelled as collectively responsible.
The Tribunal has laid the foundations for what is now the accepted norm for conflict
resolution and post-conflict development across the globe, specifically that leaders
suspected of mass crimes will face justice. The Tribunal has proved that efficient and
transparent international justice is possible.
The Tribunal has contributed to an indisputable historical record, combating denial and
helping communities come to terms with their recent history. Crimes across the region
can no longer be denied. For example, it has been proven beyond reasonable doubt that
the mass murder at Srebrenica was genocide.
Judges have also ruled that rape was used by members of the Bosnian Serb armed
forces as an instrument of terror, and the judges in the Kvoka et al. trial established that
a hellish orgy of persecution occurred in the Omarska, Keraterm and Trnopolje camps of
northwestern Bosnia.
While the most significant number of cases heard at the Tribunal have dealt with alleged
crimes committed by Serbs and Bosnian Serbs, the Tribunal has investigated and brought
charges against persons from every ethnic background. Convictions have been secured
against Croats, as well as both Bosnian Muslims and Kosovo Albanians for crimes
committed against Serbs and others.
While its judgements demonstrate that all parties in the conflicts committed crimes, the
Tribunal regards its fairness and impartiality to be of paramount importance. It takes no
side in the conflict and does not attempt to create any artificial balance between different
groups. Evidence is the basis upon which the Prosecution presents a case. The Judges
ensure a fair and open trial, assessing the evidence to determine the guilt or innocence of
the accused.

Established as an ad hoc court, the Security Council endorsed the Tribunals completion
strategy for a staggered and ordered closure.
Since 2003 the court has worked closely with local judiciaries and courts in the former
Yugoslavia, working in partnership as part of a continuing effort to see justice served.
Undoubtedly, the Tribunals work has had a major impact on the states of the former
Yugoslavia. Simply by removing some of the most senior and notorious criminals and
holding them accountable the Tribunal has been able to lift the taint of violence,
contribute to ending impunity and help pave the way for reconciliation.

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

Recognizing that serious violations of humanitarian law were committed in Rwanda, and
acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Security Council created the
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) by resolution 955 of 8 November
1994. The purpose of this measure is to contribute to the process of national
reconciliation in Rwanda and to the maintenance of peace in the region. The
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was established for the prosecution of
persons responsible for genocide and other serious violations of international
humanitarian law committed in the territory of Rwanda between 1 January 1994 and 31
December 1994. It may also deal with the prosecution of Rwandan citizens responsible
for genocide and other such violations of international law committed in the territory of
neighbouring States during the same period.

The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda is governed by its Statute, which is
annexed to Security Council Resolution 955. The Rules of Procedure and Evidence,
which the Judges adopted in accordance with Article 14 of the Statute, establish the
necessary framework for the functioning of the judicial system. The Tribunal consists of
three organs: the Chambers and the Appeals Chamber; the Office of the Prosecutor, in
charge of investigations and prosecutions; and the Registry, responsible for providing
overall judicial and administrative support to the Chambers and the Prosecutor.

Peacekeeping Operations and Missions (United Nations Peacekeeping)

United Nations Peacekeeping helps countries torn by conflict create the conditions for
lasting peace. We are comprised of civilian, police and military personnel.
As of 30 June 2014, workforce in the field consisted of:

85,874 serving troops and military observers

12,197 police personnel;

5,323 international civilian personnel (30 June 2014);

11,954 local civilian staff (30 June 2014);

2,015 UN Volunteers.

122 countries contributed military and police personnel.

The UN does not have its own military force; it depends on contributions from Member
In addition to maintaining peace and security, peacekeepers are increasingly charged
with assisting in political processes; reforming judicial systems; training law enforcement
and police forces; disarming and reintegrating former combatants; supporting the return
of internally displaced persons and refugees.
Peacekeeping Operations


The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) is dedicated to assisting the

Member States and the Secretary-General in their efforts to maintain international
peace and security.
DPKO provides political and executive direction to UN Peacekeeping operations around
the world and maintains contact with the Security Council, troop and financial
contributors, and parties to the conflict in the implementation of Security Council
mandates. The Department works to integrate the efforts of UN, governmental and nongovernmental entities in the context of peacekeeping operations. DPKO also provides
guidance and support on military, police, mine action and other relevant issuesto other
UN political and peacebuilding missions.

DPKO traces its roots to 1948 with the creation of the first UN peacekeeping
operations: UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) and UN Military Observer
Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP). Up to the late 1980s, peacekeeping
operations were operated through the UN Office of Special Political Affairs. The
official DPKO was formally created in 1992 when Boutros Boutros-Ghali took office as
Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Four main offices of DPKO
Office of Operations
The main role of the Office of Operations is to provide political and strategic policy and
operational guidance and support to the missions. More on our peacekeeping
Office of the Rule of Law and Security Institutions
Office of the Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) was established in 2007 to
strengthen the links and coordinate the Departments activities in the areas of police,
justice and corrections, mine action, the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration
of ex-combatants and security sector reform. More on rule of law, police, mine action,
and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration
Office of Military Affairs
Office of Military Affairs (OMA) works to deploy the most appropriate military capability
in support of United Nations objectives; and to enhance performance and improve the
efficiency and the effectiveness of military components in United Nations Peacekeeping
missions. More on military
Policy Evaluation and Training Division
Policy Evaluation and Training (PET) Division provides an integrated capacity to
develop and disseminate policy and doctrine; to develop, coordinate and deliver
standardized training; to evaluate mission progress towards mandate implementation;
and to develop policies and operational frameworks for strategic cooperation with
various UN and external partners.

Department of Field Support

The Department of Field Support (DFS) provides dedicated support to peacekeeping

field missions and political field missions.
DFS provides support in the areas of finance, logistics, Information, communication and
technology (ICT), human resources and general administration to help missions
promote peace and security.
DFS has seven main offices:

Office of the Assistant Secretary-General

Field Personnel Division

Field Budget and Finance Division

Logistics Support Division

Information & Communications Technology Division

Policy Evaluation and Training (PET) Division

DFS also includes the United Nations Logistics Base in Brindisi (UNLB).

Security Council Sanction Committee

Under Chapter VII of the Charter, the Security Council can take enforcement measures
to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such measures range from
economic and/or other sanctions not involving the use of armed force to international
military action.
The use of mandatory sanctions is intended to apply pressure on a State or entity to
comply with the objectives set by the Security Council without resorting to the use of
force. Sanctions thus offer the Security Council an important instrument to enforce its
decisions. The universal character of the United Nations makes it an especially
appropriate body to establish and monitor such measures.
The Council has resorted to mandatory sanctions as an enforcement tool when peace
has been threatened and diplomatic efforts have failed. The range of sanctions has
included comprehensive economic and trade sanctions and/or more targeted measures
such as arms embargoes, travel bans, financial or diplomatic restrictions.
At the same time, a great number of States and humanitarian organizations have

expressed concerns at the possible adverse impact of sanctions on the most vulnerable
segments of the population. Concerns have also been expressed at the negative impact
sanctions can have on the economy of third countries.
In response to these concerns, relevant Security Council decisions have reflected a
more refined approach to the design, application and implementation of mandatory
sanctions. These refinements have included measures targeted at specific actors, as
well as humanitarian exceptions embodied in Security Council resolutions. Targeted
sanctions, for instance, can involve the freezing of assets and blocking the financial
transactions of political elites or entities whose behaviour triggered sanctions in the first
place. Recently, smart sanctions have been applied to conflict diamonds in African
countries, where wars have been funded in part by the trade of illicit diamonds for arms
and related materiel.
As part of its commitment to ensure that fair and clear procedures exist for placing
individuals and entities on sanctions lists and for removing them, as well as for granting
humanitarian exemptions, the Security Council, on 19 December 2006, adopted
resolution 1730 (2006) by which the Council requested the Secretary-General to
establish within the Secretariat (Security Council Subsidiary Organs Branch), a focal
point to receive de-listing requests and perform the tasks described in the annex to that
resolution. The Security Council took another significant step in this regard by
establishing, by its resolution 1904 (2009) the Office of the Ombudsperson.
On 17 April 2000, the members of the Security Council established, on a temporary
basis, the Informal Working Group on General Issues of Sanctions to develop general
recommendations on how to improve the effectiveness of United Nations sanctions. In
2006 the Working Group submitted its report to the Security Council (S/2006/997),
which contained recommendations and best practices on how to improve sanctions.

United Nations Compensation Commission

The United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC) was created in 1991 as a
subsidiary organ of the UN Security Council with a mandate to process claims and pay
compensation for losses and damage suffered as a direct result of Iraqs unlawful
invasion and occupation of Kuwait. Because Iraqs responsibility for such losses and
damage had been confirmed by the Security Council in several of its resolutions, the
UNCC mainly had a fact-finding task, namely to establish for each claim whether or not
the damage was directly linked to Iraqs unlawful invasion and occupation of Kuwait. For
this reason, the UNCC is a claims commission rather than an international court or
The jurisdiction of the Commission is fairly innovative for international law standards,
both in terms of who can claim for damages (including individuals and corporations) as

well as the types of damage covered (including environmental damages). In total, the
Commission received approximately 2.7 million claims seeking approximately US$352.5
billion in compensation for death, injury, loss of or damage to property, commercial
claims and claims for environmental damage resulting from Iraqs unlawful invasion and
occupation of Kuwait in 1991.
The Commission approved awards of approximately US$52.4 billion in respect of
approximately 1.54 million of these claims, representing roughly 15 per cent of the
amount claimed. The resolution of such a significant number of claims with such a large
asserted value over such a short period is unprecedented in the history of international
claims resolution.
The claims were resolved by panels, each of which was made up of three
Commissioners who were independent experts in different fields including law,
accountancy, loss adjustment, insurance and engineering. The panels were assisted in
the verification and valuation of the claims by the Commission's secretariat, technical
experts and consultants and submitted their recommendations on the claims to the
Governing Council for approval.
To date, the Commission has made available to Governments and international
organizations approximately US$45.5 billion for distribution to successful claimants in all
categories; US$6.9 billion remains owing to Kuwait for distribution to the remaining
claimant. Funds to pay compensation are drawn from the United Nations Compensation
Fund, which currently receives 5 per cent of the proceeds generated by the export sales
of Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products, in accordance with Security Council
resolution 1483 (2003) and affirmed in subsequent resolutions, most recently in Security
Council resolution 1956 (2010).
The approval by the Governing Council of the last reports and recommendations of
the panels of Commissioners at its June 2005 session marked the completion of 12
years of claims processing, and brought to an end the work of the panels of
Commissioners as a whole.
With the conclusion of the UNCC Follow-up Programme for Environmental Awards at
the end of 2103, the Commission continues to focus on payment of compensation
awards and ensuring that the $6.9 billion that remains outstanding of over $52.4 billion
awarded, is paid in full.
Governing Council
The Governing Council is the organ of the Commission that sets its policy within the
framework of relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions. As such, it

established the criteria for the compensability of claims, the rules and procedures for
processing the claims, the guidelines for the administration and financing of the
Compensation Fund and the procedures for the payment of compensation. The
Governing Council reports regularly to the Security Council on the work of the
The membership of the Governing Council is the same as that of the fifteen-member
Security Council. China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the
United States are thus permanent members. The ten non-permanent members are
selected by the General Assembly for two-year terms, with five being replaced each
The Governing Council elects its own president and two vice-presidents, each for
two-year terms. Thus far, non-permanent members of the Council have always held
these positions. The current President is Australia, with Jordan and the Republic of
Korea holding the two vice-presidencies.
The Governing Councils guidelines provide for its decisions to be taken by a
majority of at least nine of its members, as in the Security Council, except with regard to
the method of ensuring that payments are made to the Compensation Fund, which must
be decided upon by consensus. However, the right of veto, which is held by the five
permanent members in the Security Council, is expressly excluded. To date, the
Governing Council has adopted all of its decisions, including those on recommendations
on compensation and payments, by consensus.
The Governing Council convenes at regular intervals in formal Governing Council
sessions. The sessions are closed to the public, although non-member States are
permitted to address the Council during its opening plenary meetings, and the
Governments of Iraq and Kuwait have regularly done so. In between these formal
sessions, a number of informal meetings of the Working Group of the Governing
Council are held. Up until 2006, the Council generally held four formal sessions per
year, to consider various aspects of the Commissions work, mostly related to the
processing and payment of claims. The Council made decisions on recommendations
by the panels of Commissioners on specific instalments or groups of claims. The full
text of these decisions and panel reports and recommendations are available on this
web site. With the completion of claims processing in 2005, two formal sessions are
now held each year.
Finally, the Councils Committee on Administrative Matters is responsible for
reviewing and providing guidance on major administrative and budgetary matters
presented to it by the Executive Secretary, including approving a biennium budget of the
Commission, which is funded out of the Compensation Fund.

The function of the Commissioners, who completed their work in June 2005, was to
verify and evaluate claims, and in so doing, to determine whether the damages were
suffered as a direct result of Iraqs invasion and occupation of Kuwait. The
Commissioners assessed the value of losses suffered by claimants and recommended
compensation in reports to the Governing Council.
Commissioners were chosen for their integrity, experience and expertise in such
areas as law, accounting, loss adjustment, assessment of environmental damage, and
engineering. They were international lawyers and other professionals with established
international reputations. The geographical diversity of the Commissioners nationalities
was an important factor in their selection. The 59 Commissioners appointed
represented 40 different nationalities.
Candidates for the position of Commissioner were chosen by the Executive
Secretary, usually from a Register of Experts that had been established by the
Secretary-General in 1991, that was subsequently regularly updated and maintained by
the Secretariat. The Executive Secretary recommended the candidates to the
Secretary-General, and if approved, the Secretary-General nominated them for the
Governing Councils decision. Commissioners were appointed for fixed terms.
The Commissioners worked in panels of three. Each panel was established to review
a specific category or sub-category of claims. In total, there were nineteen panels of
The Secretariat of the Compensation Commission is headed by the Executive
Secretary who is appointed by the UN Secretary-General after consultation with the
Governing Council. Since the establishment of the Commission in 1991, the staff of the
Secretariat have come from approximately 60 different countries and at the height of
claims processing, the Secretariat was made up of more than 300 lawyers, accountants,
loss adjusters and information technology specialists.
The Secretariat services the Governing Council, providing administrative, technical
and legal support. During the claims processing phase of the work programme, the
Secretariat also provided similar support to the panels of Commissioners.
With the completion of claims processing in 2007, the UNCC Secretariat downsized
to a residual format in line with a decision taken by the Governing Council at its fiftyeighth session in December 2005 to maintain the Compensation Fund under the

continuing oversight of the Governing Council, supported by a small Secretariat, until

payment in full of all awarded claims.
The Secretariat's work is now focused on payment related activities and ensuring
that the outstanding balance of US$ 6.9 billion is paid in full.
Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict
Raising global awareness to protect children
The role of the Special Representative is to serve as an independent moral voice on
behalf of children affected by conflict. The Special Representative raises challenges
faced by children in war to political bodies, such as the General Assembly, the Human
Rights Council, the Security Council and relevant Governments to maintain a sense of
urgency amongst key decision makers as well as to secure political and diplomatic
engagement. The Special Representatives field missions are central to her advocacy
As part of her work, she has forged strong partnerships with other Departments and
Offices within the United Nations Secretariat, Agencies, Funds, and Programmes in the
United Nations System.
Through the media, academics, civil society, and social networks, the Special
Representative increases the level of understanding of the issue of children and armed
conflict within the general public.
Thematic focus and advocacy
Advocacy efforts focus on a number of key priority areas. These include the delivery of
comprehensive and long-term reintegration assistance for children, the rights of
internally displaced children, as well as the rights of children confronted to justice
systems, both as victims and perpetrators.
A particular advocacy initiative is the Offices two-year campaign called Zero under 18
with the purpose of achieving universal ratification of the Optional Protocol to the
Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict
Security Council Informal Working Group on Documentation and Other
Procedural Questions

The Security Council Informal Working Group on Documentation and Other Procedural
Questions (IWG) was established in June 1993 to improve the process by which the
Security Council addresses issues concerning its documentation and other procedural
questions. The Working Group meets as agreed by members of the Security Council
and makes recommendations, proposals and suggestions concerning the Council's
documentation and other procedural questions.
The Informal Working Group has drafted a series of documents concerning the working
methods of the Security Council, including measures to enhance its efficiency,
transparency and interactivity, which have been adopted by the Security Council as
Notes by the President. The Note by the President of 27 July 2010 (S/2010/507),
drafted under the Chairmanship of Japan, is the most recent comprehensive
compilation of these measures, incorporating and further developing previous notes
drafted by the Group. Following the adoption, the President of the Council (Nigeria) read
a statement to the press (SC/9995) which highlights some of the new elements
incorporated in the Note.
In 2012, under the Chairmanship of Portugal, the Informal Working Group drafted three
additional Notes by the President, focusing on conference resources and the
interactivity of meetings of the Security Council (S/2012/402), on open debates, the
Security Council annual report and monthly assessments and informal briefing sessions
by the President on the monthly work (S/2012/922), as well as on the process of
appointing the Chairpersons of the subsidiary organs of the Council (S/2012/937).
In 2013, under the Chairmanship of Argentina, the Informal Working Group drafted two
additional Notes by the President, focusing on dialogue with non-Council members and
bodies (S/2013/515); as well as on consultations between the Security Council, the
Secretariat and troop- and police-contributing countries (S/2013/630).
Since 2006, the Informal Working Group has been chaired by a member of the Security
Council for an extended period, usually 12 months. Currently, Argentina chairs the
group for two consecutive years (January 2013 - December 2014).

Specialized Agencies of United Nation

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00153 Rome, Italy
Regional Offices

The principal function of the Regional Offices is the overall identification, planning and
implementation of FAO's priority activities in the Region. They ensure a multi disciplinary
approach to programmes; identify priority areas of action for the Organization in the
Region and, in collaboration with departments and divisions at headquarters, advise on
the incorporation of such priorities into the Organization's Programme of Work and
Budget. The Regional Offices also implement approved programmes in the Region
monitor the level of programme implementation,and draw attention to any problems and
Specific activities of the Regional Offices are to:
1. Ensure a multidisciplinary approach to projects and programmes implemented in the
Region with FAO's technical assistance.
2. Report on the major developments and trends in countries of the Region, based on
Regional and Sub-regional objectives for food and agriculture.
3. Organize the FAO Regional Conference for the Region, every two years.
4.Maintain policy and technical dialogue with and among FAO member countries,
involving national and international institutions.
5.Follow up on the World Food Summit and issues related to Food Security in the
Promote technical cooperation among the countries of the Region.
Subregional Offices
The Sub-regional Offices are part of the respective Regional Office and work closely
with them. The Sub-regional Offices are primarily responsible for the overall planning of
FAO activities in the Sub-region. With the guidance and support of the Regional Offices,
they ensure a multi disciplinary approach to programmes, identify priority areas of action
for the Sub-region; implement approved programmes in the Sub-region, and monitor the
level of programme implementation and draw attention to any problems and
Specific activities of the Sub-regional Offices are to:
1.Ensure a multidisciplinary approach to projects and programmes implemented in the
Sub-region with FAO's technical assistance.
2.Report on the major developments and trends in countries of the Sub-region, based
on their objectives for food and agriculture.
3.Ensure policy and technical dialogue with and among FAO member countries,
involving national and international institutions.
4.Follow up on the World Food Summit and issues related to Food Security in the Subregion.
Promote technical cooperation among the countries
Country Offices
FAO is currently present through its Representations in the countries listed on this page.
The main aim of these offices is to assist governments to develop policies, programmes

and projects to address the root causes of hunger and malnutrition; to help them to
develop their agricultural, fisheries and forestry sectors, and to use their environmental
and natural resources in a sustainable way.
Specific activities of the Country Offices are to:
1.Implement FAO's field projects and participating to the development of the Field
Programme by identifying and formulating new projects and by liaising with local donor
2.Help governments to prevent and assess the damage of disasters and assist them in
reconstruction and rehabilitation of the agricultural sector.
3.Carry out public awareness activities and support some important FAO campaigns
such as TeleFood and the World Food Day.
4.Provide assistance to technical and investment missions from FAO headquarters and
from Regional or Sub-regional Offices to the country.
5.Serve as the channel of FAO's services to governments and other partners (donors,
NGOs, CSOs, research institutions, etc.).
6.Keep FAO informed of major social and economic developments in the country and
monitoring the situation of the agriculture sector in the country.
7.Represent FAO before host governments and all partners involved in FAO activities.
Liaison Offices
The Liaison Offices have been established at locations where many UN system
organizations and other international, intergovernmental or non-governmental
associations or organizations are working. They maintain relations with Members and
external development partners operating in these locations. They monitor developments
affecting nutrition, food and agriculture and represent the Organization at meetings
which address matters that fall within the mandate of FAO.
Jos Graziano da Silva has worked on issues of food security, rural development and
agriculture for over 30 years.Since assuming his mandate as FAO Director-General in
2012, he has spearheaded major transformational changes within the Organization.
These reforms have entailed refocusing FAOs work, reinforcing its institutional
capacities, strengthening partnerships with civil society, private sector and academia
and boosting FAO's support for South-South Cooperation. His efforts have resulted in
best value for money for the Organization and its partners.
As of 1 November 2013, FAO employed 1795 professional staff (including Junior
Officers, Associate Professional Officers and National Professional Officers) and 1654
support staff. Figures only refer to staff holding fixed term and continuing appointments.
Approximately 58 percent are based at headquarters in Rome, while the remainder
work in offices worldwide. During the last 15 years, the proportion of women in the
professional staff category has nearly doubled, from 19 percent to 37 percent.
Achieving food security for all is at the heart of FAO's efforts to make sure people

have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives.
Our three main goals are: the eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition; the
elimination of poverty and the driving forward of economic and social progress for all;
and, the sustainable management and utilization of natural resources, including land,
water, air, climate and genetic resources for the benefit of present and future
To meet the demands posed by major global trends in agricultural development and
challenges faced by member nations, FAO has identified key priorities on which it is
best placed to intervene. A comprehensive review of the Organizations comparative
advantages was undertaken which enabled strategic objectives to be set, representing
the main areas of work on which FAO will concentrate its efforts in striving to achieve its
vision and global goals.
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a UN specialized agency, created
in 1944 upon the signing of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago
ICAO works with the Conventions 191 Signatory States and global industry and
aviation organizations to develop international Standards and Recommended Practices
(SARPs) which are then used by States when they develop their legally-binding national
civil aviation regulations.
There are currently over 10,000 SARPs reflected in the 19 Annexes to the Chicago
Convention which ICAO oversees, and it is through these SARPs and ICAOs
complementary policy, auditing and capacity-building efforts that todays global air
transport network is able to operate over 100,000 daily flights, safely, efficiently and
securely in every region of the world.

Secretary General
The Secretary General of ICAO is head of the Secretariat and chief executive officer of
the Organization responsible for general direction of the work of the Secretariat. The
Secretary General provides leadership to a specialized international staff working in the
field of international civil aviation. The Secretary General serves as the Secretary of the
Council of ICAO and is responsible to the Council as a whole and, following established
policies, carries out the duties assigned to him by the Council, and makes periodic
reports to the Council covering the progress of the Secretariat activities.
The Secretariat consists of five main divisions: the Air Navigation Bureau, the Air

Transport Bureau, the Technical Co-operation Bureau, the Legal Affairs and External
Relations Bureau, and the Bureau of Administration and Services. The Secretary
General is also directly responsible for the management and effective work performance
of the activities assigned to the Office of the Secretary General relating to Finance,
Evaluation and Internal Audit, Communications, and seven Regional Offices.
The Council of ICAO appointed Raymond Benjamin (France) as Secretary General of
the Organization for a second three-year term, from 1 August 2012 to 31 July 2015.
How It Works
The constitution of ICAO is the Convention on International Civil Aviation, drawn up by a
conference in Chicago in November and December 1944, and to which each ICAO
Contracting State is a party. According to the terms of the Convention, the Organization
is made up of an Assembly, a Council of limited membership with various subordinate
bodies and a Secretariat. The chief officers are the President of the Council and the
Secretary General.The Assembly, composed of representatives from all Contracting
States, is the sovereign body of ICAO. It meets every three years, reviewing in detail the
work of the Organization and setting policy for the coming years. It also votes a triennial
budget.The Council, the governing body which is elected by the Assembly for a threeyear term, is composed of 36 States. The Assembly chooses the Council Member
States under three headings: States of chief importance in air transport, States which
make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for air navigation, and States
whose designation will ensure that all major areas of the world are represented. As the
governing body, the Council gives continuing direction to the work of ICAO. It is in the
Council that Standards and Recommended Practices are adopted and incorporated as
Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The Council is assisted by the
Air Navigation Commission (technical matters), the Air Transport Committee (economic
matters), the Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services and the Finance
Committee.The Secretariat, headed by a Secretary General, is divided into five main
divisions: the Air Navigation Bureau, the Air Transport Bureau, the Technical Cooperation Bureau, the Legal Bureau and the Bureau of Administration and Services. In
order that the work of the Secretariat reflects a truly international perspective,
professional-level personnel are recruited on a broad geographical basis. ICAO works in
close cooperation with other members of the United Nations family such as the World
Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU),
the Universal Postal Union (UPU), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World
Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO).
Non-governmental organizations which also participate in ICAO's work include the
International Air Transport Association (IATA), Airports Council International (ACI), the
Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation (CANSO) the International Federation of Air
Line Pilots' Associations (IFALPA) and the International Council of Aircraft Owner and
Pilot Associations (IAOPA).

Achieve the sustainable growth of the global civil aviation system.
To serve as the global forum of States for international civil aviation. ICAO develops
policies and Standards, undertakes compliance audits, performs studies and analyses,
provides assistance and builds aviation capacity through many other activities and the
cooperation of its Member States and stakeholders.
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
International Fund for Agricultural Development
Via Paolo di Dono, 44
00142 Rome, Italy
On 13 February 2013, Kanayo F. Nwanze was appointed by acclamation as President
of IFAD for a second four-year term. A Nigerian national, Nwanze has a strong record as
an advocate and leader with a keen understanding of complex development issues. He
brings to the job over 35 years of experience across three continents, focusing on
poverty reduction through agriculture, rural development and research.
Under Nwanzes guidance, IFAD has stepped up its advocacy efforts to ensure that
agriculture is a central part of the international development agenda, and that
governments recognize the concerns of smallholder farmers and other poor rural
people. As an intellectual leader on issues of food security, Nwanze has been a member
of the World Economic Forums Global Agenda Council on Food Security since 2010,
and formerly chaired the group.
During Nwanzes tenure, IFAD has increased the number of outposted country
programme managers and country offices. This heightened field presence enhances
IFADs direct supervision of its projects, benefiting Member States, partner institutions
and project participants alike. As a result, IFAD has become a valued and resultsfocused international development partner, is delivering a much larger programme of
loans and grants, and extending its reach to more people.
Nwanze served as IFADs Vice-President for two years before taking the organizations
helm. Prior to that, he was Director-General of the Africa Rice Center for a decade.
Nwanze was instrumental in introducing and promoting New Rice for Africa, or NERICA,
a high-yield, drought- and pest-resistant rice variety developed specifically for the
African landscape. He also transformed the Center from a West African to an Africawide organization with a global reputation for excellence.
In addition, Nwanze has held senior positions at research centres affiliated with the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) in Africa and Asia,
and played a key role in establishing the Alliance of CGIAR Centers as a vehicle for
collective action.
Nwanze earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Agricultural Science from the
University of Ibadan, Nigeria, in 1971, and a Doctorate in Agricultural Entomology from

Kansas State University, United States, in 1975. He has published extensively, is a

member of several scientific associations and has served on various executive boards.
Nwanze has received numerous honours and awards from governments and
international institutions including Commander of the National Order of Merit of Cte
dIvoire, Officer of the National Order of Benin and National Order of Agricultural Merit of
France as well as academic acknowledgements, including Doctor of Science, honoris
causa, from McGill University, Canada.
Since it was created in 1977, IFAD has focused exclusively on rural poverty reduction,
working with poor rural populations in developing countries to eliminate poverty, hunger
and malnutrition; raise productivity and incomes; and improve the quality of their lives.
The Fund has designed and implemented projects in very different natural, socioeconomic and cultural environments. Many IFAD-supported programmes have been in
remote areas, and have targeted some of the poorest and most deprived segments of
the rural population. IFAD has recognized that vulnerable groups can and do contribute
to economic growth. These groups have shown that they can join the mainstream of
social and economic development, provided the causes of their poverty are understood
and enabling conditions are created.In addition, its local-level operations in 120
countries and territories keep IFAD in continuous and direct contact with the rural poor.
Their perceptions of their own opportunities and constraints form the backbone of
IFADs knowledge base. This diversity of people and contexts has led to the
accumulation of a valuable body of experience and knowledge. It has also required
IFAD to maintain a highly flexible and participatory approach in responding to the
specificities of rural development around the world.To build broad local ownership of the
programmes it sponsors, IFAD works in partnership with others borrowing-country
governments, poor rural people and their organizations, and other donor agencies. Its
focus on local development has given it a role in bridging the gap between multilateral
and bilateral donors on the one side, and civil society represented by NGOs and
community-based organizations (CBOs) on the other.Extensive partnerships and global
engagement enable IFAD to strengthen its catalytic role. Through careful monitoring
and evaluation of the impact of its projects, the Fund identifies successful innovations
for possible replication and cross-regional fertilization.IFADs flexible programme
approach and longer-term lending framework enhance its ability to assist governments
in pro-poor policy and institutional development and to respond to the diversity of issues
facing the rural poor in different regional and local contexts. These processes require a
long time frame to see the changes through to their conclusion.As mentioned ealier,
IFAD's objective and raison d'tre are to fund rural development projects specifically
aimed at assisting the poorest of the poor small farmers, artisanal fishermen, rural
poor women, landless workers, rural artisans, nomadic herdsmen and indigenous
populations to increase their food production, raise their incomes, improve their
health, nutrition, education standards and general well-being on a sustainable basis.
Nine major areas are supported:
agricultural development
financial services

rural infrastructure
capacity-and institution-building
small and medium scale enterprise development
Loans IFAD provides loans to its developing Member States on highly concessional,
intermediate and ordinary terms for approved projects and programmes. Lending terms
and conditions vary according to the borrower's per capita GNI.
Grants IFAD provides grants to institutions and organizations in support of activities
to strengthen the technical and institutional capacities linked to agricultural and rural
development. Grants are limited to 10% of the combined loan and grant programme.
IFAD is the leading multilateral investor in the livelihoods of poor rural producers in
developing countries worldwide. Our work is directed by the needs and concerns of
poor smallholder farmers, agricultural labourers, pastoralists, foresters, fishers and
small entrepreneurs in rural areas.
IFADs highly specialized mission is to enable poor rural people to overcome poverty.
Our overarching goal is to help them improve their lives by building farm and non-farm
enterprises that are viable, sustainable and integrated into national and global markets
and value chains. Such enterprises generate economic growth in rural areas, raise
incomes and increase employment opportunities.
By raising productivity, the programmes we fund make it possible for smallholders to
move beyond subsistence farming and grow surplus produce for the market. We
support training and capacity-building and cooperate with local communities to help
them organize themselves and strengthen their institutions.We work with our country
partners to improve infrastructure and rural financial services.
The projects supported by IFAD are often in remote and environmentally fragile
locations. Often we work with marginalized and disenfranchised populations, giving
particular attention to women, the young and indigenous peoples.IFAD has a wealth of
expertise in areas of concern to poor rural people, particularly those with agricultural
livelihoods, including remote rural communities. We champion effective innovations in
smallholder agriculture and rural poverty reduction, and promote their replication and
scaling up.The unique characteristics of our approach to agriculture and rural
development are:an emphasis on smallholder farmers and producers as businessesour
focus on empowering rural women and supporting the many roles they play in
agriculture the ability to bring together individuals and organizations from diverse
sectors support for country leadership on development, based on the mutual trust and
confidence of our borrowing Member States, built up over many years expertise in
targeting resources to those who are most in need and who have the potential to be
economically productive our focus on capacity-building and empowerment of
communities and organizations of poor rural producers.

International Labour Organization (ILO)

Offices are located 4 route des Morillons - CH-1211 Genve 22 -Switzerland Officer
ILO Director-General Guy Ryder took office on 1 October 2012. Guy Ryder sees the
ILO as absolutely central to the questions of the day: jobs, social protection, the fight
against poverty, and equality. For this reason, he wants to reinforce the ILO's place at
the centre of international decision-making on issues that affect the world of work. The
Director-General wants the ILO to play a role in difficult global situations such as
economic crisis and on the national agendas of countries undergoing change,
especially where the world of work is at stake. To support these goals, Guy Ryder has
started a process of internal reform to strengthen the ILO's technical capacity and
improve its policy analysis.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is devoted to promoting social justice and
internationally recognized human and labour rights, pursuing its founding mission that
labour peace is essential to prosperity. Today, the ILO helps advance the creation of
decent work and the economic and working conditions that give working people and
business people a stake in lasting peace, prosperity and progress. Its tripartite structure
provides a unique platform for promoting decent work for all women and men. Its main
aims are to promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities,
enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue on work-related issues.
Underlying the ILOs work is the importance of cooperation between governments and
employers and workers organizations in fostering social and economic progress.
The ILO aims to ensure that it serves the needs of working women and men by bringing
together governments, employers and workers to set labour standards, develop policies
and devise programmes. The very structure of the ILO, where workers and employers
together have an equal voice with governments in its deliberations, shows social
dialogue in action. It ensures that the views of the social partners are closely reflected in
ILO labour standards, policies and programmes.
The ILO encourages this tripartism within its constituents and member States by
promoting a social dialogue between trade unions and employers in formulating, and
where appropriate, implementing national policy on social, economic, and many other
The ILO accomplishes its work through three main bodies (The International labour
Conference, the Governing body and the Office) which comprise governments',
employers' and workers' representatives.

The work of the Governing Body and of the Office is aided by tripartite committees
covering major industries. It is also supported by committees of experts on such matters
as vocational training, management development, occupational safety and health,
industrial relations, workers education, and special problems of women and young
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
The International Maritime Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations
which is responsible for measures to improve the safety and security of international
shipping and to prevent marine pollution from ships. It is also involved in legal matters,
including liability and compensation issues and the facilitation of international maritime
traffic. It was established by means of a Convention adopted under the auspices of the
United Nations in Geneva on 17 March 1948 and met for the first time in January 1959.
It currently has 170 Member States. IMO's governing body is the Assembly which is
made up of all 170 Member States and meets normally once every two years. It adopts
the budget for the next biennium together with technical resolutions and
recommendations prepared by subsidiary bodies during the previous two years. The
Council acts as governing body in between Assembly sessions. It prepares the budget
and work programme for the Assembly. The main technical work is carried out by the
Maritime Safety, Marine Environment Protection, Legal, Technical Co-operation and
Facilitation Committees and a number of sub-committees.
The IMO slogan sums up its objectives: Safe, secure and efficient shipping on clean
International Maritime Organization
4, Albert Embankment
United Kingdom

Mr. Koji Sekimizu of Japan has been elected as the Secretary-General of the
International Maritime Organization (IMO), with effect from 1 January 2012, for an initial
term of four years.
The vote took place during the 106th session of the 40-Member strong IMO Council,
which is meeting from 27 June to 1 July 2011. The decision of the Council will be
submitted to the IMO Assembly, which meets for its 27th session from 21 to 30
November 2011, for approval.
Mr. Sekimizu, 58, is currently Director of IMOs Maritime Safety Division. Mr. Sekimizu
studied marine engineering and naval architecture and joined the Ministry of Transport

of Japan in 1977, working initially as a ship inspector and moving on to senior positions
in both maritime safety and environment related positions within the Ministry. He began
attending IMO meetings as part of the Japanese delegation in 1980 and joined the IMO
Secretariat in 1989, initially as Technical Officer, Sub-Division for Technology, Maritime
Safety Division, becoming Head, Technology Section in 1992, then moving to become
Senior Deputy Director, Marine Environment Division in 1997 and Director of that
Division in 2000, before moving to his current position in 2004.
Congratulating the winner, IMO Secretary-General Mr. Efthimios E. Mitropoulos said he
looked forward to working closely with Mr. Sekimizu between now and the end of the
year to introduce him to the current state of organizational affairs so that the transition of
administration from me to him will be as smooth, harmonious and successful as
For him to succeed in the hugely demanding and heavy task the Council entrusted him
with today, he will need all the understanding, support and co operation of the entire
membership and the Secretariat to enable him to provide direction and steer the
Organization prudently and wisely in the challenging times that lie ahead. While I have
no doubt that the membership will provide all that I just suggested (as they did to me,
over the last seven and a half years, for which I am ever so grateful), I can assure him
that the Secretariat will stand by him to support him in any way possible and under all
circumstances, Mr. Mitropoulos said.
As a specialized agency of the United Nations, IMO is the global standard-setting
authority for the safety, security and environmental performance of international
shipping. Its main role is to create a regulatory framework for the shipping industry that
is fair and effective, universally adopted and universally implemented.
In other words, its role is to create a level playing-field so that ship operators cannot
address their financial issues by simply cutting corners and compromising on safety,
security and environmental performance. This approach also encourages innovation
and efficiency.
Shipping is a truly international industry, and it can only operate effectively if the
regulations and standards are themselves agreed, adopted and implemented on an
international basis. And IMO is the forum at which this process takes place.
International shipping transports about 90 per cent of global trade to peoples and
communities all over the world. Shipping is the most efficient and cost-effective method
of international transportation for most goods; it provides a dependable, low-cost means
of transporting goods globally, facilitating commerce and helping to create prosperity
among nations and peoples.
The world relies on a safe, secure and efficient international shipping industry and this
is provided by the regulatory framework developed and maintained by IMO.

IMO measures cover all aspects of international shipping including ship design,
construction, equipment, manning, operation and disposal to ensure that this vital
sector for remains safe, environmentally sound, energy efficient and secure.
Shipping is an essential component of any programme for future sustainable economic
growth. Through IMO, the Organizations Member States, civil society and the shipping
industry are already working together to ensure a continued and strengthened
contribution towards a green economy and growth in a sustainable manner. The
promotion of sustainable shipping and sustainable maritime development is one of the
major priorities of IMO in the coming years.
Energy efficiency, new technology and innovation, maritime education and training,
maritime security, maritime traffic management and the development of the maritime
infrastructure: the development and implementation, through IMO, of global standards
covering these and other issues will underpin IMO's commitment to provide the
institutional framework necessary for a green and sustainable global maritime
transportation system.
IMO the International Maritime Organization is the United Nations specialized
agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of
marine pollution by ships.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 188 countries, working to
foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international
trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty
around the world.
Headquarters 1 (HQ1):
International Monetary Fund, 700 19th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20431
Headquarters 2 (HQ2):
International Monetary Fund, 1900 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington, DC, 20431
Managing Director

Christine Lagarde

First Deputy Managing Director

David Lipton
Deputy Managing Director
Naoyuki Shinohara
Deputy Managing Director
Min Zhu
Economic Counsellor
Olivier Blanchard
Financial Counsellor
Jos Vials
African Department Director
Antoinette Monsio Sayeh
Asia and Pacific Department Director
Changyong Rhee
European Department Acting Director
Poul Thomsen
Communications Department Director
Gerard Rice
Finance Department Director
Andrew Tweedie
Fiscal Affairs Department Director
Vitor Gaspar
Human Resources Department Director
Mark Plant
Institute for Capacity Development Director
Sharmini A. Coorey
Legal Department General Counsel and Director
Sean Hagan
Middle East and Central Asia Department Director
Masood Ahmed
Monetary and Capital Markets
Department Director
Jos Vials
Research Department Director
Olivier Blanchard
Secretary's Department Secretary
Jianhai Lin
Statistics Department Director
Louis Marc Ducharme
Strategy, Policy, and Review Department Director
Siddharth Tiwari
Technology and General Services Department Director
Frank Harnischfeger
Technology and General Services Department
Chief Information Officer
Susan Swart
Western Hemisphere Department Director
Alejandro Werner
Office of Budget and Planning Director
Daniel Citrin
Office of Internal Audit and Inspection
Clare Brady
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Odd Per Brekk
Offices in Europe Director
Christian Mumssen
Special Representative to the UN
Axel Albert Emil Bertuch-Samuels
Independent Evaluation Office
Moises J. Schwartz
The IMF works to foster global growth and economic stability. It provides policy advice
and financing to members in economic difficulties and also works with developing
nations to help them achieve macroeconomic stability and reduce poverty.
The IMF's fundamental mission is to help ensure stability in the international system. It
does so in three ways: keeping track of the global economy and the economies of
member countries; lending to countries with balance of payments difficulties; and giving

practical help to members.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

ITU is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication
technologies ICTs.
We allocate global radio spectrum and satellite orbits, develop the technical standards
that ensure networks and technologies seamlessly interconnect, and strive to improve
access to ICTs to underserved communities worldwide.
Donwload ITU's brochureITU is committed to connecting all the world's people
wherever they live and whatever their means. Through our work, we protect and support
everyone's fundamental right to communicate.
Today, ICTs underpin everything we do. They help manage and control emergency
services, water supplies, power networks and food distribution chains. They support
health care, education, government services, financial markets, transportation systems
and environmental management. And they allow people to communicate with
colleagues, friends and family anytime, and almost anywhere.
With the help of our membership, ITU brings the benefits of modern communication
technologies to people everywhere in an efficient, safe, easy and affordable manner.
ITU membership reads like a Whos Who of the ICT sector. Were unique among UN
agencies in having both public and private sector membership. So in addition to our 193
Member States, ITU membership includes ICT regulators, leading academic institutions
and some 700 private companies.
In an increasingly interconnected world, ITU is the single global organization embracing
all players in this dynamic and fast-growing sector.
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Place des Nations
1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland
Dr Hamadoun I. Tour, Secretary-General of the International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) since January 2007, was re-elected for a second four-year term in October 2010.
As Secretary-General, Dr Tour is committed to ITUs mission of connecting the world,
and to helping achieve the Millennium Development Goals through harnessing the
unique potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).

A long-standing champion of ICTs as a driver of social and economic development, Dr

Tour previously served as Director of ITUs Telecommunication Development Bureau
(BDT) from 1998-2006. In this role he placed considerable emphasis on implementing
the outcomes of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), launching
projects based on partnerships with international organizations, governments, the
private sector and civil society.
Dr Tour started his professional career in his native Mali in 1979. He built a solid career
in the satellite industry, serving as managing engineer in Malis first International Earth
Station. He joined Intelsats Assistance and Development Programme in 1985. He was
appointed Intelsats Group Director for Africa and the Middle East in 1994, earning a
reputation as an energetic leader through his commitment to various regional
connectivity projects such as RASCOM. In 1996 he joined ICO Global Communications
as African Regional General Manager, spearheading the companies activities across
the African region.
A national of Mali, Dr Tour holds a Masters Degree in Electrical Engineering from the
Technical Institute of Electronics and Telecommunications of Leningrad, and a PhD from
the University of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics of Moscow. He is
married with four children and two grandchildren, and is proficient in four official ITU
languages: English, French, Russian and Spanish.
satellite.pngSatellites enable phone calls, television programmes, satellite navigation
and online maps. Space services are vital in monitoring and transmitting changes in
such data as ocean temperature, vegetation patterns and greenhouse gases helping
us predict famines, the path of a hurricane, or how the global climate is changing. The
explosive growth of wireless communications, particularly to provide broadband
services, demonstrates the need for global solutions to address the need for additional
radio spectrum allocations and harmonized standards to improve interoperability.
ITU's Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) coordinates this vast and growing range of
radiocommunication services, as well as the international management of the radiofrequency spectrum and satellite orbits. An increasing number of players need to make
use of these limited resources, and participating in ITU-R conferences and study group
activities where important work is done on mobile broadband communications and
broadcasting technologies such as Ultra HDTV and 3D TV is becoming an ever-higher
priority for both governments and industry players.
ITU standards (called Recommendations) are fundamental to the operation of todays
ICT networks. Without ITU standards you couldnt make a telephone call or surf the
Internet. For Internet access, transport protocols, voice and video compression, home
networking, and myriad other aspects of ICTs, hundreds of ITU standards allow systems
to work locally and globally. For instance, the Emmy award-winning standard ITU-T

H.264 is now one of the most popular standards for video compression. In a typical
year, ITU will produce or revise upwards of 150 standards covering everything from core
network functionality to next-generation services such as IPTV. If your product or
service requires any kind of international buy-in, you need to be part of the
standardization discussions in ITUs Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITUT) .
children.jpgITU's Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D) has a programme to
offer you whether you are interested in entering or expanding your presence in
emerging markets, demonstrating global ICT leadership, learning how to put good policy
into practice, or pursuing your mandate for corporate social responsibility. In an
increasingly networked world, expanding access to ICTs globally is in everybody's
interest. ITU champions a number of major initiatives which encompass ITU's
internationally-accorded mandate to bridge the digital divide, such as its ITU Connect
events or Connect a School, Connect a Community. ITU also regularly publishes the
industrys most comprehensive and reliable ICT statistics.
ITU is committed to connecting all the world's people wherever they live and whatever
their means. Through our work, we protect and support everyone's fundamental right to
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
In 1945, UNESCO was created in order to respond to the firm belief of nations, forged
by two world wars in less than a generation, that political and economic agreements are
not enough to build a lasting peace. Peace must be established on the basis of
humanitys moral and intellectual solidarity.
UNESCO strives to build networks among nations that enable this kind of solidarity, by:
Mobilizing for education: so that every child, boy or girl, has access to quality education
as a fundamental human right and as a prerequisite for human development.Building
intercultural understanding: through protection of heritage and support for cultural
diversity. UNESCO created the idea of World Heritage to protect sites of outstanding
universal value.Pursuing scientific cooperation: such as early warning systems for
tsunamis or trans-boundary water management agreements, to strengthen ties between
nations and societies.Protecting freedom of expression: an essential condition for
democracy, development and human dignity. UNESCO/M. RavassardUNESCO
headquartersToday, UNESCO's message has never been more important. We must
create holistic policies that are capable of addressing the social, environmental and
economic dimensions of sustainable development. This new thinking on sustainable
development reaffirms the founding principles of the Organization and enhances its
role:In a globalized world with interconnected societies, intercultural dialogue is vital if
we are to live together while acknowledging our diversity. In an uncertain world, the
future of nations depends not only on their economic capital or natural resources, but on
their collective ability to understand and anticipate changes in the environment - through

education, scientific research and the sharing of knowledge.

In an unstable world - marked by fledgling democratic movements, the emergence of
new economic powers and societies weakened by multiple stress factors the
educational, scientific and cultural fabric of societies along with respect for
fundamental rights - guarantees their resilience and stability.
In a connected world - with the emergence of the creative economy and knowledge
societies, along with the dominance of the Internet, the full participation of everyone in
the new global public space is a prerequisite for peace and development. UNESCO is
known as the "intellectual" agency of the United Nations. At a time when the world is
looking for new ways to build peace and sustainable development, people must rely on
the power of intelligence to innovate, expand their horizons and sustain the hope of a
new humanism. UNESCO exists to bring this creative intelligence to life; for it is in the
minds of men and women that the defences of peace and the conditions for sustainable
development must be built.
UNESCO Headquarters is established in Paris. Offices are located in two places in the
same area:
7 place Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France
1 rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France
UNESCO Liaison Office in Addis Ababa - Liaison Office with the African Union and with
the Economic Commission for Africa.
UNESCO Office in Abuja - National Office to Nigeria.
UNESCO Office in Accra - Cluster Office for Benin, Cte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia,
Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo.
UNESCO Office in Bamako - Cluster Office for Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali and Niger.
UNESCO Dakar office celebrates World AIDS Day
UNESCO Office in Brazzaville - National Office to Congo.
UNESCO Office in Bujumbura - National Office to Burundi.
UNESCO Office in Dakar - Regional Bureau for Education in Africa and Cluster Office
for Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and Senegal.
UNESCO Office in Dar es-Salaam - Cluster Office for Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius,
Seychelles and United Republic of Tanzania.
UNESCO Office in Harare - Cluster Office for Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia,
and Zimbabwe.
UNESCO Office in Kinshasa - National Office to the Democratic Republic of Congo.
UNESCO Office in Libreville - Cluster Office for Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe.
UNESCO Office in Maputo - National Office to Mozambique.
UNESCO Office in Nairobi - Regional Bureau for Sciences in Africa and Cluster Office
for Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan and Uganda.
UNESCO Office in Windhoek - Cluster Office to Angola, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa
and Swaziland.
UNESCO Office in Yaound - Cluster Office to Cameroon, Central African Republic and

Arab States
UNESCO Office for Iraq - National Office for Iraq.
UNESCO Office in Amman - National Office to Jordan.
UNESCO Office in Beirut - Regional Bureau for Education in the Arab States and
Cluster Office to Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and the Autonomous Palestinian
UNESCO Office in Cairo - Regional Bureau for Sciences in the Arab States and Cluster
Office for Egypt, Libya and Sudan.
UNESCO Office in Doha - Cluster Office to Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
UNESCO Office in Khartoum - National Office to Sudan.
UNESCO Office in Rabat - Cluster Office to Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia.
UNESCO Office in Ramallah - National Office to the Palestinian Authority.
Asia and Pacific
UNESCO Office in Almaty - Cluster Office to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and
UNESCO Office in Apia - Cluster Office to Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall
Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua
New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Tokelau (Associate
UNESCO Office in Bangkok - Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and the Pacific and
Cluster Office to Thailand, Myanmar, Lao PDR, Singapore, Viet Nam and Cambodia.
UNESCO Office in Beijing - Cluster Office to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
(DPRK), Japan, Mongolia, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea
UNESCO Office in Dhaka - National Office to Bangladesh.
UNESCO Office in Hanoi - National Office to Vietnam.
UNESCO Office in Islamabad - National Office to Pakistan.
UNESCO Office in Jakarta - Regional Bureau for Sciences in Asia and the Pacific and
Cluster Office to Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Timor
UNESCO Office in Kabul - National Office to Afghanistan.
UNESCO Office in Kathmandu - National Office to Nepal.
UNESCO Office in New Delhi - Cluster Office to Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives,
Nepal and Sri Lanka.
UNESCO Office in Phnom Penh - National Office to Cambodia.
UNESCO Office in Tashkent - National Office to Uzbekistan.
UNESCO Office in Tehran - Cluster Office to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the
Islamic Republic of Iran, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Turkmenistan.
Europe and North America
UNESCO Liaison Office in Brussels - UNESCO Representation to the European Union
and its subsidiaries bodies in Brussels

UNESCO Liaison Office in Geneva - Liaison Office to the United Nations in Geneva.
UNESCO Liaison Office in New York - Liaison Office to the United Nations in New York.
UNESCO Office in Moscow - Cluster Office to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Republic of
Moldova and the Russian Federation.
UNESCO Office in Venice - Regional Bureau for Sciences and Culture in Europe and
North America.
Latin America and the Caribbean
UNESCO Office in Brasilia - National Office to Brazil.
UNESCO Office in Guatemala - National Office to Guatemala.
UNESCO Office in Havana - Regional Bureau for Culture in Latin America and the
Caribbean and Cluster Office to Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Aruba.
UNESCO Office in Kingston - Cluster Office to Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saints Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago as well as
the associate member states of British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Curaao, and
Sint Maarten.
UNESCO Office in Lima - National Office to Peru.
UNESCO Office in Mexico - National Office to Mexico.
UNESCO Office in Montevideo - Regional Bureau for Sciences in Latin America and the
Caribbean and Cluster Office to Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay.
UNESCO Office in Port-au-Prince - National Office to Haiti.
UNESCO Office in Quito - Cluster Office to Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.
UNESCO Office in San Jos - Cluster Office to Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
UNESCO Office in Santiago de Chile - Regional Bureau for Education in Latin America
and the Caribbean and National Office to Chile.

UNESCO Liaison
Office in Addis Ababa - Liaison Office with the African Union and with the Economic
Commission for Africa.
UNESCO Liaison Office in Brussels - UNESCO Representation to the European Union
and its subsidiaries bodies in Brussels
UNESCO Liaison Office in Geneva - Liaison Office to the United Nations in Geneva.
UNESCO Liaison Office in New York - Liaison Office to the United Nations in New York.
Irina Bokova, born on 12 July 1952 in Sofia (Bulgaria) has been the Director-General of
UNESCO since 15 November 2009, and reelected for a second term in 2013. She is the
first woman to lead the Organization.
Having graduated from Moscow State Institute of International Relations, and studied at
the University of Maryland (Washington) and the John F. Kennedy School of

Government (Harvard University), Irina Bokova joined the United Nations Department at
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria in 1977. Appointed in charge of political and
legal affairs at the Permanent Mission of Bulgaria to the United Nations in New York,
she was also a member of the Bulgarian Delegation at the United Nations conferences
on the equality of women in Copenhagen (1980), Nairobi (1985) and Beijing (1995). As
Member of Parliament (1990-1991 and 2001-2005), she participated in the drafting of
Bulgarias new Constitution, which contributed significantly to the countrys accession to
the European Union. She launched the first seminar of the Parliamentary Assembly of
the Council of Europe on the European Convention on Human Rights.
Irina Bokova was Minister for Foreign Affairs (1996-1997) and Coordinator of BulgariaEuropean Union relations (1995-1997) and Ambassador of Bulgaria (2005-2009) to
France, Monaco and UNESCO and Personal Representative of the President of the
Republic of Bulgaria to the "Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie" (OIF). As
Secretary of State for European integration and as Foreign Minister, Irina Bokova has
always advocated for European integration. Active member of many international
experts active in civil society and especially President and founding member of the
European Policy Forum, she has worked to overcome European divisions and to foster
the values of dialogue, diversity, human dignity and human rights.
As Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova is actively engaged in international
efforts to advance quality education for all, gender equality, cultural dialogue and
scientific cooperation for sustainable development and is leading UNESCO as a global
advocate for safety of journalists and freedom of expression.
Irina Bokova is Executive Secretary of the Steering Committee of the UN SecretaryGenerals Global Education First Initiative (GEFI) and co-Vice-Chair of the Broadband
Irina Bokova has received state distinctions from countries across the world and is
Doctor honoris causa of leading universities.
In addition to her mother tongue, she speaks English, French, Spanish and Russian.
UNESCO adopts every six years a medium-term strategy, which sets out the strategic
vision and programmatic framework, including the overarching and strategic programme
objectives together with expected outcomes for the Organization.
The Medium-Term Strategy (document C/4) is built around a mission statement, guiding
UNESCOs action across all its areas of competence:
"As a specialized agency of the UN system, UNESCO contributes to the building of
peace, the alleviation of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue
through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information."
The biennial Programme and Budget (document C/5) defines for each Major
Programme and other Programme Sectors and Central Services, the objectives,
strategies, expected results and financial allocations, broken down by Main Line of

Action (MLA). The expected results are defined for each MLA, complemented, as
necessary, by performance indicators and benchmarks. The C/5 document also
contains provisions for a certain number of intersectoral platforms.
The Bureau of Strategic Planning (BSP) is the central focal point of UNESCO for all
strategic, programmatic and budgeting issues, as well as for cooperation with
extrabudgetary funding sources and public-private partnerships (PPPs), and it provides
advice to the Director-General on all these matters.
Specific responsibilities of the Bureau of Strategic Planning (BSP) include:
preparation and monitoring of the UNESCO Medium-Term Strategy and the biennial
Programme and Budget of the Organization in line with the principles of results-based
planning and programming;
implementation of the principles of the results-based management and the risk
management approaches;
monitoring of the implementation of the approved programme and its work plans
through regular reviews to assess progress towards the expected results, and report
thereon periodically to the governing bodies in the context of the statutory reports;
leading and coordination of UNESCOs participation in and contribution to United
Nations system inter-agency activities, in particular concerning global programme
issues, and those aiming to enhance system-wide coherence, globally, regionally and at
the country levels;
integration of a future-oriented approach and foresight in all the fields of competence of
the Organization; identify, together with the programme sectors, emerging trends and
challenges in the Organizations fields of competences; and undertake future-oriented
activities together with the Programme Sectors;
monitoring the implementation of the programme activities related to the two global
priorities of the Organization, Gender Equality and Africa
promotion of South-South and North-South-South cooperation; support to the least
developed countries (LDCs); the small island developing states (SIDS); the most
vulnerable segments of society; indigenous peoples; countries in post-conflict and postdisaster situations and to countries in transition as well as middle-income countries;
coordination and backstopping for the intersectoral platforms;
leading the intersectoral and interdisciplinary programme of action for a culture of peace
and non-violence;
monitoring the implementation of the integrated comprehensive strategy for category 2
institutes and centres;
management of the System of Information on Strategies, Tasks and the Evaluation of
Results (SISTER) and provisions of capacity training programmes for staff and
permanent delegations.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
UNIDO is the specialized agency of the United Nations that promotes industrial
development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental

The mandate of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is to

promote and accelerate inclusive and sustainable industrial development in developing
countries and economies in transition.
2013 Lima Declaration: Towards inclusive and sustainable industrial development.
In recent years, UNIDO has assumed an enhanced role in the global development
agenda by focusing its activities on poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and
environmental sustainability. The Organization draws on four mutually reinforcing
categories of services: technical cooperation, analytical and policy advisory services,
standard setting and compliance, and a convening function for knowledge transfer and
UNIDO's vision is a world where economic development is inclusive and sustainable
and economic progress is equitable.
The Organization focuses on three main thematic areas:
Poverty reduction through productive activities
Trade capacity-building
Energy and environment
The Organization is recognized as a specialized and efficient provider of key services
meeting the interlinked challenges of reducing poverty through productive activities,
integrating developing countries in global trade through trade capacity-building,
fostering environmental sustainability in industry, and improving access to clean energy.
In carrying out the core requirements of its mandate and mission, UNIDO has more than
doubled its technical cooperation delivery over the past ten years. At the same time, it
has also substantially increased its mobilization of financial resources, testifying to the
growing international recognition of the Organization as an effective provider of inclusive
and sustainable industrial development services. This increase in services has been
accomplished with virtually stable staff levels and an essentially unchanged regular
budget for much of the past 15 years.
UNIDO offices worldwide
UNIDO has its Headquarters in Vienna and Offices in Brussels, Geneva and New York
that maintain on-the-spot contacts with Member States and the other United Nations
organizations based there. Still, with the progressive decentralization of decisionmaking processes at the national level, including those related to the UN Reform and
the ONE UN pilots, the presence of UNIDO in the field is becoming increasingly crucial.
UNIDO thus maintains a field network of 29 regional and country offices around the
world, some of which cover more than one country. In addition, 17 UNIDO Desks are
Liaison offices
New York

Field offices and desks

Burkina Faso
Congo (Democratic Republic of)
Cte d'Ivoire
Sierra Leone
South Africa
Arab states
Asia and Pacific
Viet Nam
Europe and Newly Independent States

Russian Federation
Latin America and the Caribbean

LI Yong, Director General, United Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO), has had an extensive career as a senior economic and financial policy-maker.
As Vice-Minister of Finance of the Peoples Republic of China and member of the
Monetary Policy Committee of the Central Bank for a decade, Mr. LI was involved in
setting and harmonizing fiscal, monetary and industrial policies, and in supporting sound
economic growth in China. He pushed forward financial sector reform, and prompted
major financial institutions to establish corporate governance, deal with toxic assets and
strengthen risk management. Mr. LI gave great importance to fiscal and financial
measures in favor of agricultural development and SMEs, the cornerstones for creating
economic opportunities, reducing poverty and promoting gender equality. He played a
key role in Chinas cooperation with multilateral development organizations, such as the
World Bank Group and the Asian Development Bank.
Productive activities play a central role in poverty reduction as the primary driver of
economic growth, employment and wealth creation. UNIDO, as the specialized agency
of the United Nations system mandated to promote inclusive and sustainable industrial
development, is well-placed to make a significant contribution to this process.
UNIDO delivers value through four complementary and mutually supportive core
Through a broad range of technical cooperation activities, UNIDO designs and
implements projects that build the capacity of Member States to initiate and carry out
their own programmes in the field of industrial development.
Through its analytical and policy advisory services, UNIDO conducts applied economic
research and provides Member States with tools to shape appropriate industrial

strategies and policies that improve the contribution of industry to the achievement of
development goals.
Through standard-setting and compliance, UNIDO assists Member States and their
industries in complying with a number of existing and emerging international standards,
while also contributing to the development of new global standards related to its
UNIDOs convening and partnership role brings Member States, the private and public
sector institutions, civil society, academia and other partners together to establish
dialogue, form partnerships and forge plans of action for inclusive and sustainable
industrial development.
Poverty reduction through productive activities
UNIDO seeks to enable the poor to earn a living through productive activities, thus to
find a path out of poverty. The Organization provides a comprehensive range of services
customized for developing countries and transition economies, ranging from industrial
policy advice to entrepreneurship and SME development, and from technology diffusion
to sustainable production and the provision of rural energy for productive uses. Through
this thematic priority, UNIDO mainly addresses MDG1, MDG3 and MDG8.
Trade capacity-building
Developing countries are benefiting from increasingly participating in the global trading
system. Thus, strengthening their capacity to participate in global trade is critical for
their future economic growth. Especially after their accession to the WTO, their
technical ability to enter into global production and value chains is key for their
successful participation in international trade. UNIDO is one of the largest providers of
trade-related development services, offering customer-focused advice and integrated
technical assistance in the areas of competitiveness, trade policies, industrial
modernization and upgrading, compliance with trade standards, testing methods and
metrology. Through this thematic priority, UNIDO mainly addresses MDG1, MDG3 and
Environment and energy
Energy is a prerequisite for poverty reduction. Still, fundamental changes in the way
societies produce and consume are indispensable for achieving global sustainable
development. UNIDO therefore promotes sustainable patterns of industrial consumption
and production.
As a leading provider of services for improved industrial energy efficiency and
sustainability, UNIDO assists developing countries and transition economies in
implementing multilateral environmental agreements and in simultaneously reaching
their economic and environmental goals. Through this thematic priority, UNIDO mainly
addresses MDG1, MDG7 and MDG8.

In addition, UNIDO's activities are divided by:

Geography - Focusing on least developed countries and Africa
Sectors - Focusing on agro-based industries
Target areas - Focusing on small and medium enterprises (SMEs)
Universal Postal Union (UPU)
Established in 1874, the Universal Postal Union (UPU), with its headquarters in the
Swiss capital Berne, is the second oldest international organization worldwide.
With its 192 member countries, the UPU is the primary forum for cooperation between
postal sector players. It helps to ensure a truly universal network of up-to-date products
and services. In this way, the organization fulfils an advisory, mediating and liaison role,
and provides technical assistance where needed. It sets the rules for international mail
exchanges and makes recommendations to stimulate growth in mail, parcel and
financial services volumes and improve quality of service for customers.
Universal Postal Union
International Bureau
Case postale 312
3015 BERNE
Bishar Abdirahman Hussein was elected Director General of the UPU International
Bureau on 10 October 2012 during the 25th Universal Postal Congress in Doha. His
four-year mandate as the head of the United Nations specialized agency for postal
services began on 1 January 2013. Bishar Hussein has a vast experience of UPU
matters and postal issues in general. He chaired the UPU Council of Administration for
the 2008-2012 cycle, having been designated by the Government of Kenya to chair the
24th UPU Congress, held in Geneva in 2008. In September 2010, he successfully
chaired the UPU Strategy Conference held in Nairobi. The conference provided a forum
for discussion of important global issues affecting the postal sector and paved the way
for the development of the Doha Postal Strategy.Bishar Hussein began his postal career
with the Kenya Posts & Telecommunications Corporation, which he joined in 1984 as a
management trainee. He rose through the ranks and became the first postmaster
general of the Postal Corporation of Kenya in 1999. He led the postal entity from a lossmaking to a profitable and self-sustaining postal enterprise.In 2002, he was appointed
ambassador of Kenya to the United Arab Emirates, covering the Gulf Region, for a sixyear period. He holds a Bachelor of Arts Degree (Honours) in political science and
sociology from the University of Nairobi. Throughout his 28 years of public service,
Bishar Hussein has attended many courses and seminars in postal management,
human resources, finance, administration and diplomacy.
The International Bureau - the UPU's headquarters - is located in Berne (Switzerland). It

has a staff of about 250 employees drawn from about 50 different countries.
Fulfilling a secretariat function, the International Bureau provides logistical and technical
support to the UPU's bodies. It serves as an office of liaison, information and
consultation, and promotes technical cooperation among Union members. In recent
years, the International Bureau has taken on a stronger leadership role in certain
activities. These include the application of postal technology through its Postal
Technology Centre, the development of postal markets through potential growth areas
such as direct mail and EMS, and the monitoring of quality of service on a global scale
Regional coordinators in the field strengthens the International Bureau's ability to assist
Posts of developing countries in the most effective manner. They oversee the planning,
preparation, implementation and follow-up of postal development projects in their
regions Through its Postal Technology Centre, the UPU has established a number of
regional support centres in different parts of the world to support its information
technology activities. These centres manage the deployment and support of UPU
technology applications, products and services within their respective regions.
Established in 1874, the Universal Postal Union (UPU), with its headquarters in the
Swiss capital Berne, is the second oldest international organization worldwide.
With its 192 member countries, the UPU is the primary forum for cooperation between
postal sector players. It helps to ensure a truly universal network of up-to-date products
and services.
In this way, the organization fulfils an advisory, mediating and liaison role, and provides
technical assistance where needed. It sets the rules for international mail exchanges
and makes recommendations to stimulate growth in mail, parcel and financial services
volumes and improve quality of service for customers.

World Bank Group

1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 USA
Kim Yong Kim, M.D., Ph.D., became the 12th President of the World Bank Group on
July 1, 2012.
A physician and anthropologist, Dr. Kim has dedicated himself to international
development for more than two decades, helping to improve the lives of under-served
populations worldwide. Dr. Kim comes to the Bank after serving as President of
Dartmouth College, a pre-eminent center of higher education that consistently ranks
among the top academic institutions in the United States. Dr. Kim is a co-founder of
Partners In Health (PIH) and a former director of the HIV/AIDS Department at the World
Health Organization (WHO).

As President of Dartmouth an institution that comprises a liberal arts college and

professional schools of medicine, engineering and business, as well as 19 graduate
programs in the arts and sciences, a staff and faculty of 3,300, and a budget of $700
million Dr. Kim earned praise for reducing a financial deficit without cutting any
academic programs. Dr. Kim also founded the Dartmouth Center for Health Care
Delivery Science, a multidisciplinary institute dedicated to developing new models of
health care delivery and achieving better health outcomes at lower costs.
Before assuming the Dartmouth presidency, Dr. Kim held professorships and chaired
departments at Harvard Medical School, the Harvard School of Public Health and
Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston. He also served as director of Harvards
Franois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights.
In 1987, Dr. Kim co-founded Partners In Health, a Boston-based non-profit organization
now working in poor communities on 4 continents. Challenging previous conventional
wisdom that drug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS could not be treated in
developing countries, PIH successfully tackled these diseases by integrating large-scale
treatment programs into community-based primary care.
As Director of the World Health Organizations HIV/AIDS Department, Dr. Kim led the 3
by 5 initiative, the first-ever global goal for AIDS treatment, which sought to treat 3
million new HIV/AIDS patients in developing countries with antiretroviral drugs by 2005.
Launched in September 2003, the ambitious program ultimately reached its goal by
Dr. Kims work has earned him wide recognition. He was awarded a MacArthur Genius
Fellowship (2003), was named one of Americas 25 Best Leaders by U.S. News &
World Report (2005), and was selected as one of TIME magazines 100 Most Influential
People in the World (2006).
Born in 1959 in Seoul, South Korea, Dr. Kim moved with his family to the United States
at the age of five and grew up in Muscatine, Iowa. Dr. Kim graduated with an A.B.
magna cum laude from Brown University in 1982. He earned an M.D. from Harvard
Medical School in 1991 and a Ph.D. in anthropology from Harvard University in 1993.
The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing
countries around the world. We help governments in developing countries reduce
poverty by providing them with money and technical expertise they need for a wide
range of projectssuch as education, health, infrastructure, communications,
government reforms, and for many other purposes.
The World Bank Group has set two goals for the world to achieve by 2030:
End extreme poverty by decreasing the percentage of people living on less than $1.25 a
day to no more than 3%Promote shared prosperity by fostering the income growth of

the bottom 40% for every country The World Bank is a vital source of financial and
technical assistance to developing countries around the world. We are not a bank in the
ordinary sense but a unique partnership to reduce poverty and support development.
The World Bank Group comprises five institutions managed by their member countries.
Established in 1944, the World Bank Group is headquartered in Washington, D.C. We
have more than 10,000 employees in more than 120 offices worldwide.
Financial Products and Services
We provide low-interest loans, interest-free credits, and grants to developing countries.
These support a wide array of investments in such areas as education, health, public
administration, infrastructure, financial and private sector development, agriculture, and
environmental and natural resource management. Some of our projects are cofinanced
with governments, other multilateral institutions, commercial banks, export credit
agencies, and private sector investors.
We also provide or facilitate financing through trust fund partnerships with bilateral and
multilateral donors. Many partners have asked the Bank to help manage initiatives that
address needs across a wide range of sectors and developing regions.
Innovative Knowledge Sharing
We offer support to developing countries through policy advice, research and analysis,
and technical assistance. Our analytical work often underpins World Bank financing and
helps inform developing countries own investments. In addition, we support capacity
development in the countries we serve. We also sponsor, host, or participate in many
conferences and forums on issues of development, often in collaboration with partners.
To ensure that countries can access the best global expertise and help generate cuttingedge knowledge, the Bank is constantly seeking to improve the way it shares its
knowledge and engages with clients and the public at large. Key priorities include:
Results: We continue to sharpen our focus on helping developing countries deliver
measurable results.
Reform: We are working to improve every aspect of our work: how projects are
designed, how information is made available (Access to Information), and how to bring
our operations closer to client governments and communities.
Open Development: We offer a growing range of free, easy-to-access tools, research
and knowledge to help people address the world's development challenges. For
example, the Open Data website offers free access to comprehensive, downloadable
indicators about development in countries around the globe. We have also made World
Bank Livelive discussions open to participants worldwidea key part of our Spring
and Annual Meetings with the International Monetary Fund.

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

Founded in 1944 to help Europe recover from World War II, the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is one of five institutions that make up the
World Bank Group. IBRD is the part of the World Bank (IBRD/IDA) that works with

middle-income and creditworthy poorer countries to promote sustainable, equitable and

job-creating growth, reduce poverty and address issues of regional and global
Structured something like a cooperative, IBRD is owned and operated for the benefit of
its 187 member countries. Delivering flexible, timely and tailored financial products,
knowledge and technical services, and strategic advice helps its members achieve
results. Through the World Bank Treasury, IBRD clients also have access to capital on
favorable terms in larger volumes, with longer maturities, and in a more sustainable
manner than world financial markets typically provide.
Functions/Duties; Specifically, the IBRD:
Supports long-term human and social development needs that private creditors do not
finance; preserves borrowers' financial strength by providing support in crisis periods,
which is when poor people are most adversely affected; uses the leverage of financing
to promote key policy and institutional reforms (such as safety net or anticorruption
reforms); creates a favorable investment climate in order to catalyze the provision of
private capital; provides financial support (in the form of grants made available from the
IBRD's net income) in areas that are critical to the well-being of poor people in all
countries. Middle-income countries, where 70 percent of the world's poor live, have
made profound improvements in economic management and governance over the past
two decades and are rapidly increasing their demand for the strategic, intellectual and
financial resources the World Bank has to offer. The challenge facing the IBRD is to
better manage and deliver its resources to best meet the needs of these countries.
To increase its impact in middle-income countries, IBRD is working closely with the
International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
(MIGA), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other multilateral development
banks. In the course of its work, IBRD is also striving to capitalize on middle-income
countries' own accumulated knowledge and development experiences and collaborates
with foundations, civil society partners and donors in the development community.

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)

Functions and Duties

ICSID is an autonomous international institution established under the Convention on
the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States
(the ICSID or the Washington Convention) with over one hundred and forty member
States. The Convention sets forth ICSID's mandate, organization and core functions.
The primary purpose of ICSID is to provide facilities for conciliation and arbitration of
international investment disputes.
The ICSID Convention is a multilateral treaty formulated by the Executive Directors of
the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank). It was
opened for signature on March 18, 1965 and entered into force on October 14, 1966.
The Convention sought to remove major impediments to the free international flows of
private investment posed by non-commercial risks and the absence of specialized
international methods for investment dispute settlement. ICSID was created by the

Convention as an impartial international forum providing facilities for the resolution of

legal disputes between eligible parties, through conciliation or arbitration procedures.
Recourse to the ICSID facilities is always subject to the parties' consent.As evidenced
by its large membership, considerable caseload, and by the numerous references to its
arbitration facilities in investment treaties and laws, ICSID plays an important role in the
field of international investment and economic development. Today, ICSID is considered
to be the leading international arbitration institution devoted to investor-State dispute

International Development Association (IDA)

The International Development Association (IDA) is the part of the World Bank that
helps the worlds poorest countries. Established in 1960, IDA aims to reduce poverty by
providing loans (called credits) and grants for programs that boost economic growth,
reduce inequalities, and improve peoples living conditions.
IDA complements the World Banks original lending armthe International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). IBRD was established to function as a selfsustaining business and provides loans and advice to middle-income and credit-worthy
poor countries. IBRD and IDA share the same staff and headquarters and evaluate
projects with the same rigorous standards.
IDA is one of the largest sources of assistance for the worlds 77 poorest countries (plus
India, which is receiving exceptional support through June 30, 2017), 39 of which are in
Africa. It is the single largest source of donor funds for basic social services in these
countries. IDA-financed operations deliver positive change for 2.8 billion people, the
majority of whom survive on less than $2 a day.
IDA lends money on concessional terms. This means that IDA charges little or no
interest and repayments are stretched over 25 to 38 years, including a 5- to 10-year
grace period. IDA also provides grants to countries at risk of debt distress.
In addition to concessional loans and grants, IDA provides significant levels of debt
relief through the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and the Multilateral
Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI).

International Finance Corporation (IFC)

IFC provides more than money. We blend investment with advice to help the private
sector find solutions to todays greatest development challenges.
IFCs three business Investment Services, Advisory Services, and IFC Asset
Management- are mutually reinforcing, delivering global expertise to clients in more

than a 100 developing countries. IFC provides both immediate and long-term financing,
and we combine it with advice that helps companies grow quickly and sustainably.

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

MIGA is a member of the World Bank Group. Our mission is to promote foreign direct
investment (FDI) into developing countries to help support economic growth, reduce
poverty, and improve people's lives.
World Health Organization (WHO)
WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations
system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the
health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based
policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing
health trends.
In the 21st century, health is a shared responsibility, involving equitable access to
essential care and collective defence against transnational threats.
World Health Organization
Avenue Appia 20
1211 Geneva 27
More than 7000 people from more than 150 countries work for the Organization in 150
WHO offices in countries, territories and areas, six regional offices and at the
headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
In addition to medical doctors, public health specialists, scientists and epidemiologists,
WHO staff include people trained to manage administrative, financial, and information
systems, as well as experts in the fields of health statistics, economics and emergency
Dr Margaret Chan is the Director-General of WHO, appointed by the World Health
Assembly on 9 November 2006. The Assembly appointed Dr Chan for a second five-

year term at its sixty-fifth session in May 2012. Dr Chan's new term will begin on 1 July
2012 and continue until 30 June 2017.
Before being elected Director-General, Dr Chan was WHO Assistant Director-General
for Communicable Diseases as well as Representative of the Director-General for
Pandemic Influenza.
Prior to joining WHO, she was Director of Health in Hong Kong. During her nine-year
tenure as director, Dr Chan confronted the first human outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza
in 1997. She successfully defeated the spate of severe acute respiratory syndrome
(SARS) in Hong Kong in 2003. She also launched new services to prevent disease and
promote better health.
Deputy Director-General:
Dr Anarfi Asamoa-Baah, from Ghana, comes to the job with considerable experience in
public health, management and organizational development, having been head of four
different clusters since he joined WHO in 1998. Before that, he was the Director of
Medical Services for Ghana.
Dr Asamoa-Baah started in WHO as a senior policy adviser to the Director-General. He
has served as Executive Director for External Relations and Governing Bodies and
Executive Director for Health Technology and Pharmaceuticals under Dr Brundtland.
Under Dr Lee, he initially served as Assistant Director-General, Communicable
Diseases. From October 2005 to January 2007, he was Assistant Director-General,
HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.
Assistant Directors-General
Bruce Aylward
Assistant Director-General - Polio, Emergencies and Country Collaboration
Flavia Bustreo
Assistant Director-General - Family, Women's and Children's Health
Oleg Chestnov
Assistant Director-General - Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health
Dr Keiji Fukuda, HO Assistant Director-General.
Assistant Director-General - Health Security
Marie-Paule Kieny
Assistant Director-General - Health Systems and Innovation
Hiroki Nakatani
Assistant Director-General - HIV/AIDS, TB, Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases

Dr Hans Troedsson
Assistant Director-General - General Management
Director-General's Office
Ian Smith
Executive Director of the Director-General's Office
Regional Directors
Dr Luis Sambo
Dr Carissa Etienne
Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh
Ms Zsuzsanna Jakab
Dr Ala Alwan
Dr Shin Young-soo

WHO Regional Director for Africa

WHO Regional Director for the Americas
WHO Regional Director for South-East Asia
WHO Regional Director for Europe
WHO Regional Director for the Eastern
WHO Regional Director for the Western Pacific

The role of WHO in public health
WHO fulfils its objectives through its core functions:

providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships

where joint action is needed;

shaping the research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation and
dissemination of valuable knowledge;

setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation;

articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options;

providing technical support, catalysing change, and building sustainable

institutional capacity; and monitoring the health situation and assessing health

These core functions are set out in the Twelfth General Programme of Work, which
provides the framework for organization-wide programme of work, budget, resources
and results. Entitled "Not merely the absence of disease", it covers the 6-year period
from 2014 to 2019.

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

WIPO is the global forum for intellectual property services, policy, information and
cooperation. We are a self-funding agency of the United Nations, with 187 member
Our mission is to lead the development of a balanced and effective international
intellectual property (IP) system that enables innovation and creativity for the benefit of
all. Our mandate, governing bodies and procedures are set out in the WIPO
Convention, which established WIPO in 1967.
Director General
Francis Gurry has led WIPO as Director General since October 1, 2008. He was
reappointed in May 2014 for a second six-year term, which runs through September
Under his leadership, WIPO is addressing major challenges. These include managing
the stress on the international patent and copyright systems produced by rapid
technological change, by globalization and increased demand; reducing the knowledge
gap between developed and developing countries; and ensuring that the intellectual
property (IP) system serves its fundamental purpose of encouraging creativity and
innovation in all countries.

WIPO's Senior Management Team

The WIPO Senior Management Team consists of the four Deputy Directors General and
the three Assistant Directors General, plus the Executive Director of the Office of the
Director General (Chief of Staff). The current team was appointed on December 1,
The Senior Management Team is responsible for assisting the Director General in
providing the strategic direction of WIPOs programs, managing the budgets, activities
and human and financial resources of their respective Sectors in accordance with
agreed work plans, and ensuring delivery of results in line with the Organizations nine
strategic goals and the Program and Budget.
Mr. Geoffrey Onyeama, Deputy Director General, Development Sector
Mr. James Pooley, Deputy Director General, Innovation and Technology Sector
Ms. Binying Wang, Deputy Director General, Brands and Designs Sector
Mr. Christian Wichard, Deputy Director General, Global Issues Sector

Mr. Trevor C. Clarke, Assistant Director General, Copyright

Mr. Ambi Sundaram, Assistant Director General, Administration and Management
Mr. Yoshiyuki (Yo) Takagi, Assistant Director General, Global Infrastructure
Mr. Naresh Prasad, Chief of Staff
Functions and Duties
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is an international organization
aimed at ensuring that the rights of inventors and owners of intellectual properties shall
be protected throughout the world and that inventors and authors shall be recognized
and enjoy all achievements from their talent.In 1833, the Paris Convention on
intellectual property protection, the first important international agreement, was
proclaimed in order to help citizens of any country to enjoy foreign protection for their
intellectual creations in the form of intellectual property.In 1883, two small offices were
merged into an international organization the International Unified Bureau for
Intellectual Property Protection (known with the French abbreviated name BIRPI).
Founding its headquarters in Berne, Switzerland, and with seven employees, this
organization is the predecessor of the present-day World Intellectual Property
Organization a dynamic organization with over 170 member-countries and 650
employees in the world.The Paris Convention came into effect in 1884, with 14
member-countries, founding an international office to manage the implementation of its
duties.In 1886, copyrights started to be known by the international community through
the Berne Convention on the Protection of Literary and Art Works. Similar to the Paris
Convention, the Berne Convention established an international office to realize its
duties.When the significance of intellectual property increased, the organizations
structure was changed. In 1960, BIRPI moved from Berne to Geneva to stay near the
United Nations and other international organizations situated in this city. A decade later,
after the Convention on the Establishment of Intellectual Property Organization came
into effect, BIRPI became WIPO, continuing the renovation of its structure and
management. Its Secretariat was established to be responsible to all members.In 1974,
WIPO became a professional organization in the UN system, specializing in the
management of intellectual property-related issues. It was recognized by many UN
members. WIPO expanded its role and further proved the importance of intellectual
property in global trade management in 1996 by entering into a cooperative agreement
with the World Trade Organization.
In 1898, BIRPI managed the realization of four international conventions only. A century
later, WIPO could manage the implementation of 21 agreements and an abundant
operation program.
Through its members and the Secretariat, WIPO tries:
- to harmonize national laws and procedures on intellectual property;
- to provide an international registration service for industrial property;
- to exchange information about intellectual property
- to provide legal and technical assistance to the developing countries and others;
- to assist the settlement for disputes on intellectual properties among individuals;
- to use information technology as an instrument to keep, access and exploit valuable

information about intellectual property.

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of 16 professional
authorities of the United Nations, being in charge of promoting the worldwide protection
of intellectual property. It can fulfill this responsibility by promoting the cooperation
among countries in intellectual property, managing various alliances and organizations
established on the basis of multilateral agreements and creating sample laws for the
developing countries to approve

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United
Nations dedicated to meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology (water)
and other related geophysical sciences such as oceanography and atmospheric
7bis, avenue de la Paix,
Case postale 2300
CH-1211 Geneva 2
Michel JarraudMichel Jarraud has been the Secretary-General of the World
Meteorological Organization since 2004.
Mr Jarraud was appointed by the Fourteenth World Meteorological Congress and took
up the post on 1 January 2004. He was re-appointed by the Fifteenth World
Meteorological Congress for a second four-year term starting 1 January 2008, and by
the Sixteenth World Meteorological Congress for a third and final four-year term, which
commenced on 1 January 2012.
In 2012 he also assumed the Chair of UN-Water, the inter-agency mechanism that
coordinates and strengthens the work of United Nations organizations and programmes
on all issues relating to fresh water. Before joining the WMO Secretariat as Deputy
Secretary-General in January 1995, Mr Jarraud devoted part of his career to the
internationally renowned European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
(ECMWF). He was appointed Deputy Director of the Centre in 1991, having been
Director of the Operational Department since 1990. From June 1978 to December 1985,
he was a researcher in numerical weather prediction at ECMWF. Mr Jarraud started his
career with the French National Meteorological Service, Mto-France, as a researcher
(September 1976-May 1978). He joined Mto-France again in January 1986 as
Director of the Weather Forecasting Department, until December 1989.Mr Jarraud is a
scientist and a meteorologist with degrees from the prestigious French Ecole

Polytechnique and the Ecole de la Mtorologie Nationale. He is a fellow of the

American Meteorological Society (USA), a member of the Socit Mtorologique de
France, the Royal Meteorological Society (United Kingdom) and the African
Meteorological Society, as well as an Honorary Member of the Chinese Meteorological
Society and the Cuban Meteorological Society.
Mr Jarraud is fluent in French and English. He was born in 1952 in Chtillon-sur-Indre,
France. He is married and is the father of two children.
Deputy Secretary-General
Jeremiah Lengoasa has been Deputy Secretary-General of WMO since 1 March 2010.
Prior to this, he was Assistant Secretary-General of WMO since 8 August 2005. He
holds Masters degrees in Climatology and Development Management from
Witwatersrand University, Johannesburg, South Africa, and for several years worked as
a teacher and university lecturer in geography and environmental studies. Mr Lengoasa
served in the South African public service in the areas of environment, environmental
regulations and environmental quality and protection, followed by a period in the private
sector as a senior bank manager. From 2003 to 2005, Mr Lengoasa was Chief
Executive Officer of the South African Weather Service and Permanent Representative
of South Africa with WMO and was a member of the WMO Executive Council.
Assistant Secretary-General
Elena Manaenkova has been Assistant Secretary-General of WMO since 18 June 2010.
Prior to this, she was Director of Cabinet of the Secretary-General and External
Relations Department from March 2006. She joined WMO in January 2003 as Director
of Atmospheric Research and Environment Department.Ms Manaenkova is a
geographer with specialization in hydrology and meteorology graduated from the
Moscow State University (1986). She holds Doctors degree (PhD) in physics and
mathematics from Doctorate of Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia (1993) with
specialization in meteorology, climatology, satellite meteorology and remote sensing
from satellites. Before joining WMO Ms Manaenkova devoted her career to the Russian
Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring starting as
scientific officer in the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia - WMO World
Meteorological Centre, and then worked in the Scientific Research Centre on Space
Hydrometeorology Planeta on increasingly responsible positions up to the Scientific
Secretary and Director of Department of Science and International Cooperation. Ms
Manaenkova was born in 1964 in Moscow, Russia. She is married and is mother of two
WMO acts as a central framework where Members, including representatives of
National Meteorological and Hydrology Services (NMHSs), can effectively discuss all
issues related to weather, climate and water. The goal of WMO is to ensure that these
streams of information flow as rapidly and efficiently as possible and contribute to the
safety and well-being of all peoples. The Organization is governed by the World

Meteorological Congress composed of all WMO Members, which meets every four
years to review, and give policy guidance to, WMO Programmes. The Executive Council
(37 members) gathers annually and monitors the implementation of decisions taken by
Congress. Six regional associations (RAs: Asia, Africa, Europe; North America, Central
America and the Caribbean; South America and South-West Pacific), composed of their
geographical Members, coordinate activities within their respective Regions. Members
select experts to take part in eight technical commissions researching issues within their
areas of competence. The Secretary-General (Michel Jarraud, since 2004) heads the
WMO Secretariat based at WMO headquarters in Geneva. The body acts as an
administration, documentation and information centre for the Organization. Pressing
issues or international emergencies that need to be addressed can be accommodated
through existing programmes.
WMO coordinates the activities of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services in
188 States and Territories so that basic weather, climate and water services are made
available to anyone who needs them, when they need them. Through this coordination,
a global, end-to-end capability that delivers worldwide access to a wide variety of realtime and non-real-time data and information was established in 1950 and has since
undergone continuous improvement in scope, reliability and accuracy. These weather,
climate and water services contribute towards socio-economic development,
environmental management and policy formulation. WMO guarantees the publication of
observations and statistics and furthers the application of meteorology and hydrology
(including the monitoring and predictions of climate change and ozone) to all aspects of
human activities such as aviation, shipping, water issues and agriculture. WMO also
encourages research and training in meteorology and hydrology and their related
applications and contributes towards reducing the impact of weather- and climaterelated hazards. This is accomplished through regular, reliable forecasts and early
warnings on flooding, drought, tropical cyclones, tornadoes and other extreme events.
Predictions concerning locust swarms and the transport of pollutants (nuclear and toxic
substances, volcanic ash) are also provided by WMO Members.
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
World Tourism Organization
Capitn Haya 42
28020 Madrid, Spain
Taleb Rifai (Jordan)
Executive Director for Operational Programmes and Institutional Relations
Mrcio Favilla Lucca de Paula (Brazil)
Excutive Director for Programme and Coordination

Zoltn Somogyi (Hungary)

Executive Director for Technical Cooperation and Services
Zhu Shanzhong (China)
Director of Administration and Finance
Jos Garca Blanch (Spain)
Director Executive Secretary for Members Relations
Carlos Vogeler (Spain/Venezuela)
Director Executive Secretary of the General Assembly and the Executive
Xu Jing (China)
UNWTO works in six main areas - competitiveness, sustainability, poverty reduction,
capacity building, partnerships and mainstreaming - to achieve responsible, sustainable
and universally accessible tourism.
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for
the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism. As the
leading international organization in the field of tourism, UNWTO promotes tourism as a
driver of economic growth, inclusive development and environmental sustainability and
offers leadership and support to the sector in advancing knowledge and tourism policies
worldwide. UNWTO encourages the implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for
Tourism, to maximize tourisms socio-economic contribution while minimizing its
possible negative impacts, and is committed to promoting tourism as an instrument in
achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), geared towards
reducing poverty and fostering sustainable development. UNWTO generates market
knowledge, promotes competitive and sustainable tourism policies and instruments,
fosters tourism education and training, and works to make tourism an effective tool for
development through technical assistance projects in over 100 countries around the
world. UNWTOs membership includes 156 countries, 6 Associate Members and over
400 Affiliate Members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism
associations and local tourism authorities.
4. Provide the current membership of UN. Classify the membership. What is
spectator membership?
About UN Membership
How does a country become a Member of the United Nations?
Membership in the Organization, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,
is open to all peace loving States that accept the obligations contained in the United
Nations Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able to carry out these
obligations. States are admitted to membership in the United Nations by decision of the
General Assembly upon the reccomendation of the Security Council.
How does a new State or Government obtain recognition by the United Nations?

The recognition of a new State or Government is an act that only other States and
Governments may grant or withhold. It generally implies readiness to assume diplomatic
relations. The United Nations is neither a State or Government, and therefore does not
possess any authority to recognize either State or a Government. As an organization of
independent States, it may admit a new State to its membership or accept the
credentials of the representatives of a new Government.
Membership in the Organization, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,
is open to all peace-loving States which accept the obligations contained in the United
Nations Charter and in the judgement of the Organization, are able to carry out theses
obligations. States are admitted to membership in the United Nations by decision of the
General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The procedure is
briefly as follows:
The State submits an application to the Secretary-General
and a letter formally stating that it accepts the obligations
under the Charter.

The Security Council considers the application. Any

recommendation for admission must receive the affirmative
votes of 9 of the 15 members of the Council, provided that
none of its five permanent members China, France, the
Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland and the United States of America Have
voted against the application.

If the Council recommends admission, the recommendation

is presented to the General Assembly for consideration. A
two-thirds majority vote is necessary in the Assembly for
admission of a new State.

Membership becomes effective the date the resolution for

admission is adopted.

At each session, the General Assembly considers the credentials of all representatives
of Member States participating in that session. During such consideration, which
routinely takes place first in the nine-member Credentials Committee but can also arise
at other times, the issue can be raised whether a particular representative has been
accredited by the Government actually in power. This issue is ultimately decided by a
majority vote in the Assembly. It should be noted that the normal change of
Governments, as through a democratic election, does not raise any issue concerning
the credentials of the representative of the State concerned.
General Assembly
The General Assembly is made up of 193 Member States, after the admission of South
Sudan on 14 July 2011 as the 193rd Member of the United Nations. The dates of
admission for all other Members are listed in Press Release ORG/1469, issued3 July

Security Council
The Security Council has 15 members. The United Nations Charter designates five
Member States as permanent members and the General Assembly elects ten other
members for two-year terms. The term of office for each non-permanent member of the
Council ends on 31 December of the year indicated in parentheses next to its name.
Economic and Social Council
The Economic and Social Council has 54 members, elected for three-year terms by the
General Assembly. The term of office for each member expires on 31 December of the
year indicated in parentheses next to its name. In 2009, the Council is composed of the

Trusteeship Council
The Trusteeship Council is made up of the five permanent members of the Security
Council - China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and the United States.
With the independence of Palau, the last remaining United Nations Trust Territory, the
Council formally suspended operations on 1 November 1994. The Council amended its
rules of procedure to drop the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as the
occasion required, by its decision or the decision of its President or at the request of a
majority of its members or the General Assembly or the Security Council.
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice has 15 Judges, elected by both the General Assembly
and the Security Council for nine-year terms.
What is a Permanent Observer? Spectator Membership
Non-Member States of the United Nations, which are members of one or more
specialized agencies, can apply for the status of Permanent Observer. The status of a
Permanent Observer is based purely on practice, and there are no provisions for it in
the United Nations Charter. The practice dates from 1946, when the Secretary-General
accepted the designation of the Swiss Government as a Permanent Observer to the
United Nations. Observers were subsequently put forward by certain States that later
became United Nations Members, including Austria, Finland, Italy, and Japan.
Switzerland became a UN Member on 10 September 2002.
Permanent Observers have free access to most meetings and relevant documentation.
Many regional and international organizations are also observers in the work and
annual sessions of the General Assembly.