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REFRACTIVE INDEX

Definition
The refractive index of a transparent medium is defined as the
relationship of the vacuum velocity of light and the velocity of
light within said medium. The name derives from the presence of
this value in Snells Law.
Snells Law
Snells Law says that a ray of light will change its direction or
break as it passes from one transparent medium to another.
History
The refractive index is a physical variable that is independent of temperature and medium. As
every substance has a different influence on the velocity of light, each transparent medium has
its own typical refractive index. In a medium with a refractive index of 1.5 = 3/2, the lights
velocity is 2/3 of the vacuum velocity of light, i.e. 200,000 km/sec.
Determination
The fat or oil is put on the prism of a refractometer. After tempering at the determination
temperature for 2 minutes, the refraction of light (caused by the change in velocity) can be
determined and converted to the refractive index.
Temperature dependence
Oils and fats have a deviation of 0.00037 per C.
Application
With the refractive index, variety and purity testing can be done quickly and easily - analyses
take no longer than approx. 2 minutes.

REFRACTIVE INDICES OF SOME EDIBLE OILS/FATS


Refractive index
Type of Fat/Oil
at 50 C
1.445
Coconut oil
1.455
Palm oil
1.458
Olive oil
1.459
Peanut oil
1.460
High Oleic sunflower oil
1.462
Rapeseed oil
1.463
Soybean oil
1.464
Sunflower oil
http://www.florin-ag.ch/index.php?
sid=K49ceneZgtq4oRIXIVgtwPaNUFePy4eDe2ehoLYr&c5p=472&c5l=en

Henry S. Simms

Ind. Eng. Chem., 1921, 13 (6), pp 546547


DOI: 10.1021/ie50138a024
Publication Date: June 1921
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ie50138a024

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you are here->home->biotechnology and biomedical engineering-> biochemistry virtual lab i>estimation of saponification value of fats/oils.

Estimation of Saponification Value


of Fats/Oils.

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Theory

Procedure

Self Evaluation

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Animation

Simulator

Assignment

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Reference

Objective:

To Estimate the Saponification value of oils.

Theory:

Fats and oils are the principle stored forms of

energy in many organisms. They

are highly reduced compounds and are

derivatives of fatty acids. Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with hydrocarbon
chains of 4 to 36 carbons, they can be saturated or unsaturated. The simplest
lipids constructed from fatty acids are

triacylglycerols or triglycerides.

Triacylglycerols are composed of three fatty acids each in ester linkage with a
single glycerol. Since the polar hydroxyls of glycerol and the polar carboxylates
of the fatty acids are bound in ester linkages, triacyl glycerols are non polar,
hydrophobic molecules, which are insoluble in water.

Saponification is the hydrolysis of fats or oils under basic conditions to afford


glycerol and the salt of the corresponding fatty acid.

Saponification literally

means "soap making". It is important to the industrial user to know the amount
of free fatty acid present, since this determines in large measure the refining
loss. The amount of free fatty acid is estimated by determining the quantity of
alkali that must be added to the fat to render it neutral. This is done by warming
a known amount of the fat with strong aqueous caustic soda solution, which
converts the free fatty acid into soap.

This soap is then removed and the

amount of fat remaining is then determined. The loss is estimated by


subtracting this amount from the amount of fat originally taken for the test.

The saponification number is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide


required to neutralize the fatty acids resulting from the complete hydrolysis of
1g of fat .

It gives information concerning the character of the fatty acids of

the fat- the longer the carbon chain, the less acid is liberated per gram of fat
hydrolysed. It is also considered as a measure of the average molecular weight
(or chain length) of all the fatty acids present. The long chain fatty acids found
in fats have low saponification value because they have a relatively fewer
number of carboxylic functional groups per unit mass of the fat and therefore

high molecular weight .

Principle:

Fats (triglycerides) upon alkaline hydrolysis (either with KOH or NaOH ) yield
glycerol and potassium or sodium salts of fatty acids (soap) .

Copyright @ 2015 Under the NME ICT initiative of MHRD


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SAPONIFICATION VALUE
Definition
The saponification number (sap) measures the bonded and
unbonded acids present in an oil or fat. It defines the exact
amount of potassium hydrate in mg necessary to emulsify 1g of
fat or oil. The smaller the molar mass of the fat, the higher the
saponification value.
History
Low fatty acid fats like coconut oil or palm kernel fat have high
saponification numbers of 250, whereas most vegetable oils
have a saponification number of approx. 190.
Determination
The samples are cleared of water and mineral acids, measured
in a flask and diluted with ethanolic caustic potash solution.
Then, the flask is heated to a slight boil under a reflux condenser
until the fat saponifies. The necessary amount of caustic potash
solution can be determined with titration. It represents the basis of calculating the saponification
value.
Application
A chemical feature for determining the molecular weight, the saponification number allows
conclusions on the structure of fatty acids. The method is becoming less important, however, as
it is largely being replaced by the more significant gas chromatography.
http://www.florin-ag.ch/index.php?
sid=OV15cjStGNEbKLsL3baR56UxgZ1755qvyPOlQReb&c5p=495&c5l=en

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/i560117a010
William Rieman, III
Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed., 1943, 15 (5), pp 325326
DOI: 10.1021/i560117a010
Publication Date: May 1943