Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 81

AS 5100.

22004
AP-G15.2/04
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)
AS 5100.22004

Australian Standard
Bridge design

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Part 2: Design loads

This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee BD-090, Bridge Design. It was
approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 4 November 2003.
This Standard was published on 23 April 2004.

The following are represented on Committee BD-090:

Association of Consulting Engineers Australia


Australasian Railway Association
Austroads
Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia
Cement and Concrete Association of Australia
Institution of Engineers Australia
Queensland University of Technology
Steel Reinforcement Institute of Australia
University of Western Sydney

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 00375.


Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that
contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the
Committee and through the public comment period.

Keeping Standards up-to-date

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Australian Standards are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and
systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions
are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued.
Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are
using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been
published since the Standard was published.
Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can
be found by visiting www.standards.org.au
Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to
notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at
mail@standards.org.au, or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.

AS 5100.22004
AP-G15.2/04
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)

Australian Standard
Bridge design
Part 2: Design loads

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Originated as HB 77.21996.
Revised and redesignated as AS 5100.22004.
Reissued incorporating Amendment No. 1 (April 2010).

COPYRIGHT
Standards Australia
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher.
Published by Standards Australia GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
ISBN 0 7337 5628 X

AS 5100.22004

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Committee BD-090, Bridge Design,
to supersede HB 77.21996, Australian Bridge Design Code, Section 2: Design loads.
This Standard incorporates Amendment No. 1 (April 2010). The changes required by the
Amendment are indicated in the text by a marginal bar and amendment number against the
clause, note, table, figure or part thereof affected.
The AS 5100 series represents a revision of the 1996 HB 77 series, Australian Bridge
Design Code, which contained a separate Railway Supplement to Sections 1 to 5, together
with Section 6, Steel and composite construction, and Section 7, Rating. AS 5100 takes the
requirements of the Railway Supplement and incorporates them into Parts 1 to 5 of the
present series, to form integrated documents covering requirements for both road and rail
bridges. In addition, technical material has been updated.
This Standard is also designated as AUSTROADS publication AP-G15.2/04.
The objectives of AS 5100 are to provide nationally acceptable requirements for
(a)

the design of road, rail, pedestrian and bicycle-path bridges;

(b)

the specific application of concrete, steel and composite construction, which embody
principles that may be applied to other materials in association with relevant
Standards; and

(c)

the assessment of the load capacity of existing bridges.

These requirements are based on the principles of structural mechanics and knowledge of
material properties, for both the conceptual and detailed design, to achieve acceptable
probabilities that the bridge or associated structure being designed will not become unfit for
use during its design life.
Whereas earlier editions of the Australian Bridge Design Code were essentially
administered by the infrastructure owners and applied to their own inventory, an increasing
number of bridges are being built under the design-construct-operate principle and being
handed over to the relevant statutory authority after several years of operation. This
Standard includes Clauses intended to facilitate the specification to the designer of the
functional requirements of the owner to ensure the long-term performance and
serviceability of the structure.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Significant differences between this Standard and HB 77.2 are the following:
(i)

Highway bridge design loads The design model for road traffic loads has been
completely redefined to make provision for potential future increases in legal load
limits. Not only does the design load reflect the projected increased loads but it has
also been modified so that it more closely represents the full spectrum of vehicle
configurations and traffic patterns. It no longer looks like a semi-trailer but is
purely a mathematical model. This new model incorporates both moving traffic loads
and stationary traffic loads, and also incorporates the effects of special vehicles. The
width of the design load, the standard design load and the standard design lane have
been increased to 3.2 m, to reflect future loads and truck configurations. Provision
has been made for the heavy load platform (HLP) design load, which may be
specified by the relevant authority if required.

(ii)

Dynamic load allowance The dynamic load allowance for railway bridges has been
modified to incorporate the results of experience and investigations of fatigue in
transom top steel railway bridges. The dynamic load allowance for road bridges has
been adapted to reflect the recent changes in the Canadian Highway Bridge Design
Code, modified to suit Australian conditions.

AS 5100.22004

(iii) Bridge barriers The clauses for design loads of road bridge barriers have been
updated to be consistent with performance level definition and selection specified in
AS 5100.1. Many of the clauses are based on recently developed AASHTO*
documentation, suitably modified to reflect local Australian conditions.
(v)

Earthquake loading The earthquake loading clause has been updated to reflect the
intent of AS 1170.4 as applicable to bridges.

In line with Standards Australia policy, the words shall and may are used consistently
throughout this Standard to indicate, respectively, a mandatory provision and an acceptable
or permissible alternative.
Statements expressed in mandatory terms in Notes to Tables are deemed to be requirements
of this Standard.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The term informative has been used in this Standard to define the application of the
appendix to which it applies. An informative appendix is only for information and
guidance.

* American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

AS 5100.22004

CONTENTS

Page
SCOPE AND GENERAL ........................................................................................... 5

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS.................................................................................. 6

DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................ 6

NOTATION................................................................................................................ 6

5
6

DEAD LOADS ......................................................................................................... 10


ROAD TRAFFIC ...................................................................................................... 12

PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE-PATH LOAD ........................................................ 21

RAILWAY TRAFFIC............................................................................................... 22

MINIMUM LATERAL RESTRAINT CAPACITY .................................................. 30

10

COLLISION LOADS ............................................................................................... 31

11
12

KERB AND BARRIER DESIGN LOADS AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS FOR


ROAD TRAFFIC BRIDGES .................................................................................... 33
DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR........................................................................................ 37

13

EARTH PRESSURE................................................................................................. 40

14
15

EARTHQUAKE FORCES........................................................................................ 42
FORCES RESULTING FROM WATER FLOW ...................................................... 48

16

WIND LOADS ......................................................................................................... 57

17

THERMAL EFFECTS .............................................................................................. 60

18
19

SHRINKAGE, CREEP AND PRESTRESS EFFECTS ............................................. 64


DIFFERENTIAL MOVEMENT OF SUPPORTS ..................................................... 64

20

FORCES FROM BEARINGS ................................................................................... 65

21

CONSTRUCTION FORCES AND EFFECTS.......................................................... 65

22
23

LOAD COMBINATIONS ........................................................................................ 66


ROAD SIGNS AND LIGHTING STRUCTURES .................................................... 67

24

NOISE BARRIERS .................................................................................................. 69

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

APPENDIX A

DESIGN LOADS FOR MEDIUM AND SPECIAL PERFORMANCE


LEVEL BARRIERS.................................................................................. 71

AS 5100.22004

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA
Australian Standard
Bridge design
Part 2: Design loads
1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 Scope
This Standard sets out minimum design loads, forces and load effect for road, railway,
pedestrian and bicycle bridges, and other associated structures.
1.2 General
Structures shall be proportioned for the design loads, forces and load effects in accordance
with Clauses 5 to 24, as appropriate.
NOTE: If the authority approves, the designer may vary any of the loads set out in this Standard
on the basis of engineering measurements and calculations, provided the provisions of AS 5100.1
are complied with.

The design loads and forces shall be considered as acting in combinations as set out in
Clause 22.
Each individual bridge shall be assessed to ascertain whether any other loads, forces or load
effects are applicable for that particular design. The magnitude of these additional forces or
load effects, and their combination with other loads shall be consistent with the principles
set out in AS 5100.1.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

On the front sheet of the bridge drawings, the following details relating to design loads
shall be shown where relevant:
(a)

The Standard used.

(b)

Any significant variation to the minimum design loads as set out in this Standard.

(c)

Traffic load, e.g., 300LA and SM1600, including lateral position, if critical, and the
number of design lanes.

(d)

Design traffic speed.

(e)

Fatigue criteria, including number of cycles and route factor.

(f)

Pedestrian load.

(g)

Collision load on piers, where applicable, or alternative load paths provided.

(h)

Design wind speeds.

(i)

Flood data, e.g., design velocities, levels, debris, and the like.

(j)

Earthquake zone.

(k)

Differential settlements and mining subsidence effects allowed for in the design.

(l)

Foundation data where not shown elsewhere.

(m)

Barrier performance level.

Where required, the construction methods and sequence, or any other specific limitations,
shall be indicated on the bridge drawings.
www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
The following documents are referred to in this Standard:
A1

AS
1170
1170.4*

Minimum design loads on structures


Part 4: Earthquake loads

1726

Geotechnical site investigations

4678

Earth-retaining structures

5100
5100.1
5100.3
5100.4
5100.5
5100.6
5100.7

Bridge design
Part 1: Scope and general principles
Part 3: Foundations and soil-supporting structures
Part 4: Bearings and deck joints
Part 5: Concrete
Part 6: Steel and composite construction
Part 7: Rating of existing bridges

AS/NZS
1170
1170.0
1170.1
1170.2

Structural design actions


Part 0: General principles
Part 1: Permanent, imposed and other actions
Part 2: Wind actions

Austroads Vehicle Classification Scheme


TRB-NCHRP 350

Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of


Highway Features

3 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions in AS 5100.1 apply.
4 NOTATION
The symbols used in this Standard are listed in Table 4.
Where non-dimensional ratios are involved, both the numerator and denominator are
expressed in identical units.
The units for length and load in all expressions or equations are to be taken as metres (m)
and kilonewtons (kN) respectively, unless specifically noted otherwise. The unit for
velocity is in metres per second, unless specified otherwise.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

An asterisk ( * ) placed after a symbol as a superscript denotes a design action effect due to
the design load for either the ultimate limit state or the serviceability limit state.

*
This Standard refers to the superseded 1993 edition of AS 1170.4 and not to the current
edition of AS 1170.4, published in 2007.
Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

AS 5100.22004

TABLE 4
NOTATION
Symbols

Clause reference

axle load

8.6.1

Ad

area, equal to the thickness of the pier normal to the


direction of the water flow, multiplied by the height of the
water flow

15.3.1

projected area of debris

15.5.4

area, equal to the width of the pier parallel to the direction


of the water flow, multiplied by the height of the flow; or
plan deck area of the superstructure

15.3.2

A deb
AL

15.4.3

Ap

bridge area in plan

As

wetted area of the superstructure, including any railings or


parapets, projected on a plane normal to the water flow; or
projected area of debris

At

area of the structure for calculation of wind load

16.3.1

acceleration coefficient

14.3.3

width between traffic barriers; or


overall width of the bridge between outer faces of parapets

6.5
16.3.3

earthquake design coefficient

14.5.4

Cd

drag coefficient

15.3.1

Ch

earthquake design coefficient

14.5.7

CL

lift coefficient

15.3.2

Cm

moment coefficient

15.4.4

CT

base number of load cycles

8.7.4

depth of the superstructure, including solid parapet, if


applicable

16.3.3

d sp

wetted depth of the superstructure (including any railings


or parapets) projected on a plane normal to the water flow
(see Figure 15.4.2(B))

15.4.2

d ss

wetted depth of the solid superstructure, excluding any


railings but including solid parapets, projected on a plane
normal to the water flow

15.4.2

d wgs

vertical distance from the girder soffit to the flood water


surface upstream of the bridge

15.4.2

F
Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Description

Froude number

16.5
15.4.2 and 15.4.4

15.5.4(B)

F BM

braking force applied by multiple vehicles

6.8.2

F BS

braking force applied by a single vehicle

6.8.2

Fc

centrifugal force

6.8.1

FL

ultimate longitudinal or transverse inward load

12.3

FT

ultimate transverse outward load

12.3

FV

ultimate vertical downward load

12.3

*
Fds

serviceability design drag force

15.3.1

*
Fdu

ultimate design drag force

15.3.1

*
FLs

serviceability design lift force

15.3.2
(continued)

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

TABLE 4 (continued)
Symbols
*
FLu

Clause reference

ultimate design lift force

15.3.2

f*

fatigue design stress range

8.7.3

GB

distance of wheel load to the track centre-line

10.5.2

Gg

total unfactored dead load including superimposed dead


load

14.5.2

acceleration due to gravity

6.8.1

H CF

centrifugal force resulting from railway loads

8.6.1

He

minimum effective height

H u*

horizontal design earthquake force

14.5.2

height of the top rail; or


depth of fill cover, in millimetres

11.5
6.12

Table 11.2.3

14.7.3

hd

average height of the columns or piers supporting the


superstructure length (Ld )

coefficient

importance factor

14.5.3

effective span; or
loaded length; or
span of the member between posts

6.9
8.6.2
11.5

L bs

minimum support length measured normal to the face of an


abutment or pier

14.7.3

Ld

length of the superstructure to the next expansion joint

14.7.3

Lf

span of main girders, trusses or stringers; or


cross-girder spacing for cross-girders

8.7.4

LL

vehicle contact length for longitudinal loads

11.3

largest of the values L1 , L 2, L n

8.4.2

LT

vehicle contact length for transverse loads

11.3

Lv

distance between centres of axle groups; or


vehicle contact length for vertical loads

8.7.1
12.3

span lengths of a continuous structure

8.4.2

characteristic length

8.4.1

Mi

importance factor

24.2

Ms

shielding multiplier

24.1.4

*
M gs

serviceability design superstructure moment

15.4.4

*
M gu

ultimate design superstructure moment

15.4.4

mi

discrete mass

14.5.4

number of standard design loads; or


effective number of cycles; or
number of continuous main girder spans

nT

number of equivalent stress cycles of amplitude (f *) per


train, which depends on L f and L v

8.7.4

Pr

proximity ratio

15.4.2

pn

net pressure for hoardings and freestanding walls

24.5

design wind pressure

23.4

L max.

L 1, L 2, L n

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Description

22.3

6.5
8.7.4
Table 8.4.2

(continued)

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

AS 5100.22004

TABLE 4 (continued)
Symbols

Clause reference

Rf

structural response factor

14.5.5

radius of curve

8.6.1

site factor

14.3.4

Sr

relative submergence

15.4.2

structure period of the first dominant mode of free


vibration, in the direction under consideration; or
temperature

14.5.4
Figure 17.3

design speed

8.6.1

Vs

mean velocity of water flow for serviceability limit states


at the level of the superstructure or debris as appropriate;
or
design wind speed for serviceability limit states

15.3.1

Vu

mean velocity of water flow for ultimate limit states at the


level of the superstructure or debris as appropriate

15.3.1
16.3

Vw

design wind speed for the ultimate limit states, or


serviceability limit state

23.4

operating speed

6.8.1

W BM

load due to multiple lanes of the M1600 moving traffic


load for the length under consideration

6.8.2

W BS

load due to a single lane of the M1600 moving traffic load


for the length under consideration, up to a maximum of
1600 kN

6.8.2

Wc

load due to multiple lanes of the M1600 moving traffic


load for the length under consideration

6.8.1

Wts*

serviceability design transverse wind load

16.3

Wtu*

ultimate design transverse wind load

16.3

*
Wvs

serviceability design vertical wind load

16.5

*
Wvu

ultimate design vertical wind load

16.5

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Description

average flow depth

16.3

15.5.4(A)

y gs

average vertical distance from the girder soffit to the bed


assuming no scour at the span under consideration

15.4.2

dynamic load allowance

6.7.2

displacement under self weight

14.5.4

load factor for dead load

5.2

ge

load factor for the density of soils and groundwater

5.4

gb

load factor for railway ballast and track loads

5.5

gs

load factor for superimposed dead load

5.3

LL

load factor for live load

10.4.4

WF

ultimate load factor for water flow

15.2.1

superelevation of the road

6.8.1

angle of skew of the support measured from a line normal


to the span

14.7.3

angle between the direction of the water flow and the


transverse centre-line of the pier

www.standards.org.au

Figure 15.3.1

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

10

5 DEAD LOADS
5.1 General
The nominal dead load shall be calculated from the dimensions shown on the drawings and
the mean value of the weight per unit volume of the materials. A figure based on the
densities of the materials, the percentage of reinforcement and other appropriate factors
shall be adopted. Wherever possible, design densities shall be based on measurements of
the materials to be used.
Selecting a high value of density may be conservative when considering some limit states,
but may not be conservative when considering stability, stresses at transfer of prestress and
the like. If insufficient information is available to accurately assess the mean weight per
unit volume, calculations shall be performed using a range of values and the most critical
case shall be used for the design.
5.2 Dead load of structure
Dead load shall be considered as the weight of the parts of the structure that are structural
elements and any non-structural elements that are considered unlikely to vary during
construction and use of the structure, such as parapets and kerbs of steel or concrete.
To obtain the design dead loads for ultimate and serviceability limit states, the nominal
dead load shall be multiplied by the appropriate load factor ( g ) given in Table 5.2.
For all types of structures, except structures of balanced cantilever or anchor cantilever
design, or similar, the appropriate value of g shall be applied to the dead load of all parts of
the structure. For the exceptions, the values of g given in Item (b) or Item (c) of Table 5.2
for unfavourable or favourable dead load shall be applied to the appropriate parts of the
structure.
TABLE 5.2
LOAD FACTORS (g) FOR DEAD LOAD OF STRUCTURE

Type of structure

(a)

All structures, except for Items (b) and (c)

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

(b) Balanced cantilever structures At a


section subjected to approximately equal
favourable and unfavourable dead loads
(c)

Anchor cantilever structures At a section


subjected to unequal favourable and
unfavourable dead loads

Type of
construction

Ultimate limit states


where dead load

Serviceability
limit states

Reduces
safety

Increases
safety

Steel
Concrete

1.1
1.2

0.9
0.85

1.0
1.0

All

1.1

1.0

1.0

All

1.2

1.0

1.0

NOTE: For large segmental cantilever construction, where appropriate control and monitoring are exercised
over dimensions, the authority may allow a reduction of g to not less than 1.1 for ultimate limit states, for
the case where the dead load reduces safety.

5.3 Superimposed dead load


Superimposed dead load shall be considered as the weight of all materials forming the loads
on the structure, which are not structural elements and which vary during construction and
use of the structure.
NOTE: Examples of superimposed dead load include surfacing material, footway filling, tram
tracks, pipes, conduits, cables and other utility services, and additional concrete to compensate
for the hog of prestressed beams.
Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

11

AS 5100.22004

If a separate wearing surface is to be placed when the bridge is constructed or if placement


of a separate wearing surface is anticipated in the future, allowance shall be made for its
weight in the superimposed dead load.
The design superimposed dead loads for ultimate and serviceability limit states shall be
obtained by applying the appropriate load factor ( gs), given in Table 5.3, to the nominal
superimposed dead loads on the structure.
For special cases, and subject to the approval of the relevant authority, the values of gs to
be applied to the nominal superimposed dead load may be reduced to an amount not less
than those given in Item (b) of Table 5.3. It shall be ensured that the nominal superimposed
dead load is not exceeded during the life of the bridge.
TABLE 5.3
LOAD FACTORS (gs) FOR SUPERIMPOSED DEAD LOAD (SDL)

Type of structure

A1

Type of load

Ultimate limit states


where SDL
Reduces
safety

Increases
safety

Serviceability
limit states

(a)

All structures, except for Item (b)

Permanent
Removable

2.0
2.0

0.7
0

1.3
1.3

(b)

Special cases On major structures where


superimposed dead loads are controlled by
the relevant authority.

Permanent
Removable

1.4
1.4

0.8
0

1.0
1.0

5.4 Soil loads on retaining walls and buried structures


Soil loads and properties of the soil shall be obtained from AS 4678. The design of
foundations and soil-supporting structures shall be carried out in accordance with this
Standard and AS 5100.3. Where required during the design, the density of soils shall be
factored by the load factor (ge ) given in Table 5.4.
TABLE 5.4
LOAD FACTORS (ge) FOR THE DENSITY OF SOILS AND GROUNDWATER

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Type of soil

Ultimate limit states where soil


Increases load

Reduces load

Serviceability
limit state

Controlled fill with regular testing of soil density

1.25

0.85

1.0

All other fills and in-situ soils

1.5

0.7

1.2

Groundwater

1.0

1.0

1.0

NOTE: Variation in water levels shall be taken into account by using design levels based on a return period
of 1000 years for the ultimate limit state or 100 years for the serviceability limit state.

5.5 Railway ballast and track loads


Railway ballast and track shall be considered as removable superimposed dead loads. The
design loads for the ultimate and serviceability limit states shall be obtained by applying the
appropriate load factor ( gb ) given in Table 5.5 to the nominal ballast and track loads.
For bridges such as half through structures, if it is possible to fill with ballast to a much
greater depth than normally specified, the maximum amount of ballast possible on the
bridge shall also be determined and the nominal amount of ballast shall be taken as not less
than 0.7 times that maximum amount.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

12

TABLE 5.5
LOAD FACTORS (gb) FOR RAILWAY BALLAST AND TRACK LOADS
Type of
structure
All structures

Ultimate limit states where load


Reduces safety

Increases safety

Serviceability
limit states

Ballast and track

1.7

0.7

1.3

Transom track

1.4

0.9

1.2

Type of load

6 ROAD TRAFFIC
6.1 General
Road traffic load is the load resulting from the passage of vehicles, either singly or in
groups, or pedestrians. The magnitude, direction and positioning of loads in this Standard
produce effects in structures that approximate the effects of vehicles or groups of vehicles.
The load models are not intended to be the same as actual vehicles.
6.2 SM1600 loads
The abbreviation SM1600 represents the design loads W80, A160, M1600 and S1600 traffic
design loads.
All road bridges shall be designed to resist the following:
(a)

The traffic loads specified in this Standard, which approximate the effects induced by
moving traffic, stationary queues of traffic and pedestrian traffic.

(b)

The most adverse effects induced by the following loading elements, combinations of
these elements and their corresponding load factors:
(i)

W80 wheel load.

(ii)

A160 axle load.

(iii) M1600 moving traffic load.


(iv)

S1600 stationary traffic load.

(v)

HLP320 or HLP400, if required by the authority.

(vi)

Dynamic load allowance ().

(vii) Number and position of traffic lanes.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

(viii) Accompanying lane factors (ALF).


(ix)

Centrifugal forces (F c).

(x)

Braking forces (F BS , F BM).

(xi)

Fatigue load.

(xii) Pedestrian load.


6.2.1 W80 wheel load
The W80 wheel load models an individual heavy wheel load. It shall consist of an 80 kN
load uniformly distributed over a contact area of 400 mm 250 mm. The W80 wheel load
shall be applied anywhere on the roadway surface and to all structural elements for which
the critical load is a single wheel load.
6.2.2 A160 axle load
The A160 load models an individual heavy axle. It shall consist of the load shown in
Figure 6.2.2.
Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

13

AS 5100.22004

FIGURE 6.2.2 A160 AXLE LOAD

6.2.3 M1600 moving traffic load


The M1600 moving traffic load models the loads applied by a moving stream of traffic. The
M1600 load shall be positioned laterally within a 3.2 m standard design lane as shown in
Figure 6.2.3.
The moving traffic load shall consist of a uniformly distributed load together with a truck
load as shown in Figure 6.2.3. The uniformly distributed component of the M1600 moving
traffic load continues under the truck and shall be considered as uniformly distributed over
the width of a 3.2 m standard design lane.
The uniformly distributed component of the M1600 moving traffic load shall be continuous
or discontinuous and of any length as may be necessary to produce the most adverse effects.
Likewise, the truck position and variable spacing shall be determined so as to produce the
most adverse effects.
Where a single tri-axial group from the M1600 moving traffic load, including the UDL
component, controls, the dynamic load allowance () shall be as given in Table 6.7.2. The
UDL component shall be continuous or discontinuous and of any length as necessary to
produce the most adverse effects.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

A1

FIGURE 6.2.3 M1600 MOVING TRAFFIC LOAD

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

14

6.2.4 S1600 stationary traffic load


The S1600 stationary traffic load models the loads applied by a stationary queue of traffic.
The S1600 stationary traffic load shall consist of a uniformly distributed load together with
a truckload as shown in Figure 6.2.4. The uniformly distributed component of the S1600
stationary traffic load continues under the truck and shall be considered as uniformly
distributed over the width of a 3.2 m standard design lane. The S1600 truck shall be
positioned laterally within a 3.2 m standard design lane as shown in Figure 6.2.4.
The uniformly distributed component of the S1600 stationary traffic load shall be
continuous or discontinuous and of any length as may be necessary to produce the most
adverse effects. Likewise, the truck position and variable spacing shall be determined so as
to produce the most adverse effects.
A1

FIGURE 6.2.4 S1600 STATIONARY TRAFFIC LOAD

6.3 Heavy load platform


The heavy load platform design load HLP320 or HLP400, or an alternative platform design
load, may be specified by the authority. Details of HLP320 and HLP400 load configurations
are specified in AS 5100.7.
The HLP320 and HLP400 heavy load platform loads shall be assumed to centrally occupy
two standard design lanes or the road carriageway width, whichever is the lesser.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The heavy load platform loads shall be positioned laterally on a bridge as specified by the
authority. To account for errors in the positioning of actual vehicles, bridges shall be
designed for the effects of the heavy load platform loads positioned up to 1.0 m laterally in
either direction from the specified position.
Where the two standard design lanes containing the heavy load platform loads are
positioned such that one or more design traffic lanes are unobstructed, then a load of half of
either the M1600 moving traffic load or the S1600 stationary traffic load, to create the
worst effect, shall be placed in those lanes, unless the authority specifies otherwise.
6.4 Tramway and railway loads
Where road bridges are to carry tramway or railway traffic, the operating authority for the
utility shall be consulted to determine the appropriate design loads and load factors.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

15

AS 5100.22004

6.5 Number of lanes for design and lateral positioning


The A160, M1600 and S1600 loadings shall be assumed to occupy one standard design lane
of 3.2 m width. The number and position of standard design lanes shall be as follows:
n =

b
(rounded down to next integer)
3. 2

. . . 6.5

where
n = number of standard design loads
b = width between traffic barriers, in metres, unless specified otherwise
These standard design lanes shall be positioned laterally on the bridge to produce the most
adverse effects.
6.6 Accompanying lane factors
If more than one lane is loaded, the A160, M1600 or S1600 loading applied to the
additional lanes shall be multiplied by the accompanying lane factors given in Table 6.6.
TABLE 6.6
ACCOMPANYING LANE FACTORS
Standard design lane number, n

Accompanying lane factor, ALFi

1 lane loaded

1.0

2 lanes loaded

1.0 for first lane; and


0.8 for second lane

3 or more lanes loaded

1.0 for first lane;


0.8 for second lane; and
0.4 for third and subsequent lanes

NOTES:
1

First lanethe loaded lane giving the largest effect.

Second lanethe loaded lane giving the second largest effect.

Third lanethe loaded lane giving the third largest effect.

The number of standard design lanes loaded and the load patterning (standard design lane
numbering) shall be selected to produce the most adverse effects.
For bridges that support vehicle and pedestrian traffic, the accompanying load factors shall
be applied to both the vehicle and the pedestrian traffic. The total pedestrian load shall be
considered as one standard design lane.
Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

6.7 Dynamic load allowance


6.7.1 General
The dynamic load allowance () set out in this Clause specifies an increase in the traffic
load resulting from the interaction of moving vehicles and the bridge structure, and shall be
described in terms of the static equivalent of the dynamic and vibratory effects. For design
purposes, shall be specified as a proportion of the traffic load and shall be applied as
specified in Clause 6.7.2. The dynamic load allowance applies to both the ultimate and
serviceability limit states.
The dynamic load allowance models the dynamic effects of vehicles moving over bridges
with typical road profile irregularities.
6.7.2 Magnitude
The design action is equal to (1 + ) the load factor the action under consideration.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

16

The value of for the appropriate loading shall be as given in Table 6.7.2.
For deck joints, the values for specified in AS 5100.4 shall be used.
TABLE 6.7.2
DYNAMIC LOAD ALLOWANCE ()
Loading

Dynamic load allowance ()

W80 wheel load

0.4

A160 axle load

0.4

M1600 tri-axle group (see Note 2)

0.35

M1600 load (see Note 2)

0.30

S1600 load (see Note 2)

HLP loading

0.1

NOTES:
1

Dynamic load allowance is not required for centrifugal forces,


braking forces or pedestrian load.

Including the UDL component of the traffic load.

6.7.3 Application
The dynamic load allowance shall be applied to all parts of the structure extending down to
the ground level.
For parts of the structure below the ground level, the dynamic load allowance to be applied
to each part shall be
(a)

the ground level value for a cover depth of zero;

(b)

zero for a cover depth of 2 m or more; or

(c)

a linear interpolation between depths of zero and 2 m.

For buried structures such as culverts and soil-steel structures, the dynamic load allowance
to be applied to the entire structure shall be
A1

(i)

the ground level value for a cover depth of zero;

(ii)

0.1 for a cover depth of 2 m or more for loads excluding S1600. For S1600 loads, the
dynamic load allowance is zero; or

(iii) a linear interpolation between depths of zero and 2 m.


Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

6.7.4 Dynamic load reversal


Consideration shall be given to the reversal of the dynamic response to live load. Vibrations
may continue and slowly decay after passing of traffic. In particular, the minimum reaction
on bearings shall take into consideration any reduction that may occur as a result of
dynamic effects.
6.8 Horizontal forces
6.8.1 Centrifugal forces
For bridges on horizontal curves, allowance shall be made for the centrifugal effects of
traffic load on all parts of the structure. The bridge shall be designed to resist the most
adverse co-existing effects induced by the M1600 moving traffic load and the centrifugal
force (Fc), in kilonewtons.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

17

AS 5100.22004

The centrifugal force (Fc) shall be assumed to act at deck level and shall be applied in
accordance with the distribution of load in the M1600 moving traffic load. The centrifugal
force (Fc) shall be calculated as follows:
Fc =

V2
Wc
rg

. . . 6.8.1(1)

(0.35 + )Wc

. . . 6.8.1(2)

where
V

= design speed, in metres per second

= radius of curve, in metres

= acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2)

Wc

= load due to multiple lanes of the M1600 moving traffic load for the length
under consideration, in kilonewtons. No dynamic load allowance is to be
considered.
Accompanying lane factors shall be applied, i.e.
j

ALF

i =1

M1600 i

= number of design lanes

ALF i

= accompanying lane factor (see Table 6.6)

. . . 6.8.1(3)

= superelevation of the road, expressed as a ratio, e.g., 4% superelevation is


expressed as 0.04

6.8.2 Braking forces


Braking effects of traffic shall be considered as a longitudinal force. Braking forces shall be
applied in either direction. The restraint system shall be designed to resist the most adverse
co-existing effects induced by the braking force and the vertical traffic load. The braking
force shall be applied in accordance with the distribution of mass of the vertical traffic load.
The braking force shall be assumed to act at the road surface. The most adverse effects from
the following scenarios shall be considered:
(a)

Single vehicle stopping The braking force for single vehicle stopping (F BS) shall be
calculated as follows:

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

FBS = 0.45W BS

. . . 6.8.2(1)

200 kN < F BS < 720 kN


where
F BS

= braking force applied by a single vehicle

W BS = load due to a single lane of the M1600 moving traffic load for the
length under consideration, in kilonewtons, up to a maximum of
1600 kN. No dynamic load allowance is to be included
F BS shall be applied to any lane of a multi-lane bridge to produce the most adverse
effects.
(b)

Multi-lane moving traffic stream stopping The braking force for multi-lane moving
traffic stream stopping (FBM ) shall be calculated as follows:
FBM = 0.15WBM

www.standards.org.au

. . . 6.8.2(2)

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

18

where
F BM = braking force applied by multiple vehicles
W BM = load due to multiple lanes of the M1600 moving traffic load for the
length under consideration, in kilonewtons. No dynamic load
allowance is to be included.
Accompanying lane factors shall be applied, i.e.
j

ALF

i =1

M1600 i

. . . 6.8.2(3)

The number of lanes to be included shall be limited to those likely to carry traffic in a
single direction, unless specified otherwise by the relevant authority.
When assessing the effects of longitudinal forces on bridge bearings and substructures, the
friction or shear displacement characteristics of expansion bearings and the stiffness of the
substructure shall be taken into account.
6.9 Fatigue load effects
The fatigue design traffic load effects shall be determined from 70% of the effects of a
single A160 axle or 70% of a single M1600 moving traffic load, without UDL, whichever is
more severe. In both cases, a load factor of 1.0 shall be used and the load effects shall be
increased by the dynamic load allowance ().
The single A160 axle load or M1600 moving traffic load, without UDL, shall be placed
within any design traffic lane to maximize the fatigue effects for the component under
consideration.
Unless determined otherwise by the relevant authority, the number of fatigue stress cycles
to be used for the calculation of the fatigue capacity of the structural element under
consideration shall be as follows:
(a)

For the fatigue design load of 0.70 (A160 axle load) (1 + ):


(current number of heavy vehicles per lane per day) 4 10 4 (route factor).

(b)

For the fatigue design load of 0.70 (M1600 moving traffic load without UDL)
(1 + ):
(current number of heavy vehicles per lane per day) 2 10 4(L0.5 ) (route factor).

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Unless specified otherwise by the relevant authority, the route factor shall be
(i)

for principal interstate freeways and highways ..................................................... 1.0;

(ii)

for urban freeways............................................................................................... 0.7;

(iii) for other rural routes......................................................................................0.5; and


(iv)

for urban roads other than freeways...................................................................... 0.3.

On interstate and other rural routes where there are two or more lanes in one direction, the
number of heavy vehicles per lane per day shall be the total of the heavy vehicles travelling
in that direction. On urban routes where there are two or more lanes in one direction, the
number of heavy vehicles per lane per day shall be 65% of the total number of heavy
vehicles in that direction.
The fatigue design traffic load effects and relevant stress cycles shall be applied to each
design lane independently.
L is the effective span in metres and is defined as follows:

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

19

AS 5100.22004

(A)

For positive bending moments, L is the actual span in which the bending moment is
being considered.

(B)

For negative moment over interior supports, L is the average of the adjacent spans.

(C)

For end shear, L is the actual span.

(D)

For reactions, L is the sum of the adjacent spans.

(E)

For cross-girders, L is twice the longitudinal spacing of the cross-girders.

A fatigue stress cycle shall be taken to be the maximum peak to peak stress from the
passage of the relevant fatigue design load.
Heavy vehicles shall be as defined by the Austroads Vehicle Classification Scheme, i.e.,
Classes 3 to 12.
The current number of heavy vehicles shall be based on the year the bridge is to be put into
service.
This Clause does not apply to fatigue design of roadway expansion joints.
6.10 Load factors
For ultimate and serviceability limit state design loads, the load factors for design road
traffic loads shall be as given in Table 6.10(A).
TABLE 6.10(A)
LOAD FACTORS FOR DESIGN ROAD TRAFFIC LOADS
Limit state

Traffic load
Ultimate

Serviceability

W80 wheel load

1.8

1.0

A160 axle load

1.8

1.0

M1600 moving traffic load

1.8

1.0

S1600 stationary traffic load

1.8

1.0

Heavy load platform load

1.5

1.0

The load factor to be applied in calculating the design centrifugal and braking forces shall
be as given in Table 6.10(B).

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

TABLE 6.10(B)
LOAD FACTORS FOR DESIGN
CENTRIFUGAL AND BRAKING FORCES
Limit state

Force
Ultimate

Serviceability

Centrifugal force

1.8

1.0

Braking force

1.8

1.0

Each of the design horizontal forces due to road traffic load shall be applied simultaneously
with the vertical road traffic load and such load cases or any combination thereof shall be
considered as a single vehicular traffic load specified in Clause 22.1.3.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

20

6.11 Deflection
The deflection limits of a road bridge under traffic for serviceability limit state shall be
appropriate to the structure and its intended use, the nature of the loading and the elements
supported by it.
Notwithstanding this requirement, the deflection for serviceability limit state under live
load plus dynamic load allowance shall be not greater than 1/600 of the span or 1/300 of the
cantilever projection, as applicable.
The live load to be used for calculating deflection shall be one M1600 moving traffic load,
without UDL, including dynamic load allowance, placed longitudinally in each design lane
to produce the maximum deflection, taking into account the accompanying lane factors.
NOTE: In calculating the deflection, the following assumptions may be made:
(a)

The deflection of the bridge may be averaged across all beams.

(b)

The design cross-section of the bridge may include continuous portions of road furniture
contributing to stiffness, provided that adequate connection is included to ensure composite
action with the bridge deck.

In addition, road traffic bridges shall be designed so that


(a)

deflections do not infringe on clearance diagrams;

(b)

hog deflection does not exceed 1/300 of the span; and

(c)

no sag deflection occurs under permanent loads.

6.12 Distribution of road traffic loads through fill


For all types of roadway pavements above structures, the distribution of SM1600 design
loads, with the factors and allowances applied in accordance with this Standard, shall be as
specified below, unless calculated otherwise by an analytical modelling procedure approved
by the authority. This requirement shall apply to all types of roadway pavements.
SM1600 design wheel loads shall be distributed through the fill cover over the structure,
from the imprint of the rectangular wheel contact area at the road surface to a rectangular
distribution area on the surface of the structure, proportioned in accordance with the wheel
contact area dimensions.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The length of the sides of the distribution rectangle shall be determined as follows:
(a)

For depths of fill cover from 0 to 200 mmsides of distribution rectangle = sides of
wheel contact rectangle + 0.5 h, where h is the depth of fill cover in millimetres.

(b)

For depths of fill cover greater than 200 mmsides of distribution rectangle = sides
of wheel contact rectangles + 100 mm + 1.2 (h 200).

Where distribution areas from several wheel loads overlap, the total load may be considered
to be evenly distributed on the surface over the total area of distribution.
The uniformly distributed component of the SM1600 design load shall be applied with no
longitudinal distribution. Transverse distribution shall be as for wheel loads.
The total width of transverse distribution shall not exceed the total width of the structure
supporting the fill.
For single spans, the road traffic loads may be neglected when the depth of fill is more than
2.5 m and exceeds the span length. For multiple spans, road traffic loads may be neglected
when the depth of fill exceeds the distance between faces of the end abutments.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

21

AS 5100.22004

7 PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE-PATH LOAD


7.1 General
Pedestrian and bicycle-path bridges, and walkways on road and railway traffic bridges that
provide public access shall be designed for the loads per square metre of loaded area as
shown in Figure 7.
The loaded area shall be the area related to the structural element under consideration.
Dynamic load allowance need not be applied to pedestrian load.
Road and rail traffic bridges with access walkways not intended for public use are not
required to be designed for the simultaneous occurrence of the road and railway live load
and the walkway live load.
Where it is possible for a vehicle, such as a park tractor, to mount the walkway, the
walkway shall be designed to carry a concentrated load of 20 kN, with no dynamic load
allowance, unless specified otherwise by the authority.
Where the authority requires that a pedestrian bridge or walkway be designed for crowd
loading, such as for special events, a design load of 5 kPa shall be used.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

FIGURE 7 PEDESTRIAN LOADS

7.2 Service live load on walkways


For structures fitted with walkways or service platform, or both, a total load of 2.2 kN shall
be distributed over any 0.6 m length of walkway or platform, and multiplied by the load
factors given in Table 7.3 to obtain the appropriate design load.
7.3 Load factors
For ultimate and serviceability limit state design loads, the load factors for design
pedestrian loads shall be as given in Table 7.3.
A1

NOTE: Where a pedestrian bridge is not located above a road or railway, the authority may
approve a load factor for pedestrian loads of not less than that required by AS/NZS 1170.1.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

22

TABLE 7.3
LOAD FACTORS FOR DESIGN PEDESTRIAN
AND SERVICE LIVE LOADS
Limit state

Load

Ultimate

Serviceability

Pedestrian load

1.8

1.0

Service live loads

2.0

1.0

8 RAILWAY TRAFFIC
8.1 General
Railway bridges shall be designed for the loads specified in Clause 8, unless specified
otherwise by the rail authority. Bridges carrying light rail, cane railways and the like shall
be designed for loads specified by the relevant authority.
8.2 300LA railway traffic load
The 300LA load shall consist of groups of vehicles with four axles each having a load of
300 kN, and have axle spacings of 1.7 m, 1.1 m and 1.7 m. To simulate coupled
locomotives, a 360 kN axle load shall be added 2 m in front of the axle group, as shown in
Figure 8.2(A). The spacing between the centres of each vehicle axle group shall vary
between 12 m and 20 m to give maximum effect in the member under consideration, as
shown in Figure 8.2(B).

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The position of the loads and the number of axle groups shall be selected so as to give
maximum load effects in the member under consideration.

FIGURE 8.2(A) 300LA RAILWAY TRAFFIC LOADSAXLE LOADS

FIGURE 8.2(B) 300LA RAILWAY TRAFFIC LOADSAXLE GROUP SPACINGS


Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

23

AS 5100.22004

8.3 Multiple track factor for railway bridges


When loading a number of tracks simultaneously, the multiple track factors given in
Table 8.3 shall be used, as appropriate. These factors shall be applied to the total railway
traffic loads, depending on the number of loaded tracks being considered.
The selection of the number of tracks to be loaded with railway traffic loads shall be such
as to give the greatest live load effects in the member under consideration.
TABLE 8.3
MULTIPLE TRACK FACTORS
Number of tracks loaded

Multiple track factor

1.00

1.00

0.85

0.70

5 or more

0.60

8.4 Dynamic load allowance


8.4.1 General
The dynamic load allowance () for railway live load effects shall be a proportion of the
static railway live load, and shall be calculated by the methods specified in this Clause. It
shall have the same value for structures of reinforced or prestressed concrete, steel, or
composite construction. The value of shall depend upon the characteristic length (L ). A
distinction is made between different methods of supporting the track, i.e., with ballast or
transom top structures.
The dynamic load allowance applies to both the ultimate and serviceability limit states. The
design action is equal to (1 + ) the load factor the action under consideration.
In cases where a member acts in two different modes, e.g., as a deck support and also as
part of the main girder, the dynamic load allowance shall be calculated separately for the
structural actions in each mode, and the actions summed.
8.4.2 Characteristic length (L )

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

For main girders and components of railway bridge superstructures, the characteristic
length (L ) for each component shall be dependent on the structural geometry. The values
of L for superstructure elements shall be as given in Table 8.4.2.
For bridge bearings and abutments, L shall be the length of the supported span.
For intermediate piers, L shall be the sum of the lengths of the adjacent spans.
For bearings supporting floor members, L shall be as given in Table 8.4.2.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

24

TABLE 8.4.2
CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH (L)
Case
No.

Characteristic length (L )
m

Bridge members, types of bridge


Floor members

Stringers

Cross-girder spacing +3.0

End stringers

Cross-girder spacing

Cantilevered stringers

0.5

Cross-girders, including cantilevered crossgirders, loaded by simply supported stringers


and continuous deck elements

Twice the cross-girder spacing +3.0

End cross-girders, including cantilevered end


cross-girders

4.0

Deck slabs between supports

Span of the main girders or twice the span of the


deck slab, whichever is less

Cantilevered deck slabs

Span of the main girders or twice the distance


between each support, whichever is less

Suspension bars or supports loaded by crossgirders only

The values to be used shall correspond to those


applying to the cross-girder, as given in Cases 4
and 5

Main girders
9
10

Simply supported main girders

Span of main girders

Continuous main girders over n spans where

for

L m = 1/n (L 1 + L 2+L n )

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

L = xL m , but L max.
11

Cantilever portions of cantilever bridges

Length of the cantilevered portion plus the span of


any suspended girder supported by the cantilever

12

Suspended girders of suspended span bridges

Span of the suspended girder

13

Arches

Half span

14

Plate web girders at bottom of welded stiffeners

0.5

15

Truss members:

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

(a)

16

Top and bottom chords

Three times the length from adjacent panel points

(b)

Verticals

Three times the length between chords

(c)

Diagonals not intersected by members


complying with this Standard

Three times the horizontal or vertical projection,


whichever is the shorter

(d)

Diagonals intersected by members


complying with this Standard

Six times the horizontal or vertical projection of the


overall length, whichever is the shorter

Lattice girder members:


(a)

Top and bottom flanges and webs

As for main girders

(b)

Lattice members

Six times the horizontal or vertical projection of the


overall length from web to web, whichever is the
shorter
(continued)

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

25

AS 5100.22004

TABLE 8.4.2 (continued)


Case
No.

Characteristic length (L )
m

Bridge members, types of bridge

17

Bracing members:
(a)

Horizontal or vertical members parallel to


or perpendicular to the track

Three times the member length

(b)

Diagonal members with respect to Item (a), Three times the projected length horizontally or
if not intersected by members complying
vertically, parallel to or perpendicular to the track,
with this Standard
whichever is the shorter

(c)

Diagonal members, with respect to


Item (a), if intersected by members
complying with this Standard

Six times the projected overall length horizontally


or vertically, parallel to or perpendicular to the
track, whichever is the shorter

where
n

number of continuous main girder spans

L 1, L 2, L n =

span lengths of a continuous structure, in metres

L max.

largest of the values L1 , L 2, L n , in metres

8.4.3 Dynamic load allowance for bending effects


8.4.3.1 Ballasted deck spans
The value of the dynamic load allowance () for bending moment for ballasted deck spans
shall be as given in Table 8.4.3.1.
TABLE 8.4.3.1
VALUES OF FOR BENDING MOMENT
FOR BALLASTED DECK SPAN
Characteristic length (L )
m

Dynamic load allowance ()

3.6

1.0

>3.6

L0.5 0.20

2.16

0.27

NOTE: The value of shall not be less than 0.

8.4.3.2 Open deck spans and spans with direct rail fixation

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The value of the dynamic load allowance () for bending moment for open deck spans or
spans with direct rail fixation shall be as given in Table 8.4.3.2.
TABLE 8.4.3.2
VALUES OF FOR BENDING MOMENT
FOR OPEN DECK SPANS AND SPANS
WITH DIRECT RAIL FIXATION
Characteristic length (L)
m

Dynamic load allowance ()

2.0

1.6

> 2.0

L0.5
0.20

2.16

0.17

NOTE: The value of shall not be less than 0.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

26

8.4.4 Application
For all parts of the structure extending down to the ground level, the dynamic load
allowance () shall be as specified in Clauses 8.4.3.
For culverts and soil steel structures below the ground level, shall be linearly transitioned
from the ground level value to zero at a cover depth of 2 m. For structures in embankments,
the ground level shall be taken as the underside of the ballast.
The dynamic load allowance established for the appropriate cover depth shall apply to the
entire structure. The depth of the cover shall be measured from the underside of the ballast.
8.4.5 Dynamic load allowance for other load effects
The dynamic load allowance () for shear, torsion and reactions shall be taken as 2/3 of the
value for bending moment.
Where the application of the dynamic load allowance leads to greater safety or stability,
e.g., against overturning, shall be taken as 0.
Where deflections are to be calculated for serviceability loads, including dynamic load
allowance, 2/3 of the dynamic load allowance shall be used.
8.4.6 Dynamic load reversal
Consideration shall be given to the reversal of the dynamic response to live load. Vibrations
may continue and slowly decay after passing of traffic. The frequency and rate of strain in
dynamic load reversal are critical in fatigue damage accumulation. In particular, the
minimum reaction on bearings shall permit for the reduction, which may occur from the
results of the dynamic effects.
8.4.7 Application to dedicated lines and traffic
Where detailed information is available for specific structures and track standard, and
where train speeds are known, may be determined as required by the authority.
NOTE: A procedure for the determination of is described in AS 5100.2 Supp 1.

8.5 Distribution of railway traffic load


8.5.1 General
The distribution of railway live load to the supporting members shall be calculated using a
rigorous analysis in accordance with the appropriate clauses of the relevant material Section
of the Standard.
A1

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

A1

In the absence of a rigorous analysis, railway traffic loads shall be distributed as set out in
Clauses 8.5.2 to 8.5.5, as appropriate.
8.5.2 Open deck steel railway bridges
Timber bridge transoms shall be designed on the assumption that the maximum wheel load
on each rail shall be distributed equally to all transoms or fractions thereof within a length
of 1.2 m, but shall not be greater than three transoms, and the load shall be applied with a
dynamic load allowance of 1.0.
For the design of beams, the live load shall be distributed and shall be applied via the
transoms as above. In such cases, additional longitudinal distribution of such loads shall not
be assumed, and the full dynamic load allowance shall be applied to the beams.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

27

AS 5100.22004

8.5.3 Ballasted deck steel railway bridges


Provided that sleepers are spaced at no more than 700 mm centres, and not less than
150 mm of ballast is provided under them, the load from each axle may be uniformly
distributed longitudinally over a length of 1.1 m, and uniformly distributed laterally over a
width equal to the length of the sleeper plus the minimum distance from the bottom of
sleeper to the top of the beams. This width shall be not greater than 4.0 m, the distance
between track centres of multiple track bridges, or the width of the deck between ballast
retainers.
8.5.4 Ballasted deck concrete railway bridges
Railway traffic loads on ballasted deck railway bridges shall be uniformly distributed
longitudinally over a length of 1 m, plus the depth of ballast under the sleeper, plus twice
the effective depth of slab. The total length shall be not greater than the axle spacing.
The loads shall be uniformly distributed laterally over a width equal to the length of the
sleepers plus the depth of ballast below the bottom of the sleepers, plus twice the effective
depth of the concrete slab, unless limited by the extent of the structure. This width shall not
be greater than the distance between centres of adjacent tracks on multiple track railway
bridges.
8.5.5 Direct fixation
The distribution of rail wheel loads through directly fixed track shall be determined on the
basis of the relative stiffness of the rail, the rail fixing supports and the superstructure.
For the determination of the rail wheel load forces, the dynamic load allowance () shall be
based on a value of L equal to the longitudinal distance between centre-lines of the rail
track supports.
8.6 Horizontal forces
8.6.1 Centrifugal forces
For railway bridges on horizontal curves, allowance shall be made for the centrifugal
effects of railway traffic load by applying a centrifugal force (H CF ) corresponding to each
axle load horizontally through a point 2 m above the top of the rail.
The horizontal centrifugal force shall be proportional to the design railway traffic load, and
for each axle, H CF , in kilonewtons, shall be calculated as follows:
H CF =

0.0077V 2 A
r

. . . 8.6.1

where
Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

V = design speed, in kilometres per hour


A = axle load, in kilonewtons
r = radius of curve, in metres
The specified centrifugal force shall not be increased by the dynamic load allowance.
8.6.2 Braking and traction forces
Railway bridges shall be designed for the forces arising from braking and traction forces
applied to the top of the rails. They shall be proportional to the specified railway traffic
load and, for 300LA load, shall have the values given in Table 8.6.2.
The specified longitudinal force shall not be increased by the dynamic load allowance.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

28

TABLE 8.6.2
BRAKING AND TRACTION FORCES
FOR 300LA LOAD
Track type

Loaded length (L)


m

Horizontal force
kN

All

200 + 20L

L < 50 m

100

L > 50 m

100 + 15(L 50)

Discontinuous
Continuous

For continuous track, the loaded length shall be taken to be the full length of the bridge.
The total longitudinal load on the bridge, as calculated from Table 8.6.2, shall be
distributed to the supports in proportion to their stiffnesses.
For bridges with discontinuous track, the loaded length shall be taken as the length between
the discontinuity and an abutment, or as the length between discontinuities. The
longitudinal load shall be distributed to the supports under the loaded length, in proportion
to their stiffnesses.
Continuous tracks, for the purpose of determining the longitudinal forces specified in this
Clause, shall be those tracks that have no rail discontinuities either on the bridge or within
20 m of either end of the bridge.
Where a structure or element carries two tracks, both tracks shall be considered as being
occupied simultaneously. Loads in either direction shall be applied simultaneous to both
tracks.
Where elements carry more than two tracks, longitudinal loads shall be applied
simultaneously to two tracks only.
8.6.3 Nosing loads
Railway bridges that are intended to carry 300LA traffic loads shall be designed to resist a
lateral nosing load of 100 kN applied at top of rail level in either direction and at any point
along the structure. This load shall be adjusted in proportion to the actual design traffic
load. Nosing loads shall not be increased by the dynamic load allowance. Nosing loads are
independent from the speed and shall not be reduced at low speeds.
8.7 Fatigue load

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

8.7.1 Fatigue design traffic load


The fatigue design traffic load for railway bridges shall be the design railway traffic load
and half of the design dynamic load allowance, with a load factor of 1.0. The distance
between the centre of the axle groups (L v) shall be varied between 12 m and 20 m to
produce the maximum fatigue design stress range (f* ) (see Clause 8.7.3).
8.7.2 Fatigue design stress range (f * )
The fatigue design stress range (f * ) in any element of a bridge structure, shall be derived
from the passage of the fatigue design traffic load over the bridge. It shall be the algebraic
difference between the maximum and minimum stresses caused by that load.
Stresses and stress ranges caused by other load effects need not be included.
8.7.3 Effective number of stress cycles (n)
The effective number of cycles (n) of the fatigue design stress range (f * ) to be considered in
the design of the structure shall be calculated as follows:
n = C Tn T

Standards Australia

. . . 8.7.3

www.standards.org.au

29

AS 5100.22004

where
C T = base number of load cycles for the track category as given in Table 8.7.4
n T = number of equivalent stress cycles of amplitude (f * ) per train, which depends
on L f and L v (see Table 8.7.3)
L f = span of main girders, trusses or stringers; or
cross-girder spacing for cross-girders
L v = distance between the centres of the axle groups (i.e., the length of the
vehicle)
TABLE 8.7.3
VALUES OF nT
Lf

nT

< 2.5

240

2.5 < L f < 9.0

60.0

9.0 < L f < 25.0

( 2 L v Lf )
+ 2
60
Lf

Max . 60
Min . 2

> 25.0

2.0

8.7.4 Track category for fatigue load


The base number of load cycles (C T) for fatigue load depends on the track category and
shall be as given in Table 8.7.4.
TABLE 8.7.4
VALUES OF CT
Track category

CT

Heavy haul

6 10 5

Main line freight

1 10 5

Branch line

1 10 4

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

8.7.5 Multiple track bridges


For elements of multiple track railway bridges that are subject to loads from more than one
track, the fatigue loads, both the fatigue design traffic load specified in Clause 8.7.1 and the
fatigue design stress range specified in Clause 8.7.2, shall be determined from the full
fatigue design traffic load on one track, and a load on the other track(s) of 80% of their full
fatigue design traffic load with no dynamic load allowance.
NOTE: A more accurate calculation may be carried out by estimating the number of load events
in the life of the element in which two or more trains will be loading the element under
consideration at any one time. If the effect of the load from multiple tracks results in a stress
range more severe than that due to a single track, a cumulative damage calculation for the cases
of single-track and multiple-track loads should be performed.

8.8 Load factors


For ultimate and serviceability limit state design loads, the load factors for the design
railway traffic load shall be as given in Table 8.8(A).

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

30

TABLE 8.8(A)
LOAD FACTORS FOR
DESIGN RAILWAY TRAFFIC LOADS
Limit state
Loads
300LA railway traffic load

Ultimate

Serviceability

1.6

1.0

The load factors to be applied in calculating centrifugal, nosing and longitudinal forces
shall be as given in Table 8.8(B).
TABLE 8.8(B)
LOAD FACTORS FOR
DESIGN RAILWAY TRAFFIC LOADS
Limit state

Traffic load

Ultimate

Serviceability

Centrifugal forces

1.6

1.0

Nosing forces

1.6

1.0

Longitudinal braking and traction forces

1.6

1.0

Each of the design horizontal forces due to railway load shall be applied simultaneously
with the vertical railway load and such load cases shall be considered a single load, as
specified in Clause 22.1.3.
Centrifugal forces and nosing loads shall not be applied simultaneously.
8.9 Deflection limits
The deflection limits of a railway bridge under traffic for serviceability limit state shall be
appropriate to the structure and its intended use, the nature of the loading and the elements
supported by it.
Notwithstanding this requirement, the deflection of railway bridges for serviceability limit
state under live load plus dynamic load allowance shall be not greater than 1/640 of the
span and 1/320 of the cantilever projection.
NOTE: In order not to detract from their appearance, bridges should be designed so that their hog
does not exceed 1/300 of the span and they do not sag under permanent loads.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Railway bridges shall not deflect so that they infringe clearance diagrams.
9 MINIMUM LATERAL RESTRAINT CAPACITY
To ensure that the superstructure has sufficient lateral restraint to resist lateral forces not
otherwise accounted for in the design, a positive lateral restraint system between the
superstructure and the substructure shall be provided at piers and abutments.
For continuous superstructures, lateral restraints may be omitted at some piers provided
each continuous section of the superstructure between expansion joints is adequately
restrained.
The restraint system for each continuous section of the superstructure shall be capable of
resisting an ultimate design horizontal force normal to the bridge centre-line of 500 kN or
5% of the superstructure dead load at that support, whichever is greater. Supports providing
this lateral restraint shall also be designed to resist this design force. A load factor of 1.0
shall be used.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

31

AS 5100.22004

Restraints shall have sufficient lateral clearance to allow thermal movements, especially on
wide and curved superstructures.
If the transverse load requirement specified in other Parts of AS 5100 is greater than the
requirements of this Clause, then the restraints may be deemed to satisfy the requirements
of this Clause.
10 COLLISION LOADS
10.1 General
Collision protection shall be considered in accordance with AS 5100.1. The design collision
loads shall be as specified in Clauses 10.2 to 10.4, where applicable.
10.2 Collision load from road traffic
Where the supports for a road bridge or a railway bridge are not located behind appropriate
protective traffic barriers, they shall be designed to resist a minimum equivalent static load
of 2000 kN applied at an angle of 10 from the direction of the road centre-line passing
under the bridge. The load shall be applied 1.2 m above ground level. This load, in
conjunction with the ultimate design dead loads on the structure, shall be considered at
ultimate limit states, with a load factor of 1.0.
10.3 Loads on protection beams
Where required by the relevant authority, protection beams shall be installed to protect the
superstructure of low clearance bridges from impact from road vehicles. They shall be
designed for the ultimate loads given in Table 10.3, with a load factor of 1.0.
TABLE 10.3
ULTIMATE LOADS ON PROTECTION BEAMS
Ultimate limit state
kN

Loads
Horizontal loads

1000 (towards the bridge)


750 (away from the bridge)

Vertical load (uplift)

500

Protection beam supports shall be capable of resisting loads 25% greater than the capacity
of the protection beam itself.
10.4 Collision load from rail traffic

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

10.4.1 General
This Clause applies to all structures above the railway track including railway bridges over
other railways, overbridges, pedestrian bridges, air space developments, developments
adjacent to railways and similar structures in underground railways.
This Clause does not apply to
(a)

structures that only support signals, overhead wiring, lighting or communications


equipment;

(b)

gang sheds adjacent to tracks; or

(c)

waiting rooms and ticket offices on platforms.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

32

10.4.2 Provision of alternative load path


Where an alternative load path is to be provided, the superstructure shall be designed with
sufficient redundancy to be capable of supporting the deck load plus 20% of the live load at
the ultimate limit state with one or more piers or columns removed. The number of supports
to be removed shall be determined by a risk analysis approved by the relevant rail authority.
In the case of railway bridges over other railways and where determined by the relevant rail
authority, the live load for the redundancy action shall be increased from 20% to 60%.
10.4.3 Collision loads on support elements
Unless specified otherwise by the rail authority, supports for bridges and structures located
within 10 m of the centre-line of the railway track, not complying with the redundancy
requirements of Clause 10.4.2, shall be designed to resist the following minimum collision
loads applied simultaneously as an ultimate design load with a load factor of 1.0:
(a)

3000 kN parallel to rails.

(b)

1500 kN normal to rails.

The loads specified in Items (a) and (b) shall be applied horizontally, 2 m above rail level
and shall be applied in conjunction with the ultimate design dead loads on the structure.
Where supporting elements are located between 10 m and 20 m from the centre-line of the
railway track, a risk analysis shall be carried out by the relevant rail authority, which shall
determine the required level of protection. If the level of redundancy does not meet the
requirements of Clause 10.4.2, the piers and columns shall be designed to resist a minimum
collision load applied as an ultimate load of 1500 kN, at any angle in the horizontal plane,
2 m above the rail level.
NOTE: Some rail authorities permit relaxation of this loading where platforms, under certain
conditions, provide protection to the columns.

10.4.4 Bridge and structural components within 10 m of the centre-line of the railway
track
Any part of any structure specified in Clause 10.4.1, including the superstructure, within
10 m horizontally and 5 m vertically of the centre-line of the nearest railway track, shall be
designed for a 500 kN minimum collision load applied as an ultimate design load. The
collision load shall be applied in any direction. Above 5 m and up to 10 m vertically above
the railway track level, this collision load shall vary linearly from 500 kN at 5 m to zero at
10 m. When applied vertically upwards, the force shall be distributed over an area of one
square metre, to allow for roof crushing of the railway vehicle.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The 500 kN force may act in conjunction with the ultimate design dead load and either
(a)

g DL +1.0 collision load ................................................(min. g shall be used); or

(b)

g DL + 0.4 LL LL + 1.0 collision load ................................. (max. g shall be used);

whichever gives the worst case. Relaxation of the 500 kN collision load on supporting
members complying with the redundancy provisions of Clause 10.4.2 is permitted, but not
for members of the superstructure.
Platforms shall not be assumed to provide a degree of protection to permit reduction of the
500 kN collision load.
The 500 kN collision load shall not be applied in conjunction with the loads specified in
Clause 10.4.3.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

33

AS 5100.22004

10.4.5 Underground railway, air space developments and similar situations


For all underground railways and air space developments, except on platforms, the 500 kN
collision load specified in Clause 10.4.4 shall be increased to 1500 kN. When applied
vertically upwards, this 1500 kN collision force shall be distributed over an area of 2 m2.
10.4.6 Other design requirements
In addition to the design requirements specified herein, any other design requirements of
the relevant rail authority shall be satisfied.
The loads specified herein shall also be applied to deflection walls.
A load factor of 1.0 for the ultimate limit state shall be used.
Piers and columns shall be designed for the same load combinations specified in
Clause 10.4.4.
10.5 Derailment loads
10.5.1 General
Railway bridges designed to carry 300LA loads shall be designed for two separate train
derailment load cases as set out in Clauses 10.5.2 and 10.5.3. The loads shall be
proportioned if a different live load is specified. Derailment loads shall only be considered
for the ultimate limit state without dynamic load allowance, and shall act in combination
with long-term permanent effects.
10.5.2 Derailment load Case A
In derailment load Case A, a bridge shall be designed for the more unfavourable of the
following loads:
(a)

300LA load applied as wheel loads, separated by the track gauge, parallel to the track,
and in the most unfavourable position within a distance G B of track centre-line.

(b)

A single point load of 200 kN, acting in the most unfavourable position within a
distance G B of the track centre-line;

where G B is equal to 1.5 times the railway gauge.


For the loads specified in Items (a) and (b), an ultimate load factor of 1.2 shall be used.
10.5.3 Derailment load Case B

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

In derailment load Case B, a bridge shall be designed for an equivalent line load of
100 kN/m, over a length of up to 20 m, acting on the edge of the superstructure, using an
ultimate load factor of 1.0.
11 KERB AND BARRIER DESIGN LOADS AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS FOR
ROAD TRAFFIC BRIDGES
11.1 Kerb design loads
Kerbs shall be designed to resist an ultimate design load of 15 kN per metre applied
laterally at the top of the kerb.
11.2 Barriers
11.2.1 General
A1

The design criteria, including loads and geometric requirements, provided in this Clause 11
and in AS 5100.1, shall be used for the following:
(a)

Developing a prototype barrier for a crash test program to validate vehicle/barrier


interaction performance.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

(b)

34

Designing minor modifications to a barrier system which has been validated by either
crash testing or performance review to develop a geometrically and structurally
equivalent barrier. The modified barrier shall not have features that are absent in the
validated configuration, which might detract from the performance of the barrier
system.

The design of any modified barrier system shall ensure that the locations and capacities of
components are capable of safely redirecting all vehicles nominated in the crash test vehicle
criteria for that barrier performance level in AS 5100.1.
In order to minimize damage to bridge decks and for safety considerations, bridge barriers
shall be designed as progressive strength systems in which barriers and then their
connections fail prior to the failure of the supporting elements.
11.2.2 Traffic barrier design loads
The ultimate design loads and load distribution lengths for low and regular traffic barrier
performance levels as defined in AS 5100.1 are given in Table 11.2.2.
The ultimate design loads and load distribution lengths for the barrier performance levels,
medium and special, shall be the subject of specific investigations consistent with the
criteria specified in Clause 11 and AS 5100.1, and shall be determined by the authority.
NOTE: Typical design loads for medium and special performance level barriers are given in
Appendix A.

A load factor of 1.0 shall apply to the design of bridge barriers.


TABLE 11.2.2
TRAFFIC BARRIER DESIGN LOADS AND CONTACT LENGTHS
Ultimate
transverse
outward load
(F T)

Ultimate
longitudinal or
transverse
inward load
(F L)

Vehicle contact
length for
transverse loads
(L T) and
longitudinal loads
(L L)

Ultimate vertical
downward load
(F V)

Vehicle contact
length for
vertical loads
(LV )

kN

kN

kN

Low

125

40

1.1

20

5.5

Regular

250

80

1.1

80

5.5

Barrier
performance
level

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

NOTE: The data given in the Table is based on a lateral combined barrier/vehicle deformation of 0.3 m for the
low and regular performance levels.

The design of a barrier system using Table 11.2.2 requires a detailed analysis, such as a
yield line analysis for a concrete parapet or an inelastic plastic moment analysis for a steel
post and rail barrier.
The following load combinations shall be considered:
(a)

Transverse and longitudinal loads applied simultaneously.

(b)

Vertical loads only.

The loads given in Table 11.2.2 shall be applied uniformly over the relevant specified
contact lengths.
All loads shall be applied to the longitudinal barrier elements. The distribution of the
longitudinal loads to posts shall be consistent with the continuity of rail elements.
Distribution of transverse loads shall be consistent with the assumed failure mechanism of
the barrier system.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

35

AS 5100.22004

11.2.3 Effective height


The effective height of a barrier is defined as the height of the resultant of the lateral
resistance forces of the individual components of the barrier. Traffic barriers shall have
sufficient height to ensure that the minimum effective height is achieved.
Traffic barriers shall have an effective height greater than or equal to the required minimum
effective height given in Table 11.2.3.
The minimum effective height for the medium and special performance levels shall be the
subject of specific investigation consistent with the criteria specified in Clause 11 and
AS 5100, and shall be determined by the authority.
The equivalent actual heights for rigid concrete parapets may be marginally higher than, but
not less than, the minimum effective height.
For low performance level traffic barriers, the minimum effective height given in
Table 11.2.3 is 500 mm.
For concrete, metal or combined concrete and metal barriers with a vertical face, the
minimum actual height shall be 700 mm unless prototype testing indicates that a lower
height system fulfils the requirements of the TRB-NCHRP 350 Specification.
For regular performance level traffic barriers, the minimum actual height above the
reference surface shall be 800 mm.
For low and regular traffic performance level barriers, the effective barrier height may not
be sufficient to prevent a vehicle with a high centre of gravity from tipping over. In this
case, a higher actual barrier may be required, as specified by the authority.
NOTE: Typical minimum effective heights for medium and special performance level barriers are
given in Appendix A.

TABLE 11.2.3
MINIMUM EFFECTIVE HEIGHT
OF TRAFFIC BARRIER
Barrier
performance level

Minimum effective height (H e)


mm

Low

500

Regular

800

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

11.2.4 Anchorage
The yield strength of steel anchor bolts for the barrier shall be fully developed by bond,
hooks, attachment to embedded plates or any combination thereof. Other means of
anchorage shall be as approved by the authority.
Reinforcing steel for concrete barriers shall have sufficient embedment length to develop
the yield strength.
A load factor of 1.05 shall apply to the design of anchor bolts and anchorage reinforcement.
11.2.5 Continuity
Full lateral strength shall be provided throughout the barrier length.
In the case of steel railing, splices may be provided by bolted sleeve joints or full
penetration butt welds. In the splice section, for bending and shear, full rail continuity shall
be provided. For tension, a minimum of 75% rail continuity shall be provided in the splice
section.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

36

11.3 Bridge deck cantilevers


The loads transmitted to the bridge deck shall be determined from the results of load testing
and ultimate strength analysis of the barrier system using the loads given in Table 11.2.2.
A load factor of 1.1 shall apply to the design of deck cantilevers for the effects of barrier
loads.
The barrier impact loads and traffic loads on the deck need not be applied simultaneously
when designing the deck.
11.4 Expansion joints and end parapets
11.4.1 Post and rail type barriers
Joints providing continuity between lengths of rails or across expansion or rotational joints,
where the total longitudinal movement at rail level is 50 mm or less, shall be capable of
transmitting 75% of the tensile strength of the theoretical gross rail section. The joints shall
be capable of transmitting the full design requirement of the rail in bending at any extension
of the joint.
Joints across expansion or rotational joints, where the total longitudinal movement at rail
level is greater than 50 mm, shall be capable of transmitting the full design requirement of
the rail in bending and shear at any extension up to the full design movement at the joint
plus 100 mm.
Special end posts shall be provided at each side of the joint spaced as closely together as is
practicable to compensate for the loss in beam action of the barrier over the joint.
Joints where significant movements take place in a vertical or transverse horizontal
direction shall, where possible, comply with this Clause. Where compliance is not possible,
a discontinuity of the barrier is permitted. The gap between the ends of the rail shall be not
greater than the calculated maximum joint gap plus 25 mm.
It is emphasized that this discontinuity is only permitted in extreme cases. Some form of
bridging of the ends of the rails shall be devised to prevent a vehicle that is in contact with
a deflected length of barrier directly striking the end of an undeflected length. When a
bridging piece is used, it shall be securely attached to the end of the rail on the approach
end.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

11.4.2 Rigid parapets


Panels on either side of movement joints shall be designed to stand alone and shall not have
any shear transfer arrangements incorporated across the joint. Where large movements take
place, which would produce a gap greater than 25 mm between panels, a bridging plate
shall be incorporated. Any such bridging plate shall be securely fixed at the traffic approach
end, and shall be corrosion resistant and replaceable.
11.5 Pedestrian barriers
Pedestrian barriers shall be designed for a static load of 0.75 kN/m, acting simultaneously
in a transverse and vertical direction on each longitudinal member, or the appropriate wind
load, whichever produces the most adverse effects.
Where the authority requires pedestrian barriers to restrain crowds or people under panic
conditions, simultaneously acting transverse and vertical design loads of 3.0 kN/m shall be
used.
The static deflection of a pedestrian barrier subject to the above serviceability loadings
shall not exceed
(a)

for longitudinal members, L/800; and

(b)

for post, h/300,

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

37

AS 5100.22004

where
L = span of the member between posts
h = height of the top rail
The load factor to be applied in calculating the design barrier loadings shall be as given in
Table 11.5.
TABLE 11.5
LOAD FACTOR FOR DESIGN
PEDESTRIAN BARRIER LOAD
Limit state
Load
Pedestrian load

Ultimate

Serviceability

1.8

1.0

12 DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR
12.1 General
Vibration induced in bridges by the passage of vehicles and in pedestrian bridges by
pedestrians may constitute a serviceability limit state if the level of vibration causes alarm
or public unease as to the safety of the structures.
12.2 Road bridges
12.2.1 With walkways
The vibration of a road bridge shall be investigated as a serviceability limit state if the
structure is fitted with a walkway intended for public use. The serviceability design load of
0.7 (M1600 moving traffic load without UDL), including dynamic load allowance, shall
be positioned along the spans and within any design traffic lane to produce the maximum
static deflection of the walkway. The deflection at the centre of the walkway shall be not
greater than that shown in Figure 12.2.1, unless an investigation complying with
Clause 12.2.3 is undertaken.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

This Clause shall be applied to bridges and similar structures that support platforms or other
areas intended for public use.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

FIGURE 12.2.1 STATIC DEFLECTION LIMITS FOR ROAD BRIDGES WITH WALKWAYS

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

AS 5100.22004

Standards Australia

38

www.standards.org.au

39

AS 5100.22004

12.2.2 Without walkways


Where the deflection of a road bridge without a public walkway complies with the limits
specified in Clause 6.11, the vibration behaviour of the bridge need not be specifically
investigated.
12.2.3 Detailed dynamic analysis
Where the deflection limits specified in Clause 6.11 and Clause 12.2.1 are exceeded, the
vibration behaviour of the bridge shall be assessed by a rational method of analysis, using
acceptance criteria appropriate to the structure and its intended use, as approved by the
authority.
12.3 Railway bridges
Where required by the relevant railway authority, vibration behaviour shall be assessed by a
rational method of analysis using acceptance criteria appropriate to the structure and its
intended use, as approved by the authority.
12.4 Pedestrian bridges
For pedestrian bridges with resonant frequencies for vertical vibration inside the range
1.5 Hz to 3.5 Hz, the vibration of the superstructure shall be investigated as a serviceability
limit state. Superstructures shall be proportioned such that, with one pedestrian traversing
the structure, the maximum dynamic amplitude shall be not greater than the limit shown in
Figure 12.4. The design pedestrian load shall have a weight of 700 N and be assumed to
cross the structure at an average walking speed, i.e., 1.75 to 2.5 footfalls per second.
This Clause shall also apply to bridges and similar structures that support access routes to
platforms or other areas intended for public use.
When the fundamental frequency of horizontal vibration is less than 1.5 Hz, special
consideration shall be given to the possibility of excitation by pedestrians of lateral
movements of unacceptable magnitude.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

NOTE: Bridges with low mass and damping, and expected to be used by crowds of people, are
particularly susceptible to such vibrations. Refer to specialist literature.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

40

A1

FIGURE 12.4 DYNAMIC AMPLITUDE LIMITS FOR PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES

12.5 Special structures


This Standard does not provide acceptance criteria for the dynamic behaviour of bridges
with spans in excess of 100 m, or suspension and cable-stayed bridges. The dynamic
behaviour of such structures under the action of traffic, wind or other loadings shall be the
subject of special investigations.
13 EARTH PRESSURE
13.1 General
The load effects on a retaining structure due to earth pressure loads shall be determined in
accordance with AS 5100.3.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

13.2 Surcharge loads from road traffic loads


Where highway live loads can approach within a distance equal to the effective height of
the wall from the backface of the structure, an equivalent load caused by an additional
height of fill, which diminishes over the height of the wall, as shown in Figure 13.2, shall
be assumed for the purpose of calculating design earth pressure. This load shall be assumed
to act above the finished grade and over the entire length of the retaining structure. The
effect of foundations or other loads placed in or on the backfill, within a distance equal to
the effective height of the wall, shall also be included.
The live load surcharge shall be applied irrespective of whether or not there is provision for
an approach slab in the bridge design.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

41

AS 5100.22004

FIGURE 13.2 EQUIVALENT LOAD DUE TO LIVE LOAD SURCHARGE

13.3 Surcharge loads from railway loads


Where sleepers supporting railway traffic load are located within a distance from the back
face of a retaining wall or abutment equal to the effective height of the retaining structure,
an additional surcharge load equal to the railway traffic load shall be applied as a uniform
load at the level of the underside of the sleepers as shown in Figure 13.3. An equivalent
load caused by an additional height of fill shall be applied, or an alternative method of
allowing for surcharge shall be used.
In determining the distribution of rail loads at the underside of sleepers, it is assumed that
the total train load over any given length of track shall be uniformly distributed over the
area defined by the length of sleepers and the length of track considered. The length of
track shall be selected to produce the worst design effects. The resulting distributed loads
shall be considered in the design as discrete areas of surcharge.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

These areas of surcharge shall be distributed with increasing depth below the underside of
sleepers. The width of the distribution perpendicular to the track centre-line shall be
increased in each direction at a slope of 1 horizontally to 2 vertically, to a maximum width
of 4.5 m, to determine the maximum vertical earth pressures at depth as a result of
surcharge.
When adjacent rail traffic load distributions overlap, the total load shall be considered to be
uniformly distributed over the area defined by the outside limits of the individual rail load
distributions at that depth. The total width of the distribution so determined shall not exceed
the total width of the structure supporting the fill and, if the centroid of the load is not
coincident with the loaded area, the load distribution shall be taken to vary linearly to
satisfy statics.
When determining lateral earth pressures on retaining walls and abutments, the areas of
surcharge at the underside of sleepers shall be taken to apply pressures to the structure if
they are located within the zone of a 45 projection from the heel or base of the retaining
structure.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

42

FIGURE 13.3 SURCHARGE LOADS FOR RAILWAY TRAFFIC LOADS

14 EARTHQUAKE FORCES
14.1 General

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

For the design of bridge structures, earthquake effects shall be considered in accordance
with this Clause. However, some factors to be used in the calculation of earthquake effects,
which are in common with those given in AS 1170.4, are not repeated in this Clause. When
specifically referred to, the factors given in AS 1170.4 shall be used. Other parts of
AS 1170.4 shall not be used for earthquake design of bridges.
The provisions for earthquake design in this Clause are applicable to bridges of
conventional superstructure types, such as slab, beam and slab, box girder and truss types,
with spans not greater than 100 m. For other bridges, specialist advice shall be sought for
the assessment of earthquake effects.
Not all bridges are required to be designed for earthquake forces. Where required,
earthquake forces shall be determined by either
(a)

static analysis; or

(b)

dynamic analysis (response spectrum analysis or time history analysis).

The method of analysis depends on the bridge earthquake design category and the bridge
structural configuration, as specified in Clause 14.4. The bridge earthquake design category
depends on the following:
(i)

The bridge classification (see Clause 14.3.2).

(ii)

The acceleration coefficient (see Clause 14.3.3).

(iii) The site factors (see Clause 14.3.4).


Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

43

AS 5100.22004

14.2 Limit state


The earthquake effects calculated in accordance with Clause 14 shall be considered as
design effects at the ultimate limit state, for member strengths, overall stability of both the
structure and its components and horizontal movements.
14.3 Bridge earthquake design category
14.3.1 General
The bridge earthquake design category (BEDC) shall be as given in Table 14.3.1, for the
appropriate value of the product of acceleration coefficient and site factor (aS), where a is
the acceleration coefficient and S is the site factor and the bridge classification.
TABLE 14.3.1
BRIDGE EARTHQUAKE DESIGN CATEGORY (BEDC)
Product of acceleration
coefficient and site factor
(aS)

Bridge classification
Type III

Type II

Type I

aS 0.2

BEDC-4

BEDC-3

BEDC-2

0.1 aS < 0.2

BEDC-3

BEDC-2

BEDC-1

aS < 0.1

BEDC-2

BEDC-1

BEDC-1

14.3.2 Bridge classification


Bridges and associated structures, such as approach retaining walls, shall be classified as
follows:
(a)

Type III Bridges and associated structures that are essential to post-earthquake
recovery, as determined by the relevant authority.

(b)

Type II Bridges that are designed to carry large volumes of traffic or bridges over
other roadways, railways or buildings.

(c)

Type I Bridges not of Type II or Type III.

14.3.3 Acceleration coefficient


The acceleration coefficient (a) shall be as specified in AS 1170.4.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

14.3.4 Site factor


The site factor (S) shall be as specified in AS 1170.4 for the appropriate soil profile below
the founding level. The soil profile shall be established from geotechnical data and
classified in accordance with AS 1726. Interpolation for soil profiles in between those given
in AS 1170.4 is permitted.
14.4 Requirements for earthquake design
14.4.1 General
The method of analysis of earthquake effects and any additional requirements shall be as
specified in Clauses 14.4.2 to 14.4.5, depending on the bridge earthquake design category.
Where the relevant authority considers that a bridge structure is particularly important or
has unusual or special features, the requirements for earthquake design for a more severe
BEDC may be adopted.
14.4.2 Requirements for BEDC-1
Bridge structures in BEDC-1, where the maximum span is less than or equal to 20 m, need
not be analysed for earthquake forces.
www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

44

For bridge structures in BEDC-1, where the maximum span exceeds 20 m, effects of
horizontal earthquake forces, determined using static analysis in accordance with
Clause 14.5, shall be considered.
For bridge structures in BEDC-1, which do not require analysis for earthquake forces, the
minimum lateral restraint provisions of Clause 9 apply. For other bridges in BEDC-1, the
detailing of restraining devices, bearings and deck joints shall be in accordance with
Clause 14.7.
14.4.3 Requirements for BEDC-2
For bridge structures in BEDC-2, the effects of earthquake forces shall be determined using
either static analysis, in accordance with Clause 14.5, or a dynamic analysis in accordance
with Clause 14.6.
Where the maximum span is less than or equal to 35 m, the effects of horizontal earthquake
forces only need be considered. Where the maximum span exceeds 35 m, the effects of both
horizontal and vertical earthquake forces shall be considered.
For all bridges in BEDC-2, the detailing of structural members, restraining devices,
bearings and deck joints shall be in accordance with Clause 14.7.
14.4.4 Requirements for BEDC-3
For bridge structures in BEDC-3, the effects of both horizontal and vertical earthquake
forces shall be considered.
Where there is one dominant mode of free vibration in a particular direction, horizontal or
vertical, the effects of earthquake forces in that direction shall be determined using either
static analysis in accordance with Clause 14.5, or a dynamic analysis in accordance with
Clause 14.6.
Where more than one mode of free vibration contributes to the dynamic response or the
bridge structure is complicated or irregular in its mass or stiffness distribution in any
direction, or both, the effects of earthquake forces shall be determined using a dynamic
analysis in accordance with Clause 14.6.
For all bridges in BEDC-3, the detailing of structural members, retaining devices, bearings
and deck joints shall be in accordance with Clause 14.7.
14.4.5 Requirements for BEDC-4

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

For bridge structures in BEDC-4, the effects of both horizontal and vertical earthquake
forces shall be determined using a dynamic analysis in accordance with Clause 14.6, and
the detailing of structural members, restraining devices, bearings and deck joints shall be in
accordance with Clause 14.7.
14.5 Static analysis
14.5.1 General
Horizontal design earthquake forces shall be determined in the direction of each principal
axis or in the major orthogonal directions of the structure. These horizontal forces shall be
assumed to act non-concurrently and shall be considered as separate load cases.
Where required, a vertical design earthquake force shall be determined, and shall be
considered independently of the horizontal design earthquake forces.
14.5.2 Horizontal earthquake force

( )

The total horizontal design earthquake force H u* in each direction shall be applied at a
vertical level that corresponds to the mass centroid of the bridge deck when considered in
elevation. The design force shall be distributed along the length of the bridge, in accordance
with the distribution of the mass of the bridge deck. A separate design force shall be
Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

45

AS 5100.22004

determined for and applied to each continuous section of the bridge deck considered in each
principal direction.
The horizontal design earthquake force
equation:

(H )
*
u

shall be determined from the following

CS
G g
H u* = I
Rf

. . . 14.5.2(1)

within the limits


H u* 0.02G g ; and

. . . 14.5.2(2)

2.5a
G g
H u* I
Rf

. . . 14.5.2(3)

where
I

= importance factor (see Clause 14.5.3)

= earthquake design coefficient (see Clause 14.5.4)

= site factor (see Clause 14.3.4)

R f = structural response factor (see Clause 14.5.5)


G g = total unfactored dead load including superimposed dead load (see Clause 5)
a

= acceleration coefficient (see Clause 14.3.3)

14.5.3 Importance factor


The importance factor (I) shall be as given in Table 14.5.3.
TABLE 14.5.3
IMPORTANCE FACTOR
Structure type

Importance factor, I

III

1.25

II and I

1.00

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

14.5.4 Earthquake design coefficient


The earthquake design coefficient (C) shall be determined for each horizontal and vertical
direction separately from the following equation:
C=

1.25a
T

. . . 14.5.4(1)

where T (in seconds) is the structure period of the first dominant mode of free vibration in
the direction under consideration.
The structure period (T) shall be determined by structural analysis based on a recognized
theoretical approach.
For bridge structures in BEDC-1 only, T may be approximated from
T = 0.063

. . . 14.5.4(2)

where is the displacement under self-weight, in millimetres, with gravity applied in the
direction of interest, i.e., horizontal or vertical.
www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

46

For bridge structures in BEDC-1 only and with a more general mass distribution, T may be
approximated from
mi ( i )

T = 2

. . . 14.5.4(3)

g (mi i )

The structure is represented by a number of discrete masses (m i) in kilograms, while i , in


metres, is the deflection at the centroid of mass (m i ) due to a force of (m i g) applied at the
centroid in the direction of interest.
14.5.5 Structural response factor
The structural response factor (R f ) shall be the minimum value given in Table 14.5.5 for the
appropriate bridge structural system.
TABLE 14.5.5
STRUCTURAL RESPONSE FACTOR
Bridge structural system

Structural response factor (R f)

Piers and deck form a continuous frame to resist


horizontal earthquake force

6.0

Deck continuous over piers, supported on bearings

5.0

Bridges with single column piers to resist horizontal


earthquake force

3.5

Bridges with simply supported spans

3.0

14.5.6 Vertical earthquake force


The total vertical design earthquake force, acting either up or down, shall be determined
using the procedures of Clause 14.5.2, considering the structure period of the dominant
mode of free vibration in the vertical direction. The vertical design force shall not be less
than 50% of the maximum horizontal design earthquake force in either direction. The
vertical design earthquake force does not include normal gravity force. Vertical earthquake
forces shall be applied to the structure in accordance with the distribution of mass. The
distribution of forces between the superstructure and the substructure shall be in accordance
with the stiffness of the bearings or connections. Where vertical earthquake forces do not
produce adverse critical effects, they shall be ignored.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The vertical earthquake force shall be considered independently of the horizontal


earthquake forces.
14.5.7 Abutments and retaining walls
The seismic design of abutments and retaining walls shall take into account forces from
static earth pressures, seismically induced lateral earth pressures, additional forces arising
from wall and backfill inertia effects and the transfer of seismic forces from the bridge
deck. The effects of vertical acceleration shall be omitted. The calculation of seismically
induced lateral earth pressures shall be in accordance with accepted engineering principals
such as the pseudo-static Mononobe-Okabe method.
For freestanding abutments or retaining walls that may displace horizontally without
significant restraint, the earthquake design coefficient equals to one half the acceleration
coefficient (C h = 0.5a). Abutments shall be proportioned to slide rather than tilt and
provisions shall be made to accommodate horizontal seismically induced abutment
displacements of up to 250a mm.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

47

AS 5100.22004

For freestanding abutments and retaining walls that are restrained from horizontal
displacement by anchors or batter piles, the earthquake design coefficient (C h) equal to
1.5a.
14.6 Dynamic analysis
Dynamic analysis, when used, shall be performed generally in accordance with AS 1170.4.
The analysis method may be either a response spectrum analysis or a time history analysis.
For the response spectrum analysis method in accordance with AS 1170.4, scaling of
results, directional effects and torsion are not applicable to bridge structures, and shall be
ignored. A sufficient number of modes of free vibration shall be included in the total
response so that, for each direction, at least 90% of the structures mass has been accounted
for in the participating mass.
The effects of dynamic earthquake forces shall be considered in the horizontal directions
corresponding to the direction of each principal axis, or in the major orthogonal directions
of the structure and the vertical direction, as specified in Clause 14.4. The effects in each
direction shall be considered independently.
The analysis shall take account of torsional effects by use of a suitable three-dimensional
mathematical model of the structure, which represents the spatial distribution of the mass
and stiffness of the structure to an extent which is adequate for the determination of the
significant features of its dynamic response.
14.7 Structural detailing requirements for earthquake effects
14.7.1 General

A1

For all bridges, good detailing practices and design for ductile behaviour shall be employed
where practicable, to guard against the effects of unexpected seismic disturbances.
Sufficient ductility to deal with unexpected seismic disturbances shall be deemed to be
achieved in bridges with a Bridge Design Category of BEDC-1 or BEDC-2 if the structure
is analysed using a response factor (R f ) equal to 2.0, and the elements designed for the
resulting actions. Particular attention shall be given to the prevention of dislodgment of the
superstructure from its support system and the provision of viable, continuous and direct
load paths from the level of the bridge deck to the foundation system.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

14.7.2 Restraining devices


Where the horizontal restraints of conventional bearings are inadequate under earthquake
effects, restraining devices, such as ties, shear keys, stops and dowels, shall be provided
with the specific aim of preventing dislodgment of the superstructure from the support
structure. Restraining devices and connections shall be designed to withstand the horizontal
design earthquake forces calculated in accordance with Clause 14.5 or Clause 14.6, but not
less than the minimum lateral restraint force specified in Clause 9. Vertical restraint devices
shall be provided at all supports where the vertical design earthquake force opposes and is
greater than 50% of the static reaction under permanent loads. The vertical restraint device
shall be designed to resist not less than 10% of the vertical reaction from the permanent
effects of the support.
Due to the nature of earthquake loads, horizontal restraints cannot be assumed to rely on
any component of friction. For assessment of the structure under any load combination
which includes earthquake effects, the friction coefficient between any material types shall
be equal to zero.
14.7.3 Provision for horizontal movements
Bearings and deck joints shall accommodate the horizontal movements due to earthquake
effects calculated in accordance with Clause 14.5 or Clause 14.6.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

48

Where excessive movements, which are outside the range of conventional bearings or deck
joints are expected, additional devices may be used to limit movements under earthquake
loadings only. These special devices, such as buffer bearings, shall be designed to be
activated after a large, but tolerable, horizontal movement to prevent failure of sliding
bearings and deck joints.
Bearing seats supporting expansion ends of the superstructure for bridges in BEDC-2,
BEDC-3 and BEDC-4 shall be designed to provide a minimum support length measured
normal to the face of an abutment or pier (Lbs ) of

Lbs = (200 + 1.7 Ld + 6.7 hd ) 1 + 0.000125 2s 10 3

. . . 14.7.3

where
L d = length of the superstructure to the next expansion joint
h d = average height of the columns or piers supporting the superstructure length Ld
s = angle of skew of the support measured from a line normal to the span

14.7.4 Soil behaviour


For soil behaviour, the following shall be taken into consideration:
(a)

The effects of excessive settlement of approach embankments and allowances made


for increased earth pressure on earth retaining structures.

(b)

Loose granular soils, when subjected to seismic loading of sufficient duration and
intensity, may suddenly lose their strength and behave as viscous liquids. This
possibility of soil liquefaction shall be investigated where saturated sandy and silty
soils within 10 m of the ground surface have a standard penetration test value of 10 or
less.

14.7.5 Ductile behaviour


14.7.5.1 General requirements
For bridge structures in BEDC-2, BEDC-3 and BEDC-4, a clearly defined collapse
mechanism shall be established. The structural members shall be ductile at the potential
plastic hinge locations defined in the mechanism.
Minimum ductility requirements for the design of these structural members under
earthquake design loads shall be as specified in AS 5100.5 and AS 5100.6. These
requirements are to ensure that the required ductility at potential plastic hinges can be
achieved.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

14.7.5.2 Pile to pile cap connection


For bridge structures in BEDC-2, BEDC-3 and BEDC-4, the connection between each pile
and its pile cap shall be designed to resist a tensile force of not less than 10% of N * for the
pile.
15 FORCES RESULTING FROM WATER FLOW
15.1 General
When a bridge crosses a river, stream or any other body of water, it shall be designed to
resist the effects of water flow and wave action, as applicable. The design shall include an
assessment of how the water forces may vary in an adverse manner under the influence of
debris, log impact, scour and buoyancy of the structure.
Tidal and wave actions shall be considered on bridges across large bodies of water,
estuaries and open sea.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

49

AS 5100.22004

15.2 Limit states


15.2.1 Ultimate limit states
The ultimate limit states define the capability of a bridge to withstand, without collapse,
any flood of a magnitude up to and including that with a 2000 year average return interval,
whichever produces the most severe effect. It can be accepted that scour of the stream bed
and considerable damage to approaches and embankments may take place, provided that the
structural integrity of the bridge is maintained.
As the critical design condition may occur at the flood level which just causes overtopping
of the superstructure, an estimate of the return interval of such a flood shall be made and, if
appropriate, this condition shall be considered in the design.
Where the critical design condition occurs at an average return interval of less than
2000 years, the ultimate load factor (WF ) shall be obtained from Figure 15.2.1, but shall be
not greater than 2.0.
A1

FIGURE 15.2.1

ULTIMATE LOAD FACTOR (WF)

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

15.2.2 Serviceability limit states


The serviceability limit states define the capability of the road and bridge systems to remain
open during a serviceability design flood or to sustain an overtopping flood without damage
to bridges, culverts, floodways or embankments within the system. The serviceability
design flood shall be that with a 20 year average return interval.
15.3 Forces on piers due to water flow
15.3.1 Drag forces on piers
In bridge structures subjected to water flow effects, the fluid forces on the piers are
dependent on the pier shape, the water velocity and the direction of the water flow. The
design drag forces parallel to the plane containing the pier (as shown in Figure 15.3.1) shall
be calculated as follows:
(a)

( )

Ultimate design drag force Fdu* :


Fdu* = 0.5 CdVu2 Ad

www.standards.org.au

. . . 15.3.1(1)

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

50

( )

Serviceability design drag force Fds* :

(b)

Fds* = 0.5 C dVs2 Ad

. . . 15.3.1(2)

where
C d = drag coefficient, depending upon pier shape
Vu

= mean velocity of water flow for ultimate limit states at the level of the
superstructure or debris as appropriate

Vs

= mean velocity of water flow for serviceability limit states at the level of the
superstructure or debris as appropriate

Ad

= area, equal to the thickness of the pier normal to the direction of the water
flow, multiplied by the height of the water flow

In the absence of more exact estimates, the value of C d shall be assumed as follows:
C d = 0.7 (semi-circular pier nosing)
= 1.4 (square end pier nosing)
= 0.8 (wedge, sharper than 90, nosing)
15.3.2 Lift forces on piers
The design lift forces, perpendicular to the plane containing the pier (as shown in
Figure 15.3.1) shall be calculated as follows:
(a)

( )

*
:
Ultimate design lift force FLu
*
FLu
= 0.5C LVu2 AL

(b)

. . . 15.3.2(1)

( )

Serviceability design lift force FL*s :


FL*s = 0.5C LVs2 AL

. . . 15.3.2(2)

where
C L = lift coefficient, which depends on the angle between the water flow direction
and the plane containing the pier
AL

= area, equal to the width of the pier parallel to the direction of the water flow,
multiplied by the height of the flow

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

In the absence of more exact estimates, the value of C L shall be assumed as follows:
C L = 0.9 for w 30
= 1.0 for w > 30
where w is the angle between the direction of the water flow and the transverse centre-line
of the pier.
NOTE: In plate or wall-type piers angled to the direction of flow, transverse lift-type forces can
be significant.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

51

AS 5100.22004

FIGURE 15.3.1 DRAG AND LIFT FORCES ON PIERS

15.4 Forces on superstructures due to water flow


15.4.1 General
A superstructure that is partially or fully submerged in a flood is subjected to
(a)

a drag force normal to its longitudinal axis;

(b)

a vertical lift force (positive upwards); and

(c)

a moment about the girder soffit level (clockwise positive with the water flow from
left to right).

The loads specified in Items (a), (b) and (c) shall be determined in accordance with
Clauses 15.4.2, 15.4.3 and 15.4.4, as appropriate.
15.4.2 Drag force on superstructures
The drag force on superstructures shall be calculated as follows:

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

(a)

( )

Ultimate design drag force Fd*u :


Fdu* = 0.5C dVu2 As

(b)

. . . 15.4.2(1)

Serviceability design drag force ( Fds* ):


Fds* = 0.5C dVs2 As

. . . 15.4.2(2)

where
C d = drag coefficient
As

= wetted area of the superstructure, including any railings or parapets, projected


on a plane normal to the water flow

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

52

The value of C d for superstructures shall be obtained from Figure 15.4.2(A). The relative
submergence (S r) and the proximity ratio (P r) shall be calculated as follows:
Sr =
Pr =

d wgs

. . . 15.4.2(3)

d sp
y gs

. . . 15.4.2(4)

d ss

where
d wgs = vertical distance from the girder soffit to the flood water surface upstream of
the bridge (see Figure 15.4.2(B))
d sp

= wetted depth of the superstructure (including any railings or parapets)


projected on a plane normal to the water flow (see Figure 15.4.2(B))

y gs

= vertical average distance from the girder soffit to the bed assuming no scour
at the span under consideration (see Figure 15.4.2(B))

d ss

= wetted depth of the solid superstructure (excluding any railings but


including solid parapets) projected on a plane normal to the water flow (see
Figure 15.4.2(B))

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

FIGURE 15.4.2(A) SUPERSTRUCTURE Cd

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

53

AS 5100.22004

FIGURE 15.4.2(B) DIMENSIONS

15.4.3 Lift force on superstructures


The lift force on a superstructure shall be calculated as follows:
(a)

( )

*
Ultimate design lift force FLu
:
*
FLu
= 0.5 C LV u2 AL

(b)

. . . 15.4.3(1)

( )

Serviceability design lift force FLs* :


FLs* = 0.5 C L Vs2 AL

. . . 15.4.3(2)

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

where
C L = lift coefficient
A L = plan deck area of the superstructure
The value of C L shall be obtained from Figure 15.4.3. Two lift forces shall be calculated at
each S r . The upper value of C L shall be used when determining the resistance of the
structure to overturning and the tie down requirements for the superstructure. Where
upward lift forces on the superstructure are possible, a positive tie-down system shall be
provided.
The lower value of C L , a downward force, shall be considered in the design of the deck,
girders, substructure and foundations. In determining the design flood load for each of these
components, the downward force shall be combined with the moment as described in
Clause 15.4.4.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

54

FIGURE 15.4.3 SUPERSTRUCTURE CL

15.4.4 Moment on a superstructure


The drag and lift forces generate a moment about the longitudinal axis of the superstructure.
The moment at the soffit level at the centre-line of the superstructure shall be calculated as
follows:
(a)

Ultimate design moment M g* u :


*
M gu
= 0.5 C m Vu2 As d sp

(b)

. . . 15.4.4(1)

Serviceability design moment M g*s :


M g*s = 0.5 C m Vs2 As d sp

. . . 15.4.4(2)

where
C m = moment coefficient

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The value of C m shall be obtained from Figure 15.4.4.

FIGURE 15.4.4 SUPERSTRUCTURE Cm

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

55

AS 5100.22004

15.4.5 Loads on superstructures with superelevation


The loads on a superstructure with a positive superelevation (upstream face raised) of up to
4% shall be calculated as described in Clauses 15.4.2 to 15.4.4. The loads on a
superstructure with a negative superelevation of up to 4% shall be calculated as described
in Clauses 15.4.2 to 15.4.4, but with the following adjustments to the coefficients:
(a)

The value of C d shall be increased by 5%.

(b)

The magnitude of C L shall be increased by 20%.

(c)

The value of C m shall be the same as for a level superstructure.

If the superelevation is greater than 4%, the upward lift force shall be calculated in the
same manner as for wall type piers (see Clause 15.3.2) except that A L shall be taken as the
plan deck area. Values of C L shall be calculated by interpolation of the values given in
Clause 15.3.2.
For superelevations outside this range, study of specialist literature or physical model
testing shall be undertaken.
15.5 Forces due to debris
15.5.1 Depth of debris mat
The depth of a debris mat varies depending on factors such as catchment vegetation,
available water flow depth and superstructure span. In the absence of more accurate
estimates, the minimum depth of debris mat for design shall be 1.2 m and the maximum
depth shall be 3 m.
15.5.2 Debris acting on piers
A debris load acting on piers shall be considered for bridges where the flood level is below
the superstructure. The length of a debris mat shall be taken as one half the sum of the
adjacent spans or 20 m, whichever is the smaller. The debris load shall be applied at midheight of the debris mat, assuming the top of the debris mat is at the flood level.
15.5.3 Debris acting on superstructures
A debris load acting on superstructures shall be considered for bridges where the flood level
is above a level of 600 mm below the soffit level. The length of the debris mat shall be the
projected length of the superstructure. The debris load shall be applied at mid-height of the
superstructure, including any railing or parapets.
15.5.4 Calculation of debris load

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The ultimate and serviceability design forces due to debris shall be calculated using
Equations 15.5.4(1) and 15.5.4(2) respectively:
(a)

( )

Ultimate design drag force Fdu* :


. . . 15.5.4(1)

Fdu* = 0.5 C d Vu2 Adeb

(b)

( )

Serviceability design force Fds* :


Fds* = 0.5 C d Vs2 Adeb

. . . 15.5.4(2)

where
Cd

= obtained from Figure 15.5.4(A), for debris acting on piers


obtained from Figure 15.5.4(B), for debris acting on superstructures

A deb = projected area of debris


NOTE: The depth of debris varies depending on the catchment vegetation.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

56

Debris forces shall not be used concurrently with water flow forces except that, in
determining the resistance of the structure to overturning, an upward lift force shall be
assumed when the debris is acting on the superstructure. The upward lift force shall be the
sum of the lift force, calculated using Equations 15.4.3(1) and 15.4.3(2) given in
Clause 15.4.3 and the buoyancy force. A value of 0.5 for C L shall be used.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

FIGURE 15.5.4(A) PIER DEBRIS C d

FIGURE 15.5.4(B) SUPERSTRUCTURE DEBRIS C d

15.6 Forces due to log impact


Where floating logs are possible, the ultimate and serviceability design forces exerted by
such logs directly hitting piers or superstructure shall be calculated on the assumptions that
a log with a minimum mass of 2 t will be stopped in a distance of 300 mm for timber piers,
150 mm for hollow concrete piers, and 75 mm for solid concrete piers. If fender piles or
sheathing, to absorb the energy of the blow, are placed upstream from the pier, the stopping
Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

57

AS 5100.22004

distance shall be increased. The design forces shall be calculated using the mean velocity of
water flow at flood level V s for serviceability limit states, or V u for ultimate limit states, as
appropriate.
The forces due to log impact and debris shall not be applied concurrently. Log impact shall
be applied with such other water flow forces as appropriate.
15.7 Effects due to buoyancy and lift
In assessing the effects of buoyancy and lift on bridge structures, consideration shall be
given to the following:
(a)

The effects of buoyancy and lift on substructure, including piling, and superstructure
dead loads. Buoyancy shall be applied concurrently with other water flow forces.

(b)

For beam and slab or box girder bridges, the provision of horizontal bleed holes in
webs or diaphragms, or both, or vertical bleed holes in the deck to dissipate air, which
may be trapped between high water level and the underside of the deck slab. Several
escape paths and a minimum diameter of 50 mm for vertical bleed holes and 75 mm
for horizontal bleed holes shall be used.

(c)

Provision of drainage from internal cells.

The provision of a positive tie-down system for the superstructure shall be provided for an
*
+ Buoyancy g DL , where g shall be the lower value given
ultimate force equal to 1.5 FLu
in Table 5.2.
16 WIND LOADS
16.1 General
This Clause specifies design wind loads for conventional bridge structures. For windsensitive structures, such as suspension or long-span cable-stayed bridges, which may be
subject to wind excited oscillations, special investigations into the dynamic behaviour of
the structure shall be carried out. Wind loads on lighting, traffic signal and traffic sign
structures shall be in accordance with Clause 23. Wind loads on noise barriers shall be in
accordance with Clause 24.
16.2 Design wind speed
16.2.1 General

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The design wind speed shall be derived from the appropriate regional basic design wind
speeds, after adjustment for
(a)

average return interval;

(b)

geographical location;

(c)

terrain category;

(d)

shielding; and

(e)

height above ground.

The average return interval shall be as specified in this Clause. The values and factors for
Items (b) to (e) shall be obtained from AS/NZS 1170.2.
16.2.2 Average return interval
The average return interval to be adopted shall be as follows:
(a)

For ultimate limit states ........................................................................... 2000 years.


The regional basic design wind speed for a 2000 year average return interval shall be
as specified in AS/NZS 1170.2 for that interval.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

(b)

58

For serviceability limit states ....................................................................... 20 years,


(for wind in conjunction with permanent effects only).
For serviceability limit state wind loads in conjunction with road traffic loads on a
structure, the selection of a wind speed for a specified return interval is not
appropriate and the design wind speed shall be taken as 35 m/s in all locations. The
effect of wind on road traffic load need not be considered.

16.3 Transverse wind load


16.3.1 Calculation of transverse wind load
The transverse wind load shall be taken as acting horizontally at the centroids of the
appropriate areas, and shall be calculated as follows:
(a)

Ultimate design transverse wind load ( W tu* ):


W tu* = 0.0006 Vu2 At C d

(b)

. . . 16.3(1)

Serviceability design transverse wind load ( W ts* ):


W ts* = 0.0006 Vs2 At C d

. . . 16.3(2)

where
Vu

= design wind speed for ultimate limit states

Vs

= design wind speed for serviceability limit states

At

= area of the structure for calculation of wind load

Cd

= drag coefficient

16.3.2 Area of structure for calculation of transverse wind load (A t)

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The area of the structure or element under consideration shall be the solid area in normal
projected elevation subject to the following:
(a)

Superstructures with solid parapets The area of the superstructure shall include the
area of the solid windward parapet, but the effect of the leeward parapet need not be
considered.

(b)

Superstructures with open parapets The total load shall be the sum of the loads for
the superstructure, the windward barrier and the leeward barrier considered
separately. Where there are more than two parapets or safety fences, irrespective of
the width of the superstructure, only those two elements having the greatest
unshielded effect shall be considered.

(c)

Piers Shielding shall not be considered.

16.3.3 Drag coefficient (Cd)


The drag coefficient (C d) shall be determined as follows:
(a)

Drag coefficient for all superstructures with solid elevation For superstructures with
or without traffic load, C d shall be as shown in Figure 16.3.3
where
b = overall width of the bridge between outer faces of parapets
d = depth of superstructure, including solid parapet, if applicable

(b)

Aerodynamic shape factor for truss girder superstructures The wind force on truss
girder superstructures shall be calculated by considering each component
individually, using the aerodynamic shape factor specified in AS/NZS 1170.2.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

59

AS 5100.22004

(c)

Drag coefficients for beams during erection The drag coefficient for beams and
girders during erection shall be calculated for individual beams as shown in
Figure 16.3.3. Shielding shall not be considered for individual beams, but may be
allowed for when two or more beams are connected, provided the ratio of the clear
distance between beams to the depth is not be greater than 7. Where the ratio of the
clear distance between connected beams to the depth is greater than 7, the drag
coefficient for the combination shall be taken as 1.5 times the value for an individual
beam.

(d)

Aerodynamic shape factor for parapet railings, parapet barriers and


substructures Aerodynamic shape factors shall be obtained from AS/NZS 1170.2.

A1

NOTES:
1

The values given assume a vertical elevation and a horizontal wind.

Where the windward face is inclined to the vertical, the drag coefficient (Cd ) may be reduced by 0.5% per
degree of inclination from the vertical, subject to a maximum reduction of 30%.

Where the windward face consists of a vertical and a sloping part or two sloping parts inclined at different
angles, the wind load shall be derived as follows:
(a) The basic drag coefficient (C d) shall be calculated using the total depth of the structure.
(b) For each non-vertical face, the basic drag coefficient calculated above shall be reduced in accordance
with Note 2.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

(c) The total wind load shall be calculated by applying the appropriate drag coefficients to the relevant
areas.
4

Where a superstructure is superelevated, Cd shall be increased by 3% per degree of inclination to the


horizontal, but not by more than 25%.

Where a superstructure is subject to wind inclined at not more than 5 to the horizontal, C d shall be
increased by 15%. Where the angle of inclination exceeds 5, the drag coefficient shall be derived from
tests.

Where a superstructure is superelevated and also subject to inclined wind, the drag coefficient shall be the
subject of special investigation.

FIGURE 16.3.3 DRAG COEFFICIENT (Cd ) FOR SUPERSTRUCTURES


WITH SOLID ELEVATION

16.4 Longitudinal wind load


For piers, truss bridges and other superstructure forms, which present a significant surface
area to wind loads parallel to the longitudinal centre-line of the structure, a longitudinal
wind load shall be considered. The ultimate and serviceability design longitudinal wind
loads shall be calculated in a manner similar to those for transverse wind loads.
NOTE: Longitudinal wind loads on the superstructure may also be significant during the
construction stage of some bridge types, which are not affected by these loads during service.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

60

16.5 Vertical wind load


An upward or downward vertical wind load, acting at the centroid of the appropriate area,
shall be calculated as follows:
(a)

Ultimate design vertical wind load ( W vu* ):


W vu* = 0.6 V u2 Ap C L 10 3

(b)

. . . 16.5(1)

Serviceability design vertical wind load ( W vs* ):


W vs* = 0.6 Vs2 Ap C L 10 3

. . . 16.5(2)

where
V u = design wind speed for ultimate limit states
V s = design wind speed for serviceability limit states
A p = bridge area in plan
C L = lift coefficient
= 0.75
Equations 16.5(1) and 16.5(2) may be used provided the angle of inclination of the wind to
the structure is less than 5. For inclinations greater than 5, the lift coefficient shall be
investigated by testing.
16.6 Wind on railway live load
The effect of wind on railway live load shall be included in both ultimate and serviceability
limit state load combinations and shall be considered to act with the design railway traffic
load.
The area to be considered in the calculation of the wind load on railway live load shall be
the solid area in normal projected elevation of the train area where it protrudes beyond the
projected elevation of the bridge structure. For the calculation of the projected area, a train
on the bridge shall be assumed to be 3.7 m in height, taken from the top of rails. The point
of application shall be taken as 1.85 m above the top of the rails.
The drag factor to be used in calculating the force for wind on the bridge plus live load
shall be obtained from Clause 16.3.3(a), with the height d taken as the projected area of the
train and the bridge, and the width b as specified in Clause 16.3.3(a).

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

17 THERMAL EFFECTS
17.1 General
Daily and seasonal fluctuations in air temperature and solar radiation cause both variations
in average bridge temperature and differential temperature gradients across structural
members.
Variation in average bridge temperature shall be used as a basis for
(a)

assessment of bearing and deck joint movement requirements; and

(b)

evaluation of design loads or load effects resulting from the restraint of associated
expansion or contraction by either the form of the structure, e.g., as in portal frames
and arches, or by the support and bearing stiffnesses.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

61

AS 5100.22004

Differential temperatures within bridge superstructures result in load effects within the
section. In the case of statically indeterminate or restrained structural forms, these
differential temperatures also cause both longitudinal and transverse parasitic load effects,
which shall be taken into account in the design.
17.2 Variation in average bridge temperature
Extremes of shade air temperature appropriate to the structure location shall be as given in
Table 17.2(1).
Consideration shall be given to particular site characteristics, e.g., frost pockets and
sheltered low-lying areas where the minimum shade air temperature may be substantially
lower; and in urban and coastal areas where the minimum values may be higher than the
values given in Table 17.2(1).
For major or special structures, extreme shade air temperatures for the actual site shall be
determined. For minor structures, consideration shall be given to increase displacements
determined for the range of average bridge temperatures to allow for limited supervision
and control of setting bearings and deck joints.
For concrete superstructures (Types 1 and 2 shown in Figure 17.3), the minimum and
maximum average bridge temperatures shall be derived from the minimum and maximum
shade air temperatures by reference to Table 17.2(2). Average temperature values indicated
relate to bridge cross-sections with a depth of up to 2 m. Where sections are greater than
2 m in depth, an allowance shall be made in average temperatures to account for the heat
sink effect.
For superstructures consisting of a concrete deck on steel girders (Type 3 shown in
Figure 17.3), the range of average bridge temperatures given in Table 17.2(2) shall be
extended by reducing the minimum average temperature by 5C and increasing the
maximum average by 10C.
For superstructures consisting of a steel deck on steel girders, such as pedestrian bridges,
the range of average bridge temperatures given in Table 17.2(2) shall be extended by
reducing the minimum average temperature by 10C and increasing the maximum average
by 20C.
TABLE 17.2(1)
SHADE AIR TEMPERATURES

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Location

Height
above sea
level
m

Inland

Coastal

Shade air temperature


C
Region I
North of 22.5S

Region II
South of 22.5S

Region III
Tasmania

Max.

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Min.

1000

46

45

37

>1000

36

36

10

32

10

1000

44

44

35

>1000

34

34

30

NOTE: Coastal locations are locations that are less than 20 km from the coast.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

62

TABLE 17.2(2)
AVERAGE BRIDGE TEMPERATURES
Min.
Shade air temp
C

Average bridge temp


C

10

12
Max.

NOTE: Linear
permitted.

50

54

46

50

42

46

38

43

34

40

30

37

interpolation

of

intermediate

values

is

17.3 Differential temperature


The effects of vertical differential temperature gradients through a bridge superstructure
shall be derived for both positive temperature differential conditions, where solar radiation
has caused a gain in top surface temperatures, and negative temperature differentials, where
re-radiation of heat from the section results in relatively low top surface temperatures.
Design effective vertical temperature gradients, appropriate to various regions and
superstructure types, shall be as shown in Figure 17.3. These design temperature gradients
have been derived for cases where decks are unsurfaced or where surfacing will be limited
to 50 mm of bituminous concrete. For substantially greater thicknesses of surfacing, some
reduction in design temperature gradients may be warranted.
For those parts of rail bridge decks covered by ballast greater than 100 mm thick, the
differential temperature distribution shall be as given in Figure 17.3, but in such cases the
maximum temperature of the temperature profiles given shall apply at the top of the ballast,
with a corresponding reduced temperature applying at the top of the bridge deck.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

The effects of transverse differential temperature gradients across the superstructure also
needs to be considered for some structures, such as very wide bridges.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

63

Bridge type
A1

Concrete beam
and slab, or
slab

Concrete box
girders

Concrete slab
on steel trough,
box or I girders

AS 5100.22004

Typical cross-section

Effective temperature gradient

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Regional values for T


Key

Region
Positive differential temperature gradients
Negative differential temperature gradients

Regional category

20C Continental-inland of Great Dividing Range


or further than 200 km from coast (typical
Canberra, Alice Springs)

18C Coastal temperatureNo further than


200 km from coast (typical Perth, Adelaide.
Melbourne, Sydney)

14C Coastal sub-tropical, monsoonal (typical


Brisbane, Darwin)

NOTE: The temperature gradient given for deck slabs forming closed box cells should only apply for slab thicknesses,
including any internal fillets, of d less than 300 mm. Therefore, any deck slab, or part thereof, over a box cell with a
thickness greater than 300 mm, should be subject to the general effective vertical temperature gradient shown.

FIGURE 17.3 DESIGN EFFECTIVE VERTICAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS


www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

64

17.4 Limit states


Thermal effects shall be considered, where they adversely affect a structure, as follows:
(a)

For ultimate limit states The thermal effects that are applicable to the structure, as
determined from the relevant material Section of this Standard, shall be considered,
and the ultimate design effects shall be determined using a load factor of 1.25.

(b)

For serviceability limit states All thermal effects shall be considered, and the
serviceability design effects shall be determined using a load factor of 1.0.

The effects of vertical and transverse differential temperatures shall be considered


separately.
18 SHRINKAGE, CREEP AND PRESTRESS EFFECTS
18.1 Shrinkage and creep effects
Consideration shall be given to the effects of shrinkage and creep in concrete structures.
The characteristics of different types and different ages of concrete shall be considered.
Shrinkage and creep strains shall be calculated in accordance with AS 5100.5.
The design effects shall be calculated using the nominal dead loads of the structure and a
load factor of 1.2 for ultimate limit states, and 1.0 for serviceability limit states.
Shrinkage and creep effects shall be included in serviceability design checks for stresses,
cracking and deflection.
Where shrinkage and creep affect the strength or stability of a structure or its components,
these effects shall be taken into consideration.
18.2 Prestress effects
The secondary effects of prestress induced in restrained components and indeterminate
structures shall be considered in the design of prestressed concrete structures. These effects
shall be included in the ultimate and serviceability limit states using a load factor of 1.0.
The case of dead loads plus prestress at transfer shall be considered as an ultimate limit
state using the load factors given in Table 5.2 for unfavourable and favourable dead load, as
applicable, and an ultimate load factor of 1.0 for all prestress effects.
19 DIFFERENTIAL MOVEMENT OF SUPPORTS
19.1 Differential settlement effects

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Where differential settlement of the supports, especially in continuous span configurations,


affects the structure in whole or in part, the effects shall be taken into consideration.
Differential settlement shall be calculated assuming permanent loads only acting, and using
the nominal dead loads of the structure, except that for railway bridges, the additional
settlement due to traffic load, including the dynamic load allowance, shall be included.
The differential settlement or rotation shall take account of the relief afforded by creep and
soil-structure interaction.
Design differential settlement effects shall be included in the serviceability limit states for
the structure, including bearings and deck joints, using a load factor of 1.0. For railway
bridges, spans shall be proportioned such that there is no net uplift at bearings.
Consideration shall be given to whether differential settlement effects need to be included
in the ultimate limit states loads for the structure. Where a structure has negligible plastic
capacity, differential settlement effects shall be included in the ultimate limit states using a
load factor of 1.5.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

65

AS 5100.22004

19.2 Mining subsidence effects


Bridge structures in areas underlain by known coal deposits shall be designed to cater for
anticipated mining subsidence effects, which may include a vertical displacement or change
in the slope of the ground, or the development of surface strains.
Mining subsidence effects shall be included in the serviceability limit state checks of the
superstructure, bearings, deck joints and substructure, using a load factor of 1.0.
The foundations shall be designed for mining subsidence effects at ultimate limit states,
using a load factor of 1.5.
20 FORCES FROM BEARINGS
Bridges shall be designed for the forces arising from the friction of sliding and rolling
bearings, and the load-displacement characteristics of elastomeric bearings.
The forces due to friction on bearings shall be calculated considering permanent loads only
acting.
Characteristic values of the coefficient of friction, under normal operating conditions of
bearings, shall be as specified in AS 5100.4.
For ultimate limit states, the design friction force shall be calculated using the characteristic
coefficient of friction, the nominal dead loads of the structure and a load factor of 1.3, in
combination with other ultimate limit state loads.
For serviceability limit states, the average design friction forces, calculated using the
characteristic coefficient of friction, the nominal dead loads of the structure and a load
factor of 1.0, shall be treated as a permanent effect, acting in either direction.
The coefficient of friction of any surface intended for sliding to accommodate movements
of a structure shall be taken as zero as one of the ultimate limit states.
The effects of a seized bearing in conjunction with permanent loads and thermal movements
shall be considered.
21 CONSTRUCTION FORCES AND EFFECTS
21.1 General
The permanent forces and effects introduced during construction shall be considered in the
design. Allowance shall also be made for the weight of any falsework or plant that may be
carried by the structure, resulting from the anticipated method or sequence of construction.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Forces arising during possible methods of construction and the stability and serviceability
of the component parts shall be considered.
Where the design is dependent on a particular method of construction, the structure shall be
capable of safely sustaining all construction loads, and these constraints inherent in the
design shall be clearly detailed in the drawings and specifications.
The ability of bridge supporting members to withstand the effect of flood and wind forces
occurring during construction shall also be investigated.
Time related relaxation of construction effects shall be considered where appropriate.
21.2 Temporary structures
Temporary structures shall be designed in accordance with the appropriate Standards.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

66

22 LOAD COMBINATIONS
22.1 Classification of loads and load effects
Loads and load effects are divided into permanent effects (PE), thermal effects and transient
effects.
22.1.1 Permanent effects (PE)
Permanent effects shall include the following:
(a)

Structure dead load.

(b)

Additional permanent loads (superimposed dead loads).

(c)

Earth pressure loads.

(d)

Normal water flow loads and buoyancy.

(e)

Shrinkage and creep effects (zero effects and full effects).

(f)

Prestress effects (before and after losses).

(g)

Bearing friction or stiffness forces and effects.

(h)

Differential settlement and/or mining subsidence effects.

22.1.2 Thermal effects


Thermal effects shall include the following:
(a)

Effects due to variation in average bridge temperature.

(b)

Differential temperature effects.

22.1.3 Transient effects


Transient effects shall include the following:
(a)

Vehicular traffic loads, including dynamic effects.

(b)

Pedestrian traffic loads.

(c)

Wind loads.

(d)

Earthquake loads.

(e)

Flood loads including debris and impact loadings.

Wind on both the structure and the railway live load, in combination with the railway traffic
load, shall be considered to be a single transient effect.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

22.2 Ultimate limit state load combinations


The ultimate limit state load combinations to be considered for ultimate analyses shall
include the following:
(a)

PE + ultimate thermal effects.

(b)

PE + ultimate traffic loads.

(c)

PE + ultimate collision load.

(d)

PE + ultimate pedestrian traffic loads.

(e)

PE + ultimate wind load.

(f)

PE + ultimate flood load.

(g)

PE + earthquake.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

67

AS 5100.22004

For Items (a) and (f), where they produce more severe loading, the serviceability traffic
loads shall be included in these combinations, provided that the structure is open to traffic
under ultimate conditions.
For Items (b) and (e), where they produce more severe loading, the serviceability thermal
effects shall be included in these combinations, if they produce an adverse effect.
Permanent effects and ultimate wind load on the structure together with the railway traffic
load using a load factor of 1.0, and no dynamic load allowance shall be one of the ultimate
limit state load combinations considered. If the effect of the vertical railway traffic load is
beneficial to the structure, a load factor of 0.25 on the railway traffic load shall be
considered.
22.3 Serviceability limit state load combinations
At serviceability limit states, more than one transient load can co-exist at any time. The
basic combination to be considered for serviceability limit states shall be as follows:
PE + (serviceability design load for one transient effect)
+ k (serviceability design load for one or more other transient or thermal effect)
where
k = coefficient
= 0.7 for one additional effect
= 0.5 for two additional effects
22.4 Design loads specific to an element
Many elements of a bridge, such as traffic barriers and piers have a specified accidental
collision load. In such cases, in addition to any other applicable load combination, the
element shall be designed for
PE + collision load
23 ROAD SIGNS AND LIGHTING STRUCTURES
23.1 General
This Clause shall apply to lighting support structures, traffic signal supports and traffic sign
structures, whether post-mounted or attached to overhead gantries or other structures.
23.2 Limit states

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

23.2.1 Ultimate limit state


Ultimate limit state shall be defined as a loss of static equilibrium, inelastic instability and
failure to further sustain the design load.
23.2.2 Serviceability limit state
Serviceability limit state shall be defined as excessive vibration from lateral or cross-wind
effects induced by vortex shedding, leading to fatigue or failure of electrical components or
other functional problems. The critical wind speed, where the frequency of vortex shedding
equals a structure resonance frequency, shall be greater than the maximum serviceability
design wind speed or low enough to produce very small vibratory amplitudes only.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

68

23.3 Design wind speeds


23.3.1 Ultimate limit state
The ultimate limit state design wind speed shall be determined as follows:
(a)

For sign structures which span over traffic, including traffic signal mast arms, the
design wind speed shall be as specified in AS/NZS 1170.2 for a 1000 year return
period.

(b)

For light poles, signs and signals over 5 m, the design wind speed shall be as
specified in AS/NZS 1170.2 for a 200 year return period.

(c)

For minor sign structures less than 5 m in height, the design wind speed shall not be
less than 35 m/s.

23.3.2 Serviceability limit state


The serviceability limit state design wind speed shall be determined as follows:
(a)

For sign structures which span over traffic, traffic signal mast arms, light poles and
signs over 5 m, the design wind speed shall be as specified in AS/NZS 1170.2 for a
20-year return period.

(b)

For minor sign structures less than 5 m in height, the design wind speed shall not be
less than 20 m/s.

23.4 Design wind pressure


The design wind pressure (q * ) (kPa) for ultimate limit states or, serviceability limit state,
shall be calculated using an equivalent dynamic pressure approach as follows:
q * = 0.6 C dV w2 10 3

. . . 23.4

where
C d = drag coefficient given in Table 23.4 or determined in accordance with
AS/NZS 1170.2, as appropriate
V w = design wind speed for the ultimate limit states or serviceability limit state
determined in accordance with Clause 23.3, as appropriate

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

NOTE: For tall slender structures, such as high masts, the equivalent dynamic pressure approach
may be unconservative. As an alternative, the dynamic response factor method of determining
design wind loads may be used in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.2.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

69

AS 5100.22004

TABLE 23.4
DRAG COEFFICIENTS FOR ELEVATED SIGN
PANELS, LUMINAIRES AND TRAFFIC SIGNALS
Sign panels
(more than 2 m above ground level)
Width to height ratio of sign
(see Note)

Drag coefficient (C d)

1.0

1.18

2.0

1.19

5.0

1.20

10.0

1.23

15.0

1.30
Luminaires

With rounded surface

0.5

With rectangular, flat-sided shape

1.2

Traffic signals

1.2

NOTE: For immediate values, use linear interpolation.

23.5 Design loads


The design loads shall consist of a combination of the appropriate limit state design dead
load and wind load. The wind load shall be assumed to come from any direction at the
design wind speed specified in Clause 23.3.
23.6 Service live load on walkways
In structures fitted with walkways or service platforms, or both, the design load shall be as
specified in Clause 7.2.
This design load shall be applied in conjunction with design dead and wind loads for
serviceability limit states. For ultimate limit states, it shall be applied with design dead
loads only.
24 NOISE BARRIERS
24.1 Wind pressure on noise barriers
Wind pressures on noise barriers shall be determined in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.2
and subject to the requirements of Clauses 24.2 to 24.8 and this Standard.
Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

24.2 Average return interval


A1

A1

The average return interval to be used for the calculation of the ultimate limit state wind
forces for design shall conform to the situation descriptions given as follows, subject to
approval by the authority:
(a)

200 for noise barriers that are located on road or rail authority property and cannot
fall onto or slide down a slope onto other property, roadway, walkway or onto traffic
areas;

(b)

2000 for noise barriers that can fall onto railways and onto roadways designated as
essential to post-disaster functions; and

(c)

500 for all other noise barriers.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

70

24.3 Design life


The design life for noise barriers shall be 50 years.
24.4 Change in terrain category
Any change in terrain category shall be taken into consideration in accordance with
AS/NZS 1170.2.
24.5 Shielding multiplier (Ms)
The shielding multiplier (Ms) specified in AS/NZS 1170.2 shall be taken as 1.0.
24.6 Topographic multiplier
AS/NZS 1170.2 accounts for sites in relation to the topographic features of hills, ridges and
escarpments.
Where the topography along a length of noise barriers varies, then each situation shall be
assessed taking into account its location relative to the prevailing topographic feature.
Road embankments shall be treated as a hill or an escarpment. A road embankment shall be
treated as an escarpment provided it meets the requirements for an escarpment and,
additionally, the top width of the embankment is greater than or equal to the greater of
(a)

5 times the upwind height of the embankment; and

(b)

5 times the height of the upwind noise barrier.

24.7 Net pressure for hoardings and freestanding walls


The pressure coefficient shall be determined in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.2.
Noise barriers on bridges shall be treated as hoardings. Other noise barriers shall be treated
as freestanding walls.
Where gates and gaps occur in the noise barrier, the barrier adjacent to the gap or gate shall
be treated as a free end.
24.8 Free ends

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Special consideration shall be given to the design of free ends.

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

71

AS 5100.22004

APPENDIX A

DESIGN LOADS FOR MEDIUM AND SPECIAL PERFORMANCE LEVEL


BARRIERS
(Informative)
A1 GENERAL
This Appendix provides guidance for the authority to assist in determining the ultimate
design loads and load distribution lengths for medium and special performance level
barriers.
The loads given in Tables A1 and A2 are based on a lateral combined vehicle/barrier
deformation of 0.5 m.
A2 DESIGN LOADS
A2.1 Medium performance level barriers
For medium performance level barriers, the loads and distribution lengths given in
Table A1 may be adopted unless the authority determines that other values are appropriate.
TABLE A1
DESIGN LOADS FOR MEDIUM PERFORMANCE LEVEL BARRIERS

Barrier
performance level

Medium

Ultimate
transverse
outward
load
(F T)

Ultimate
longitudinal or
transverse
inward load
(F L)

Vehicle contact
length for transverse
loads, L T and
longitudinal loads
(L L)

Ultimate
vertical
downward
load
(F V)

Vehicle
contact length
for vertical
loads
(LV )

kN

kN

kN

500

170

2.4

350

12.0

A2.2 Special performance level barriers


For special performance level barriers, the loads and distribution lengths given in Table A2
may be adopted unless the authority determines that other values are appropriate.
TABLE A2

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

DESIGN LOADS FOR SPECIAL PERFORMANCE LEVEL BARRIERS

Barrier performance
level

Test level 6 (36 t


articulated tanker)
Greater than test
level 6 (44 t articulated
van)

Ultimate
transverse
outward
load
(F T)

Ultimate
longitudinal
or transverse
inward load
(F L)

Vehicle contact length


for transverse loads,
L T and longitudinal
loads
(L L)

Ultimate
vertical
downward
load
(F V)

Vehicle
contact length
for vertical
loads
(LV )

kN

kN

kN

750

250

2.4

350

12.0

1000

330

2.5

450

15.0

For other special performance level barriers, the loading criteria are to be determined by the
authority.

www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia

AS 5100.22004

72

A3 EFFECTIVE HEIGHTS
The minimum effective heights given in Table A3 may be adopted for medium and special
performance level barriers unless the authority determines that other values are appropriate.
TABLE A3
MINIMUM EFFECTIVE HEIGHT
OF TRAFFIC BARRIER
Barrier performance level

Minimum effective
height (H e )
mm

Medium

1100

Special
(TL636 t Articulated tanker)

1400

Special
(> TL644 t Articulated tanker)

1400
To be specified by
the authority

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

SpecialOther

Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

73

AS 5100.22004

AMENDMENT CONTROL SHEET


AS 5100.22004
Amendment No. 1 (2010)

CORRECTION
SUMMARY: This Amendment applies to the Preface, Clauses 2, 5.4, 6.7.3(ii), 7.3, 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 11.2.1, 14.7.1,
24.2, Figures 6.2.3, 6.2.4, 12.4, 15.2.1, 16.3.3 and 17.3.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Published on 19 April 2010.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

AS 5100.22004
74

NOTES

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

75

NOTES

AS 5100.22004

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

AS 5100.22004
76

NOTES

Standards Australia
Standards Australia develops Australian Standards and other documents of public benefit and national interest.
These Standards are developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested
parties are invited to participate. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth Government,
Standards Australia is recognized as Australias peak non-government national standards body. Standards Australia
also supports excellence in design and innovation through the Australian Design Awards.
For further information visit www.standards.org.au

Australian Standards
Committees of experts from industry, governments, consumers and other relevant sectors prepare Australian
Standards. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are a consensus of the views
of representative interests and also take account of comments received from other sources. They reflect the latest
scientific and industry experience. Australian Standards are kept under continuous review after publication and are
updated regularly to take account of changing technology.

International Involvement
Standards Australia is responsible for ensuring the Australian viewpoint is considered in the formulation of
International Standards and that the latest international experience is incorporated in national Standards. This role is
vital in assisting local industry to compete in international markets. Standards Australia represents Australia at both
the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

Sales and Distribution

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

Australian Standards, Handbooks and other documents developed by Standards Australia are printed and
distributed under license by SAI Global Limited.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

For information regarding the development of Standards contact:


Standards Australia Limited
GPO Box 476
Sydney NSW 2001
Phone: 02 9237 6000
Fax: 02 9237 6010
Email: mail@standards.org.au
Internet: www.standards.org.au
For information regarding the sale and distribution of Standards contact:
SAI Global Limited
Phone: 13 12 42
Fax: 1300 65 49 49
Email: sales@saiglobal.com

ISBN 0 7337 5628 X

This document has expired. To access the current document, please go to your on-line service.Please note that material accessed via our on-line subscription services is not intended for off-line storage, and such storage is contrary to the licence under which the service is supplied.

Accessed by SMEC AUSTRALIA on 11 Sep 2011

This page has been left intentionally blank.

Похожие интересы