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You are on page 1of 9

(Solutions)

Last updated: March 17, 2011.

position of its moving end in the plane R2 . Since the length is fixed, the end

is always at a constant distance from the origin O, i.e., is on the circle of

center O and certain radius R. It can be identified with the standard (unit)

circle by a change of scale. All positions on the circle are possible. Therefore

the configuration space of the planar pendulum is the manifold S 1 .

Problem 2.

The stereographic projection maps a point P = (x, y, z) on

2

3

S R to the point P 0 = (u, v, 0), the intersection of the line (N P ) with

the plane z = 0. Parametric equation of the line: Pt = tN + (1 t)P =

(1 t)x, (1 t)y, t + (1 t)z = (1 t)x, (1 t)y, t(1 z) + z , and the

z

1

or 1 t = 1z

. Hence we

intersection with the plane z = 0 is for t = 1z

have the formulas

y

x

, v=

,

u=

1z

1z

valid for z 6= 0, i.e., for all points of S 2 except for the north pole itself (as

it should be, by the geometrical meaning). It is clear geometrically that

the intersection point P 0 can be an arbitrary point of the plane, i.e., the

coordinates (u, v) can be arbitrary, and there is a one-to-one correspondence

between S 2 \ {N } and R2 . To find the inverse map, i.e., for given (u, v) find

(x, y, z) S 2 , it is possible to express x and y via u, v and z from the above

formulas together with the equation of the sphere x2 +y 2 +z 2 = 1. We obtain

x = (1z)u, y = (1z)v, and, plugging that into the equation of the sphere,

we arrive at (1 z)2 (u2 + v 2 ) + z 2 = 1 or (1 z)2 (u2 + v 2 ) = 1 z 2 . We can

dive by 1 z (because z 6= 1 for P 6= N ), so obtain (1 z)(u2 + v 2 ) = 1 + z.

2 +v 2 +1

This gives the desired

Finally we get 1 z = u2 +v2 2 +1 and z = uu2 +v

2 +1 .

answer:

x=

2u

,

u2 + v 2 + 1

y=

2v

,

u2 + v 2 + 1

z=

u2 + v 2 1

.

u2 + v 2 + 1

Problem 3.

For the south pole taken as the center of the projection,

everything is similar to the results obtained above (see the solution to Problem 2). Since the north pole N = (0, 0, 1) and the south pole S = (0, 0, 1)

exchange places under the transformation z 7 z, all the formulas can be

obtained from the corresponding formulas for the stereographic projection

from the north pole by a change of signs. Answers:

(a) The coordinates (u0 , v 0 ) are defined for all points of S 2 except for the

1

Theodore Voronov.

(b) We have

x

y

u0 =

, v0 =

,

1+z

1+z

and, conversely,

x=

2u0

,

(u0 )2 + (v 0 )2 + 1

2v 0

,

(u0 )2 + (v 0 )2 + 1

y=

z=

1 (u0 )2 (v 0 )2

.

(u0 )2 + (v 0 )2 + 1

(c) Both coordinate systems (u, v) and (u0 , v 0 ) are defined on S 2 \ {N, S}.

To find the change of coordinates u = u(u0 , v 0 ), v = v(u0 , v 0 ), we substitute

x, y, z as functions of u0 , v 0 to the expressions for u and v. For example,

(u0 )2 +(v 0 )2 +1

2u0

u0

x

= (u0 )2 +(v

for u we obtain u = 1z

0 )2 +1 2((u0 )2 +(v 0 )2 ) = (u0 )2 +(v 0 )2 , because

0 2

0 2

0 2

0 2

1(u ) (v )

2((u ) +(v ) )

1 z = 1 (u

0 )2 +(v 0 )2 +1 = (u0 )2 +(v 0 )2 +1 . And similarly for v. So the change of

coordinates u = u(u0 , v 0 ), v = v(u0 , v 0 ) has the form

u=

u0

,

(u0 )2 + (v 0 )2

v=

v0

.

(u0 )2 + (v 0 )2

These formulas are defined for all (u0 , v 0 ) except for (u0 , v 0 ) = (0, 0), which

are the coordinates of the north pole N in the (u0 , v 0 )-system. Conversely,

the change of coordinates u0 = u0 (u, v), v 0 = v 0 (u, v) is given by

u0 =

u2

u

,

+ v2

v0 =

u2

v

.

+ v2

These formulas are defined for (u, v) 6= (0, 0), which are the coordinates of

the south pole S in the (u, v) coordinate system.

Problem 4.

equation

(x1 )2 + . . . + (xn )2 + (xn+1 )2 = 1.

P = (x1 , . . . , xn+1 ) Rn+1 . We take the point N = (0, 1), i.e., (0, . . . , 0, 1),

as the center of the projection. There are two maps: F : S n \ {N } Rn

and F 1 : Rn S n \ {N }. If (N P ) is the line through N and P = (x, z)

S n \ {N }, and P 0 = (u, 0) is the intersection of (N P ) with the z = 0 plane,

then F : P 7 u and F 1 : u 7 P . Here u = (u1 , . . . , un ) is a point in

Rn . To find the explicit formulas, we write a point Pt on the line (N P ) as

Pt = tN + (1 t)P = (1 t)x, t + (1 t)z . The last coordinate vanishes

z

1

when t = 1z

, hence 1 t = 1z

. We obtain for F : (x, z) 7 u,

u=

x

.

1z

2

Theodore Voronov.

For the inverse map, we solve for x and z having in mind the relation |x|2 +

z 2 = 1. We have x = u(1 z), hence we arrive at the quadratic equation

(denoting 1 z = w): |u|2 w2 + (1 w)2 = 1, or (1 + |x|2 )w2 2w = 0, from

which we obtain the unique solution w = 2/(|u|2 + 1), since w = 1 z 6= 0,

and therefore

2u

|u|2 + 1

|u|2 1

z=

|u|2 + 1

x=

We have arrived at two mutually inverse maps establishing a bijection between S n \ {N } and Rn . The map F 1 : Rn S n \ {N } can be viewed as a

chart for S n . We can change notation and denote it N := F 1 . So we have

N : Rn(N ) S n \ {N },

|u(N ) |2 1

2u(N )

,

N : u(N ) 7

|u(N ) |2 + 1 |u(N ) |2 + 1

x

1

.

N : (x, z) 7 u(N ) =

1z

,

By considering the south pole S = (0, 1) as the center of the projection

instead of N , we can construct the chart S : Rn(S) S n \ {N } in the same

way. The formulas differ by the sign of the last coordinate only (since N and

S are swapped under z 7 z):

2u(S)

|u(S) |2 + 1

S : u(S) 7

,

,

|u(S) |2 + 1 |u(S) |2 + 1

x

1

.

S : (x, z) 7 u(S) =

1+z

These two charts make an atlas because (S n \ {N }) (S n \ {S}) = S n . On

the intersection (S n \ {N }) (S n \ {S}) = S n \ {N, S} we can calculate the

changes of coordinates, i.e., the expression of u(N ) via u(S) and vice versa.

Note that S n \ {N, S} corresponds to Rn \ {0} at each chart. One can find

directly:

u(S)

u(N ) =

|u(S) |2

(check!). This is a smooth map (even analytic), therefore we have a structure

of a smooth manifold for S n .

Problem 5. (Solution for arbitrary n.) We have RP n = {(x1 : . . . : xn+1 )}

where (x1 : . . . : xn+1 ) stands for the equivalence class of a non-zero vector

Theodore Voronov.

they are proportional.) Define subsets

Uk := {(x1 : . . . : xn+1 ) | xk 6= 0} .

For convenience, introduce copies of Rn , denoting them Rnk , as subsets of

Rn+1 where the kth coordinate equals 1:

Rnk := {(u1(k) , . . . , 1, . . . , un+1

(k) )}

(here 1 stands on the kth place). We used subscript for denoting the number

of chart and put it in brackets to avoid confusion. Define maps k : Rnk Uk ,

n+1

1

k (u1(k) , . . . , 1, . . . , un+1

(k) ) := (u(k) : . . . : 1 : . . . : u(k) ) .

1

n+1

1

)=

k (x : . . . : x

x1

x

, . . . , 1, . . . ,

k

xn+1

.

xk

corresponds to the open subsets {ul(k) 6= 0} Rnk and {uk(l) 6= 0} Rnl . To

find the transition functions (= changes of coordinates)

n

k

n

l

kl = 1

k l : {u(l) Rl | u(l) 6= 0} {u(k) Rk | u(k) 6= 0}

n+1

1

(u1(k) : . . . : 1 : . . . : un+1

(k) ) = (u(l) : . . . : 1 : . . . : u(l) )

(where 1 appears at the kth place in the LHS and at the lth place, in the

RHS), from where we obtain

n+1

1

kl : (u1(l) , . . . , 1, . . . , un+1

(l) ) 7 (u(k) , . . . , 1, . . . , u(k) )

where

ui(k)

ui(l)

uk(l)

for all i. (Two special cases of this formula are i = k where we get uk(k) = 1

as it should be, and i = l where ul(k) = u1k , since ul(l) = 1.)

(l)

In small dimensions, we have two charts for RP 1 and three charts for

RP 2 . For RP 1 , the charts are 1 : R U1 where U1 = {(x1 : x2 ) | x1 6= 0)},

1 : x(1) 7 (1 : x(1) ), and 2 : R U1 where U2 = {(x1 : x2 ) | x2 6= 0)},

2 : x(2) 7 (x(2) : 1), and the changes of coordinate are

x(2) =

1

,

x(1)

x(1) =

4

1

.

x(2)

Theodore Voronov.

1 : (x(1) , y(1) ) 7 (1 : x(1) : y(1) ) ,

2 : R2 U2 where U2 = {(x1 : x2 : x3 ) | x2 6= 0)},

2 : (x(2) , y(2) ) 7 (x(2) : 1 : y(2) ) ,

and 3 : R2 U3 where U3 = {(x1 : x2 : x3 ) | x3 6= 0)},

3 : (x(3) , y(3) ) 7 (x(3) : y(3) : 1) ,

so that the changes of coordinates are

y(3) 1

1 y(2)

(x(1) , y(1) ) =

,

=

,

,

x(2) x(2)

x(3) x(3)

x(3) 1

1 y(1)

(x(2) , y(2) ) =

=

,

,

,

x(1) x(1)

y(3) y(3)

x(2) 1

1 x(1)

(x(3) , y(3) ) =

,

=

,

.

y(1) y(1)

y(2) y(2)

(For local coordinates on RP 1 and RP 2 , we used a traditional notation such

as x or x, y, with a superscript indicating the chart number, instead of the

notation ui(k) used for general RP n .)

Problem 6. For CP n , everything is literally the same as for RP n , with Cn

instead of Rn in the coordinate charts. (Note that Cn may be regarded as

R2n by replacing each complex coordinate by its real and imaginary parts.)

The resulting changes of coordinates are complex-analytic.

Problem 7.

The general reason why the identifications of RP 1 with S 1

1

and CP with S 2 arise is thatin suitable atlasesthe descriptions of the

corresponding manifolds in terms of local coordinates and their transformations are exactly the same.

(a) For RP 1 , consider the standard atlas described above. There are

two charts; denote the single coordinate in either of them by u(1) and u(2) .

Both variables take all real values, and the transformation of coordinate is

1

. For S 1 , consider the stereographic

defined for non-zero values: u(1) = u(2)

atlas. Again, there are two 1-dimensional charts with the coordinates u(N )

and u(S) , resp., that take all real values; and the change of coordinate has

1

exactly the same form as for RP 1 : u(N ) = u(S)

. Therefore we may identify

RP 1 and S 1 by the identification of coordinates: u(1) = u(N ) and u(2) = u(S) ,

which is consistent with the changes of coordinates. More formally, we may

view these formulas as defining a diffeomorphism RP 1 S 1 . (An alternative

and equally good choice is to set u(2) = u(N ) , hence u(1) = u(S) . Such two

5

Theodore Voronov.

poles.)

(b) For CP 1 , consider the standard atlas. A point (w1 : w2 ) CP 1 has

2

the complex coordinate w(1) = w

in the chart where w1 6= 0 or the comw1

w1

2

plex coordinate w(2) = w

6= 0. On the intersection,

2 in the chart where w

w(2) = w1(1) . For S 2 , consider the stereographic atlas (see Problem 3). We

may assemble the coordinates u, v into a complex number w = u + iv, and

u0 , v 0 into a complex number w0 = u0 + iv 0 . Then the change of coordinates

w

w

= w1 . Up to the complex conjugation, it is the same as

is w0 = |w|

2 = ww

the change of coordinates on CP 1 . Therefore, we may introduce an identification of CP 1 with S 2 , for example, by the identification of coordinates

1

0 . (There are three other equally good

w = w(2) = w

, hence w(1) = w1 = w

w2

choices corresponding to swapping the poles of S 2 and applying the complex

conjugation to CP 1 .)

Remark. It is instructive to express the diffeomorphisms RP 1

= S 1 and

1 2

CP = S so obtained in a way independent of local coordinates. In terms of

homogeneous coordinates on RP 1 and CP 1 (which are not local coordinates!)

and the standard coordinates (x, y) and (x, y, z) on the ambient Euclidean

spaces R2 S 1 and R3 S 2 , the formulas are as follows:

S 1 RP 1 ,

S 2 CP 1 ,

(x, y) 7 (x : 1 y) RP 1 ,

(x, y, z) 7 (x + iy : 1 z) CP 1 ,

and

2x1 x2

(x1 )2 (x2 )2

,

,

RP S ,

(x : x ) 7 (x, y) =

(x1 )2 + (x2 )2 (x1 )2 + (x2 )2

2w1 w 2

|w1 |2 |w2 |2

1

2

1

2

,

CP S , (w : w ) 7 (x + iy, z) =

.

|w1 |2 + |w2 |2 |w1 |2 + |w2 |2

1

x

To get the first set, one writes (x1 : x2 ) = xx2 : 1 = (u : 1) = 1y

: 1 , so

finally (x1 : x2 ) = (x, 1 y), and similarly for the complex case. To get the

1

1

second set, one has to plug u = xx2 or u + iv = w

into the inverse formulas

w2

for the stereographic projection and get rid of denominators. In particular,

for (cos : sin ) RP 1 , we get as the image (x, y) = (sin 2, cos 2) S 1 .

1

Problem 8.

a b

SL(2) = g =

| det g = 1 .

c d

each of the matrix entries. Consider the subsets Ua = {g SL(2) | a 6= 0}

Theodore Voronov.

and Vb := {(a, b, d) R3 | a 6= 0}. There are maps

1 + bc

a b

a : Va Ua , (a, b, c) 7

where d =

,

c d

a

ad 1

a b

b : Vb Ub , (a, b, d) 7

where c =

.

c d

b

They are invertible (the inverses are just the projections g 7 (a, b, c) and

g 7 (a, b, d)) and hence can be taken as charts for SL(2). Note that Ua Ub =

SL(2) because a and b cannot simultaneously vanish on SL(2). On the

intersection Ua Ub both a and b are non-zero, and the change of coordinates

is given by the smooth formulas

ad 1

1

:

(a,

b,

d)

7

(a,

b,

c)

=

a,

b,

b

a

b

defined on an open subset of Vb . Hence SL(2) is a manifold of dimension 3.

For SL(n), n > 2, one can guess that it is a manifold of dimension n2 1.

To prove that, it is possible to follow closely the above proof for n = 2 by

considering the first row expansion of det g (recall that the coefficients of the

entries g1k are Mk , where Mk is the minor obtained by deleting the first

row and the kth column of g). One can introduce analogs of the charts above

and show that they make a smooth atlas for SL(n). (There is, however, an

alternative proof, which we shall consider later.)

Problem 9. A k-dimensional linear subspace L in Rn can be specified

practically in two ways: either as the span of k linearly independent vectors

from Rn (which make a basis in L) or as the solution space of a system of

nk independent linear equations (i.e., of rank nk). Sometimes one way is

more convenient and sometimes there is no preference. We use the notation

Gk (Rn ) for the set of all k-dimensional linear subspaces in Rn .

(a) A 2-plane through the origin in R3 can be conveniently specified by

an equation

ax + by + cz = 0

where at least one coefficient is non-vanishing. Since multiplying the equation

by a non-zero factor does not change the plane, we may identify the 2planes with the equivalence classes (a : b : c), i.e., with the points of the

projective space RP 2 . In particular, G2 (R3 ) (which we identified with RP 2 )

is a manifold of dimension 2.

(b) To study 2-planes in R4 , it is more convenient to describe them using

bases. Suppose linearly independent vectors a1 and a2 span a 2-plane in R4 .

We may write them as a matrix 2 by 4,

a11 a12 a13 a14

A=

,

a21 a22 a23 a24

7

Theodore Voronov.

pairs of independent vectors (a1 , a2 ) and (b1 , b2 ) span the same subspace

L if and only if (b1 , b2 ) is obtained from (a1 , a2 ) by an invertible linear

transformation:

b1

g11 a1 + g12 a2

g11 g12

a1

=

=

.

b2

g21 a1 + g22 a2

g21 g22

a2

In the matrix form, we may express that as

A 7 gA

where g GL(2), and A and A0 specify the same subspace L if and only

if A0 = gA. Therefore the set of 2-planes (linear subspaces) in R4 can be

identified with the set of equivalence classes of 2 4 matrices A of rank 2

as above w.r.t. the equivalence relation A gA for all g GL(2). The

analogy with the projective space is clear: one takes matrices with linearlyindependent rows instead of non-zero vectors and multiplies/ divides them

by invertible square matrices instead of non-zero numbers. In detail, charts

for G2 (R4 ) can be introduced as follows. Define U34 G2 (R4 ) as the set of

planes specified by matrices A for which the square matrix made of the third

and fourth columns of A is invertible (this does not change under the left

multiplication by g GL(2)). There is a chart

b11 b12 1 0

b11 b12

4

7 [A] =

: Mat(22) U34 G2 (R ) , B =

b21 b22

b21 b22 0 1

(the square brackets denote the equivalence class), for which

1

b11 b12

a13 a14

a11 a12

1

: U34 Mat(22) , [A] 7 B =

=

b21 b22

a23 a24

a21 a22

is the inverse map. We may put extra labels on and B denoting them

as (34) and B (34) , and introduce similar charts (12) , (13) , (23) , and (24)

corresponding to other choices of columns of A giving invertible 2 2 submatrices. It is clear that the union of all images of these charts is the whole

G2 (R4 ) because of the rank condition satisfied by the matrices A. So it is an

atlas. As for the changes of coordinates, they are given by algebraic operations with matrix entries, hence are smooth. We conclude that G2 (R4 ) is a

smooth manifold of dimension 2 2 = 4.

(c) In general, the Grassmann manifold Gk (Rn ) is indeed a manifold of

dimension k (n k). The equivalence classes of matrices A Mat(k n) of

rank k can be considered as homogeneous coordinates (A A0 A0 = gA

for g GL(k)). A coordinate chart can be obtained by dividing A from

the left by an invertible k k submatrix with fixed column numbers j1 <

. . . < jk , so that the genuine (inhomogeneous) coordinates in each such

8

Theodore Voronov.

chart are given by the entries of a k (n k) matrix. There are nk such

charts corresponding to the nk choices of k columns in A. (The alternative

description of k-dimensional subspaces using (n k) independent equations

gives rise to the identification Gk (Rn )

= Gnk (Rn ).) The complex case is

similar.

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