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MAKALAH 16 TENSES

16 TENSES

PRESENT TENSE
1. Simple Present Tense
although present mean now (sekarang) but matter of in don't be
interpreted that the action done at the moment. this tenses is used to
express something that have the character of remain to, real truth or
habit. Because often concerning occurence of past time, now and will
come. This Tense at least having selected time description. English
sentences generally must have subject (S) and Predicate (P).Because
that, all tenses formulatived like that.

Formulas of Present Tense:


(positive)
(Negative)

: S + V1 / S + V1 + O
: S + do (es) not + V1

(Interrogative)

: Do (es) + S + V1 ?

If in the sentence have not another verb, so we use verb to be.


Affirmative (+): S + Be (am, is, are)
Affirmative (-)

: S + Be (am, is, are) + not

Affirmative (?): Be (am, is, are) + S

Examples:

(Positive)

1. I drink milk.
2. A postman delivers letters.
3.

A Man walks with his feet.

(Negative)

I do not drink milk.

A Postman do not delivers letters.

The Man do not walks with his feet.

(Interrogative)

Do You drink milk?

Does Postman delivers letters?

Does The Man walk with his feet?

(Affirmative)

(+)

: I am busy.

(-)

: I am not busy

(?)

: Are you busy?

2. Present Continuous Tense


This Tense is used to express something really action is doing in this
time. sentences in this tense more regular weared than present tense.
Formulas of Present Continuous Tense:
(positive)

: S + Be (am, is are) + V ing (present participle)

(Negative)

: S + Be (am, is are) + not + V ing

(Interrogative)

: Be (am, is, are) + S + V?

Examples:
(Positive)

I am sitting on a chair.

It is raining now.

We are studying English

(Negative)

I am not sitting on a chair.

It is not (isnt) raining now.

We are not (arent) studying English.

(Interrogative)

Am I sitting on a chair?

Is it raining now?

Are you studying English?

Interrogative word When (kapan) dont be used in Present


Contionuous Tense, except if it is meant to express an action which
immediately and surely (immediatc future). Example:

When are you coming back?

There are some selected verb which may not be used in Present
Continuous Tense though actions is really done nowadays and is
instead weared sentence in Present Tense. the verbs for example are

see, hear, smell, forget, remember, know, understand, like want, hate,
care, etcetera. Examples:

I know the lesson now

Do you understand now?

Not

I am knowing the lesson

Not

Are you understanding now?

3. Present Perfect Tense


This is Tense which was generally assumed most difficult to
comprehended. To overcome this matter is we have to recognize
marking of Tense this. Present Perfect Tense Of dot weigh against at "It
have or have its" an action "is not at time doing" action. or equally
Present Perfect Tense don't make account of when the happening of
an action but the haveness of action done. Therefore this Tense have
never followed by time description. Examples:
False

: I have read this book yesterday.

True
Or

: I have read this book already (Present Perfect Tense)


: I read this book yesterday (Simple Past Tense)

Ad for possibly cause this Tense is confused with Past Tense.


Formulas of Present Perfect Tense :
(positive)

: S + have (has) + V3 (past participle)

(Negative)

: S + have (has) + not + V3

(Interrogative)

: Have (has) + S + V3?

Examples:
(Positive)

You have told me before.

She has never seen a tiger.

They have been to Japan many times.

(Negative)

You have not told me about it.

She has not seen that film yet.

They have not been to Japan.

(Interrogative)

Have you told me before?

Has she met you before?

Have they been to Japan?

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense


If an action started past time but still is doing till now hence us use
sentence in the form of Present Perfect Continuous Tense. This Tense
is weared if Verb is including Static Nature (bersifat tetap).
Such as: Stand, Sleep, Lie, Study ,etc. that verbs usually used in
Present Perfect Tense. Comparing:

I have read this book (Saya sudah membaca buku ini). which
intended to you may borrow him or interrogate me concerning the book
content because I have read its.
Unlike:


I have been reading this book for a month. with the meaning I
have read this book during one unfinished months but and still I will
continue.
Formula of Present Perfect Continuous Tense:
S + have (has) been + V ing

PAST TENSE
1. Simple Past Tense
is used to express an old world action that happened. Way past
tense form depend on type of second Verb. first way added d or of ed
at second verb (regular verb). Second way in generally change the
vowel sounds (irregular verb).

Formula of Simple Past Tense:


(Positive)

: S + V2 (preterite)

(Negative)

: S + did not (didnt) + V1

(Interrogative)

: Did + S + V1 ?

Examples:
(Positive)

I walked to school yesterday

The girl ate much ice cream this morning

They had a car last year

(Negative)

I didnt walk to school yesterday

The girl didnt eat much ice cream this morning

They didnt have a car last year.

(Interrogative)

Did you walk to school this morning?

Did she eat much ice cream this morning?

Did They have a car last year?

2. Past Continuous Tense


This Tenses is used to express an action which is happened in past
time. and at the same time happened other action. This Tense
emphasize is the happening of the action not its have.
Formulas of Past Continuos Tense:
(Positive)

: S + was/were + V ing (present participle)

(Negative)

: S + was/were + not + V ing

(Interrogative)

: was/were + S + V ing?

Examples:
(Positive)

I was reading a newspaper

The sun was shining brightly

The children were playing football

(Negative)

I wasnt reading a newspaper

The sun wasnt shining brightly

The children werent playing football

(Interrogative)

Was I reading a newspaper?

Was the sun shining brightly?

Where the children playing football?

3. Past Perfect Tense


It is the same with Past Continuos Tense nor selfsupporting as
simple sentence but have to provide with Past Tense sentence. this
used to express an action which have been done in past time.
Formulas of Past Perfect Tense:
(Positive)

: S + had + V3

(Negative)

: S + had + not + V3

(Interrogative)

: Had + S + V3?

Examples:
(Positive)

I had seen the film

The man had been sick

They had met her

(Negative)

I hadnt seen the film

The man hadnt been sick

They hadnt met her

(Interrogative)

Had you seen the film?

Had The man been sick?

Had they met her?

4. Past Perfect Continuos Tense


Present participle of Past this Perfect like action which still take
place past time when an other occurence cut.
Formulas of Past Perfect Continuos Tense:
(Positive)

: S + had been + V ing

(Negative)

: S + had not + been + V ing

(Interrogative)

: Had + S + been + V ing?

Examples:
(Positive)

They had been living in France

She had been sleeping

They had been meeting

(Negative)

I hadnt been living in France

She hadnt been sleeping

They hadnt been meeting

(Interrogative)

Had They been living in France?

Had She been sleeping?

Had They been meeting?

FUTURE TENSE
1. Simple Future Tense
This Tense is used to express an action to happen in the future.

Formulas of Simple Future Tense:


(Positive)

: S + shall/will + V1

(Negative)

: S + shall/will + not + V1

(Interrogative) : Shall/will + S + V1

Examples :
(Positive) :

I shall see you tonight

He will speaks English well soon

They will do their homework tomorrow

(Negative) :

I will not see you toninght

He will not speaks English well soon

They will not do their homework

(Interrogative)

Will you see her tonight?

Will he speaks English well soon?

Will they do their homework?

A lot have a notion that Future Tense can be expressed by "be going
to". This not entirely correctness, because "going to" usually not
express future the purification but containing certainty or intention the
speaker. Examples:

He is going to do his homework

I am going to marry you

Comparing with:

He will do his homework as soon as his mother asks him

I will marry you if I have enough money

Future by "going to" seldom accompany another Clause (anak kalimat).


because if that way, no longger show someone desire. While Future
with shall/will often respective another clauses.
2. Future Continuous Tense

This Tense is used to express estimated to action underway at the


time of selected or there is happened other action.

Formulas of Future Continuous Tense:


(Positive)

: S + shall/will be + V ing

(Negative)

: S + shall/will + not + be + V ing

(Interrogative)

: Shall/will + S + Be + V ing?

Examples:
(Positive)

I will be sleeping at 12 oclock tonight

(Negative)

I will not be sleeping toninght

(Interrogative)

Will you be sleeping tonight?

3. Future Perfect Tense


This Tense is used to express an estimated action have been done
at the selected time in future or if there are any other action.

Formulas of Future Perfect Tense:


(Positive)

: S + shall/will have + V3

(Negative)

: S + shall/will + not + have + V3

(Interrogative)

: Shall/will + S + have + V3?

Examples:
(Positive)

You will have spoken English well.

(Negative)

You will not have spoken English well.

(Interrogative)

Will You have spoken English well?

4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense


This Tense is weared to express an estimated action will come in
selected future period or if there are any happened other action. This
Tense seldom wear.

Formulas of Future Perfect Tense:


(Positive)
(Negative)

: S + shall/will have been + V ing


: S + shall/will + not + have been + V ing

(Interrogative)

Examples:

: Shall/will + S + have been + V ing?

(Positive)

He will have been teaching for 30 years next January.

(Negative)

He will not have teaching for 30 years next January.

(Interrogative)

Will He have been teaching for 30 years next January?

PAST FUTURE TENSE


1. Past Future Tense
This Tense generally only used in Conditional (Kalimat
Pengandaian) or Reported Speech (Kalimat tidak langsung).

Formulas of Past Future Tense:


(Positive)

: S + should/would + V1

(Negative)

: S + should/would not + V1

(Interrogative)

: Should/would + S + V1?

Examples:
(Positive)

If I were you, I should marry her. (Conditional)

He said that He would go abroad this week (Reported Speech)

(Negative)

I should not marry her.

(Interrogative)

Would you marry her?

2. Past Future Continuous Tense


This Tense is weared very rare and if there are any, only met in
Reported Speech.

Formulas of Past Future Continuous Tense:


(Positive)

: S + should/would be + V ing

(Negative)

: S + should/would not be + V ing

(Interrogative)

: Should/would + S + be + V ing?

Examples:
(Positive)

They told us that they would be having dinner.

(Negative)

They would not be having dinner.

(Interrogative)

Would they be having dinner?

3. Past Future Perfect Tense

This Tense intrinsically only weared in Conditional (kalimat


Pengandaian) as main clause for expressing unreal past (lampau tak
nyata).
Formulas of Past Future Perfect Tense:
(Positive)

: S + should/would have + V3

(Negative)

: S + should/would + have + not +V3

(Interrogative)

: Should/would + S + have + V3?

Examples:
(Positive)

You would have met a lot of friends if you attended the party last
night.
(Negative)

You would have not met a lot of friends.

(Interrogative)

Would you have met a lot friends?

4. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense


This Tense is used very rare even in Reported Speech.

Formulas of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense:


(Positive)
(Negative)

: S + should/would have been + V ing


: S + should/would + have not + been +V ing

(Interrogative)

: Should/would + S + have been + V ing?

Examples:
(Positive)

Her baby would have been sleeping for hours when she arrived
home.
(Negative)

Her baby would have not been sleeping for hour when she arrived
home.
(Interrogative)

Would Her baby have been sleeping for hour when she arrived
home?

Daftar Pustaka
1.

http://wongzo.blogspot.com/2012/10/16-tenses-bahasa-inggrisbeserta-rumus.html.

2.

http://arjaenim.blogspot.com/2012/11/makalah-bhs-inggris-pastperfect-tense.html.

3.

http://blogbintang.com/contoh-kesimpulan-dan-saran-makalah.

4.

http://blogkita666.blogspot.com/search?q=english+day.

5.
6.

Santi, Inez. 2009. ENGLISH FOR TEEN 2. Yogyakarta: C.V ANDI


OFFSET.
Hadianti, Afiyah. 2013.