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Geography is the study of the physical features of the Earth and its atmosphere, encompassing

human activity in relation to the physical features of the earth. Geography can be used to
understand human cultures and their interactions with our planet and the meaning behind
placement, and change over time of human beings while incorporating many things of human
interaction, such as the distribution and networks of people and cultures on the planet.
Geography can also be used analyze how political, social, and economic systems are organized
across geographical space. Through the study of Geography, one can analyze human
interactions, as well as placements of people in relation to the physical characteristics of the

3 Elements: Human Systems, Physical Systems, and Places and Regions

North America - George Washington
South America - Simon Bolivar
China - Mao Zedong
Russia - Vladimir Putin
India - Ghandi
MIddle East - Gamal Abdul Nasser
Africa - Nelson Mandela


Asia is split into 5 major regions. Russia, Korea, China, Southeast Asia, and India. Many
geographic factors influence the relations between any of these regions. These regions are
based on geographic features and political alliances between countries within these regions.
The regions interact and express different opinions on major issues within the continent.

Russia and China: Shanghai Cooperation Organization

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization contains both Russia and China within its ranks.
However, the views on the SCO is determined by the Geographical features of the 2 regions.
While Russia dominants the rival Collective Security Treaty Organization, the SCO is dominated
by China. The Eastern based Shanghai Cooperation Organization clashes with the more
centrally based Collective Security Treaty Organization. Mass energy projects undertaken by
the SCO have had both regions torn based on their geographic factors. Russias massive
collection of Natural Resources, mostly based in the natural resource rich region of Siberia,
contrasts with Chinas growing need to import energy resources to support its rapidly growing
economy. Russias distrust with the SCO, have increased due to expansions further west by
China. While the SCO has been reducing military exercises, the organization has been
increasingly focusing on Uighur exile groups in Central Asia. Russia and the SCO have been
increasing military procedures, increasing tensions between the 2 regional groups. However,
both groups have failed to act decisively in Central Asia with military action in Tajikstan and
Kazakhstan due to the risk and the geographical factors that reveal the consequences of
decisive action. While Russias public opinion of the SCO is that of distrust due to under the
surface competition between the 2 groups and the SCOs economic ventures further west into
former Soviet Union Territory, while the Chinese public is increasingly praising the SCO, as well
as that of distrust of the Russian based CSTO and their increasing military procedures. The
further feelings of distrust are influenced by the geographic needs of the countries in the region.
Russia has created a monopoly of firearm sales in the region and also uses the SCO to thwart

Chinas regional reach. However, the situation in later days may press the Eastern Based
Shanghai Cooperation Organization and force them to eventually interfere in Central Asia,
former Soviet territory, and both organization will be forced to use a diplomatic and economic
approach to the situation with a possibility of increasing the shift apart in diplomatic relations or
mending the shift.


Africa is likewise split into 5 directional regions, North Africa, composed of states within the
Sahara Desert, Western Africa, composed of states in Sub-Saharan Africa, Central Africa,
composed of states in the Sahel, Eastern Africa, states in the Horn of Africa, and the East
African Rift, and Southern Africa.

Africas regions are influenced by many geographic factors that lead to difficult relations with the
United States. Sudans environment has given rise to many militias and rival ethnic groups
which have torn the country apart. The situation in Darfur is especially dire, requiring aid from
both the European Union and the African Union. Sudan has become a terrorist hub and its
physical features make it a prime target for warring factions. The situation has become worse
due to common belief spread by the warlords criticizing America, and accusations of a plot to
ruin the economy of Sudan. The US, itself is hindered in its own ability to provide peace in
Sudan, instead creating UN resolutions to provide aid through the African Union and the
European Union, but the wide distance between the 2 countries has hampered its efforts.
Tensions have only been increased because of the multiple cultural differences between the two
nations and their views on the resolution passed by the UN to send a peacekeeping force to
Darfur. While the US views the force as helpful, and bringing stability to the region, the
Sudanese people, under exaggerated stories from the warlords, view the peacekeeping force as

not only not beneficial, but an attempt to undermine the economy of Sudan. Another contributing
factor to the growing dissent and severation of ties between the 2 states is the factionalization
that Sudan has been experiencing due to religion and ethnicity, as well as the terrain which
includes features which further this factionalization making Sudan a group of states ruled by
Warlords rather than a country ruled under a single government.

South America
South America is split into 2 major regions based on religion and culture. These regions are
Portuguese and Hispanic America. These regions are derived directly from colonization of the
Americas in the 17th and 18th centuries. Portuguese America includes Brazil, while Hispanic
America covers both the former spanish territories of South America as well as all of Central

Argentina is the only major non-NATO ally of the United States in South America. The vast
space between the 2 countries have not majorly hindered relations as both countries have
retained steady bilateral relations. When Argentina declared independence, the US immediately
recognized the new nation as a sovereign state. However, things took a downturn during the
40s when the US attempted to interfere in South America to rid it of facism. However, this give
rise to a military junta. The military regime hardened relations with the US, but however, the US
eventually cut off all trade of firearms to Argentina, and eventually the Junta was replaced by a
democratic republic. Argentina, having a strategic location on the tip of South America, is a vital
American ally in South America. However, in recent days, the government of Argentina,
especially the president, Cristina Fernndez de Kirchne, has come under controversy for the
death of Alberto Nisman, a federal prosecutor, and an investigator into the AMIA attacks, the
worst attacks on Argentine Soil killing 85 people. Argentinas geographical features have given it
a key location in world politics

Europe has 5 major regions as well. Central Europe, The Balkans, Eastern Europe,
Scandinavia, and the United Kingdom. These regions are based on geographical features as
well as political, such as the former Iron Curtain encompassing nations, as well as divergent
features such as the North Sea and the English Channel.

North America is split into 2 major geographic regions. Continental North America and the

NATO and the Cartels

Drug Cartels control the South American economy. However, as the drugs move up from South
America to North America, they meet one of the most powerful alliances in the history of the
world. NATO is composed of British Commonwealth and America, 2 of the most powerful
nations in the world. The drug trade in South America is centered in Colombia, one of the
worlds leading producer of illegal drugs and their trafficking to the US as well as the largest
producer of cocaine in the world. Cocaine remains the main source of economy for Colombia,
ironically giving a layer of protection from international interference from NATO. The geography
of Colombia has made it difficult for authorities to find and disestablish the drug trade thriving in
the dense rainforests of Colombia. NATO has a complicated history with the drug trade,
interfering in Afghanistan, but in the Balkans, at the epicenter of NATO politics, the drug trade
from Colombia has thrived. As well, the US is one of the largest importers of illegal drugs in the
world. As the PBS states the single largest marketplace for illegal drugs continues to be the
United States. Although the market has decreased dramatically since its heyday in the mid-80's,
close to thirteen million Americans still think nothing about occasionally buying a gram of
cocaine, a few hits of ecstasy or a quarter ounce of weed to party with their friends on the

weekends. A hard core group (see the chart) estimated at between 5 and 6 million have more
serious drug habits, and may spend $100-$500 dollars a week on purchasing their drugs. These
two groups - hard core users and casual users - spend approximately $60 billion dollars a year,
according to U.S. government estimates. This soaring trade of drugs have prevented NATO
from interfering directly in Colombian drugs. This has forced NATO to let America combat drugs
on its own front along the border of Mexico and the United States. Drug trade has damaged the
Colombian environment and education of the Colombian people, however, hundreds of
thousands of Colombians work the fields, and this trade provides the lower class with valuable
jobs. However, inside the United States and NATO, drugs are not a source of income, but a
damaging force prone to damage education and lives. The 2 countries differ on their views to
NATO as well due to geographic factors. NATO is a military alliance devoted to protecting its
member nations while Colombias view on NATO is that of distrust due to NATOs recent
crackdown on the drug trade. However, NATO may soon move to end drugs at the source
shutting down Colombias economy, however, this option is not reasonable due to the distance
between the 2.
NATO has started to become less of a Regional alliance and started to turn into a global
alliance. The American review states What this means has been evolving for two decades. With
the Cold War over, the United States began urging its European allies to take part in out of
area missionsthat is, combat taking place outside the traditional North Atlantic area. For the
most part, these were missions that Washington wanted to do but not on its own. NATO has
been used by the US to solve problems out of the traditional NATO zone, taking part in
Afghanistan and Libya, in parts of the world that NATO has no members. However, the growing
global impact of NATO is shown through the members of its Chicago Conference, with countries
such as Jordan, Australia, and Morocco attending. This has led to Colombia scared as to what to
do. Growing support for governments to take action against the ever growing drug trade has
increased the likelihood of a NATO mission to Colombia. This would harm the COlombian

economy greatly. The views on NATO are very different, to some, they are a coming savior, to
other, NATO is a coming destroyer.
European Union