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A Brief History of India www.classmateacademy.com 1

A Brief History of India

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What is history ?

Pre history

Proto- history

History

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What is history ? Pre – history • Proto- history • History • www.classmateacademy.com 2

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Stone Age.

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Stone Age. www.classmateacademy.com 3

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Human Evolution in Africa: ~200K years ago Source: http://www.personal.psu.edu/erh5000/human_evolution.html

Human Evolution in Africa: ~200K years ago

Source: http://www.personal.psu.edu/erh5000/human_evolution.html

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Last Ice Age: 120K years - 12K years

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Last Ice Age: 120K years - 12K years www.classmateacademy.com 5

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65K years ago: Migration out of Africa

65K years ago: Migration out of Africa Source: http://www.upf.edu/cexs/actualitat/genographic.html

Source: http://www.upf.edu/cexs/actualitat/genographic.html

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Founder Crops

Founder Crops Domestication of Wheat, Barley, Peas, Chickpeas, lentils and flax about 11500 years ago.

Domestication of Wheat, Barley, Peas, Chickpeas,

lentils and flax about 11500 years ago.

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Sources of studying history

Sources of studying history Epigraphy - study of inscriptions or edicts Paleography - decoding of old

Epigraphy- study of inscriptions or edicts

Paleography - decoding of old script

Numismatics study of coins

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Geological Archealogical Mode of Production Life style Pleistocene(Ice age) Palaeolithic Gathering

Geological

Archealogical

Mode of Production

Life style

Pleistocene(Ice age)

Palaeolithic

Gathering

Migratory

Mesolithic

Hunting

Holocene

Neolithic Age

Chalcolithic

Iron age

Pastoralism

Agrarian economy

Settled Agriculture

Tools

Mesolithic

Microliths later become compoliths

Bhimbhetka,MP

Neolithic

Wheel,Crafts ,but tools worked by Hands

Chalcolithic

Stone &copper

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Indus valley civilization

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30K years ago: Paintings of Cave Men

30K years ago: Paintings of Cave Men Bimbeketa, Madhya Pradesh www.classmateacademy.com 12

Bimbeketa, Madhya Pradesh

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River valleys just above the Tropic of Cancer produced the 4 ancient civilizations. 2 1

River valleys just above the Tropic of Cancer

produced the 4 ancient civilizations.

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9000 years ago: Mehrgarh

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9000 years ago: Mehrgarh www.classmateacademy.com 17

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5300 years ago: Discovery of Bronze

5300 years ago: Discovery of Bronze www.classmateacademy.com 18

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Timeline of Indus Valley Civilization

Timeline of Indus Valley Civilization 1 Settlement – MEHRGARH -6000B.C Earliest Agrarian Economy 2 Indus

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Settlement MEHRGARH -6000B.C Earliest Agrarian Economy

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Indus valley civilization-3000 B.C -1500 B.C

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the “

Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC - 1500 BC)

the “ Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC - 1500 BC) structure of their cities were so

structure of their cities were so far advanced that it was not surpassed

until the late nineteenth century in Europe

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1056 cities and human settlements found so far. More than 5 million inhabitants www.classmateacademy.com 21

1056 cities and human

settlements found so far.

More than 5 million

inhabitants

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Grid like patterns for cities www.classmateacademy.com 25

Grid like patterns for cities

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Citadel at the center of the city www.classmateacademy.com 26

Citadel at the center of the city

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Advanced town planning & Municipal corporations www.classmateacademy.com 27

Advanced town planning & Municipal corporations

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Modern drainage systems www.classmateacademy.com 28

Modern drainage systems

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No central authority. No warfare.

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No central authority. No warfare. www.classmateacademy.com 29

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Extensive Art Work.

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Extensive Art Work. www.classmateacademy.com 31

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Mysterious Scripts

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Mysterious Scripts www.classmateacademy.com 34

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Global Trade of Indus Valley

Gold &Jade from Southern India. Copper from Afghanistan.Turquoise from Iran. All paid with cotton and pottery. Development of transportation systems: boats (with docks) & bullock carts.

and pottery. Development of transportation systems: boats (with docks) & bullock carts. www.classmateacademy.com 35

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Early Hinduism. Pashupathi Seals.

Early Hinduism. Pashupathi Seals. www.classmateacademy.com 36
Early Hinduism. Pashupathi Seals. www.classmateacademy.com 36
Early Hinduism. Pashupathi Seals. www.classmateacademy.com 36

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1700 BC: End of Civilization around Indus. Global climactic changes Weather got cooler and drier

1700 BC: End of Civilization around Indus.

Global climactic changes

Weather

got cooler

and drier

Monsoon

Patterns

Changed

River

Courses

Changed

Trade

Floundered

People migrated to Gangetic plains and southern India.

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Contributions D i s c o v e r y o f c o t

Contributions

Discovery of cotton

Invention of pottery

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Modern Metallurgy

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Vedic Era Iron Age (1500 BC - 300 BC)

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Vedic Era Iron Age (1500 BC - 300 BC) www.classmateacademy.com 40

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The Rise of Vedas Rig Veda Sama Veda Yajur Veda Atharva Veda www.classmateacademy.com 41

The Rise of Vedas

Rig Veda Sama Veda

Yajur Veda Atharva Veda

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Shruti-

Samhita

Brahmanas

Smriti-

Vedic literature

Samhita • Brahmanas Smriti - Vedic literature • Vedangas, • Dharmshastras, •

Vedangas,

Dharmshastras,

Mahakavyas

Puranas,

Upavedas,

Shad-darshanas (Indian Philosphy ,6 systems)

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Veda Rigveda Samaveda Brahmana (2)Aitreya (6) Yajurveda (10)Shatapatha Atharva (1)

Veda

Rigveda

Samaveda

Brahmana

(2)Aitreya

(6)

Yajurveda

(10)Shatapatha

Atharva

Veda Rigveda Samaveda Brahmana (2)Aitreya (6) Yajurveda (10)Shatapatha Atharva (1)

(1)

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Megaliths :

Megaliths : • These were burial sites that were mainly prominent in the southern India but

These were burial sites that were mainly prominent in the southern India but were also existing in other regions(North east and Kashmir ).

These burial sites have some things in common they were buried along with pots

which are called red and black ware.

Tools and weapons of iron and skeletons of horses equipment and ornaments of stone

and gold were also found

Eg : Brahmagiri : Here one skeleton was buried with 33 gold beads, 2 stone beads, 4 copper bangles, and one conch shell.

Inamgaon (on the river ghod a tributary of Bhima):Adults were buried in the

ground.Many a times in the house.

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Comparison of Rig-Vedic Age and Later Vedic age • Geographical extent • Economy • Polity

Comparison of Rig-Vedic Age and Later Vedic age

Geographical extent

Economy

Polity

Society

Religion

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Recording of Indian History Begins. www.classmateacademy.com 52

Recording of Indian History Begins.

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Second urbanisation of Gangetic valley

• • • • • Second urbanisation of Gangetic valley 6 cities had special status –

6 cities had special status Mahanagaras(Anga,Magadha,Kosala,Panchala,Kuru,Avanti Gandhara)

Mahajanapadas were of Two types

Magadha(Janapada ruled by King)

Vajji (Ruled by Gana or Sangha)

Currency begins to appear made of silver or copper But they were not issued by state but by merchants

Increased use of iron and emergence ,new technology like paddy

transplant .

Massive intellectual ferment 62 unorthodox sects emerge

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Ashwamedha: A horse left to move over different territories once it returned

unaffected then sacrifice is performed.

Rajasuya :After returning from a successful military campaign, officially giving the crown .

Vajapeya : To maintain Social harmony in the kingdom ,many sages were called an discussions happened.

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The Earliest Punch Marked Coins :

The Earliest Punch Marked Coins : www.classmateacademy.com 56

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The Earliest Punch Marked Coins : www.classmateacademy.com 56

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Mahajanapadas: Rise of Republics

Magadha

Kuru

Kashi

Vriji

Panchala

Kosala

Kamboja

Gandhara

Malla

Chedi

Machcha

Surasena

Kalinga

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Assaka

Avanti

Vatsa

Anga

Yona

Kosala Kamboja Gandhara Malla Chedi Machcha Surasena Kalinga www.classmateacademy.com Assaka Avanti Vatsa Anga Yona 57

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Kingdoms start merging

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Kingdoms start merging www.classmateacademy.com 58

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Haryanka Dynasty of Magadha:

Second known dynasty of India

Haryanka Dynasty of Magadha: Second known dynasty of India Bimbisara Starts expanding Magadha. Early supporter of

Bimbisara

Starts expanding Magadha. Early supporter of Buddha

Ajathasatru

Builds a highly powerful and

fearsome Magadha force.

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Ajathasatru empire. Rivals the size of Persian empire under Cyrus. www.classmateacademy.com 60

Ajathasatru empire.

Rivals the size of Persian

empire under Cyrus.

Nanda Empire

Nanda Empire Ajathasatru was succeeded by Shishunga dynasty and then the Nanda dynasty. Nandas were extremely

Ajathasatru was succeeded by Shishunga dynasty

and then the Nanda dynasty.

Nandas were extremely unpopular and were

reportedly cruel.They denied help to other

Indian kings besieged by alien invasions.

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Kingdoms of Ancient Magadha

Brihadratha

Unknown

Haryanka

6th century

Shishunga

5th century

Nanda

4th century

Magadha Brihadratha Unknown Haryanka 6th century Shishunga 5th century Nanda 4th century www.classmateacademy.com 62

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Extent of Cyrus the Great of Persia. www.classmateacademy.com 63

Extent of Cyrus the Great of Persia.

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400 BC.Takshashila: India’s first University at the crossroads of Persia and India. www.classmateacademy.com 64

400 BC.Takshashila: India’s first University at the

crossroads of Persia and India.

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Taxila: Students entered at 16 and learned a variety of arts - from archery to

Taxila: Students entered at 16 and learned a variety of arts - from archery to physics and religion from masters.

Charaka

“Father” of Medicine

Panini

Grammarian

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Chanakya

Military Strategist

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326 BC:Alexander Attacks India Ambi - the ruler of Taxila submits to Alexander. www.classmateacademy.com 66

326 BC:Alexander Attacks India

Ambi - the ruler of Taxila submits to Alexander.

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Battle of Hydaspes.

Battle of Hydaspes. King Porus (Purushotam) of Purushapura (Peshawar) resist Alexander although losing the battle.

King Porus (Purushotam) of Purushapura (Peshawar) resist

Alexander although losing the battle.

Excellent Video documentary in:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WvgzOa2rko

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Alexander’s army refuses to go further east, fearing the mighty Nanda Empire.

to go further east, fearing the mighty Nanda Empire. “For they were told that the kings

“For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand

horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand fighting elephants.”

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Chandragupta Maurya:

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First Major Emperor begins Consolidation

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Mauryan Dyansty: BC 323 to 183 BC

Chandragupta (Sandro kotas )

Dyansty: BC 323 to 183 BC Chandragupta (Sandro kotas ) Bindusara (Amitragaghatus)-conquered all south and deccan

Bindusara (Amitragaghatus)-conquered all south and deccan except Kalinga

(Deimachus) second Ambassador to serve India

Ashoka .

Kalinga war and Dhamma

.

Ashokan Edicts -Major (Govt,official policies) and Minor(Life of Ashoka)

Major Rock Inscriptions ,Pillar Inscription ,Cave Inscriptions

Dasaratha Grand son of Ashoka

Samprathi

Brihadratha

Last mauryan ruler

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Earliest-Language Works:

Earliest- Language Works: • Panni’s -Ashtadhyayi B.C 500(First Path Breaking work on sanskrit) • Patanjali

Panni’s-Ashtadhyayi B.C 500(First Path Breaking work on

sanskrit)

Patanjali-Mahabhashya B.C 200(commentary on

Ashtadhyayi)

Ashokan Edicts:

3 languages Prakrit Greek

Aramic

4 scripts Brahmi ,Kharosthi

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Smriti :

Vedangas (to understand veda)

Dharmshastras,

Manusmriti,YagnavalakyaSmriti

Naradsmiriti

Mahakavyas

Mahabharata

Ramanya

Puranas,

Agni,Garuda,Matsya

Upavedas,

Dhanurveda,Ayurveda,Gandharvav

eda,Sthapatyaveda

Shad-darshanas (Indian Philosphy ,6

systems

Samkhya,Yoga,Nyaya,Vaisheshika,

Mimamsa,Vedanta

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With Chanakya’s strategy

With Chanakya’s strategy Chandragupta pushes Greeks out of South Asia www.classmateacademy.com 73

Chandragupta pushes Greeks out of South Asia

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Rise of Ashoka.

Rise of Ashoka. Political Integration of India. (269-232 BC) www.classmateacademy.com 74

Political Integration of India. (269-232 BC)

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Battle of Kalinga (261 BC) turns Ashoka to a pacifist.

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Battle of Kalinga (261 BC) turns Ashoka to a pacifist. www.classmateacademy.com 75

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Heartbroken by a brutal war with Kalinga, Ashoka turns Pacifist. Spreads Buddhism all over old

Heartbroken by a brutal war with Kalinga, Ashoka

turns Pacifist. Spreads Buddhism all over old world.

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A golden age for India.

A golden age for India. 40% of world population and close to 50% of world GDP

40% of world population and close to 50% of world GDP

was from Ashoka. Continues the great work of his father

Bindusara & grandfather Chandragupta.

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Ashoka’s Legacy

Ashoka’s Legacy Stupas & other buildings Moral Symbols www.classmateacademy.com First major written language 78

Stupas & other buildings

Moral Symbols

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First major written language

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Upanishads: more than 200 (Adi-shankaracharya talks of 11 Mukhya upanishads)

Brhadaranyaka and the Chandogya are the two earliest Upanishads

Katha

Mundaka

Central Principle :

Upanishads • Katha • Mundaka Central Principle : “Tat -tvam-Asi ”( Chandogya Upanishad): You(Atma) are

“Tat-tvam-Asi”(Chandogya Upanishad): You(Atma) are that(Brahma) and that is you.

"Aham brahmāsmi” : Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

Advaita

Different Paths :

Karma Marg Bhakti Marg

Gyana Marg

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6th Century:Turning Point

6th Century:Turning Point S i d d h a r t h a G a u

Siddhartha Gautama:

563 BC to 480 BC Buddhism

Vardhamana Mahavira:

599 BC to 527 BC

Jainism

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Bhuddism

Religious Movements

Gautam Siddhartha-Sakya Tribe-Kapilavastu

Born Lumbini

Gautam Siddhartha-Sakya Tribe-Kapilavastu Born – Lumbini Jainism Thirthankara-Path maker (Great Teacher)

Jainism Thirthankara-Path maker (Great Teacher)

1-Rishabha,16-Shanthinath,23-Parasvanath,24-Mahavira

Nirvana-Bodh Gaya Pepal tree

Sarnath- first sermon-Dharma Chakrapravarthana

Last sermon-KushiNagar

4-Noble Truths

Life is full of sorrows

Sorrows are caused by desires

If desires are controlled sorrows can be controlled

Ashtanga Marga

8 Fold path-vision,aim,speech,livelihood,effort,

Vardhaman-Gyanthrika Tribe-

Kaivalya ,sal tree

Nirgrandha(free from fetters )

5 cardinal principles

Satya-Truth

Ahimsa-Non-violence

Asteya-No property

Apagraha-Nostealing

Brahmacharya-observing continence(added by mahavira)

4 Councils

1

Rajgriha Suttapitaka,Vinayapitaka (Ajatashatruvu) (teachings)(Code for nuns)(Pali)

2

Vaishali

no text but groupism emerges

3

Pataliputra

Abhidammapitaka

(Ashoka)

(Philosophical Interpetation)

4

Kashmir

Groups-Mahayana vs Hinayana

(Kanishnka)

(Bodhisatva)(original teachings)

Shvethambaras Vs Digambaras (Sthulabahu) (Badrabahu)

Councils

1

Pataliputra

12 Angas(compiled)

(Sthulabahu)

2

Valabhi

12 Angas &12Upangas

(Vaipulya Sutras) Vajrayana (related to Mahayana) (Tantrik form of worship related to Tara)

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Mauryan Emperors Try Different Religious Sects C h a n d r a g u

Mauryan Emperors Try Different Religious Sects

Chandragupta

Jainism

Bindusara

Ajvika

Ashoka

Buddhism

Ashoka’s Mauryan successors go directionless.

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185 BC:Within 50 years of Ashoka’s death, Pushyamitra

Sunga does the first military coup in India assassinating

Sunga does the first military coup in India assassinating Mauryan emperor Brihadratha. www.classmateacademy.com 91

Mauryan emperor Brihadratha.

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Classical Age.

Classical Age. (200 BC - 1100 AD) Greatest works of Indian art would be created. www.classmateacademy.com

(200 BC - 1100 AD)

Greatest works of Indian art would be created.

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Indigenous dynasties-

Post Mauryan Era :

Sungas-Pushyamitra sunga

Kanvas,-Vasudeva

Satavahanas,-(Brahmin and contemporary to Sakas)

Simukha-Founder

Satakarni-1(wife Nanaghat Inscription)

ashwamedha,conflict with Kharavela

Hala-famous for his compositions in Prakrit

ghatasapthasati

Lilavati-marriage

Gautamiputra satakarni(Nasik Inscription by mother)

Vashishta putra Satkarni -Rudradaman

Foreign dynasties

Vashishta putra Satkarni -Rudradaman Foreign dynasties • Indo Greeks-Bacterian greeks Milinda panho by

Indo Greeks-Bacterian greeks

Milinda panho by Nagasena(dialogue

Between nagasena and menander).

Sakas

Rudradaman 1 Junagarh Inscription-Sudarshan Lake

(1 sanskrit inscription in kavya style)

Parthians

Gandopfenus (landing of st.thomas in kerala )

Kushanas

Kanishka most famous

patronised gandhara and mathura school of art charakha,sushrutha

Chetas-Kalinga

Kharavela-Hathigumpa Inscription

Sangam literature- at Madurai

3 phases

1 phase lengthiest but no surviving text

2 meeting

Tolkapiyyar-Tolkappiyam(oldest grammar book)

Thiruvalluar-Tirukkural(Philosphy and wise maxims)

Silapadikkaram-Oldest epic

Manimekalai

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Dark Age-BC200 to AD 300

Trade increased-Monsoon and Silk Route

guilds

and technological changes

allround development of art and architecture

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India at the time of Christ

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Muvender : Chola+Chera+Pandya www.classmateacademy.com 98
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Muvender : Chola+Chera+Pandya www.classmateacademy.com 98

Muvender : Chola+Chera+Pandya

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India faces Globalization

India faces Globalization End of Mauryas causes confusion all over India.Without a strong emperor, India is

End of Mauryas causes confusion all over

India.Without a strong emperor, India is

attacked by Central Asian nomads.

From 230 BC to 320 AD, India is ruled by

many kings and there is an huge interchange of

art and culture all over Asia and Greece.

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Migration of the Yuezhi to India.

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Migration of the Yuezhi to India. www.classmateacademy.com 101

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Invasion of northern India by Kanishka(from central

Asia) causes an explosion of art interactions among

central Asia) causes an explosion of art interactions among Greece, Persia, Bactria and India. www.classmateacademy.com

Greece, Persia, Bactria and India.

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Satvahanas: Consolidation of Middle India. 230 BC to 220 AD.

Created the present world heritage sites of

230 BC to 220 AD. Created the present world heritage sites of Ajantha, Ellora and Amaravati.

Ajantha, Ellora and Amaravati.

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Trade flourishes among Egypt, Rome,Arabia and India

Trade flourishes among Egypt, Rome,Arabia and India www.classmateacademy.com 105

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Gupta Empire (320-550 AD)

Vikram era First historical Era (B.C.58) Saka era Kanishka Era (A.D-78)

Gupta Dynasty (Vaishya)

Srigupta-founder

Chandragupta -1 (Maharadhiraja) Vajjikas-Kaumudi Mahotsav tells us about him

Samudragupta Indian Napolean Allahabad Inscription-Harisena Land grants,Gold coins

Chandragupta-2 (Vikramaditya) Vishaka Dutta-Devichandraguptam,Mudrakshara Meharauli Iron Inscription.

Kumaragupta-1

Nalanda university-2 Buddhist university,

1-Nagarjuna university.

SkandaGupta Huna Invasion

Achievements of Gupta Era

• SkandaGupta Huna Invasion Achievements of Gupta Era Literature – Chandragupta-2-Navaratnas Kalidasa

Literature

Chandragupta-2-Navaratnas

Kalidasa-AbhijnanaShakuntalam,Meghdootam,

Raghuvamsham,Kumarasambhavam Vishakhadatta-Devichandraguptam Vajjika-Kaumidi Mahotsav Shudrak-Mrichchhakatika

Advances in Sciences

Aryabhatta-Surya &Arya Siddhanta

Astronomer,zero decimal

Varahamira-Astrology(Pancha siddhanta,Brihatsamhita)

Amarasimha :Amarakosha BrahmaGupta- Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta Indian Newton

Vatsayana : Kamasutra

Paintings Ajanta &Ellora caves.

Temple

Beginning of temple architecture The Nagara style

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Chandrgupta - I

Chandrgupta - I Yet another Chandragupta emerges to fight alien powers in India. Marries a Lichchhavi

Yet another Chandragupta

emerges to fight alien powers

in India. Marries a Lichchhavi

princess & gets Magadha

kingdom as dowry. Starts massive expansion.

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Gupta Dynasty

Gupta Dynasty Age of Innovations (320 - 520 AD) C h e s s Place value

Age of Innovations (320 - 520 AD)

Chess

Place value system

University

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Sex

Education

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Numeric system originates in Gupta Era. www.classmateacademy.com 111

Numeric system originates in Gupta Era.

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Top scientists of Gupta era

Top scientists of Gupta era Varahamihira Trignometry, Optics, Arithmetic and calculation of equinox. Aryabhatta

Varahamihira

Trignometry, Optics, Arithmetic and calculation of equinox.

Aryabhatta

Approxmated Pi, decimal system (0), algebra, heliocentrism, explanation of eclipses.

Shushruta

Father of modern surgery.Author of Shushtrua Samhita.

Other great scientists: Brahmagupta (first to use 0), Bhaskara - I.

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4th century Nalanda University: Heights of Indian

Education System.

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The two Chinese Scholars who helped document India’s classical era. Xuanzhang 6th century anathan Faxian

The two Chinese Scholars who helped document India’s classical era.

Xuanzhang

6th century anathan

Faxian

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After two centuries of attacks, Hunas

finally end Gupta Empire in 530 AD

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Emperor Harsha Vardhana drives away the Hunas and tries to reunite India after 100 years

Emperor Harsha Vardhana drives away the Hunas and tries to

reunite India after 100 years of

disintegration.After 40 years of

rule, his empire disintegrates at his death.

Post Gupta A.D 550-A.D750

Post Gupta A.D 550-A.D750 Harshavardhana (606-646) Thaneshwar • Pushyabhuthi Dynasty • Fahein-Chandragupta-2 •

Harshavardhana (606-646) Thaneshwar

Pushyabhuthi Dynasty

Fahein-Chandragupta-2

Huien Tsang-Harsha

I.Sting -670A.D

Literary works Harsha-Nagananda,Ratnavali,Priyadarshika

Bana-Harshacharitra

Deccan

Early chalukyas-Chalukya of Badami,Vatapi

Pulakesin-1 Founder

Pulakesin-2

Stopped Harsha ,Involved with Narasimhavarman of Pallavas

Aihole Inscription by Ravikeerthi

Vatapi,Aihole,Pattadakal famous cultural centr

Deccan-Vesara Architecture

Pallavas of Kanchipuram (550-900 AD) NarasimhaVarman-1 killed Pulakesin-2

Ratha Temples of Mamallapuram

Narasimhavarman-2

Shore Temples Beginning of Dravidian architecture

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Pallava Dynasty (2nd - 9th century AD): Period of extraordinary architecture. www.classmateacademy.com 122

Pallava Dynasty (2nd - 9th

century AD): Period of

extraordinary architecture.

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Battle of Rajasthan: 738 AD. An alliance of Hindu rulers led by Vikramaditya - II

Battle of Rajasthan: 738 AD.

An alliance of Hindu rulers led by Vikramaditya - II defeat Arabs and ends Islamic expansion towards east.

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