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Notation

B
E
f
G
I
j
k
m
N
n
P
p
R

susceptance
induced voltage
frequency
conductance
current
j-operator
coefficient
number of
phases
number of turns
rotational speed
power
pole pairs
resistance

[siemens,
S]
[volts, V]
[hertz, Hz]
[siemens,
S]
[amps, A]
[190]
[number]
[number]
[number]
[revs/min]
[watts, W]
[number]
[ohms, ]

S
s
T
V
X
Y
Z

volt-amperes
slip
torque
terminal
voltage
reactance
admittance
impedance
loss angle
magnetic flux
phase angle
efficiency
temperature
angular speed

[volt-amps, VA]
[per-unit]
[newton-metres,
Nm]
[volts, V]
[ohms, ]
[siemens, S]
[ohms, ]
[degrees, ]
[webers, Wb]
[degrees, ]
[per-unit]
[centigrade, C]
[radians/sec]

Transformers
For an ideal two-winding transformer with primary voltage V1 applied across N1 primary turns and
secondary voltage V2 appearing across N2 secondary turns:
V1 / V2 = N1 / N2
The primary current I1 and secondary current I2 are related by:
I1 / I2 = N2 / N1 = V2 / V1
For an ideal step-down auto-transformer with primary voltage V1 applied across (N1 + N2) primary
turns and secondary voltage V2 appearing across N2 secondary turns:
V1 / V2 = (N1 + N2) / N2
The primary (input) current I1 and secondary (output) current I2 are related by:
I1 / I2 = N2 / (N1 + N2) = V2 / V1
Note that the winding current is I1 through the N1 section and (I2 - I1) through the N2 section.
For a single-phase transformer with rated primary voltage V1, rated primary current I1, rated
secondary voltage V2 and rated secondary current I2, the volt-ampere rating S is:
S = V1I1 = V2I2
For a balanced m-phase transformer with rated primary phase voltage V1, rated primary current
I1, rated secondary phase voltage V2 and rated secondary current I2, the volt-ampere rating S is:
S = mV1I1 = mV2I2
The primary circuit impedance Z1 referred to the secondary circuit for an ideal transformer with N1
primary turns and N2 secondary turns is:
Z12 = Z1(N2 / N1)2
The secondary circuit impedance Z2 referred to the primary circuit for an ideal transformer with N1
primary turns and N2 secondary turns is:
Z21 = Z2(N1 / N2)2
The voltage regulation V2 of a transformer is the rise in secondary voltage which occurs when
rated load is disconnected from the secondary with rated voltage applied to the primary. For a
transformer with a secondary voltage E2 unloaded and V2 at rated load, the per-unit voltage
regulation V2pu is:

V2pu = (E2 - V2) / V2


Note that the per-unit base voltage is usually V2 and not E2.
Open Circuit Test
If a transformer with its secondary open-circuited is energised at rated primary voltage, then the
input power Poc represents the core loss (iron loss PFe) of the transformer:
Poc = PFe
The per-phase star values of the shunt magnetising admittance Ym, conductance Gm and
susceptance Bm of an m-phase transformer are calculated from the open-circuit test results for
the per-phase primary voltage V1oc, per-phase primary current I1oc and input power Poc using:
Ym = I1oc / V1oc
Gm = mV1oc2 / Poc
Bm = (Ym2 - Gm2)
Short Circuit Test
If a transformer with its secondary short-circuited is energised at a reduced primary voltage which
causes rated secondary current to flow through the short-circuit, then the input power Psc
represents the load loss (primary copper loss P1Cu, secondary copper loss P2Cu and stray loss
Pstray) of the transformer:
Psc = P1Cu + P2Cu + Pstray
Note that the temperature rise should be allowed to stabilise because conductor resistance varies
with temperature.
If the resistance of each winding is determined by winding resistance tests immediately after the
short circuit test, then the load loss of an m-phase transformer may be split into primary copper
loss P1Cu, secondary copper loss P2Cu and stray loss Pstray:
P1Cu = mI1sc2R1star
P2Cu = mI2sc2R2star
Pstray = Psc - P1Cu - P2Cu
If the stray loss is neglected, the per-phase star values referred to the primary of the total series
impedance Zs1, resistance Rs1 and reactance Xs1 of an m-phase transformer are calculated from
the short-circuit test results for the per-phase primary voltage V1sc, per-phase primary current I1sc
and input power Psc using:
Zs1 = V1sc / I1sc = Z1 + Z2(N12 / N22)
Rs1 = Psc / mI1sc2 = R1 + R2(N12 / N22)
Xs1 = (Zs12 - Rs12) = X1 + X2(N12 / N22)
where Z1, R1 and X1 are primary values and Z2, R2 and X2 are secondary values
Winding Resistance Test
The resistance of each winding is measured using a small direct current to avoid thermal and
inductive effects. If a voltage Vdc causes current Idc to flow, then the resistance R is:
R = Vdc / Idc
If the winding under test is a fully connected balanced star or delta and the resistance measured
between any two phases is Rtest, then the equivalent winding resistances Rstar or Rdelta are:
Rstar = Rtest / 2
Rdelta = 3Rtest / 2
The per-phase star primary and secondary winding resistances R1star and R2star of an m-phase
transformer may be used to calculate the separate primary and secondary copper losses P1Cu and
P2Cu:
P1Cu = mI12R1star

P2Cu = mI22R2star
Note that if the primary and secondary copper losses are equal, then the primary and secondary
resistances R1star and R2star are related by:
R1star / R2star = I22 / I12 = N12 / N22
The primary and secondary winding resistances R1 and R2 may also be used to check the effect
of stray loss on the total series resistance referred to the primary, Rs1, calculated from the short
circuit test results:
Rs1 = R1 + R2(N12 / N22)

Induction Machines
The synchronous rotational speed ns and synchronous angular speed s of a machine with p
pole pairs running on a supply of frequency fs are:
ns = 60fs / p
s = 2fs / p = 2ns / 60
The per-unit slip s of an induction machine of synchronous rotational speed ns running at
rotational speed nm is:
s = (ns - nm) / ns
Rearranging for rotational speed nm:
nm = (1 - s)ns
Using angular speed instead of rotational speed n:
m = (1 - s) s
The rated load torque TM for a rated output power PM is:
TM = PM / m = 60PM / 2nm
For an induction machine with Ns stator turns and Nr rotor turns running at slip s on a supply of
voltage Es and frequency fs, the rotor induced voltage and frequency Er and fr are:
Er = sEsNr / Ns
fr = sfs
For a rotor current Ir, the equivalent stator current Irs is:
Irs = IrNr / Ns
Note that the rotor / stator ratios are Ns / Nr for current, sNr / Ns for voltage and s for frequency.
For an induction machine with rotor resistance Rr and locked rotor leakage reactance Xr, the rotor
impedance Zr at slip s is:
Zr = Rr + jsXr
The stator circuit equivalent impedance Zrf for a rotor / stator frequency ratio s is:
Zrf = Rrs / s + jXrs
For an induction motor with synchronous angular speed s running at angular speed m and slip
s, the air gap transfer power Pt, rotor copper loss Pr and gross output power Pm for a gross output
torque Tm are related by:
Pt = sTm = Pr / s = Pm / (1 - s)
Pr = sPt = sPm / (1 - s)
Pm = mTm = (1 - s)Pt
The power ratios are:
Pt : Pr : Pm = 1 : s : (1 - s)

The gross motor efficiency m (neglecting stator and mechanical losses) is:
m = Pm / Pt = 1 - s
An induction machine can be operated as a generator, a motor or a brake:
- for negative slip (speed above synchronous) the machine is a generator,
- for positive slip between 0 and 1 (speed below synchronous) the machine is a motor,
- for positive slip greater than 1 (speed negative) the machine is a brake,
In all cases the magnetizing current (at lagging power factor) is provided by the supply system.
No Load Test
If an induction machine with its rotor unloaded is energised at rated voltage, then the input power
represents the sum of the iron loss and mechanical loss of the machine.
Locked Rotor Test
If an induction machine with its rotor locked is energised at a reduced voltage which causes rated
current input, then the input power represents the sum of the full load copper loss and stray loss
of the machine.
Stator Resistance Test
The resistance of the stator winding is measured using a small direct current.

Synchronous Machines
The synchronous rotational speed ns and synchronous angular speed s of a machine with p
pole pairs running on a supply of frequency fs are:
ns = 60fs / p
s = 2fs / p
The output power Pm for a load torque Tm is:
Pm = sTm
The rated load torque TM for a rated output power PM is:
TM = PM / s = PMp / 2fs = 60PM / 2ns
Synchronous Generator
For a synchronous generator with stator induced voltage Es, stator current Is and synchronous
impedance Zs, the terminal voltage V is:
V = Es - IsZs = Es - Is(Rs + jXs)
where Rs is the stator resistance and Xs is the synchronous reactance
Synchronous Motor
For a synchronous motor with stator induced voltage Es, stator current Is and synchronous
impedance Zs, the terminal voltage V is:
V = Es + IsZs = Es + Is(Rs + jXs)
where Rs is the stator resistance and Xs is the synchronous reactance
Note that the field excitation of a parallelled synchronous machine determines its power factor:
- an under-excited machine operates with a leading power factor;
- an over-excited machine operates with a lagging power factor.
The field excitation of an isolated synchronous generator determines its output voltage.

Direct Current Machines


Shunt Generator
For a shunt generator with armature induced voltage Ea, armature current Ia and armature
resistance Ra, the terminal voltage V is:
V = Ea - IaRa
The field current I f for a field resistance R f is:
If = V / Rf
The armature induced voltage Ea and torque T with magnetic flux at angular speed are:
Ea = k f = km
T = k fIa = kmIa
where k f and km are design coefficients of the machine.
Note that for a shunt generator:
- induced voltage is proportional to speed;
- torque is proportional to armature current.
The air gap power Pe for a shunt generator is:
Pe = T = EaIa = km Ia
Shunt Motor
For a shunt motor with armature induced voltage Ea, armature current Ia and armature resistance
Ra, the terminal voltage V is:
V = Ea + IaRa
The field current I f for a field resistance R f is:
If = V / Rf
The armature induced voltage Ea and torque T with magnetic flux at angular speed are:
Ea = k f = km
T = k fIa = kmIa
where k f and km are design coefficients of the machine.
Note that for a shunt motor:
- induced voltage is proportional to speed;
- torque is proportional to armature current.
The air gap power Pe for a shunt motor is:
Pe = T = EaIa = km Ia
Series Motor
For a series motor with armature induced voltage Ea, armature current Ia, armature resistance Ra
and field resistance R f, the terminal voltage V is:
V = Ea + IaRa + IaR f = Ea + Ia(Ra + R f)
The field current is equal to the armature current.
The armature induced voltage Ea and torque T with magnetic flux at angular speed are:
Ea = k f Ia = km Ia
T = k fIa2 = kmIa2
where k f and km are design coefficients of the machine.

Note that for a series motor:


- induced voltage is proportional to both speed and armature current,
- torque is proportional to the square of armature current,
- armature current is inversely proportional to speed for a constant induced voltage.
The air gap power Pe for a series motor is:
Pe = T = EaIa = km Ia2

Efficiency
The per-unit efficiency of an electrical machine with input power Pin, output power Pout and
power loss Ploss is:
= Pout / Pin = Pout / (Pout + Ploss) = (Pin - Ploss) / Pin
Rearranging the efficiency equations:
Pin = Pout + Ploss = Pout / = Ploss / (1 - )
Pout = Pin - Ploss = Pin = Ploss / (1 - )
Ploss = Pin - Pout = (1 - )Pin = (1 - )Pout /
For an electrical machine with output power Pout (proportional to current) and power loss Ploss
comprising a fixed loss Pfix (independent of current) plus a variable loss Pvar (proportional to
square of current) the efficiency is a maximum when Pvar is equal to Pfix.
For a transformer, Pfix is the iron loss and Pvar is the copper loss plus the stray loss.
For an induction machine, Pfix is the iron loss plus the mechanical loss and Pvar is the copper loss
plus the stray loss.
Energy Conversion
Comparing megawatt-hours and gigajoules, 1 MWh is equivalent to 3.6 GJ. For an energy
conversion process with a per-unit efficiency , 1 MWh of energy output is obtained from (3.6 / )
GJ of energy input.

Temperature Rise
The resistance of copper and aluminium windings increases with temperature, and the
relationship is quite linear over the normal range of operating temperatures. For a linear
relationship, if the winding resistance is R1 at temperature 1 and R2 at temperature 2, then:
R1 / ( 1 - 0) = R2 / ( 2 - 0) = (R2 - R1) / ( 2 - 1)
where 0 is the extrapolated temperature for zero resistance.
The ratio of resistances R2 and R1 is:
R2 / R1 = ( 2 - 0) / ( 1 - 0)
The average temperature rise of a winding under load may be estimated from measured
values of the cold winding resistance R1 at temperature 1 (usually ambient temperature) and the

hot winding resistance R2 at temperature 2, using:


= 2 - 1 = ( 1 - 0) (R2 - R1) / R1
Rearranging for per-unit change in resistance Rpu relative to R1:
Rpu = (R2 - R1) / R1 = ( 2 - 1) / ( 1 - 0) = / ( 1 - 0)
Note that the resistance values are measured using a small direct current to avoid thermal and
inductive effects.
Copper Windings
The value of 0 for copper is - 234.5 C, so that:
= 2 - 1 = ( 1 + 234.5) (R2 - R1) / R1
If 1 is 20 C and is 1 degC:
Rpu = (R2 - R1) / R1 = / ( 1 - 0) = 1 / 254.5 = 0.00393
The temperature coefficient of resistance of copper at 20 C is 0.00393 per degC.
Aluminium Windings
The value of 0 for aluminium is - 228 C, so that:
= 2 - 1 = ( 1 + 228) (R2 - R1) / R1
If 1 is 20 C and is 1 degC:
Rpu = (R2 - R1) / R1 = / ( 1 - 0) = 1 / 248 = 0.00403
The temperature coefficient of resistance of aluminium at 20 C is 0.00403 per degC.
Note that aluminium has 61% of the conductivity and 30% of the density of copper; therefore for
the same conductance (and same resistance) an aluminium conductor has 164% of the crosssectional area, 128% of the diameter and 49% of the mass of a copper conductor.

Dielectric Dissipation Factor


If an alternating voltage V of frequency f is applied across an insulation system comprising
capacitance C and equivalent series loss resistance RS, then the voltage VR across RS and the
voltage VC across C due to the resulting current I are:
VR = IRS
VC = IXC
V = (VR2 + VC2)
The dielectric dissipation factor of the insulation system is the tangent of the dielectric loss angle
between VC and V:
tan = VR / VC = RS / XC = 2fCRS
RS = XCtan = tan / 2fC
Note that an increase in the dielectric losses of a insulation system (from an increase in the series
loss resistance RS) results in an increase in tan. Note also that tan increases with frequency.
The dielectric power loss P is related to the capacitive reactive power QC by:
P = I2RS = I2XCtan = QCtan

The power factor of the insulation system is the cosine of the phase angle between VR and V:
cos = VR / V
so that and are related by:
+ = 90
tan and cos are related by:
tan = 1 / tan = cos / sin = cos / (1 - cos2)
so that when cos is close to zero, tan cos
Note that the series loss resistance RS is not related to the shunt leakage resistance of the
insulation system (which is measured using direct current).