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# The Indian Institution of Engineers

Detailed Syllabus of
Technician Engineering
Civil (Part-2)

## DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

Evolution Scheme:
Maximum Time: 3 Hrs., Minimum Aggregate Pass Marks: 50% Passing Marks Per Subject 40%

Section A

25 Marks

Section B
Section C

## 3 Questions 10 Marks each

3 Questions 15 Marks Each

30 Marks
45 Marks

Subjects
Subject
Code
CL-2.1
CL-2.2
CL-2.3
CL-2.4
CL-2.5
CL-2.6
CL-2.7
CL-2.8
CL-2.9
CL-2.10
CL-2.11
CL-2.12
CL-2.13
CL-2.14
CL-2.15
CL-2.16
CL-2.17
CL-2.18

Subject Name

Total Marks

Surveying
Fluid Mechanics
Building Construction
Soil and foundation engineering
Transportation Engineering
Strength of Material
Civil Engineering Drawing
Structural Machines
Concrete Technology
Construction Material
Earth quake resistant building construction
Civil Engineering drawing
Steel Structure design
Irrigation Engineering
Estimating & Costing
Environmental Engineering / Health Engineering
Elements of RCC Design
Theory of Structure

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

## DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

CL-2.1 SURVEYING
1. SURVEYING (1.2 Introduction
1.3 Define Surveying
1.4 Plane and Geodetic Surveying
1.5 Scale of map
1.6 Principles Of surveying
1.7 Classification Of surveying
1.8 Errors In surveying Works
2. TAPE (CHAIN) MEASURMENT (-2)
2.1 Type of chain
2.2 Accessories of chain
2.3 Ranging
2.4 Chaining
3. COMPASS SURVEYEING (--3)
3.1 Types of compass
3.2 Some basic definitions
3.4 Local attraction
3.5 Whole circle bearing
3.6 Fore bearing
3.7 Relation between fore bearing and whole bearing
3.8 Included angles
3.9 Calculation of bearing of subsequent lines from included angle
4. LEVELLING :
4.1
Definitions
4.2
Level surface
4.3
Level line
4.4
Horizontal line
4.5
Vertical line
4.6
Mean sea level
4.7
Reduced level
4.8
Names and function of different parts of 4.9
Dumpy level
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

## DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14

4.15
4.16

4.17

4.18

4.19
4.20

Tilting level
Difference in dumpy and tilting level.
Internal and external focusing telescope
Temporary adjustments of dumpy and tilting level
Levelling staff
4.14.2 Telescope staff
4.14.3 Target staff
Levelling with dumpy and tilting levels
4.16.1 Taking observations
4.16.2 Recording in a level book.
Calculation of R.L.
4.17.1 Height of instrument method
4.17.2 Rise and fall method
4.17.3 Arithmetical checks
Types of levelling
4.18.1 Fly levelling
4.18.2 Differential levelling
4.18.3 Profile levelling
4.18.4 Reciprocal levelling
4.18.5 Precise levelling
Effect of curvature and refraction in levelling and their corrections.
4.20.1 Dumpy level
4.20.2 Tilting level

5. CONTOURING:
5.1 Concept
5.2 Purpose of contouring
5.3 Contour interval
5.4 Horizontal equivalent
5.5 Factors affecting contour interval
5.6 Characteristics of contours
5.7 Methods of contouring - direct and indirect
5.8 Uses of contour maps
6. MINOR INSTRUMENTS (--6)
6.1 Study and use of
6.2 Hand level
6.3 Abney level
6.4 Clinometer
6.5 Plan meter
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

## DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

6.6 Pantographs
6.7 Sextant
6.8 Cylonghat tracer
7 THEODOLITE
7.2 Introduction
7.3 Different parts of a vernier transit theodolite
7.5 Transiting
7.6 Swinging
7.7 Measurement of horizontal angle
7.8 Measurement of vertical angle
8 TRAVERSE
8.2 Types- open and closed traverse
8.3 Methods of traversing
8.4 Latitude and departure
8.5 Balancing the traverse
8.5.1 Bowditchs rule
8.5.2 Transit rule
9 TACHEOMETRY SURVEYING
9.2 General introduction and calculation methods
9.3 Annalitic lens
9.4 Errors in tachometry surveying
10 TRIGNOMETRICAL LEVELLING
10.2 Determination of height and distance of a point
10.2.1 Base accessible
10.2.2 Base inaccessible
11 CURVES
11.2 Introduction and types of curves
11.3 Classification of circular curves
11.4 Vertical curves its types
11.5 Transition curves and its types
12 PLANE TABLE SURVEYING :
Description and uses of plane table and its accessories
Centering, levelling and orientation of plane table
Intersections
Traversing
Resection
Two point problems
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

## Three point problems

Errors in plane tabling
13 MODERN INSTRUMENTS
EDM (electronic distance measurement)
Total station& Wild distomat
AUTOMATIC LEVEL

## CL-2.2 FLUID MECHANICS

1. Introduction :
1.1 Introduction concepts
1.1.1 Fluids and solids
1.1.2 Liquid, gas and vapour
1.2 Fluid mechanics
1.2.1 Kinematics
1.2.2 Dynamics
1.3 Fluid properties
1.3.1 Density
1.3.2 Specific volume
1.3.3 Specific gravity
1.3.4 Viscosity
1.3.4.1 Newton's law of viscosity
1.3.4.2 Dynamic and Kinematic viscosity
1.3.5 Compressibility
1.3.6 Surface tension - soap bubble, drop
1.3.7 Capillarity
1.3.8 Vapour pressure and its importance
2. Fluid Pressure and its Measurement :
2.1 Definition and its units
2.2 Pascal's law
2.2.1 Intensity of pressure at a point in fluid at rest
2.3 Pressure
2.3.1 Atmospheric pressure
2.3.2 Gauge pressure
2.3.3 Vacuum pressure
2.3.4 Absolute pressure
2.3.5 Differentials pressure
2.4 Law of hydrostatic pressure
2.5 Brahma's press
2.6 Pressure measurement
2.6.1 Manometers
2.6.1.1 Piezometer - its limitation
2.6.1.2 U-tube - simple, differential, inverted
2.6.1.3 Micro-manometers
2.6.1.4 Inclined tube micro-manometers
2.6.2 Mechanical gauge
2.6.2.1 Bourdon gauge
2.6.2.2 Bellow gauge
2.6.2.3 Diaphragm gauge
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

## DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

3. Hydrostatics :
3.1 Total pressure
3.2 Centre of pressure
3.3 Total pressure and center of pressure in following cases
3.3.1 Plane surface immersed horizontally
3.3.2 Plane surface immersed vertically
3.3.3 Plane surface immersed at an angle
3.3.4 Curved surface (no proof)
3.4 Working of lock gates, sluice gate
3.5 Pressure on masonry dams of rectangular and trapezoidal sections and their condition
of stability
4. Hydrokinematics :
4.1 Description of fluid flow
4.1.1 Eular approach
4.1.2 Lagrangian approach
4.2 Definition of path line, stream line
4.3 Types of flow
4.3.2 Uniform - Non uniform
4.3.3 Laminar - Turbulent
4.3.4 One, Two, Three dimensional flow
4.4 Continuity equation (no proof) :
4.4.1 Assumption
4.4.2 Rate of discharge
4.4.3 For one dimensional flow
5. Hydrodynamics and Measurement of Flow :
5.1 Energy of fluid - pressure, kinetic and potential
5.2 Bernoulli's theorem (no proof)
5.2.1 Assumptions and its limitation
5.3 Applications of Bernoulli's theorem
5.3.1 Pitot-tube
5.3.2 Venturimeter
5.3.3 Orificemeter
6. Orifices and Notches :
6.1 Definition and classification
6.2 Discharge through small orifices
6.2.1 Coefficient of contraction
6.2.2 Coefficient of velocity
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

## 6.2.3 Coefficient of discharge

6.2.4 Coefficient of resistance
6.3 Time of emptying a vessel of uniform cross section through an orifice at bottom.
6.4 Notches - Classification
6.4.1 Crest, Nappe
6.4.2 Difference between notch and weir
6.5 Flow over 6.5.1 Triangular notch
6.5.2 Rectangular notch

REFERENCE BOOKS : 1. Fluid Mechanics & Machines Dr. Jagdish Lal 2. Fluid Mechanics &
Machines Dr. R.K.Bansal
3. Fluid Mechanics & Machines R.S.Khurmi.
4. Hydraulics & Pneumatics H.L. Stewart.

## CL-2.3 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

INTRODUCTION (--1)
1.1Define Building
1.2Classification of building based on occupancy
1.3Explanation of different parts of building
BUILDING MATERIAL (--2)
2.1 Define building materials
2.2 Classification of building material
2.3 Objective of building material.
FOUNDATION (--3)
3.1 Concept of foundation
3.2 Factors affecting selection of foundation
3.3 Definition and importance of bearing capacity
3.4 Types of foundation: shallow and deep
3.5 Causes of failure of foundation
WALLS (--4)
4.1 Purpose of walls
4.2 Types of walls
4.3 Partition walls
4.4 Cavity walls
BRICK MASONARY (--5)
5.1 Definition related to brick masonry
5.2 Types of bonds
5.3 Construction of brick walls method of laying brick in walls.
STONE MASONARY (--6)
6.1 Definition related to stone masonry
6.2 Dressing of stone: hammer dressing and chisel dressing
6.3 General principles for construction of stone masonry
6.4 Different types of stone masonry
SCAFFOLDING, SHORING AND UNDERPINNING (--7)
7.1 Application of different types of shores and scaffolding
7.2 Meaning and need for underpinning
DAMPONESS AND ITS PREVENTION (--8)
8.1 Causes of dampness and principles of its prevention
8.2 Material commonly used for damp proofing
8.3 Damp proof course.
8.4 Anti termite treatment for building before and after construction.
BUILDINF BY LAWS (CHAPTTER-9)
9.1 study of building by laws as per 1256-1967
9.2 Terminology related to residential building, building permit occupancy,
certificate, unsafe building, enforcement code, offence and penalties.
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

## DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

10

9.3 Health sanitation, and other requirement, means of access, open space
requirements, plinth area, projections, covered area in residential plots.
9.4 Distance from electric line, plinth regulation, height regulations, lighting and
ventilation, construction of water cosset.
10.

## SITE SELECTION (--10)

10.1Selection of site for a Building and building complex
10.2 Comparative study for sites way respect to local topography, flooding site
access location.
10.3 Communication links with surrounding availability of water and electricity, prevailing
wind, made up grounds, water table, trees etc.

11

## CL-2.4 SOIL AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

1.Introduction :
1.1 Introduction and scope of soil engineering
1.2 Origin and formation of soils
1.3 Major soil deposits of India
2. Fundamental Definitions and Relationships :
2.1 Representation of soil as a three phase system
2.2 Definition of moisture content, unit weights, density, and specific gravity, void ratio,
porosity, degree of saturation and the relationship among them.
3. Classification of Soils :
3.1 Classification of soils as per particle size and plasticity chart according to IS
specifications
3.2 Particle size distribution - Sieve analysis and hydrometer analysis
3.3 Consistency of soils
3.4 Field identification of soil
4. Permeability of Soils:
4.1 Definition of permeability and related terms
4.2 Darcy's law of flow through soils
4.3 Factors affecting permeability
4.4 Measurement of permeability in laboratory
4.5 Measurement of permeability in field
5. Compaction :
5.1 Process of compaction
5.2 Proctor's compaction test
5.3 Moisture content and density relationships
5.4 Factors affecting compaction
5.5 Different methods of compaction
5.6 Brief description of field compaction methods, equipments and suitability for different
type of soils.
6. Consolidation :
6.1 Meaning and explanation of phenomena
6.2 Total stress, natural stress and effective stress
6.3 Measurement of compressibility characteristics
6.4 Consolidation test
6.5 Pressure void ratio relationship in consolidation
6.6 Practical methods of accelerating consolidation
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

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## 6.7 Normally consolidated and over consolidated soil

Shear strength :
7.1 Concept of shear strength
7.2 Factors contributing to shear strength of soils.
7.3 Drainage conditions of testing.
7.4 Determination of shearing strength by direct shear test, unconfined compression test,
vane shear test.
8. Bearing Capacity :
8.1 Concept of bearing capacity
8.2 Terzaghi's beating capacity factors and bearing capacity as per IS code
8.3 Factors affecting bearing capacity.
8.4 Determining bearing capacity of soil by plate load test and SPT.
8.5 Methods of improving bearing capacity
9. Earth Pressures :
9.1 Active and passive earth pressure
9.2 Earth pressure at rest
9.3 Determination of earth pressure by Rankine's theory for cohesionless soil (No
derivation)
10. Soil Exploration :
10.1 Functions and scope of soil exploration
10.2 Excavation and boring methods of sub-surface exploration
10.3 Types of samplers
10.4 Disturbed and undisturbed samples
10.5 Labelling, sealing and preservation of samples
1. Foundation Engineering
Concept of hollow and deep foundation; types of shallow foundations and their suitability;
Factors affecting the depth of shallow foundations; deep foundations, classification of piles
according to function and material;, installation of concrete piles (under reamed, bored,
compaced) and their suitability; load carrying capacity of piles; constructional features of
pile foundations, well foundation

REFERENCE BOOKS :
1. Soil Engg B.C. Punmmia
2. Basic Soil Engg. Dr. Alam Singh
3. Modern Geo- Technical Engg. Alam Singh
4. Soil and Foundation Engineering (Hindi) B.C. Punmia

13

## CL-2.5 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

1.Introduction :
1.1 Importance of highway transportation
1.2 Different modes of transportation
1.3 Scope of highway engineering
2. Highway Development and Planning :
2.1 Historical development of road construction
2.2 Necessity of highway planning
2.5 Highway planning in India
3. Highway Geometric Design :
3.1 Highway alignment and basic consideration governing alignment for a road
3.2 Glossaries of terms used in road geometric and their importance
3.3 Highway cross section elements
3.4 Sight distances
3.5 Design of horizontal alignments
3.6 Design of vertical alignments
4. Traffic Engineering :
4.1 Scope of traffic engineering
4.2 Passenger car unit (PCU)
4.3 Traffic control devices - signs, signals, marking, traffic islands
4.4 Causes and precaution of road accidents
4.5 On street and off street parking
4.6 Highway lighting
5. Highway Materials :
5.1.1 Desirable properties
5.1.2 Highway research board classification of soils
5.1.3 CBR test
5.2 Stone aggregates
5.2.1 Desirable properties
5.2.2 Attrition and abrasion tests
5.2.3 Crushing test
5.2.4 Impact test
5.2.5 Shape test
5.3 Bituminous materials
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

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## 5.3.1 Penetration test

5.3.2 Softening point test
5.3.3 Ductility, flash and fire point
5.3.4 Specific gravity test
6.1 Introduction
7. Highway Maintenance :
7.1 Common types of road failures
7.2 Routine maintenance
8.2 Surface and sub surface drainage
8.5 Plantation and protection of trees
9. Bridges :
9.1 Introduction : Classification of bridges
9.1.1 Temporary bridges
9.1.2 Permanent bridges
9.2 Selection of site of the bridges
9.3 Economical span of the bridges, calculation of discharge, velocity, afflux by various
methods
9.5 Cause ways, culverts - brief description with sketches
9.6 Brief introduction to piers, abutments, wing walls and bearing.
REFERENCE BOOKS :
1. Highway Engg. Khanna & Justo.
2. Highway Engg. Priyani
3. Bridge Engg. S.P. Bindra

15

## CL-2.6 STRENGTH OF MATERIAL

1. STRESSES AND STRAINS (--1)
1.2 Effect of a load on a member
1.3 Stress
1.4 Strains
1.5 Volumetric strain
1.6 Poissons ratio
1.7 Elasticity and elastic limit
1.8 Hooks law
1.9 Modulus
1.10 Stress and strain in simple and compound bar
1.11 Principle of super position
1.12 Temperature stress and strain
1.13 Relation between E,G and K
2 THIN PRESSURE VESSEL (--2)
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Assumption for determining stresses in thin pressure vessel
2.3 stresses in thin pressure vessel
2.4 Volumetric strain in pressure vessel
2.5 modification for built up pressure vessels
3. RESILIENCE AND INSTANTANEOUS STRESS (--3)
3.1 Mechanical properties
3.2 Behavior of a ductile material
3.3 Stress-strain diagrams
3.4 ultimate stress working stress and factor of safety
3.5 Elastic and plastic zone
3.6 Strain hardening or work hardening
3.7 Percentage elongation and reduction is area
3.8 Homogeneous and isotropic material
3.9 proof stress
4. MOMENT OF INERTTIA (--4)
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Moment of inertia (M.O.I)
4.3 Parallel axis theorem
4.4 Perpendicular axis theorem
4.5 Moment of inertia of different bodies
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

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## 4.6 Section modules

5.BENDING STRESSES (--5)
5.1 Definitions
5.2 Assumptions for theory of simple bending
5.3 Theory of simple bending or bending equation
5.4 Comparison between moment of resistance and flexural strength of different
section of beam
5.5 Section modulus for different shapes of beam sections

6. TORSION (--6)
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Assumption for torsion equation
6.3 Torsion equation for solid shaft
6.4 Torsion equation for hollow circular shaft
6.5 Comparison between hollow ad solid shafts
6.6 Power transmitted
6.7 Stiffness of a shaft
6.8 Concept of mean and maximum torque
6.9 When shaft in series
6.10 When shaft in parallel
7. SPRINGH (--7)
7.1 Definition
7.2 Close coild helical spring subjected to axial load
7.4 Composite springs
7.5 Close coil helical spring subjected to axial twist
7.6 Leaf spring
8. COLUMN AND STRUTS (--8)
8.1 Definition
8.2 Types of Column
8.3 strength of column
8.4 End conditions
8.5 Eulers theory
8.7 Eulers derivations
8.8 Limitations of Eulers formula
8.9 Rankine formula
9. SHARE FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAMS (--9)
9.1 Beam
9.2 Classification of beams
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

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## 9.3 Types of support

9.5 Share force
9.6 Bending Moment
9.7 Sign convention for SFD and BMD
9.8 Relation between load intensity, shear force and bending moment
9.9 Steps followed to draw SFD and BMD for beams other than cantilever bean
9.10 Methods to draw SFD and BMD for cantilever beam
9.11 Cantilever beam carrying a concentrated load at free end
9.12 Cantilever carrying a UDL over its entire span
9.13 Points of contra flexure
9.14 Simply supported beam carrying a point load
9.15 Simply supported beam carrying a UDL
9.16 Overhang beam carries point load on both ends (Both side overhang)
9.17 Overhanging beam carries a UDL over whole span (Over hanging from both
sides)
10. DIRECT AND BENDING STRESSES (--10)
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Direct and bending stresses
10.5 Middle third rule
11. SLOPE AND DEFLECTION (--11)
11.1 Introduction
11.2 methods as determining slope and deflection at any section in a loaded beam
11.3 Simply Supported beam carrying a point at the center
11.4 simply supported Beam with an eccentric point load
11.5 Simply supported beam carries a U.D.L over whole length
11.6 Cantilever beam having point load at free end
11.7 Cantilever beam with a point load not at free end
11.8 Cantilever beam with U.D.L over entire length
11.9 Cantilever beam carrying a U.D.L from fixed end

18

## 2.7 CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING

DRAWING No.1
thickness of walls with the help of given data or rule of the thumb, showing offsets,
position of DPC; details of basement showing necessary damp proofing.
Detail of cavity wall.
DRAWING No.2
Plans of T and Corner junction of walls 1 Brick, 1-1/2 Brick and 2 brick thick in
English and Flemish bonds brick pillars.
DRAWING No.3
Elevation, sectional plan and sectional side elevation of paneled and glaze d door flush
door, steel windows and aluminium windows.
DRAWING No.4
Drawing plan, elevation of a small building by measurement.
DRAWING No.5
Detailed plan, elevation and section of a two bedroom residential building from a given
line plan, showing details of foundations, roof and parapet.
DRAWING No.6
Detailed working drawing of a small double stories building on a given plot, keeping in
view building eye laws, showing slooping roof or surface drainage plan and flooring
details.
DRAWING No.7
Each student should be guided to trace any one of the drawings of sheet no 4,5 and 6 with
waterproof ink.
DRAWING No.8
Each student should be required to take out ammonia print of the tracing made by him.
Note : a) All drawings should be as per BIS code and specifications in SI units
b) Intensive practice of reading and interpreting building drawings should be given

19

## CL-2.8 STRUCTURAL MECHANICS

SECTION A
1. Properties of Materials
Classification of materials, elastic materials, plastic materials, ductile materials, brittle
materials.
Tensile test, compressive test, impact test, fatigue test, torsion test.
2. Simple Stresses and Strains
Concept of stress, normal and shear stresses due to torsion
Concept of strain, strain and deformation, longitudinal and lateral strain, poisons ratio,
Volumetric strain
Hookes law, modulli of elasticity and rigidity, Bulk modulus of elasticity, relationship
between the elastic constants.
Stresses and strains in bars subjected to tension and compression. Extension of uniform bar
under its own weight, stress produces in compound bars (two or three) due to axial load.
Stress-strain diagram for mild steel, mechanical properties, factor of safety
Temperature stresses and strains
SECTION B
3. Bending Moment and Shear Force
Concept of a beam and supports (Hinges, Roller and Fixed), types of beams: simply
supported, cantilever, fixed and continuous beams
Concept of bending moment and shear force, sign conventions
Bending Moment and shear force diagrams for cantilever, simply supported and over
hanging beams subjected to concentrated, uniformly distributed and uniformly varying
loads (B.M. and S.F. diagrams should preferably be drawn on graph paper.
Relationship between load, shear force and bending moment, point of maximum bending
moment and contraflexure.

## 4. Second Moment of Area

Concept of second moment of area, radius of gyration
Theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes
Second moment of area for sections of Rectangle, Triangle, Circle, Trapezium,
Angle, Tee, I, Channel and Compound sections. (No derivation)
5. Bending and Shear Stresses
Theory of simple bending
Application of the equation M / I= sigma / Y= E/R (No derivation is required)
Moment of resistance, sectional modulus and permissible bending stresses in circular,
rectangular, I, T and L sections; Comparision of strengths of the above sections.
SECTION C
6. Slope and Deflection
Necessity for determination of reflection
Moment area theorems (no derivation)
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

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## Computation of slopes and deflections using moment area theorems for:

(a) Simple supported beam with UDL over entire span and concentrated load at any point
(c) Cantilever with UDL over entire span and concentrated load at free end
7. Columns
Theory of columns, Euler, Rankines and I.S. formulae.
SECTION D
8. Combined Direct and Bending Stresses
Effect of eccentric load on the section, stresses due to eccentric loads, examples in the case
of short columns.
Effect of wind pressure on walls and chimneys; water pressure on dams and earth pressure
on retaining walls their causes of failures and their stability.
9. Analysis of Trusses
Concept of a frame, redundant and deficient frame, End supports, ideal and practical
trusses.
Analysis of trusses by:
(i) Methods of joints
(ii) Method of sections and
(iii) Graphical method

21

## CL-2.9 CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

1. CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY (--1)
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Concrete making and its ingredients
1.3. Types of concrete
2. INGEDIENTS OF CONCRETE (--2)
2.1. Cement
2.1.1. Introduction
2.1.2. Types of cement
2.1.2.1.
Ordinary Portland cement
2.1.2.2.
Rapid hardening cement
2.1.2.3.
Sulphate resisting cement
2.1.2.4.
High alumina cement
2.1.2.5.
Quick setting cement
2.1.2.6.
Low heat cement
2.1.2.7.
Portland pozzolana cement
2.1.2.8.
White cement
2.1.2.9.
Colored cement
2.2. Aggregate
2.2.1. Introduction
2.2.2. Classification
3. PROPERTY OF CONCRETE (--3)
3.1. Fresh concrete
3.2. Hydrated concrete
4. WATER CEMENT RATIO & WORK ABILITY OF CONCRETE (--4)
4.1. Introduction of water cement ratio
4.2. Hydration of cement
4.3. Definition of work ability and phenomenon
4.4. Compaction factor test
4.5. Factors affecting workability
5.1. Types
5.3. Fly ash
5.4. Silica fumes
5.5. Rice husk ash
5.6. Met kaolin
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

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## CL-2.10 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

1.Stones :
1.1 Classification of rocks
1.2 Geological classification - igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks
1.3 Chemical classification - argillaceous, siliceous and calcareous rocks
1.4 Physical classification - unstratified, stratified, foliated rocks.
1.5 Common rock forming minerals and their properties - silica, felspar, mica, hornblende
and dolomite.
1.6 Qualities of good building stone
1.7 General characteristics, identification and uses of common building stones - granite,
basalt, trap, sand stone, lime stone, dolomite, marble, slate, quartzite.
1.8 Natural bed of stones
1.9 Seasoning of stones.
2. Bricks :
2.1 Meaning and composition of brick
2.2 Preparation of brick clay - weathering, kneading and tempering of clay
2.3 Brief description and use of pug mill
2.4 Standard size and shape of wooden and steel moulds
2.5 Moulding - ground moulding, table moulding, sand moulding and slop moulding,
machine moulding, utility of frog.
2.6 Brief description and working of different types of kilns
2.7 Classification and testing of bricks as per B.I.S.
3. Tiles :
3.1 Use of tiles
3.2 Classification of tiles
3.2.1 According to use
3.2.2 According to shape
3.2.3 Special tiles - Allahabad tiles, Mangalore tiles
3.3 Preparation of clay
3.4 Moulding, shaping, drying and burning
3.5 Properties and uses of fire clay tiles.
4. Lime :
4.1 Introduction - lime, calcination, quick lime, slaking, setting, hardening, hydraulicity
4.2 Classification of lime as per B.I.S.
4.3 Manufacture of lime - process of charging, burning, collection and slaking.
4.4 Properties and uses of lime
4.5 Storage of lime
4.6 Testing of lime as per B.I.S.
4.7 Field test of lime as per B.I.S.
4.8 Pozzolanic materials as surkhi, cinder and fly ash.
5. Lime Mortar :
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

23

## 5.1 Constituents of lime mortar

5.2 Functions of sand and surkhi in lime mortar.
5.3 Preparation of lime mortar - mixing and grinding
5.4 Properties and common uses of lime mortar.
5.5 Constituents, function and properties of lime concrete
6. Cement and Cement Mortar :
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Raw material
6.3 Manufacturing process of ordinary Portland cement
6.4 Flow diagram for wet and dry process
6.5 Properties and use of ordinary Portland cement
6.6 Constituents, function and use of cement mortar
7. Timber :
7.1 Standing timber, rough timber, converted timber, exogenous trees, endogenous trees,
softwood and hard wood.
7.2 Growth and general structure of exogenous trees
7.3 Seasoning of timber - natural and artificial
7.4 Conversion of timber by sawing
7.5 Common defects of timber and decay of timber
7.6 Preservation of timber
7.7 Qualities and uses of good timber
7.8 Manufacturing and uses of ply woods and different ply boards and laminated boards.
8. Paints and Varnishes :
8.1 Classification of paints - oil paints, plastic paints, enamel paints, water paints and
cement paints.
8.2 Constituent materials of paints
8.3 Preparation and uses of different paints
8.4 Constituents, properties and uses of varnish and polish - spirit polish and wax polish.
8.5 Different types and use of exterior paints
REFERENCE BOOKS :
1. Construction Materials Sushil Kumar
2. Construction Materials Rangwala

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## CL-2.11 EARTHQUAKE RESISTENT BUILDING

CONSTRUCTION
ELEMENTS OF ENGINEERING SEISMOLOGY
cause of earthquake, seismic wave, earthquake size (magnitude, intensity), classification of
earthquake, seismic zoining map of India, static and dynamic loading, static and dynamic
equilibrium, fundamental period
seismic behavior of traditionally built construction of India.
Seismic performance during earth quake and mode of failure (out of plane failure , in
plane failure, diaphragm failure, connection failure, non structural component failure).
seismic provision of strengthening and retrofitting measure for traditionally built
constructions.
introduction of IS : 4326:1993. IS: 13928:1993 & IS:13927:993 with certain clauses.
SECTION D
Common modes of Failure of Rainforced Conceret buildings
Horizontal & vertical irregularities identifications seismic damage in building components
(columns, beams, slabs, infill wall, foundation etc.), ductile detailing as per IS-13920.

25

## CL-2.12 CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING

1. INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING DRWING AND INSTRUMENTS (--1)
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Drawing instruments
2. SHEET LAYOUT (--2)
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Drawing sheet layout
2.3 Title blocks
2.4 List of parts
2.6 Zone system
2.7 Folding of prints
2.8 Numbering of prints
2.9 Fixing the drawing sheet on the board
3. LINE AND CONVENTION (--3)
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Convention code or for lines
3.3 Comparative thickness of lines according to BIS
3.4 Convention for materials
3.5 Shape of Cylindrical pipe breaks or ends
3.8 Important conventional signs
4. LETTERING (--4)
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Lettering and types of letter
4.3 Spacing of alphabets into words and words in to sentences
4.4 Style of alphabets
4.5 Uniformity in lettering
4.6 Free hand lettering
5. SCALES (--5)
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Scale & size of scale
5.3 Representative Fraction (R.F)
5.4 Procedure for drawing scales
5.5 Classification of scales

## DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

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6. DIMENSIONING (--6)
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Dimensioning & types of dimensioning
6.3 Dimensioning terms and notations
6.4 Elements of dimensioning
6.5 Systems & rules of dimensioning
7. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS (--7)
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Projection and Projectors or projection lines
7.3 Types of projection
7.4 Oblique projection
7.5 Planes of projection
7.6 Orthographic projection
7.8 Types of orthographic
7.9 Symbol of first angle projection
7.10 Symbol of third angle projection
7.11 Comparison of first & third angle projections
7.12 Common rules followed while drawing the orthographic projection
7.13 Sequence of steps followed while making orthographic projection
8. IDENTIFICATION OF SURFACE (--8)
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Identification of surface from pictorial view to orthographic views
8.3 Identification of surface from orthographic view of pictorial views
8.4 Identification of surface from pictorial view to orthographic views and
Identification of surface from pictorial view to orthographic views
9. PROJECTIONS OF POINTS (--9)
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Projection of point in the first Quadrant
9.3 Projection of point in the second Quadrant
9.4 Projection of point in the third Quadrant
9.5 Projection of point in the fourth Quadrant
9.6 Octants
9.7 Positions and projections of point lying in the different octants

27

## PROJECTION AND TRACES OF LINES (--10)

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Line
10.3 Possible position of a straight line
10.4 Projection of a straight line
10.5 Projection of a straight line perpendicular to one plane & parallel to the
planes
10.6 Projection of a straight line contained in the H.P
10.7 Projection of a straight line contained in the V.P
10.8 Projection of a straight line contained in both the V.P and H.P
10.9 Projection of a straight line inclined to V.P and parallel to H.P
10.10 Projection of a straight line inclined to both V.P and H.P
10.11 Methods to find the length and true inclinations of a straight line
10. PROJECTIONS OF PLANES (--11)
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Plane
11.3 Types and location of planes
11.4 Traces of planes and types of traces
11.5 Representation of perpendicular planes
11. PROJECTIONS OF SOILDS (--12)
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Solid
12.3 Types of solid
12. SECTIONS OF SOLIDS (--13)
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Horizontal section
13.3 Vertical section
13.4 Oblique section
13.5 Sectional projections of horizontal solids with axis at right angle to V.P
13.6 Sectional projections of solids inclined to V.P
13.7 Sectional projections of solids inclined to H.P
13.8 True shapes of section
13. ISOMETRIC PROJECTION (--14)
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Isometric view
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## 14.3 Theory of isometric view

14.4 Isometric scale
14.5 Different positions of isometric axes
14.6 Difference between isometric projection and isometric view
14.7 Methods of drawing isometric projection of square prism
14.8 Isometric view of various Object
14.9 Isometric projections of plane figures
14. CONIC SECTION AND ENGINEERING CURVES (--15)
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Selecting of a cone with a plane
15.3 Definition of conic section with respect to the cone
15.4 Ellipse
15.5 Methods of construction of ellipse
15.6 Methods of drawing parabola
15.7 Hyperbola
15.8 Tangent to a hyperbola
15.9 Cycloidal curves
15.10 Involute
15.11 Helix cylindrical
15.12 Achemedian spiral
15.13 Logarithmic spiral
15. BISECTING A LINE (--16)
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Bisecting a line
16.3 To draw perpendiculars
16.4 To bisect an angle
16.5 To trisect an angle
16.6 To find the center of an arc
16.7 Parallel lines
16.8 Division of line
16.9 Squares
16.10 To construct regular polygons
16.11 Tangents to circle and arcs
16.12 Inscribed circles
16. SYMBOLE (--17)
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Electrical engineering symbols
17.3 Civil engineering symbols
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

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Preparation of a working drawing (elevation, plan, details of joints as ridge, eaves and
other conections) for a riveted steel roof truss resting on a masonry wall with the given
span, shape of the truss and the design data regarding the size of the members and the
connections. Also calculate the quantity of steel for the truss.
2. Steel connections (a,b,c,d) riveted and (e) welded all unstiffened
Beam to beam connections (Seated and franed)
Beam to column (Seated and franed)
Column base connections (Slab base and gusetted base)
Details of column splices
Connections of a steel bracket with flange of a column
3. Detailed drawing showing plan and elevation for a riveted plate girder with the given
design data regarding the sizes of its parts, with details at the supports and connections of
stiffeners, flange angles and cover plates with the web.

30

## CL-2.13 STEEL STRUCTURE DESIGN

INTRODUCTION (--1)
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Structural steel & types of structural steel
1.3 Rolled steel section
1.4 Choice of section
1.6 Mechanical properties of steel
RIVETED CONNECTIONS (--2)
1.1 Structural steel connections
1.2 Riveted connections
1.3 Types of rivets
1.4 Definitions of terms used in riveting
1.5 Specifications
1.6 Permissible stresses
1.7 Types of riveted joints
1.8 Comparison between lap and butt joint
1.9 Arrangement of rivets
1.10 Failure of riveted joint
1.11 Strength of a riveted joint
1.12 Rivet value
1.13 Assumptions in the analysis of riveted joints
1.14 Eccentric riveted connection
1.15 Design of Eccentric
1.16 Design of connection
WELDED CONNECTION (--3)
1.1 Welding
1.2 Welded connection
1.4 Types of welds
1.5 Butt weld
1.6 Types of butt welds
1.7 Specification of fillet weld
1.8 Permissible stresses in welds
1.9 Strength of fillet weld joints
1.10 Strength of butt weld joint
1.11 Steps for design of fillet weld
1.12 Testing and inspection of welded joints
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## 1.13 Defects in weld

TENSION MEMBER (--4)
1.1 Tension member
1.2 Types of tension member
1.3 Net sectional area
1.4 Permissible stress in axial tension
1.5 Strength of member in axial tension
1.6 Design of axially loaded tension members
1.7 Tension splice
1.8 Design of tension splice
COMPRISSION MEMBER (STRUTS) (--5)
1.1 Compression member
1.2 Common sections of compression members used as strut
1.4 Slenderness ratio
1.5 Strength of angel sections used as struts
1.6 Strength of an axially loaded compression members (struts)
1.7 Tacking rivets
COLUMNS (--6)
6.1 Columns
6.2 Classification of columns
6.3 Concept of Buckling
6.4 Effective length (1)
6.5 Column design formula
6.6 Strength & design of an axially loaded column
6.7 Combined bending and axial compression
6.8 Column splice
6.9 Column base
BEAMS (--7)
1.1 Beam
1.2 Types of beam sections
1.3 Technical terms used in beam design
1.4 Laterally restrained beam
1.5 Steps for finding out load carrying capacity of beams
1.6 Design of laterally restrained beam
1.7 Web buckling
1.8 Web crippling
1.9 Simple beam connections
1.10 Beam to column connections
1.11 Beam to Beam connections
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## 1.12 Plate girders

ROOF TRUSSES (--8)
8.1 Roof truss
8.2 Parts of roof truss
8.3 Types of trusses
8.4 Use of roof truss
8.5 Pitches of trusses
8.6 Depth of trusses
8.7 Spacing of purlins
8.8 Economical spacing of roof trusses
8.9 Connection between purlin and principle rafter

33

## CL-2.14 IRRIGATION ENGINEERING

1. Introduction
1.1 definition
1.2 necessity and scope of irrigation science
1.3 benefits and ill-effects of irrigation
1.4 types of irrigation
2. Method of irrigation
2.1 modes or method of applying water to crop
2.2 uncontrolled or wild flooding
2.3 free flooding
2.4 flooding by contour laterals
2.5 Tthezigzagmethod,furrowmethod,contourfarming,sprinklermethod,drip
irrigation.
3. Water requirement of crop
3.1 function of irrigation water
3.2 quality of irrigation water
3.3 types of soil
3.4 limiting soil moisture conditions
3.5 depth and frequency of irrigation.
3.6 duty and factor affecting duty
4. Hydrology
4.1 history of hydrology
4.2 the hydrologic cycle
4.3 hydrological data
4.4 precipitation
4.5 measurement of rainfall
4.6 evaporation and infiltration
4.7 runoff and factor affecting runoff
4.8 unit and S-hydrograph
5. Dams
5.1 introduction
5.2 classification according to use, hydraulic design, material
5.3 gravity dams
5.4 arch dams
5.5 buttress dam
5.6 steel and timber dam
5.7 earth dam and rockfill dam
6. Flow irrigation
6.1 canal : classification
6.2 canal alignment
6.3 curves and inundation canals
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

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## CL-2.15 ESTIMATING AND COSTING

1. INTRODUCTION :
1.1 Purpose
1.2 Importance of estimating
1.3 Common items of works in civil engineering construction works
1.4 Units of measurement for common items of works
1.5 Methods of measurement
1.6 Explanation of common terms used for estimating
1.7 Different types of estimates and their significance
1.8 Merits and demerits.
1.9 Methods of taking out quantities
1.10 Study of Basic Schedule of Rates (B.S.R.)
2. RATE-ANALYSIS :
2.1
Factors affecting cost of work
2.2
Explanation of terms
2.3
Prime costCIVIL ENGINEERING 47 2.4 Original cost
2.4
Provisional items
2.5
Provisional sum
2.6
Day work, item wise
2.7
Analysis of cost of material
2.8
Labour
2.9
Transport
2.10 Establishment charges and incidentals
2.11 Preparation of analysis of rates for items of work involved in building
construction mentioned in practical syllabus.
3. SPECIFICATIONS :
3.1 Importance of specifications. Principles for writing out specifications, types
of specification
3.2 Writing general and detailed specifications for items of work in building
construction mentioned in practical syllabus.
4. DETAILED ESTIMATES FOR BUILDINGS :
4.1 Calculation of quantities
4.2 Preparing abstract of cost for a residential building.
5. EARTH WORK CALCULATIONS FOR ROAD & RAIL FORMATION :
5.1 Earthwork calculations and estimates for roads and rail formation
5.2 For earth work following methods may be used :
5.2.1
Mean depth method.
5.2.2
Mean area method.
THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS ( IIE)

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5.2.3
Prismoidal formula method
5.2.4
Graphical method
5.3 Using longitudinal and typical cross sections
5.4 Cross section for different stations.
5.5 Finding earth work by these sections
5.6 Calculation of permanent and temporary lands for roads
5.7 Economical depth of digging
6. VALUATION OF PROPERTY AND RENT FIXATION :
6.1 Objects of valuation
6.2 Free-hold property
6.3 Lease-hold property
6.4 Property income
6.5 Obsolescence
6.6 Market-value
6.7 Book value
6.8 Distress value
6.9 Monopoly value
6.10 Salvage value
6.11 Scrap value
6.12 Accommodation value
6.13 Replacement value
6.14 Sentimental value
6.15 Speculative value
6.16 Factors affecting the value of the property
6.17 Annuity
6.18 Capital cost
6.19 Capitalized value
6.20 Years purchase
6.21 Methods of determining depreciation
6.22 Valuation of property
6.23 Method of determining valuation of property
6.24 Typical valuation report
6.25 Types of rents
6.26 Rules of capital cost fixation for govt. buildings
6.27 Rules for calculation of standard rent
7. CONTRACT SYSTEM :
7.1 Requirements of contracts
7.2 Types of contracts
7.3 Lumpsum contract
7.4 Item rate contract
7.5 Percentage contract
7.6 Contract documents
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7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17

## Security for performance of contracts

Conditions of contract
Termination of contract
Labour contracts
Negotiated contracts
Earnest money
Security deposit
Types of tenders
Security of tenders
Acceptance of tenders
Tender notice

8. PROCEDURE OF WORKS :
8.1 Main staff structure of engineering department
8.2 Duties of junior engineer
8.4 Expenditure sanction or approval
8.5 Technical sanction or an approval
8.6 Appropriation and re-appropriation of funds
8.7 Procedure for original minor and major works
8.8 Repair works
8.9 Types of estimates
8.10 Preliminary estimate.
8.11 Cubical content estimate.
8.12 Plinth area estimate.
8.13 Revised estimate CIVIL ENGINEERING 66
8.14 Supplementary estimate
8.15 Daily labour on muster roll system
8.16 Completion report
9. PUBLIC WORKS ACCOUNTS :
9.1 Payment to labourers
9.2 Payment to contractors and suppliers
9.3 Standard measurement book
9.4 First and final bill
9.5 Running account bill

37

## CL-2.16 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING/

HEALTH ENGINEERING
1. INTRODUCTION :
1.1 Necessity of water supply system
1.2 Development of water supply system
2. QUANTITY OF WATER :
2.1 Water demand per capita for domestic and other uses
2.2 Population forecast
2.3 Fire demand
2.4 Design period
2.5 Demand as per B.I.S
3. SOURCES OF WATER :
3.1 Surface sources
3.2 Sub-surface sources
3.3 Quality of water obtained from different sources
4. QUALITY OF WATER :
4.1 Examination of water
4.1.1 Physical
4.1.2 Chemical
4.1.3 Bacteriological
4.2 Potability of water
4.3 Impurities of water
4.3.1 Suspended
4.3.2 Colloidal
4.3.3 Dissolved impurities
4.4 Permissible standard for potable water
4.5 Effects of impurities if they are more than permissible limits
5. TREATMENT OF WATER :
5.1 Flow diagrams of treatment plants
5.2 Function, constructional details, working of
5.2.1 Aeration unit
5.2.2 Feeding and mixing devices of chemicals
5.2.3 Sedimentation

38

## 5.2.4 Coagulation and flocculation unit

5.2.5 Filtration unit
5.2.5.1 Slow sand filter
5.2.5.2 Rapid sand filter
6. WASTE WATER TREATMENT:
6.1 Necessity of systematic collection and disposal of waste
6.2 Present status in the state
6.3 Dry waste
6.4 Semi-liquid waste
6.5 Liquid waste
6.6 Terminology related to sanitary engineering
7. QUANTITY OF SEWAGE :
7.1 Domestic sewage
7.2 Industrial waste
7.3 Storm water
7.4 Volume of domestic sewage dry weather flow (D.W.F.) and equivalent DWF
7.5 Variation of flow
7.6 Limiting velocities
7.6.1 Non-silting velocity
7.6.2 Non-scouring velocity
7.6.3 Self cleansing velocity
7.6.4 Transporting velocity
7.7 Depth of flow
8. CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPOSITION OF SEWAGE :
8.1 Decomposition of sewage
8.2 Sewage sampling
8.3 Physical and chemical analysis
8.4 Testing of sewage
8.4.1 Physical test
8.4.2 Biological test
8.4.3 Chemical test
9. SEWERAGE SYSTEMS :
9.1 Types
9.1.1 Separate system
9.1.2 Combined system
9.1.3 Partially separate system
9.2 Different shapes of sewers

## DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

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10. APPURTENANCES :
10.1 Manholes
10.2 Drop manhole
10.3 Inlets
10.4 Catch basin
10.5 Inverted syphon
10.6 Flushing tanks
10.7 Ventilating shaft
10.8 Lamp holes
11. SEWAGE DISPOSAL :
11.1 General composition of sewage
11.2 Strength of sewage
11.3 Land disposal
11.4 Dilution method of disposal
12. TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL :
12.1 Primary treatment
12.2 Secondary treatment
12.3 Function and construction of
12.3.1 Screening chambers
12.3.2 Grit chambers
12.3.3 Clarifier chambers
12.3.4 Trickling filters
12.3.5 Aeration tank

40

## CL-2.17 ELEMENTS OF RCC DESIGN

1. INTRODUCTION
R.C.C. and there requirement different grades of cement and steel characteristics
strength and grades of cement modular ratio as per (IS: 875)
2. DOUBLY REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS
2.1. Necessity of doubly reinforced section
2.2. Design of DRB for flexure
2.3. Depth of neutral axis and moment of resistance
2.4. Determination of moment of resistance
3. SLAB
3.1. One way slab
3.1.1. Design of one way slab
3.1.2. Load distribution in a slab
3.2. Two way slab
3.2.1. Introduction and difference between one way and two way slab
4. T- Beams
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Terms used in T- beams
4.3. Analysis of T-beams
4.4. MOR(n>Df)
5. COLUMNS
5.1. Introduction and classification
5.2. Difference between short and long column
5.3. Limit state of collapse : compression
6. BASIC CONCEPT OF PRE STRESSED CONCRETE
6.1. Introduction of pre stressed concrete
6.3. Techniques of post tensioning.

41

## CL 2.18 THEORY OF STRUCTURES

1. SLOPE AND DEFLECTION :
1.1 Calculation of slope and deflection in simply supported and cantilever beams,
1.1.1 Double integration method
1.1.2 Macaulay's method
1.1.3 Area moment method
2. INFLUENCE LINE DIAGRAM FOR THE FOLLOWING IN SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAMS :
2.1 Reaction
2.2 Shear force
2.3 Bending moment
3.1 Drawing of maximum B.M.D. and S.F.D. for simply supported beam for rolling
3.1.4 U.D.L. longer than span
3.1.5 U.D.L. shorter than span
4. INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES :
4.1 Types of indeterminacy
4.2 External and internal
4.3 Degree of indeterminacy in beams and pin jointed frames
5. PROPPED CANTILEVER BEAM :
5.1 Concept
5.2 Drawing of B.M.D. and S.F.D. for propped cantilever beams loaded with point
5.3 Slope and deflection for point loads and U.D.L.
6. FIXED BEAMS :
6.1 Concept
6.2 Drawing of BMD and SFD
7. CONTINUOUS BEAMS :
7.1 Drawing of BMD and SFD for continuous beams loaded with point load and
UDL using Claypeyrons theorem of three moments

## DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

42

REFERENCE BOOKS :
1. Strength of Material & Theory of Structures. Vol I & II B.C. Punmia
2. Mechanics of Structure S.B. Junarkar.
3. Strength of Material S. Ramamurtham

43