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# 1.

Conservation of mass:

## 3. Angular momentum equation:

4. Energy equation:

## 5. Flow rate meters: Determine flow rate ( Q )

[Iteration involved]

Q=C Qideal

C=f ( , )

## 6. Dimensional Analysis (DA) is a technique of grouping variables [forming

a new dimensionless variable grouping] to reduce the number of
experiment to be conducted.
Basic physical dimensions:
Buckingham
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(iv)

M , L ,T , I , K

Theorem:

## List all variables (n of them)

Check number of basic dimensions (m)
Select m repeating variables, criteria for selection:
(a) Geometry of objects: Length, height, width, diameter,
roughness, chord length.
(b) Properties: Viscosity, density, bulk modulus.
(c) External Force: Velocity, pressure, force, acceleration.
Form (n - m) groups

## 7. Common dimensionless parameters:

(i)

Reynolds No:

VD

, = [kinematic viscosity]

## *Ratio of inertia force to viscous force. Distinguish between laminar

and turbulent (inviscid) flow. Important for internal flow.

(ii)

Mach

No:

V
,C is speed of sound (340 m/ s).
C

V
, k is specific heats ratio
kRT

speed flow.
(iii)

V
gl

Froude No:

## *Ratio of inertial force to gravitational force. Important in flows

with free surface where gravity is dominant [Study of water flow
around ship].
(iv)

Euler No:

p
2
V

FD

2
2
*Measure of ratio of pressure force to inertia force.
V D

(v)

Weber No:

V 2 l

## *Measure of ratio of inertia force to surface tension force.

Important when there is an interface between 2 fluids, surface
tension comes to play.
(vi)

Strouhal No:

lw
, w is frequency of vortex shedding
V

## *Ratio of inertia force caused by unsteadiness (local acceleration) to

inertia force caused by convective acceleration.
8. Modeling and Similitude Studies [Fluid Mechanics]
Model represents actual physical prototypes, yet smaller in size. It is
important to ensure proper design and testing of model to obtain
correct results.
*Develop procedures for designing model to ensure models and
prototypes behave in same manner.
Model and prototype must possess:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

## Geometric similarity: Same shape.

Kinematic similarity: Velocity and acceleration ratio.
Dynamic similarity: Forces ratio [Reynolds No., Froude No., etc.]

Cm =C p

9. Problem in similitude:
In case where d m d p ,
[Compressibility effect]

Vm

## When the flow has high Reynolds number [

FD
V 2 D2

10

], drag coefficient

## *Could reuse prototype flow velocity for model. Validity is checked by

ensuring Reynolds number 10 5 .
10.Incomplete similitude: In some problems, it may not be physically
possible to match all relevant dimensionless parameters of prototype and
model systems. The most critical dimensionless parameters are
matched.
(i)
(ii)

## Compressible flow: Reynolds No. and Mach No.

Incompressible flow: (a) Free surface: Reynolds No. and Froude
No.
(b) Internal flow: Reynolds No.

11.

12.

13.

Q= AV ave

du
dr

*horizontal
pipe

r =R

Q= AV = u dA
r =0

or

Relative
roughness

is needed

17.Minor losses:
Examples of
losses:

h L=K L

V 12
h L=K L
2g

## 19.Three reservoir problem [3 non-linear equations problem]:

(i)
Assumptions of flow direction, establish energy equation
subsequently. [2 equations]
(ii)
Continuity equation. [Introduce fraction concept, reduce 3 variables
to 2 variables]

V 22
2g

(iii)

## Negative or complex solutions suggest error in assumptions of flow

direction.
20.Energy Grade Line (EGL) and Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL):

P
+Z
g

## EGL // HGL [except transition

in flow]

h L@ exit =

Possibility of
cavitation

21.Fluid machines:
(i)
Positive displacement pump
(ii)

Turbomachine

Euler
equation +
velocity

22.

in pump

Pump performance

## 23.Dimensionless parameters and similarity laws: [3 dimensionless

parameters]

*If

V
ar
y
di
a
m

V
ar
y
ro
ta
ti
o

( C Q )m= ( CQ ) p

, then

24.Specific speed, N s
(i)
Evaluated at the Best Efficiency Point (BEP) of pump.
(ii)
Centrifugal pump has small N s , while axial pump has high N s .

C Q
( CH )

0.75

## Static elevation, can be 0 or

0 .
Higher K value produces
steeper curve.

## Pump/System matching is to match the pump characteristic and

system demand curves so that the natural operating point occurs at the

ourable for
flat system
Favourable
forcurve
steep system curve

## Best Efficiency Point (BEP). [ H P =E ]

26.Multiple pump arrangement: [Series & Parallel]
Total Head: H tot =H 1 + H 2+ H 3+ + H n
Flow rate through pumps: Q tot =Q 1=Q 2==Q n
If H P = Z+ AQ +B Q2 , then
2
=H 3 ==H nn
Total
H T =n
1=H
( Z+ AHQtot =H
T + BQ
T ) 2 [Identical

Pumps]

Qtot =Qeach
Flow
rate through
To determine
howpumps:
of then n
1 +Q 2 ++Q
pumps is supplying,2 match to the corresponding
If
then
H Prate
= Z+
AQ +B Qthe, pump.
flow
through
H T = Z + A

QT
Q
+B T
n
n

( ) ( )

[Identical n

Pumps]

## To determine how much flow rate each of the

pumps is delivering, match to the
n

## 27.Cavitation: Formation of vapour cavities. [*Absolute pressure in Energy

Equation]
(i)
Occurs when local pressure of liquid drops below the vapour
pressure of liquid. [In normal piping network]
(ii)
In pump, cavitation starts at a pressure higher than vapour
pressure of liquid, as it is manifested by other factors.
Cavitation adversely affects the hydraulic performance, mechanical
performance and part life of pumps.
For pump:

PS = Pressure at
pump suction
V S = Velocity at
pump suction
NPSH R

Value corresponds to
the first appearance of
vapour bubbles, or first
measurable
drop
in
pump performance.

System
characteristic,
depends
on
pumps
Dependent
on
pump
characteristic
and
operating
conditions.