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1.

Conservation of mass:

2. Linear momentum equation:

*Note the usage of gauge pressure when calculating net force.

If control volume is moving at a constant velocity,

3. Angular momentum equation:

4. Energy equation:

5. Flow rate meters: Determine flow rate ( Q )


[Iteration involved]

by creating pressure drop.

Q=C Qideal

C=f ( , )

6. Dimensional Analysis (DA) is a technique of grouping variables [forming


a new dimensionless variable grouping] to reduce the number of
experiment to be conducted.
Basic physical dimensions:
Buckingham
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(iv)

M , L ,T , I , K

Theorem:

List all variables (n of them)


Check number of basic dimensions (m)
Select m repeating variables, criteria for selection:
(a) Geometry of objects: Length, height, width, diameter,
roughness, chord length.
(b) Properties: Viscosity, density, bulk modulus.
(c) External Force: Velocity, pressure, force, acceleration.
Form (n - m) groups

7. Common dimensionless parameters:


(i)

Reynolds No:

VD

, = [kinematic viscosity]

*Ratio of inertia force to viscous force. Distinguish between laminar


and turbulent (inviscid) flow. Important for internal flow.

(ii)

Mach

No:

V
,C is speed of sound (340 m/ s).
C

V
, k is specific heats ratio
kRT

*Ratio of inertial force to compressibility force, important for high


speed flow.
(iii)

V
gl

Froude No:

*Ratio of inertial force to gravitational force. Important in flows


with free surface where gravity is dominant [Study of water flow
around ship].
(iv)

Euler No:

p
2
V

FD

2
2
*Measure of ratio of pressure force to inertia force.
V D

(v)

Weber No:

V 2 l

*Measure of ratio of inertia force to surface tension force.


Important when there is an interface between 2 fluids, surface
tension comes to play.
(vi)

Strouhal No:

lw
, w is frequency of vortex shedding
V

*Ratio of inertia force caused by unsteadiness (local acceleration) to


inertia force caused by convective acceleration.
8. Modeling and Similitude Studies [Fluid Mechanics]
Model represents actual physical prototypes, yet smaller in size. It is
important to ensure proper design and testing of model to obtain
correct results.
*Develop procedures for designing model to ensure models and
prototypes behave in same manner.
Model and prototype must possess:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Geometric similarity: Same shape.


Kinematic similarity: Velocity and acceleration ratio.
Dynamic similarity: Forces ratio [Reynolds No., Froude No., etc.]

Cm =C p

9. Problem in similitude:
In case where d m d p ,
[Compressibility effect]

Vm

will be very large to fulfill m =p .

When the flow has high Reynolds number [

FD
V 2 D2

10

], drag coefficient

is then insensitive to variation of Reynolds number.

*Could reuse prototype flow velocity for model. Validity is checked by


ensuring Reynolds number 10 5 .
10.Incomplete similitude: In some problems, it may not be physically
possible to match all relevant dimensionless parameters of prototype and
model systems. The most critical dimensionless parameters are
matched.
(i)
(ii)

Compressible flow: Reynolds No. and Mach No.


Incompressible flow: (a) Free surface: Reynolds No. and Froude
No.
(b) Internal flow: Reynolds No.

11.

12.

13.

Q= AV ave

du
dr

14.Turbulent velocity profile:

*horizontal
pipe

r =R

Q= AV = u dA
r =0

15.Dimensional analysis of pipe flow:

If flow is wholly turbulent, only


or

Relative
roughness

is needed

16.For non-circular conduit:

17.Minor losses:
Examples of
losses:

h L=K L

V 12
h L=K L
2g

18.Pipes in series and parallel

19.Three reservoir problem [3 non-linear equations problem]:


(i)
Assumptions of flow direction, establish energy equation
subsequently. [2 equations]
(ii)
Continuity equation. [Introduce fraction concept, reduce 3 variables
to 2 variables]

V 22
2g

(iii)

Negative or complex solutions suggest error in assumptions of flow


direction.
20.Energy Grade Line (EGL) and Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL):

Energy Grade Line: Total Head


Hydraulic Grade Line:

P
+Z
g

[Piezometric head]

EGL // HGL [except transition


in flow]

h L@ exit =

Possibility of
cavitation

21.Fluid machines:
(i)
Positive displacement pump
(ii)

Turbomachine

Euler
equation +
velocity

Shut of head: Total head at zero flow

22.

*Net head, considered losses


in pump

ncy curve: Implication of affinity law

Pump performance

23.Dimensionless parameters and similarity laws: [3 dimensionless


parameters]

*If

V
ar
y
di
a
m

V
ar
y
ro
ta
ti
o

( C Q )m= ( CQ ) p

, then

24.Specific speed, N s
(i)
Evaluated at the Best Efficiency Point (BEP) of pump.
(ii)
Centrifugal pump has small N s , while axial pump has high N s .

C Q
( CH )

0.75

25.System characteristics (System demand curve):

Static elevation, can be 0 or


0 .
Higher K value produces
steeper curve.

Pump/System matching is to match the pump characteristic and


system demand curves so that the natural operating point occurs at the

ourable for
flat system
Favourable
forcurve
steep system curve

Best Efficiency Point (BEP). [ H P =E ]


26.Multiple pump arrangement: [Series & Parallel]
Total Head: H tot =H 1 + H 2+ H 3+ + H n
Flow rate through pumps: Q tot =Q 1=Q 2==Q n
If H P = Z+ AQ +B Q2 , then
2
=H 3 ==H nn
Total
Head:
H T =n
1=H
( Z+ AHQtot =H
T + BQ
T ) 2 [Identical

Pumps]

Qtot =Qeach
Flow
rate through
To determine
howpumps:
much head
of then n
1 +Q 2 ++Q
pumps is supplying,2 match to the corresponding
If
then
H Prate
= Z+
AQ +B Qthe, pump.
flow
through
H T = Z + A

QT
Q
+B T
n
n

( ) ( )

[Identical n

Pumps]

To determine how much flow rate each of the


pumps is delivering, match to the
n

27.Cavitation: Formation of vapour cavities. [*Absolute pressure in Energy


Equation]
(i)
Occurs when local pressure of liquid drops below the vapour
pressure of liquid. [In normal piping network]
(ii)
In pump, cavitation starts at a pressure higher than vapour
pressure of liquid, as it is manifested by other factors.
Cavitation adversely affects the hydraulic performance, mechanical
performance and part life of pumps.
For pump:

PS = Pressure at
pump suction
V S = Velocity at
pump suction
NPSH R

Value corresponds to
the first appearance of
vapour bubbles, or first
measurable
drop
in
pump performance.

System
characteristic,
depends
on
pumps
Dependent
on
pump
characteristic
and
operating
conditions.