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Academic Year 2011/2012

ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING


THE INSTITUTE OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS
FACULTY OF ELECTRONICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

Bachelor of Science Thesis

Modeling and Simulation of Scheduling Algorithms


in LTE Networks
Dinesh Mannani

Supervisor:
Dr. Mirosaw Somiski,
Associate Professor
Consultant:
Dr. Sawomir Pietrzyk,
IS-Wireless

...........................................................
Evaluation

...........................................................
Signature of the Head
of Examination Committee

Warsaw, January 2012

Modelling and Simulation of Scheduling Algorithms in


LTE Networks
Abstract:
This thesis is based on the study of scheduling algorithms in LTE (Long Term Evolution).
LTE is an evolution of the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)
standardised by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) in its Rel. 8 for the
development of wireless broadband networks with very high data rates. It enables mobile
devices such as smartphones, laptops, tablets to access internet at a very high speed data
along with lots of multimedia services. The future of LTE lies in being implemented in
various electronic devices to exchange data wirelessly at very high speeds.
Technically, the Long Term Evolution provides a high data rate and can operate in different
bandwidths ranging from 1.4MHz up to 20MHz. In terms of features the latest Release of
LTE (Rel. 10 LTE-Advanced) aims to deliver enhanced peak data rates to support advanced
services and applications (100 Mbit/s for high and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility [25], low latency
(10ms round-trip delay), improves system capacity and coverage, supports multi-antenna and
reduces operating costs [1] by introducing concepts like SON and allowing seamless
integration with existing mobile network systems.
Scheduling is basically the process of making decisions by a scheduler regarding the
distribution of resources (time and frequency) in a telecommunications system among its
users. The Max SNIR, the Proportional Fair and the Round Robin scheduling algorithms
have been considered and discussed in this dissertation. The analysis of these scheduling
algorithms has been done through simulations executed on a MATLAB-based system level
simulator from IS-Wireless called LTE MAC Lab (aka Matlab version of 4G System Lab)
with their verification in a LTE network test environment (deployed in the Institute of
Telecommunications within the Smart City of TPSA in the Warsaw University of Technology).
I have examined the impact on the throughput and the fairness results of each scheduling
algorithm.
This thesis is mainly to understand the scheduling algorithms for LTE by means of modelling
and simulation of the process and in the end verify the results by conducting tests in a LTE
test environment. Furthermore, work out a method to examine LTE scheduling performance
evaluation for teaching purposes.

Modelowanie i symulacja dziaania procedur


rezerwacji zasobw w sieciach typu LTE
Streszczenie:
W pracy podjto studia dotyczce nowoczesnych sieci telekomunikacyjnych zgodnych ze
standardem Long Term Evolution ( LTE), opracowanym i rozwijanym przez Konsorcjum 3rd
Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), ktre pozwalaj ju obecnie na osiganie w
sieciach telefonii komrkowej duych szybkoci transferu danych (do 100 Mb/s w kierunku do
abonenta i do 50 Mb/s w kierunku zwrotnym) z maymi opnieniami. W szczeglnoci
skupiono si na zagadnieniach zwizanych z analiz procesu rezerwacji zasobw
transmisyjnych w tych sieciach.
Do analizy porwnawczej wybrano trzy, rekomendowane dla tych sieci, algorytmy: The Max
SNIR Scheduling Algorithm, The Proportional Fair Scheduling Algorithm i The Round Robin
Scheduling Algorithm. Analizy przeprowadzono z wykorzystaniem profesjonalnego narzdzia
programistycznego Symulatora LTE MAC Lab (aka Matlab version of 4G System Lab)
firmy IS-Wireless oraz niedawno otwartego na Wydziale Elektroniki i Technik
Informacyjnych (WEiTI) Politechniki Warszawskiej Laboratorium LTE, przygotowanego we
wsppracy z firm HUAWEI Polska Sp. z o.o., Telekomunikacj Polsk S.A. i Orange Labs
Poland.
Uzyskane w pracy wyniki zostan wykorzystanie w zajciach dydaktycznych na studiach 1i 2-stopnia WEiTI prowadzonych z wykorzystaniem ww. Laboratorium LTE oraz badaniach
i testach wykonywanych przez studentw w rodowisku sieciowym Miasteczka Testowego
Telekomunikacji Polskiej w Politechnice Warszawskiej.

CURRICULUM VITAE
Personal Details:
Name:
Dinesh Mannani
Date of Birth: 28-02-1990
Nationality: Indian

Work Experience:
1. Intern Business Development Team at ISWireless, Warsaw, Poland
01-07-2011 to 30-09-2011
2. English Teacher (Native)
Since 03-2011

Career Highlights:
1. School Prefect
Head of the Student Union
Represented school at various public events
worked in a team environment to represent students
2. President Computer Club at School
Responsible for handling web-designing projects
Responsible for time-management of other participants
3. President English Literary Society at School
Represented the school at various debate competitions
4. Experience in Hospitality Industry
5. Experience in website and graphics designing

Education:

Completed schooling from Birla Vidya Mandir, Nainital, India


o 04-2004 to 03-2008
BSc. in Electrical and Computer Engineering (specialization Telecommunications) at
Warsaw University of Technology (Politechnika Warszawska).
Thesis: Scheduling Algorithms in LTE networks
o 10-2008 to 02-2012

Skills:

Knowledge of LTE/WiMax network technologies.


Knowledge of various Routing and internet protocols.
Knowledge about Business Development and CRM
Fluent in English, Hindi.
Working knowledge of Polish.
Working knowledge of Visual Basic, HTML, JavaScript, flash, SQL.
Designing magazines, graphics etc.

..
Signature of the student
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Acknowledgement
This Bachelors thesis is the final step in obtaining my Bachelors Degree in Electrical and
Computer Engineering with specialisation in Telecommunications at the Warsaw University
of Technology.
The thesis was conducted under the supervision of Dr. Mirosaw Somiski, Associate
Professor in the Telecommunications Department of the Faculty Electronics and Information
Technology at the Warsaw University of Technology (Politechnika Warszawska). I have
worked on my Bachelors thesis from June, 2011 to January 2012. Here I would like to
express my sincere gratitude to all those who have provided me with encouragement and
guidance during this thesis.
First of all I am particularly indebted to Dr. Mirosaw Somiski, my supervisor. He has been
a great support since the beginning of the thesis and showed trust in me when I first
approached him with the aim of finishing my thesis within one working semester. In some
circumstances where I had some unexpected problems during my project he was there to find
a solution and provide useful guidance. Further, I want to express my gratitude to
Dr. Sawomir Kukliski, who was always ready to share his knowledge and experience in the
field of LTE.
Secondly, I would like to thank Dr. Sawomir Pietrzyk CEO of IS-Wireless and his team, for
lending me invaluable knowledge support along with granting a trial license for their tool
LTE MAC Lab. Their help and suggestions have proved as important as the license itself. I
especially would like to thank Mr. Marcin Dryjaski a specialist with IS-Wireless, who has
been constantly providing me with concrete suggestions on working with the thesis along
with answering all questions that I had.

Table of Contents
1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 11
1.1 Background .................................................................................................................... 11
1.2 Motivation and goals of the thesis ................................................................................. 12
1.2.1 Motivation ............................................................................................................... 12
1.2.2 Thesis goals ............................................................................................................. 13
1.3 Thesis Scope .................................................................................................................. 13
2. An Overview of LTE ........................................................................................................... 14
2.1 LTE requirements .......................................................................................................... 14
2.2 Multiple Access Techniques .......................................................................................... 15
2.2.1 Downlink - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) ............. 15
2.2.2 Uplink - Single Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) ........ 16
2.3 LTE Frame Structure ..................................................................................................... 17
2.4 LTE Downlink Physical Channels ................................................................................. 18
2.5 LTE Uplink Physical Channels ...................................................................................... 20
2.6 Multiple Input Multiple Output ..................................................................................... 21
3. Selected Issues of Scheduling .............................................................................................. 23
3.1 Selected Scheduling Algorithms .................................................................................... 24
3.1.1 Round Robin Scheduling ........................................................................................ 24
3.1.2 Max SNIR Scheduling ............................................................................................ 25
3.1.3 Proportional Fair Scheduling .................................................................................. 26
4. Simulations and Testing ....................................................................................................... 27
4.1 LTE MAC Lab System Level Simulator: An overview ................................................ 27
4.1.1 Simulation Scenarios .............................................................................................. 27
4.1.2 Simulation Results and Analysis ............................................................................ 28
4.2 LTE network test environment ...................................................................................... 50
4.2.1 Testing Scenarios .................................................................................................... 50
4.2.2 Testing Results and Analysis .................................................................................. 50
5. A Student Lab Experiment................................................................................................... 57
5.1 Simulation Tools ............................................................................................................ 57
5.2 Investigation of scheduling algorithms with LTE MAC Lab Matlab tool..................... 57
5.3 Summary of abilities to be gained during the experiment ............................................. 58
6. Conclusions and future work ............................................................................................... 59
6.1 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 59
6.2 Future work .................................................................................................................... 60
7. References ............................................................................................................................ 61
7.1 CD contents .................................................................................................................... 62
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Figures List
Fig. 1 : OFDM and OFDMA [28]............................................................................................ 16
Fig. 2 : OFDM and SC-FDMA [28] ........................................................................................ 16
Fig. 3 : LTE frame structure [18] ............................................................................................. 17
Fig. 4 : Frame Type 2 [27] ....................................................................................................... 18
Fig. 5 : LTE Downlink channels [18] ...................................................................................... 19
Fig. 6 : LTE Uplink Channels [18] .......................................................................................... 20
Fig. 7 : Single user MIMO transmission principle [8] ............................................................. 22
Fig. 8 : Multi-user MIMO transmission principle [8] .............................................................. 22
Fig. 9 : Layer 2 functionalities for dynamic packet scheduling, link adaptation, and HARQ
Management [8] ....................................................................................................................... 23
Fig. 10 : Flow Chart for Round Robin Algorithm ................................................................... 24
Fig. 11 : Flow chart for Max SNIR algorithm ......................................................................... 25
Fig. 12 : Flow chart for Proportional Fair Algorithm .............................................................. 26
Fig. 13 : A tree diagram for all the scenarios under consideration for simulations ................. 28
Fig. 14 : PRB allocation based on SNIR values for single user downlink Case 1................... 29
Fig. 15 : Resource Allocation for a single user in downlink Case 1 ........................................ 30
Fig. 16 : Throughput Results for single user in downlink Case 1............................................ 30
Fig. 17 : PRB allocation based on SNIR values for 3 users .................................................... 31
Fig. 18 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 2 ...................... 31
Fig. 19 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 2 .......... 32
Fig. 20 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 2 ......... 32
Fig. 21 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time Case 2 .................. 33
Fig. 22 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms Case 2 ..................... 33
Fig. 23 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 3 ...................... 34
Fig. 24 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 3 .......... 35
Fig. 25 : Resource allocation by PF algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 3....................... 35
Fig. 26 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time Case 3 .................. 36
Fig. 27 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms Case 3 ..................... 36
Fig. 28 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 4 ...................... 37
Fig. 29 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 4.......... 38
Fig. 30 : Resource allocation by PF algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 4....................... 38
Fig. 31 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time downlink Case 4.. 39
Fig. 32 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms downlink Case 4 ..... 39
Fig. 33 : PRB allocation based on SNIR values for single user in uplink Case 1 ................... 40
Fig. 34 : Resource Allocation for a single user in uplink Case 1............................................. 41
Fig. 35 : Throughput results of single user in uplink Case 1 ................................................... 41
Fig. 36 : PRB allocation based on SNIR values for 3 users .................................................... 41
Fig. 37 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 2........................... 42
Fig. 38 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 2 .............. 42
Fig. 39 : Resource allocation by PF algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 2 ........................... 43
Fig. 40 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time uplink Case 2 ...... 43
Fig. 41 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms uplink Case 4 .......... 44
Fig. 42 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 3........................... 45
Fig. 43 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 3 .............. 45
Fig. 44 : Resource allocation by PF algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 3 ........................... 46
Fig. 45 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time uplink Case 3 ...... 46
Fig. 46 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms uplink Case 3 .......... 47
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Fig. 47 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 4........................... 48


Fig. 48 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 4 .............. 48
Fig. 49 : Resource allocation by PF algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 4 ........................... 48
Fig. 50 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time uplink Case 4 ...... 49
Fig. 51 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms uplink Case 4 .......... 49
Fig. 52 : Throughput results from Download within 5m of eNodeB: 100 MB file ................ 51
Fig. 53 : Throughput results from Download within 5m of eNodeB: 200 MB file ................ 51
Fig. 54 : Throughput results from Download within 5m of eNodeB: 500 MB file ................ 52
Fig. 55 : Throughput results from Download within 5m of eNodeB: 1 GB file..................... 52
Fig. 56 : Throughput results from HTTP Download with user 3 at cell edge ......................... 53
Fig. 57 : Throughput results from HTTP Download with user 1 & 3 at cell edge .................. 53
Fig. 58 : Throughput results from HTTP Download with all 3 users at cell edge ................... 54
Fig. 59 : Throughput results from FTP Download within 5m of eNodeB : 500 MB file ........ 54
Fig. 60 : Throughput results from FTP Download with user 3 at cell edge ............................ 55
Fig. 61 : Throughput results from FTP Download with user 1 & 3 at cell edge ..................... 55
Fig. 62 : Throughput results from FTP Download with all 3 users at cell edge ...................... 56

Tables List
Table 2.1 : Bandwidth and Resource blocks specifications [1] ............................................... 18
Table 4.1 summary of simulation parameters used for all the testing scenarios ..................... 28
Table 4.2 : LTE Test Environment Test 1 ............................................................................... 51
Table 4.3 : LTE Test Environment Test 2 ............................................................................... 51
Table 4.4 : LTE Test Environment Test 3 ............................................................................... 52
Table 4.5 : LTE Test Environment Test 4 ............................................................................... 52
Table 4.6 : LTE Test Environment Test 5 ............................................................................... 53
Table 4.7 : LTE Test Environment Test 6 ............................................................................... 53
Table 4.8 : LTE Test Environment Test 7 ............................................................................... 54
Table 4.9 : LTE Test Environment Test 8 ............................................................................... 54
Table 4.10 : LTE Test Environment Test 9 ............................................................................. 55
Table 4.11 : LTE Test Environment Test 10 ........................................................................... 55
Table 4.12 : LTE Test Environment Test 11 ........................................................................... 56

Abbreviations
3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project
LTE Long Term Evolution
MMOG Multimedia Online Gaming
HSPA High Speed Packet Access
3G Third Generation of Cellular Wireless Standards
GSM Global System for Mobile Communication
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UTRA UMTS terrestrial radio access
E-UTRA Evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
E-UTRAN Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output
FDD Frequency Division Duplex
TDD Time Division Duplex
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
PAPR Peak to Average Power Ratio
BS Base Station
eNodeB Base Station
MS Mobile Station
UE User Equipment
RB Resource Block
RE Resource Element
SNIR Signal to Noise-Interference Ratio
RR Round Robin
PF Proportional Fair
CQI Channel Quality Indicator
TPSA Telekomunikacja Polska S.A.
DL Downlink
UL Uplink
HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access
C.D.F Cumulative Distribution Function
EUL Enhanced Uplink
SC Single Carrier
SISO Single Input Single Output
MME Mobility Management Entity
SGW Serving Gateway
PGW PDN Gateway
CP Cyclic Prefix
DwPTS Downlink Pilot Time Slot
GP Guard Period
UpPTS Uplink Pilot Time Slot
PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel
PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel
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PHICH Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel


HARQ Hybrid Automatic Retransmission Request
RS Reference Signal
CIR channel impulse response
PRN pseudorandom number
P-SS and S-SS Primary and Secondary Synchronization Signal
DC Dedicated Control
ACK Acknowledge
NACK Not Acknowledge
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
PMCH Physical Multicast Channel
PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel
PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel
PRACH Physical Random Access Channel
WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
PHY Physical layer
MAC Medium Access Control
RLC Radio Link Control
RRC Radio Resource Control
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
4G Fourth Generation of Cellular Wireless Standards
SNR Signal to Noise Ratio
PS Packet Scheduler
TTI Transmission Time Interval
MCS Modulation and Coding Scheme
QoS Quality of Service
AMC Adaptive modulation and coding
PRBs Physical Resource Blocks
RRM Radio Resource Management
CCI co-channel interference
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol
QPSK Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

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1. Introduction
This chapter is dedicated to the introduction to the concept of 3rd Generation Partnership
Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) and technological features associated with it.
The first section, 1.1, of this chapter will discuss the background information on the subject
of LTE and scheduling. The motivation and goals for the thesis have been discussed in the
sections 1.2 and 1.3 respectively with the last section 1.3 presenting the outline of the thesis.

1.1 Background
Over the recent years we have seen mobile broadband become a reality as more and more
internet users are getting accustomed to having broadband access wherever they go, and not
just at home or in the office. Multimedia applications such as Multimedia Online Gaming
(MMOG), mobile TV, Web 2.0, streaming contents through the Internet have gathered more
attention by the internet generation and have motivated the 3GPP to work on the LTE which
is a successor to High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) currently being used in the 3rd
Generation of Cellular Wireless Standards (3G) networks. LTE is an answer to deliver better
applications and services to mobile users which consume a lot of bandwidth.
The 3GPP is the organisation which stipulates and standardises the specifications for LTE
along with Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and 3G Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS) terrestrial radio access (UTRA) systems. It started
work on the evolution of 3G mobile system in November 2004, and the project came to be
known as LTE. The main focus of this initiative to introduce LTE was on enhancing the
UTRA and optimizing 3GPPs radio access architecture. A lot of research has been carried
out since 2004 and proposals have been presented on the evolution of the UTRAN. The
specifications related to LTE are formally known as the evolved UMTS terrestrial radio
access (E-UTRA) and evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access network (E-UTRAN), but are in
general referred as project LTE.
The end of year 2008 saw the Release 8 of the 3GPP, which cites the stable specifications for
LTE, being frozen. The initial deployment of LTE began in 2010 with many operators
adopting it gradually. According to Release 8 specs, LTE supports peak rates of 300Mb/s
which could be achieved with the help of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and a
radio-network delay of less than 5ms. In addition to that it operates on both Frequency
Division Duplexing (FDD) and Time Division Duplexing (TDD) and can be deployed in
different bandwidths depending on the availability of spectrum. In TDD configuration the
uplink and downlink operate in same frequency band whereas with FDD configuration the
uplink and downlink operate in different frequency bands.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been adopted as the downlink
transmission scheme for the 3GPP LTE [11]. The transmission which occurs from the base
station to the User Equipment is referred to as downlink whereas vice-versa uplink. OFDM
divides the transmitted high bit-stream signal into different sub-streams and sends these over
many different/parallel sub-channels. For uplink transmission scheme the 3GPP selected SCFDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access). An uplink is a transmission
from the mobile station to the base station. SC-FDMA is a modified form of Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) and has similar throughput performance and
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essentially the same overall complexity as OFDMA. Like OFDM, SC-FDMA also consists of
sub-streams but it transmits on sub-channels in sequence not in parallel which is the case in
OFDM, which prevents power fluctuations in SC-FDMA signals i.e. low Peak to Average
Power Ratio (PAPR). A base station (BS) is called an Evolved NodeB (eNodeB) in the Long
Term Evolution and a mobile station (MS) is called a User Equipment (UE) in the Long Term
Evolution.
The data transmission in LTE is organized as physical resources which are represented by a
time-frequency resource grid consisting of Resource Blocks (RB). Resource blocks consist of
a no. of Resource Elements (RE). One of the major functionalities that have been assigned to
the BS is scheduling which is carried out by scheduler. The scheduler is responsible for
assigning the time and frequency resources to the different UE under the BS coverage. It does
that by allotting the RBs which are the smallest elements that can be assigned by a scheduler.
In the thesis we will be discussing the major scheduling algorithms that are used by the
schedulers, they are, Max Signal to Noise-Interference Ratio (SNIR) Scheduling, Round
Robin (RR) Scheduling and Proportional Fair (PF) Scheduling. In brief, the Max SNIR
scheduling assigns the resource blocks to the user with the highest Channel Quality Indicator
(CQI-received as a feedback from the UE by the BS) on that RB. In Round Robin scheduling
the UEs are assigned the resource blocks in turn (one after another) without taking the CQI
into account, allocating resources to the users equally. In Proportional Fair Scheduling the
UEs are assigned the resource blocks on the basis of the best relative channel quality i.e. a
combination of CQI & level of fairness desired.
The Max SNIR Scheduling, RR Scheduling and PF Scheduling have been simulated in a
MATLAB-based System Level Simulator (LTE MAC Lab) from IS-Wireless. The
performance of these scheduling algorithms in terms of throughput is analysed. We have
considered various scenarios for proper analysis in the thesis. Furthermore, the algorithms
have been analysed with their implementation in an LTE network test environment (deployed
in the Institute of Telecommunications within the Smart City of TPSA in the Warsaw
University of Technology).

1.2 Motivation and goals of the thesis


1.2.1 Motivation
The rise of the wireless industry in the past years along with the innovation of technologies
bringing large amount of multimedia services to the mobile devices led me to work in a field
where I could be a part of this wireless revolution. With LTE the future of mobile broadband
becomes brighter and clearer. According to various statistics, LTE would be the leading
technology to serve mobile broadband to the majority of cellular users in the coming years [6,
7].
Time and Frequency being scarce resources, the impact and importance of scheduling is very
high in a LTE network. To work on such a topic will not only help me to understand the
present technology and solutions but also help develop a better solution for the future.

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1.2.2 Thesis goals


The main purpose of this thesis is to verify and compare selected downlink and uplink
schedulers in LTE MAC Lab (aka Matlab version of 4G System Lab provided by ISWireless) with their implementation in an LTE network test environment (deployed in the
Institute of Telecommunications within the Smart City of TPSA in the Warsaw University of
Technology). The simulation part of the thesis enables us to understand the scheduling
algorithms for the LTE networks in much more detail and gain experience in modelling and
simulation of such networks in detail. During this thesis a detailed study of the network
architecture and layers being proposed for LTE networks is carried out.
One of the main contributions of this dissertation is to work out a method to examine LTE
scheduling performance evaluation for teaching purposes.

1.3 Thesis Scope


This thesis is organized in 7 chapters. The rest of the chapters are organized as follows:
Chapter 2 gives an overview of LTE. Chapter 3 describes the concept of scheduling along
with the description of the scheduling algorithms under consideration. Chapter 4 discusses
the simulation and testing scenarios and results. Chapter 5 presents teaching proposals in the
form of a laboratory experiment. Finally chapter 6 draws the conclusion and gives
recommendations for future works. Chapter 7 details the various sources and references of
study.

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2. An Overview of LTE
This chapter will provide an insight into the technical details of Long Term Evolution as
underlined by the 3GPP. The chapter starts with describing the LTE requirements, the
transmission schemes used for uplink and downlink, followed by other important features
like MIMO.

2.1 LTE requirements


The 3GPP has laid out specific requirements that need to be fulfilled by LTE which are listed
in [10], with some of them listed below:
Peak Data Rates:
E-UTRA should support significantly increased instantaneous peak data rates. The supported
peak data rate should scale according to size of the spectrum allocation.
Note that the peak data rates may depend on the numbers of transmit and receive antennas at
the UE. The targets for downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) peak data rates are specified in terms
of a reference UE configuration comprising:
a) DL capability 2 receive antennas at UE
b) UL capability 1 transmit antenna at UE
For this baseline configuration, the system should support an instantaneous downlink peak
data rate of 100Mb/s within a 20 MHz downlink spectrum allocation (5 bps/Hz) and an
instantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50Mb/s (2.5 bps/Hz) within a 20MHz uplink spectrum
allocation.
Latency:
A user plane latency of less than 5 ms one-way and a control plane transition time of less than
50 ms from dormant to active mode and less than 100 ms from idle to active mode.
User throughput:
Downlink:
2-3 times higher downlink throughput than High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
Release 6 at the 5% point of the Cumulative Distribution Function (C.D.F).
3-4 times higher average downlink throughput than HSDPA Release 6.
The user throughput should scale with the spectrum bandwidth.
Uplink:
2-3 times higher uplink than Release 6 Enhanced UL at the 5% point of the CDF.
2-3 times higher average uplink throughput than Release 6 Enhanced UL (EUL).
The user throughput should scale with the spectrum bandwidth provided that the Maximum
transmit power is also scaled.
Mobility:
LTE shall support mobility across the cellular network and should be optimized for 0 to 15
km/h. Furthermore, should support also higher performance at 15 and 120 km/h. Connection
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shall be maintained at speeds from 120 km/h to 350 km/h (or even up to 500 km/h depending
on the frequency band).
Spectrum efficiency:
3-4 times higher spectrum efficiency (in bits/s/Hz/site) in downlink and 2-3 times higher in
uplink, compared to Release 6 HSDPA and EUL respectively.
Bandwidth/Spectrum flexibility:
LTE should support several different spectrum allocation sizes such as: 1.25 MHz, 1.6 MHz,
2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz. in both uplink and downlink where the
latter is used to achieve the highest peak data rate, with both TDD and FDD modes. It should
also support the flexibility to modify the radio resource allocation for broadcast transmission
according to specific demand or operators policy.
Furthermore the communication can take place both in paired (FDD) and unpaired (TDD)
bands. Paired frequency bands means that the uplink and downlink transmissions use separate
frequency bands, while in the unpaired frequency bands downlink and uplink share the same
frequency band.
Coverage:
Cell ranges up to 5 km support the above targets; up to 30 km will suffer some degradation in
throughput and spectrum efficiency and up to 100 km will have overall performance
degradation.
Given some of the advantages of an OFDM approach, 3GPP has specified OFDMA as the
basis of its LTE effort.

2.2 Multiple Access Techniques


3GPP LTE have selected different transmission schemes in uplink and downlink due to
certain characteristics. OFDMA has been selected for downlink i.e. from eNodeB to UE and
SC-FDMA has been selected for uplink i.e. for transmission from UE to eNodeB [12].

2.2.1 Downlink - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access


(OFDMA)
For downlink transmission LTE uses OFDMA which splits the data stream into many slower
data streams that are transported over many carriers simultaneously. The main advantage of
many slow but parallel data streams is that it leads to elongation of the transmission steps
which in turn help to avoid the issues of multipath transmission on fast data streams. This
scheme helps allocate radio resources to multiple users based on frequency (subcarriers) and
time (symbols) using OFDM. For LTE, OFDM subcarriers are typically spaced at 15 kHz and
modulated with QPSK, 16-QAM, or 64-QAM modulation.

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Fig. 1 : OFDM and OFDMA [28]


The full potential of OFDMA is utilised by proper scheduling as it allows the resources to be
used between multiple users flexibly by sharing the subcarriers, with differing bandwidth
available to each user versus time.

2.2.2 Uplink - Single Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access (SCFDMA)


For uplink transmission the use of OFDMA is not ideal because of its high PAPR when the
signals from multiple subcarriers are combined and hence as a result an alternative to OFDM
was sought for use in the LTE uplink. And as we know power consumption is a key
consideration for UE terminals and for this there was a need to adopt a transmission scheme
which wouldnt comprise with the requirements of LTE without putting too much pressure on
the power consumption of UEs. The solution came up in the form of SC-FDMA that suits
very well with the LTE uplink requirements. The transmitter and receiver architecture is
nearly the same as OFDMA. Furthermore it also offers the same degree of multipath
protection.

Fig. 2 : OFDM and SC-FDMA [28]


In SC-FDMA instead of dividing the data stream and putting the resulting substreams directly
on the individual subcarriers, the time-based signal is converted to a frequency-based signal
with an FFT function. This distributes the information of each bit onto all subcarriers that will
be used for the transmission and thus reduces the power differences between the subcarriers
[18].

16

2.3 LTE Frame Structure


As per the description of LTE frame structure in [28] the downlink and uplink transmissions
are grouped in (radio) frame of length 10 milliseconds (ms). Each radio frame is divided into
10 subframes of 1ms duration each, with the subrame being further divided into 2 slots that
are 0.5 ms each. Each slot consists of 7 or 6 OFDM symbols for normal or extended cyclic
prefix used respectively [5]. The LTE frame structure is illustrated in the Fig. 3.
The smallest modulation structure in LTE is one symbol in time vs. one subcarrier in
frequency and is called a Resource Element (RE). Resource Elements are further aggregated
into Resource Blocks (RB), with the typical RB having dimensions of 7 symbols by 12
subcarriers. The RE and RB structure is also shown in Fig. 3. The number of symbols in a RB
depends on the Cyclic Prefix (CP) in use. During the use of normal CP the RB contains seven
symbols, whereas in case of extended CP which is used due for extreme delay spread or
multimedia broadcast modes, the RB contains six symbols.

Fig. 3 : LTE frame structure [18]


Due to the spectrum flexibility two frame types are defined for LTE, with Type 1 being used
in FDD while Type 2 is being used in TDD. Type 1 frames consist of 20 slots with slot
duration of 0.5 ms as discussed previously; whereas Type 2 frames contain two half frames,
where at least one of the half frames contains a special subframe carrying three fields of
switch information including Downlink Pilot Time Slot (DwPTS), Guard Period (GP) and
Uplink Pilot Time Slot (UpPTS). If the switch time is 10 ms, the switch information occurs
only in subframe one. If the switch time is 5 ms, the switch information occurs in both half
frames, first in subframe one, and again in subframe six. Subframes 0 and 5 and DwPTS are
17

always reserved for downlink transmission. UpPTS and the subframe immediately following
UpPTS are reserved for uplink transmission. Other subframes can be used for either uplink or
downlink. Frame Type 2 is illustrated in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4 : Frame Type 2 [27]


The number of RBs that can fit within a given channel bandwidth varies proportionally to the
bandwidth. Logically, as the channel bandwidth increases, the number of RBs can increase.
The transmission bandwidth configuration is the maximum number of Resource Blocks that
can fit within the channel bandwidth with some guard band [28]. The table 2.1 shows the
LTE bandwidth and resource configuration.
Table 2.1 : Bandwidth and Resource blocks specifications [1]

We can notice here that subcarrier spacing remains same in all bandwidth configurations. The
best results in terms of throughput can be achieved by the bandwidth with maximum amout
of RBs.

2.4 LTE Downlink Physical Channels


As in other networks like UMTS, all higher layer signalling and user data traffic are
organized by the means of proper channels. In LTE the downlink channels have been defined
in [28] the following way:

18

Fig. 5 : LTE Downlink channels [18]


We will be discussing the role and description of the physical downlink channels [28]
involved in LTE:
Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
The PBCH is used to send cell-specific system identification and access control parameters
every 4th frame (40 ms) using Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. The
structure of PBCH is independent of the actual network bandwidth.
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
The PDSCH is used to transport user data and is designed for high data rates. The Resource
Blocks associated with this channel are shared among users via OFDMA. The various options
for modulation include QPSK, 16- Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), and 64-QAM.
Spatial multiplexing is exclusive to the PDSCH.
Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
The PCFICH is used to inform the UE how many OFDM symbols will be used for the control
information in PDCCH in a subframe. The number of symbols used ranges from 1 to 3. The
PCFICH uses QPSK modulation.
Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)
The PDCCH is used to inform UE about the uplink and downlink resource scheduling
allocations. It maps onto resource elements in up to the first three OFDM symbols in the first
slot of a subframe and uses QPSK modulation. The value of the PCFICH indicates the
number of symbols used for the PDCCH.
Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)
The PMCH carries multimedia broadcast information with the use of modulation including
QPSK, 16-QAM, or 64-QAM. Multicast information can be sent to multiple UE
simultaneously.
19

Physical Hybrid Automatic Retransmission Request (HARQ) Indicator Channel


(PHICH)
PHICH carries Acknowledge (ACK)/Not Acknowledge (NACKs) in the downlink in
response to uplink transmissions in order to request retransmission or confirm the receipt of
blocks of data from the UE. ACKs and NACKs are implemented in HARQ mechanism.
Reference Signal (RS)
Reference signal is used by UE for downlink channel estimation. It allows the UE to
determine the channel impulse response (CIR). RSs are the product of a two-dimensional
orthogonal sequence and a two-dimensional pseudo-random sequence. Since there are 3
different sequences available for the orthogonal sequence and 170 possible sequences for the
pseudorandom number (PRN), the specification identifies 510 RS sequences. The RS uses the
first and fifth symbols under normal CP operation, and the first and fourth symbols for
extended CP operation; the location of the RS on the subcarriers varies.
Primary and Secondary Synchronization Signal (P-SS and S-SS)
UEs use the Primary Synchronization Signal (P-SS) for timing and frequency acquisition
during cell search. The PSS carries part of the cell ID and provides slot timing
synchronization. It is transmitted on 62 of the reserved 72 subcarriers (6 Resource Blocks)
around Dedicated Control (DC) on symbol 6 in slot 0 and 10 and uses one of three ZadoffChu sequences. UEs use the Secondary Synchronization Signal (S-SS) in cell search. It
provides frame timing synchronization and the remainder of the cell ID, and is transmitted on
62 of the reserved 72 subcarriers (6 Resource Blocks) around DC on symbol 5 in slot 0 and
10. The S-SS uses two 31-bit binary sequences and BPSK modulation.

2.5 LTE Uplink Physical Channels


In LTE the uplink channels have been defined in [28] the following way:

Fig. 6 : LTE Uplink Channels [18]


20

We will be discussing the role and description of the physical uplink channels [28] involved
in LTE:
Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
The PUCCH carries uplink control information and is never transmitted simultaneously with
PUSCH data. PUCCH conveys control information including channel quality indication
(CQI), ACK/NACK responses of the UE to the HARQ mechanism, and uplink scheduling
requests.
Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
Uplink user data is carried by the PUSCH. Resources for the PUSCH are allocated on a subframe basis by the UL scheduler. Subcarriers are allocated in units of RBs, and may be
hopped from sub-frame to sub-frame. The PUSCH may employ QPSK, 16-QAM, or 64QAM modulation.
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
The PRACH carries the random access preamble and coordinates and transports random
requests for service from UEs. The PRACH channel transmits access requests (bursts) when
a wireless device desires to access the LTE network (call origination or paging response).
Uplink Reference Signal
There are two variants of the UL reference signal. The demodulation reference signal
facilitates coherent demodulation, and is transmitted in the fourth SC-FDMA symbol of the
slot. A sounding reference signal is also used to facilitate frequency dependent scheduling.
Both variants of the UL reference signal use Constant Amplitude Zero Autocorrelation
(CAZAC) sequences.

2.6 Multiple Input Multiple Output


A major step in order to increase the data transmission rates was achieved by including
MIMO in the first release of LTE. LTE supports multiple antenna operation both in terms of
transmit diversity as well as spatial multiplexing with up to four layers. The use of MIMO
with OFDMA has some favourable properties compared to Wideband Code Division
Multiple Access (WCDMA) because of its ability to cope effectively with multi-path
interference [8]. The main features of MIMO help in improving the network performance as,
transmit diversity can be used to increase the robustness of communication in fading channels
by transmitting multiple replicas of the transmitted signal from different antennas whereas
spatial multiplexing can help increase the peak data rates as compared to the non-MIMO
scenarios by a factor of 2 to 4, depending on the eNodeB and the UE antenna configuration.

21

Fig. 7 : Single user MIMO transmission principle [8]


In LTE all the device categories with exception of the simplest, support MIMO capability.

Fig. 8 : Multi-user MIMO transmission principle [8]


The eNodeBs can also have multiple antennas without any adverse impact on the non-MIMO
UE as all devices can cope with the transmit diversity up to four antennas.

22

3. Selected Issues of Scheduling


This chapter along with explaining the concept of scheduling will give details of the various
downlink and uplink scheduling algorithms used in LTE.
In general terms, scheduling is basically the process of making decisions by a scheduler
regarding the assignment of various resources (time and frequency) in a telecommunications
system between users. In LTE the scheduling is carried out at eNodeB by dynamic packet
scheduler (PS) which decides upon allotment of resources to various users under its coverage
as well as transmission parameters including modulation and coding scheme (MCS). As
earlier discussed, LTE defines 1 ms subframes as the Transmission Time Interval (TTI)
resulting in the scheduling of resources every 1 ms. It means after every 1 ms the assignment
of resources could change depending upon various factors including CQI (Channel Quality
Indicator) sent as a feedback by the user to the eNodeB.
The process of selecting the transmission parameters and Modulation and Coding Scheme
(MCS) is known as Link Adaption (LA). Link adaption along with scheduling of resources is
meant to maximize the cell capacity, while making sure that the minimum Quality of Service
(QoS) requirements are met and there are adequate resources also for best-effort bearers with
no strict QoS requirements [8]. LA adjusts the data rate with the help of Adaptive modulation
and coding (AMC) by matching the modulation and the channel coding scheme on resources
assigned by the scheduler. In situations with advantageous channel conditions, AMC selects a
higher modulation order and coding rate and vice versa.

Fig. 9 : Layer 2 functionalities for dynamic packet scheduling, link adaptation, and HARQ
Management [8]

23

In LTE networks, the role of resource scheduling is very important because great
performance gain can be achieved by properly observing the amount of radio resources
assigned to each user. As the 3GPP hasnt standardised any scheduling algorithm, we are free
to choose and implement any algorithm that would meet the expected our QoS. While
choosing or designing a scheduling algorithm many factors such as expected QoS level, the
behaviour of data sources, and the channel status have to be kept in mind. The problem
becomes more complex in the presence of users with different requirements in term of
bandwidth, tolerance to delay, and reliability [13].

3.1 Selected Scheduling Algorithms


There are various scheduling methods that have been developed over time to enhance the
process of scheduling. But in this thesis, we shall be concentrating on particularly three
algorithms which have been implemented in the software environment provided for testing by
IS-Wireless.
Among them are:
Round Robin,
Max SNIR, and
Proportional Fair.

3.1.1 Round Robin Scheduling


This scheduling method is based on the idea of being fair in the long term by assigning equal
no. of Physical Resource Blocks (PRBs) to all active UEs. It operates by assigning the PRBs
to UEs in turn i.e one after another without taking into account their CQI. Hence the users are
equally scheduled. For e.g. If we have 4 users U1, U2, U3, U4 and PRBs, this algorithm will
assign the resources in the following manner: U1, U2, U3, U4, U1, and U2. It can be
illustrated by the following flow chart:

Fig. 10 : Flow Chart for Round Robin Algorithm


24

The main advantage of this kind of scheduling is the relative ease in its implementation
whereas the major disadvantage is the fact that it does not take into account user CQI
feedback, which may lead to lower and unequal throughput.

3.1.2 Max SNIR Scheduling


The Max SNIR scheduling algorithm assigns the PRBs to the UE with the highest CQI on
that RB obtained in the form of feedback from the UE. Hence, for this method to work
properly the UE must feedback the CQI to the eNodeB. This algorithm helps in improving
the user throughput by assigning the PRB to the UE with good channel quality as a result
enhancing its peak data performance. The scheduling process can be seen in flow chart:

Fig. 11 : Flow chart for Max SNIR algorithm


Max SNIR algorithm can increase the cell capacity at the expense of the fairness. In this
scheduling strategy, UEs located far from the eNodeB (i.e. cell-edge) are unlikely to be
scheduled.

25

3.1.3 Proportional Fair Scheduling


This algorithm assigns the PRBs to the UE with the best relative channel quality i.e. a
combination of CQI & level of fairness desired. There are various versions of PF algorithm
based on values it takes into account. Main goal of this algorithm is to achieve a balance
between Maximising the cell throughput and fairness, by letting all users to achieve a
minimum QoS (Quality of Service).

Fig. 12 : Flow chart for Proportional Fair Algorithm


The above Fig. 12 depicts one of the possible methods of implementing proportional fair
algorithm. Such an algorithm is designed to be better in terms of average user throughput as
well as being fair to most of the users and meeting the minimum QoS requirements during the
scheduling process.

26

4. Simulations and Testing


This chapter is meant for the analysis of the scheduling algorithms we have discussed in the
earlier section by means of simulations and practical experiments. The analysis has been
carried out by comparing the throughput for different scenarios (different scheduling
schemes, different environment models and different number of users). Along with the
simulations, the practical work will be carried out in LTE network test environment
(deployed in the Institute of Telecommunications within the Smart City of TPSA in the
Warsaw University of Technology). This practical test environment is designed to analyse the
LTE network performance. A detailed description of each used tool is given in this chapter.
Then graphical representations of the performance of these scheduling algorithms in terms of
throughputs are plotted.

4.1 LTE MAC Lab System Level Simulator: An overview


According to the materials [24] provided by IS-Wireless: The Matlab version of 4G System
Lab also known as LTE MAC Lab belongs to the category of system-level simulators truly
reflecting the behaviour of a modelled radio access network. A tool user selects and
configures the LTE radio interface, chooses appropriate channel and traffic models, defines
the network to be analysed, makes the choice on the set of Radio Resource Management
(RRM) functionalities and runs the simulation. The tool is time-driven and models, with high
accuracy, all the events that happen within a radio network. This includes terminals mobility,
cell selection / reselections, attach, random access, admission control, handovers, power
control, scheduling and many more. Special attention is given to co-channel interference
(CCI) control, where functionalities managing CCI can be easily modelled and verified. After
simulation, user-defined network statistics collected over defined observation time window
are available as reports for post processing.
The role played by RRM features in LTE, LTE-Advanced will be far greater than in previous
wireless systems. Therefore decision to put special emphasis on appropriate modelling of
RRM features was taken. This constitutes the cornerstone of 4G System Lab and
differentiates it significantly from the classical RNP tools. LTE MAC Lab provides plenty of
representative algorithms for RRM and CCI control. It is a continuously evolving product. In
the near future it will include features belonging to 3GPP Rel 9 and more importantly to Rel
10 also known as LTE-Advanced.

4.1.1 Simulation Scenarios


In order to verify and compare the scheduling algorithms with the help of LTE MAC Lab, we
have selected no. of scenarios. These scenarios are meant to help us understand the working
of the scheduling algorithms in downlink and uplink. We investigate the performance of the
scheduling algorithms in terms of resource allocations and throughput for different scenarios
(different scheduling methods, different channel models and different number of users). Here
is a chart depicting the cases that are considered:

27

Testing Scenarios

Downlink
Uplink

Round Robin

Single User

Max SNIR

Proportional
Fair

......

........

Round Robin

.......

Max SNIR

Proportional
Fair

.......

.......

Multiple
Users

Stationary

High Mobile

One user at
cell edge

Fig. 13 : A tree diagram for all the scenarios under consideration for simulations
The scenarios have been selected to analyse the impact of the scheduling algorithms in
different conditions, hence understand their functioning in much more detail.

4.1.2 Simulation Results and Analysis


In this section all the simulation results are presented along with their analysis. During the
simulations we will be set some basic default parameters which are depicted below:
Table 4.1 summary of simulation parameters used for all the testing scenarios
Parameters

Value

Number of Equipment (UEs)

1or 3

Number of base station

Bandwidth

3 MHz

Channel type

Stationary and Vehicular (Highly Mobile)

Simulation length

150 TTI

Scheduling algorithms

Round Robin, Max SNIR and Proportional Fair


28

Multipath Model

3GPP model

Environment Type

Urban

Frequency

850 MHZ

Model Type

3GPP model

Base Station height

20 m

Base Station Antenna Characteristic

Omnidirectional

User Equipment height

1.5 m

BLER

10^(-1)

FFT Size

256

Transmission Scheme

SISO

The parameters have been considered so as to create the most appropriate simulation
environment that is relative to real scenarios.

Downlink Scenario
Case 1: Single User, High mobility, Using Round Robin, Max SNIR and Proportional Fair
scheduling algorithms
In this first case we simulate a single user and we show the resource allocations and user
throughput for different SNIR values. We have plotted graph depicting the SNIR measured
for each PRB which eventually impacts the scheduling along with a single graph depicting
the resource allocations and throughput, respectively, for different scheduling algorithms
(RR, Max SNIR, PF) as in case of single user the scheduling algorithm does not impact the
resource allocations as all resources are allocated by default to the single user.
Measured SNIR for 1 user in Downlink in the frequency axis (3 MHz band)
25
User 1

20

SNIR in dB

15

10

8
10
PRB number

12

14

16

Fig. 14 : PRB allocation based on SNIR values for single user downlink Case 1

29

The SNIR values have been limited to the range of -2 dB to 25 dB like in a realistic scenario
so as to derive results which reflect the real life situation.
Scheduler allocations for single user
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 15 : Resource Allocation for a single user in downlink Case 1


All the resources are assigned to the single user as no scheduling algorithm kicks in until
there is more than a single user under an eNodeB.
Throughput vs TTI for 1 user
6

User 1
5

Mbit/s

8
9
TTI * 10

10

11

12

13

14

15

Fig. 16 : Throughput Results for single user in downlink Case 1


Fig. 15 depicts the allocation of resources to the user which in our case is complete allocation
for single user, followed by Fig. 16 which shows user throughput achieved. We observe that
the throughput is limited to around 4.5 5 Mbps because of various factors such as SNIR
values. We can reach a Maximum throughput of 13.2 Mb/s, if all conditions are favourable.
30

Case 2: 3 Users, Stationary, Using Round Robin, Max SNIR and Proportional Fair
scheduling algorithms
In this case we simulate 3 users and we show the resource allocations and user throughput for
different SNIR values. We have plotted graph depicting the initial SNIR measured for each
PRB which eventually impacts all the scheduling algorithms followed by plots depicting the
resource allocations and throughput for different scheduling algorithms (RR, Max SNIR, PF).
Measured SNIR for 3 users in Downlink in the frequency axis (3 MHz band)
25
User 1
User 2
User 3
20

SNIR in dB

15

10

8
10
PRB number

12

14

16

Fig. 17 : PRB allocation based on SNIR values for 3 users


This figure is valid for all multi-user cases, as the initial SNIR settings will remain same
throughout our simulation experiments in order to compare data collected properly.
Round Robin Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 18 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 2


31

Fig. 18 depicts the allocation of resources by Round Robin algorithm in which each user gets
allocated the same number of resources.
MaxSNIR Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 19 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 2
We can observe that the allocation of resources in Fig. 19 is as per the SNIR values of each
user; hence the higher a user has SNIR the more resources get allocated to it.
Proportional Fair Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 20 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 2
32

Number of allocated PRB

Number of allocated PRB

Number of allocated PRB

Fig. 20 shows how the PF algorithm first starts out by allocating equal no. of resources to
each user and then eventually shares the resources such that each user is able to attain highest
equal throughput.
MAX SNIR scheduler
User 1
User 2
User 3

1500
1000
500

20

40

60

80
TTI
Round Robin scheduler
User 1
User 2
User 3

100

120

140

20

40

60

80
100
TTI
Proportional Fair scheduler
User 1
User 2
User 3

120

140

20

40

120

140

1500
1000
500

1500
1000
500

60

80

100

TTI

Fig. 21 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time Case 2
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Downlink Round Robin scheduler

Mbit/s

2
User 1
User 2
User 3

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Downlink MAX SNIR scheduler

14

15

Mbit/s

2
User 1
User 2
User 3

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Downlink Proportional Fair scheduler

14

15

Mbit/s

2
User 1
User 2
User 3

8
9
TTI * 10

10

11

12

13

14

15

Fig. 22 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms Case 2


In the above plots we can see the how each scheduling algorithm carries out the task of
resource allocation. In Fig. 18 we can see the resources being allocated in a cyclic way to
33

each user irrespective of their SNIR values, in Fig. 19 we see the Max SNIR scheduler allots
more resources to the users having a higher SNIR than the other and in Fig. 20 we observe
the Proportional Fair scheduler assigning resources in terms of fairness in the beginning and
then trying to balance the fairness and best throughput results for each user. In Fig. 21 we can
analyse the allotment of PRB over time using each scheduling algorithm, it also shows the
fairness of these algorithms quite clearly. The last Fig. 22 shows the throughput results
achieved with the help of these scheduling algorithms and helps us compare them. We can
observe that Round Robin algorithm delivers fairness to all the users, the Max SNIR
algorithm has the Maximum throughput but not all users are able to enjoy the best speed and
the Proportional Fair algorithm tries to strike a balance between fairness and achieving the
Maximum throughput.
Case 3: 3 Users, High Mobile (Vehicular), Using Round Robin, Max SNIR and Proportional
Fair scheduling algorithms
In this case we simulate 3 users moving at a speed of 100 Kmph and we show the resource
allocations and user throughput for different SNIR values. We have plotted graph depicting
the initial SNIR measured for each PRB which eventually impacts all the scheduling
algorithms followed by plots depicting the resource allocations and throughput for different
scheduling algorithms (RR, Max SNIR, and PF).
Please refer to Fig. 17 for initial PRB allocations based on SNIR values.

Round Robin Scheduler allocations


16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 23 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 3


Fig. 23 depicts the allocation of resources by Round Robin algorithm in which each user gets
allocated the same number of resources without taking into consideration any other
parameters.
34

MaxSNIR Scheduler allocations


16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 24 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 3
We observe that the allocation of resources in Fig. 24 is still as per the SNIR values of each
user; the change of speed does not affect the allocations until unless the SNIR also changes
significantly, hence the higher a user has SNIR the more resources get allocated to it.
Proportional Fair Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 25 : Resource allocation by PF algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 3

35

Number of allocated PRB

Number of allocated PRB

Number of allocated PRB

We can notice the difference between the Fig. 20 and Fig. 25 both depicting the allocation as
per PF with the channel of channel conditions.
MAX SNIR scheduler
1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

40

60

80
TTI
Round Robin scheduler

100

120

140

40

60

80
100
TTI
Proportional Fair scheduler

120

140

120

140

1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

40

60

80

100

TTI

Fig. 26 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time Case 3
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Downlink Round Robin scheduler

Mbit/s

User 1
User 2
User 3
1

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Downlink MAX SNIR scheduler

14

15

Mbit/s

3
2
User 1
User 2
User 3

1
0

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Downlink Proportional Fair scheduler

14

15

Mbit/s

User 1
User 2
User 3
1

8
9
TTI * 10

10

11

12

13

14

15

Fig. 27 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms Case 3


We can observe from Fig. 23 that Round Robin algorithm delivers fairness to all the users,
the Max SNIR algorithm has the Maximum throughput for user 2 but not all users are able to
enjoy the best throughput and the Proportional Fair algorithm tries to strike a balance
36

between fairness and achieving the Maximum throughput. The throughput results are a bit
better due to the fact all users are located within 7-8 m radius from the base station and the
change of SNIR values has a positive effect in the small time frame under consideration, but
eventually as the distance of users from the eNodeB increases there should be degradation in
throughput.
Case 4: 3 Users (user 1 at cell edge), High Mobile (Vehicular), Using Round Robin, Max
SNIR and Proportional Fair scheduling algorithms
In this case we simulate 3 users moving at a speed of 100 Kmph with user 1 at cell edge and
we show the resource allocations and user throughput for different SNIR values. We have
plotted graph depicting the initial SNIR measured for each PRB which eventually impacts all
the scheduling algorithms followed by plots depicting the resource allocations and throughput
for different scheduling algorithms (RR, Max SNIR, and PF).
Please refer to Fig. 17 for initial PRB allocations based on SNIR values.

Round Robin Scheduler allocations


16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 28 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 4


The changes in channel conditions still do not affect the behaviour of RR algorithm as it
allocates the resources equally among all users no matter what conditions.

37

MaxSNIR Scheduler allocations


16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 29 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 4
Proportional Fair Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 30 : Resource allocation by PF algorithm for 3 users in downlink Case 4


The above figure depicts the resource block allocation to the users. We observe that User 1 is
scheduled equally in the Round Robin algorithm in Fig. , but the Max SNIR algorithm shown
in Fig. 29, it has the least allocated resources due to its SNIR values. We also observe that in
the Proportional Fair algorithm depicted in Fig. 30 the algorithm tries to allot more resources
in order to facilitate higher throughput.
38

Number of allocated PRB


Number of allocated PRB
Number of allocated PRB

MAX SNIR scheduler


1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

40

60

80
TTI
Round Robin scheduler

100

120

140

40

60

80
100
TTI
Proportional Fair scheduler

120

140

120

140

1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

40

60

80

100

TTI

Fig. 31 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time downlink Case 4
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Downlink Round Robin scheduler

Mbit/s

2
User 1
User 2
User 3

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Downlink MAX SNIR scheduler

14

15

Mbit/s

3
User 1
User 2
User 3

2
1
0

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Downlink Proportional Fair scheduler

14

15

14

15

Mbit/s

User 1
User 2
User 3

8
9
TTI * 10

10

11

12

13

Fig. 32 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms downlink Case 4
As a conclusion we can say that in the downlink the throughput results are not much affected
by the channel conditions provided that SNIR values do not change significantly. The Max
SNIR and RR scheduling algorithms provide consistent results while the PF algorithm tries to
achieve the best throughput within available conditions.
39

Scenario Uplink
Case 1: Single user, Stationary, Using Round Robin, Max SNIR and Proportional Fair
scheduling algorithms
In this case we simulate a single stationary user. We show the resource allocations and user
throughput for different SNIR values. We have plotted graph depicting the initial SNIR
measured for each PRB which eventually impacts all the scheduling algorithms followed by
plots depicting the resource allocations and throughput for different scheduling algorithms
(RR, Max SNIR, and PF).
Measured SNIR for 1 user in Uplink in the frequency axis (3 MHz band)
25
User 1

20

SNIR in dB

15

10

8
10
PRB number

12

14

16

Fig. 33 : PRB allocation based on SNIR values for single user in uplink Case 1
The same settings were chosen for the simulations in uplink also so as to facilitate analysis of
results.
Round Robin Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

40

Fig. 34 : Resource Allocation for a single user in uplink Case 1


Throughput vs TTI for 1 user :Round Robin scheduler
5
User 1
4.5

3.5

Mbit/s

2.5

1.5

0.5

8
9
TTI * 10

10

11

12

13

14

15

Fig. 35 : Throughput results of single user in uplink Case 1


Case 2: 3 users, Stationary, Using Round Robin, Max SNIR and Proportional Fair
scheduling algorithms
In this case we simulate 3 stationary users. We show the resource allocations and user
throughput for different SNIR values. We have plotted graph depicting the initial SNIR
measured for each PRB which eventually impacts all the scheduling algorithms followed by
plots depicting the resource allocations and throughput for different scheduling algorithms
(RR, Max SNIR, and PF).
Measured SNIR for 3 users in Uplink in the frequency axis (3 MHz band)
25

User 1
User 2
User 3

20

SNIR in dB

15

10

8
10
PRB number

12

14

16

Fig. 36 : PRB allocation based on SNIR values for 3 users


This figure is valid for all multi-user cases, as the initial SNIR settings will remain same
throughout our simulation experiments in order to compare data collected properly.
41

Round Robin Scheduler allocations


16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 37 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 2


We observe that the pattern of resource allocation in RR differs from downlink, this is due to
the use of SC-FDMA in the uplink.
MaxSNIR Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 38 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 2

42

In the uplink the Max SNIR allocates as much consecutive PRBs as possible up to the point
when other user has better SNIR. In UL we cannot get non-consecutive allocations so all
PRBs must be consecutive.
Proportional Fair Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Number of allocated PRB

Number of allocated PRB

Number of allocated PRB

Fig. 39 : Resource allocation by PF algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 2


MAX SNIR scheduler
1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

40

60

80
TTI
Round Robin scheduler

100

120

140

40

60

80
100
TTI
Proportional Fair scheduler

120

140

120

140

1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

40

60

80

100

TTI

Fig. 40 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time uplink Case 2
Fig. 40 helps us clearly see how the algorithms are allocating users over the whole simulation
period. From this we can also predict the results of the throughput, the more resources a user
43

gets the higher the throughput.

Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Uplink Round Robin scheduler

Mbit/s

User 1
User 2
User 3
1

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Uplink MAX SNIR scheduler

14

15

Mbit/s

3
2

User 1
User 2
User 3

1
0

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Uplink Proportional Fair scheduler

14

15

Mbit/s

1.5
1

User 1
User 2
User 3

0.5
0

8
9
TTI * 10

10

11

12

13

14

15

Fig. 41 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms uplink Case 4
In the above plots we can see the how each scheduling algorithm carries out the task of
resource allocation in the uplink. We can also observe that the scheduling allocations in
downlink and uplink are not the same due to the fact that downlink uses OFDMA whereas
uplink uses SC-FDMA.
In Fig. 37 we can see the resources being allocated in a cyclic way to each user irrespective
of their SNIR values, in Fig. 38 we see the Max SNIR scheduler allocates as much
consecutive PRBs as possible up to the point when other user has better SNIR and in Fig. 39
we observe the Proportional Fair scheduler assigning resources in terms of fairness in the
beginning and then trying to balance the fairness and best throughput results for each user. In
Fig. 40 we can analyse the allotment of PRB over time using each scheduling algorithm, it
also shows the fairness of these algorithms quite clearly.
The last Fig. 41 shows the throughput results achieved with the help of these scheduling
algorithms and helps us compare them. We can observe that Round Robin algorithm delivers
fairness to all the users, the Max SNIR algorithm has the Maximum throughput but not all
users are able to enjoy the best speed and the Proportional Fair algorithm tries to strike a
balance between fairness and achieving the Maximum throughput.
44

Case 3: 3 users, High Mobile (vehicular), Using Round Robin, Max SNIR and Proportional
Fair scheduling algorithms
In this case we simulate 3 highly mobile (100 Kmph) users. We show the resource allocations
and user throughput for different SNIR values. We have plotted graph depicting the initial
SNIR measured for each PRB which eventually impacts all the scheduling algorithms
followed by plots depicting the resource allocations and throughput for different scheduling
algorithms (RR, Max SNIR, and PF).
Please refer to Fig. 36 for initial PRB allocations based on SNIR values.
Round Robin Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 42 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 3


MaxSNIR Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 43 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 3
45

In Fig. 43, we can notice that with the change in channel conditions the resource allocation
has been affected, this might be due to the SNIR change experienced by the different users.

Proportional Fair Scheduler allocations


16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Number of allocated PRB

Number of allocated PRB

Number of allocated PRB

Fig. 44 : Resource allocation by PF algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 3


MAX SNIR scheduler
1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

40

60

80
TTI
Round Robin scheduler

100

120

140

40

60

80
100
TTI
Proportional Fair scheduler

120

140

120

140

1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

40

60

80

100

TTI

Fig. 45 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time uplink Case 3
In Fig. 44 we observe that the PF algorithm has to change how the resources are allocated so
as to accommodate the change in channel conditions.
46

Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Uplink Round Robin scheduler

Mbit/s

2
User 1
User 2
User 3

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Uplink MAX SNIR scheduler

14

15

Mbit/s

3
2

User 1
User 2
User 3

1
0

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Uplink Proportional Fair scheduler

14

15

Mbit/s

1.5
1

User 1
User 2
User 3

0.5
0

8
9
TTI * 10

10

11

12

13

14

15

Fig. 46 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms uplink Case 3
Case 3: 3 users with User 2 at cell edge, High Mobile (vehicular), Using Round Robin, Max
SNIR and Proportional Fair scheduling algorithms
In this case we simulate 3 highly mobile (100 Kmph) users with user 2 at cell edge. We show
the resource allocations and user throughput for different SNIR values. We have plotted
graph depicting the initial SNIR measured for each PRB which eventually impacts all the
scheduling algorithms followed by plots depicting the resource allocations and throughput for
different scheduling algorithms (RR, Max SNIR, and PF).
Please refer to Fig. 36 for initial PRB allocations based on SNIR values.
Round Robin Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

47

Fig. 47 : Resource allocation by RR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 4


MaxSNIR Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 48 : Resource allocation by Max SNIR algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 4
Proportional Fair Scheduler allocations
16

14

12

PRB

10

2
20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 49 : Resource allocation by PF algorithm for 3 users in uplink Case 4


We can notice in Fig. 48 and 49 that the change in channel condition of one user from the
previous state affects the change of allocation of resources significantly which was not the
case in downlink.
48

Number of allocated PRB


Number of allocated PRB
Number of allocated PRB

MAX SNIR scheduler


1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

40

60

80
TTI
Round Robin scheduler

100

120

140

40

60

80
100
TTI
Proportional Fair scheduler

120

140

1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

1500
User 1
User 2
User 3

1000
500

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TTI

Fig. 50 : Comparison of PRB allocation in all three algorithms over time uplink Case 4
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Uplink Round Robin scheduler

Mbit/s

2
User 1
User 2
User 3

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Uplink MAX SNIR scheduler

14

15

Mbit/s

3
2

User 1
User 2
User 3

1
0

8
9
10
11
12
13
TTI * 10
Throughput vs TTI for 3 users :Uplink Proportional Fair scheduler

14

15

Mbit/s

1
User 1
User 2
User 3

0.5

8
9
TTI * 10

10

11

12

13

14

15

Fig. 51 : Comparison of throughput obtained from all three algorithms uplink Case 4
In this case we observe how the user at the cell edge is unable to get resources allocated due
to its poor SNIR values. Even the Round Robin algorithm is not able to allocate resources to
this user due to the fact that in uplink, not all resources need to be allotted, but some can be
left blank, which hence results in lesser allocation of resources even in a fair algorithm like

49

Round Robin, Fig. 47. The proportional fair algorithm, Fig. 49 also tries to schedule user 2
but is unable to achieve the best results due to it conditions.

4.2 LTE network test environment


The LTE network test environment has been set up by the Institute of Telecommunications of
Warsaw University of Technology with the help of its partners. The testing environment
consists of a LTE eNodeB which is able to provide LTE coverage, along with UE meant to
test the network.
The main advantage of having such a testing environment is to be able to implement new
ideas and algorithms as well as analyse the data collected during the simulations with a
running model. It also helps find out practical challenges during network configuration and
operation which are not noticeable during the simulations.

4.2.1 Testing Scenarios


With the help of this LTE network test environment I will be trying to deduce which
scheduling algorithm has been implemented in the eNodeB installed for this set-up. The
vendor and the operator do not provide such information as scheduling algorithms are not
standardised by the 3GPP. Hence each vendor tries to implement its own algorithm to obtain
the best results and have an advantage in the market.
In order to determine the scheduling algorithm implemented, I will use 3 UE which will be
working on Max throughput requirements during this experiment.
The various scenarios in which this test would be done are:

Downloading different sizes of file from the server behind the core network
All users close to the eNodeB (within 5-6 m range)
One user at cell edge while other users near eNodeB.
Two users at cell edge while other user near eNodeB.
All users at the cell edge

4.2.2 Testing Results and Analysis


All the tests were carried out with the help of 3 computers and LTE dongles under the LTE
test environment set up at the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology. The results
were recorded with the help of network software called Networx and have been put in
tables for a proper analysis.
A detailed analysis of the results has been done after the presentation of the results, which are
in the form of tables and plots for all test cases, in the following pages.

50

HTTP Test 1
Download 100MB
Current Transfer Rate
Average Transfer Rate
Maximum Transfer Rate
Total Data Transferred

Table 4.2 : LTE Test Environment Test 1


USER 1
USER 2
USER 3
Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
1.68
30.6
2.4
33.6
5.04
69.8
1.77
29.9
4.67
65.9
4.47
62
2.2
38
7.62
108
5.86
80.8
103 MB 1.69 MB
103 MB
1.41 MB 103 MB 1.39 MB

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Average Transfer Rate


Maximum Transfer Rate

Fig. 52 : Throughput results from Download within 5m of eNodeB: 100 MB file

HTTP Test 2
Download 200MB
Current Transfer Rate
Average Transfer Rate
Maximum Transfer Rate
Total Data Transferred

Table 4.3 : LTE Test Environment Test 2


USER 1
USER 2
USER 3
Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
1.85
31.9
2.9
41.3
5.51
76.8
1.85
31.5
5.14
73.3
5.04
70.6
2.29
40.4
6.49
92.7
6.17
87.5
205 MB 3.41 MB
206 MB
2.86 MB 202 MB 2.76 MB

7
6
5
4

Average Transfer Rate

Maximum Transfer Rate

2
1
0
1

Fig. 53 : Throughput results from Download within 5m of eNodeB: 200 MB file

51

Table 4.4 : LTE Test Environment Test 3


HTTP Test 3
Download 500MB
Current Transfer Rate
Average Transfer Rate
Maximum Transfer Rate
Total Data Transferred

USER 1
Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
1.9
33.2
1.84
31.5
2.22
40.6
512 MB 8.56 MB

USER 2
USER 3
Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
2.82
40
5.63
78.4
5.24
74
5.47
76.1
6.62
94
6.18
87.3
514 MB
7.09 MB 514 MB 6.99 MB

7
6
5
4

Average Transfer Rate

Maximum Transfer Rate

2
1
0
1

Fig. 54 : Throughput results from Download within 5m of eNodeB: 500 MB file

HTTP Test 4
Download 500MB
Current Transfer Rate
Average Transfer Rate
Maximum Transfer Rate
Total Data Transferred

Table 4.5 : LTE Test Environment Test 4


USER 1
USER 2
USER 3
Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
2
34.9
2.78
39.4
5.59
77.7
1.97
35
5.36
76.1
5.39
75.1
2.36
43.1
7.18
102
6.3
90.1
1.03 GB 18.2 MB 1.01 GB 14.3 MB 1.02 GB 14.2 MB

8
7
6
5
4

Average Transfer Rate

Maximum Transfer Rate

2
1
0
1

Fig. 55 : Throughput results from Download within 5m of eNodeB: 1 GB file

52

Table 4.6 : LTE Test Environment Test 5


HTTP Test 5
User 1&2 IN - USER 3 OUT
Current Transfer Rate
Average Transfer Rate
Maximum Transfer Rate
Total Data Transferred

USER 1
Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
2.05
34.3
1.97
33.1
2.11
34.9
19.7 MB 331 KB

5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

USER 2
USER 3
Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
4.45
63.2
1.38
19.4
4.34
61.6
1.29
18
4.56
64.7
1.43
20.2
43.4 MB
616 KB 12.9 MB 180 KB

Average Transfer Rate


Maximum Transfer Rate

Fig. 56 : Throughput results from HTTP Download with user 3 at cell edge
Table 4.7 : LTE Test Environment Test 6
USER 1
USER 2
USER 3
HTTP Test 6
User 2 IN - USER 1&3 OUT
Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
Current Transfer Rate
653
13.6
4.48
63.7
681
9.15
Average Transfer Rate
0.65
13.5
4.16
59.4
0.64
8.63
Maximum Transfer Rate
0.95
21.5
4.54
64.7
0.8
10.9
Total Data Transferred
6.31 MB 135 KB
41.6 MB
594 KB 6.27 MB 86.3 KB
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

Average Transfer Rate


Maximum Transfer Rate

Fig. 57 : Throughput results from HTTP Download with user 1 & 3 at cell edge

53

Table 4.8 : LTE Test Environment Test 7


HTTP Test 7
Users 1, 2 & 3 OUT
Current Transfer Rate
Average Transfer Rate
Maximum Transfer Rate
Total Data Transferred

USER 1
Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
882
15.3
0.96
16.7
1.43
28.7
9.36 MB 167 KB

USER 2
USER 3
Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
1.19
16.6
1.05
14.6
1.17
16.2
1.1
15.3
1.25
17.3
1.31
18.4
11.7 MB
162 KB 11.0 MB 153 KB

1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8

Average Transfer Rate

0.6

Maximum Transfer Rate

0.4
0.2
0
1

Fig. 58 : Throughput results from HTTP Download with all 3 users at cell edge

FTP Test 8

Current Transfer Rate


Average Transfer Rate
Maximum Transfer Rate
Total Data Transferred

Table 4.9 : LTE Test Environment Test 8


USER 1
USER 2
USER 3
Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
6.15
88.1
4.31
62.3
3.77
53.4
3.81
54.9
4
57.8
4.76
67.2
7.07
102
6.33
89.8
5.46
77
510 MB 7.19 MB
512 MB
7.23 MB 514 MB 7.09 MB

8
7
6
5
4

Average Transfer Rate

Maximum Transfer Rate

2
1
0
1

Fig. 59 : Throughput results from FTP Download within 5m of eNodeB : 500 MB file

54

Table 4.10 : LTE Test Environment Test 9


FTP Test 9
Users 1&2 IN - User 3 OUT
Current Transfer Rate
Average Transfer Rate
Maximum Transfer Rate
Total Data Transferred

USER 1
Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
4.38
62.8
4.14
59.3
4.47
64.3
41.4 MB 593 KB

5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

USER 2
USER 3
Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
3.4
48.3
1.33
18.7
3.63
51.5
1.4
19.7
3.91
55.7
1.7
24.2
36.3 MB
515 KB 14.0 MB 197 KB

Average Transfer Rate


Maximum Transfer Rate

Fig. 60 : Throughput results from FTP Download with user 3 at cell edge
Table 4.11 : LTE Test Environment Test 10
USER 1
USER 2
USER 3
FTP Test 10
User 2 IN - Users 1&3 OUT
Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
Current Transfer Rate
1.32
18.5
2.7
38.8
1.49
21
Average Transfer Rate
1.25
17.4
3.17
45.4
1.6
22.7
Maximum Transfer Rate
1.43
20.1
3.95
56.6
1.86
26.5
Total Data Transferred
12.5 MB 174 KB
31.7 MB
454 KB 16.0 MB 227 KB
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

Average Transfer Rate


Maximum Transfer Rate

Fig. 61 : Throughput results from FTP Download with user 1 & 3 at cell edge

55

Table 4.12 : LTE Test Environment Test 11


FTP Test 11
Users 1,2& 3 OUT
Current Transfer Rate
Average Transfer Rate
Maximum Transfer Rate
Total Data Transferred

USER 1
Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
1.24
17.4
1.18
16.6
1.31
18.5
11.8 MB
166 KB

USER 2
USER 3
Incoming Outgoing Incoming Outgoing
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
(MB/s)
(KB/s)
0.74
10.3
0.72
9.86
0.75
10.3
0.82
11.2
0.82
11.5
0.96
13.4
7.28 MB
103 KB 8.01 MB 112 KB

1.4
1.2
1
0.8
Average Transfer Rate
0.6

Maximum Transfer Rate

0.4
0.2
0
1

Fig. 62 : Throughput results from FTP Download with all 3 users at cell edge
We can see from Test 1, 2, 3 and 4, where HTTP was considered for downloads, that the
resource allocation to each user is equal although user 1 shows less throughput as compared
to its counter-parts, it may be due to the some interference or configuration of the machine.
But overall looking at pattern we may deduce that nearly equal resources are allotted. The
results of the Test 5, 6, 7 also considered HTTP where in every test one user shifted to the
cell edge respectively shows the effect of moving away from the base station and its impact,
technically the increase in distance from eNodeB means more interference, multipath as well
as lower SNIR ratio. The throughput performance suffers as is clearly visible from the data
collected. In Test 8, 9, 10 and 11 with FTP protocol similar conditions were repeated as in
case with the earlier tests and the results were pretty much similar or even better. The reason
for improved results could be the internet configuration on the different machines which have
impact on HTTP while FTP is quite resistant to such configurations as it strictly deals with
data transfer.
After analysing the results, I have come to the conclusion that the scheduling algorithm
implemented at the eNodeB in the LTE Test environment is Proportional Fair algorithm
because the resources are allocated to all the users despite their position as along with
ensuring the user with good channel condition also gets enough resources to maintain good
throughput.
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5. A Student Lab Experiment


This chapter contains proposals for providing knowledge to future students regarding LTE
scheduling algorithms with the help of Laboratory exercises based on the tools used during
this thesis. In the beginning of the thesis it was decided that as a result of my thesis I shall
propose a teaching method about scheduling algorithms based on my experience of using the
tools for my work. First in this chapter we will discuss about the use of simulation tool, LTE
MAC Lab by IS-Wireless followed by LTE test environment for understanding and teaching
purposes.

5.1 Simulation Tools


The process of understanding the functionality of various technical aspects of LTE networks
could be quite complex for someone who just starts learning about wireless networks. Even
for professionals it is not easy to remember as well understand all the concepts without some
practical guide or experiment. Hence in this case a simulation tool is very important to
understand a network properly. The simulation tool help you understand minute concepts
with the help of virtual network set-ups and also let you fine tune the parameters to improve
performance which otherwise is not possible in a practical environment. Therefore, in order
to study about scheduling algorithms I chose a simulation tool called LTE MAC Lab aka
Matlab version of 4G System Lab by IS-Wireless.
There are various simulation tools available these days which enable us to analyse the LTE
networks. But, the main problem with the selection of the simulation tool is the fact that these
tools are very expensive and the alternative free or low cost Matlab equivalents are not so
accurate with the quality of results below the commercial ones.
LTE MAC Lab is a very advanced tool which investigates the various aspects of a LTE
network like scheduling, RRM also allowing the user to adjust the various network
parameters. The tool structure is very granular which helps the user to look inside each
particular part or block of the simulation and get to know how everything is being computed.
For teaching purposes this is an integral factor as it facilitates the teaching process for the
teacher and the learning process for the students.

5.2 Investigation of scheduling algorithms with LTE MAC Lab


Matlab tool
During a laboratory session concerning scheduling algorithms the LTE MAC Lab which is
based on MATLAB can be used, and as MATLAB is used by most engineering students it
would be easier for them to get adapted to the various commands and functions.
The laboratory exercise should have an instruction script providing a theoretical introduction
to the concept of scheduling in LTE networks along with the description to necessary
functions that shall be used during the laboratory exercise. This exercise should concentrate
both on uplink and downlink scheduling algorithms along with the concept of link adaptation
as it plays an important role in scheduling. The exercise could be carried out in groups of

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two-three students, so as to allow better discussion on the subject and instigate new methods
of thinking part from the standard algorithms.
During the laboratory the investigations shall cover the analysis of:
Parameters influencing scheduling
Scheduling algorithms such as
o Round Robin
o MaxSNIR or BestCQI
o Proportional Fair
Link Adaptation
Modulation and Coding Schemes
Analysis of allotment of PRB on different factors
Throughput results in various scenarios
The results could be shown in the form of resource allocation under each scheduling
algorithm for each user over time, comparison of resource allocation of various scheduling
algorithms, throughput results of each scheduling algorithm.

5.3 Summary of abilities to be gained during the experiment


This laboratory will help the students to understand the concept of scheduling as well as learn
the concept behind allocation of resources and the factors having impact on the scheduling
activity. To summarize we can say the following abilities could be gained during this
experiment:
1. Recognize downlink and uplink scheduling algorithms
The students will learn about the basic concept of scheduling algorithms and carry out
simulations based on different algorithms. The results of these simulations will help them
understand the allocation process along with the patters or rules for such algorithms.
2. Knowledge concerning link adaptation
A very integral part of scheduling in general is LA which plays a very vital role. The students
will be able to learn how the MCS are decided and which factors influence this decision. It
will also help students to understand the impact of LA on the process of a scheduling
algorithm.
3. Familiarization with the different Modulation and Coding Schemes chosen with the help of
link adaptation.
4. Understand the impact of different channel conditions on scheduling.
5. Basic knowledge about LTE network configuration like frequency, FFT size, No. of resource
blocks for each bandwidth etc.
6. Practical knowledge which allows for better understanding the properties of the LTE
transmission.
The laboratory experiment is planned for students of Master Degree Course of the Faculty of
Electronics and Information Technology of the Warsaw University of Technology.

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6. Conclusions and future work


6.1 Conclusion
In this thesis I have done a detailed study of the scheduling algorithms both in the uplink as
well as the downlink. These algorithms include Round Robin Scheduling, Max SNIR
Scheduling and Proportional Fair Scheduling. The study was followed by the modelling and
simulation of these scheduling algorithms using simulation software LTE MAC Lab provided
by IS-Wireless. During this phase resource allocation of these schedulers along with its
impact on the overall throughput of the network was investigated in different scenarios
including, single/multiple users, and stationary/vehicular channel.
From the results of the simulations we can see that in the long run, Round Robin scheduler is
the best algorithm to ensure fairness in the network so that each user get scheduled. The Max
SNIR algorithm is a great algorithm to achieve high data rates for some particular users
having favourable conditions, otherwise this algorithm is not able to satisfy each and every
user in the cell. The Proportional Fair solves the problem raised by the Max SNIR algorithm
regarding the fairness as it helps in achieving fairness along with pretty good throughput
results.
We can also conclude that the scheduling allocations in downlink and uplink are not the same
due to the fact that downlink uses OFDMA whereas uplink uses SC-FDMA. We also observe
how the user at the cell edge is unable to get resources allocated due to its poor SNIR values.
Even the Round Robin algorithm, which is a fair algorithm, is not able to allocate resources
to the user at cell edge (or with poor reception conditions) due to the fact that in uplink, not
all resources need to be allotted, but some can be left blank, which hence results in lesser
allocation of resources. The same goes for PF algorithm which also tries to allocate resources
to user with poor conditions but is unable to achieve the best results due to it conditions.
Apart from the simulations, the thesis also involved testing the knowledge gained in a
practical LTE Test environment located at the Faculty of Telecommunications. The practical
task involved conducting network tests in the form of downloading data in different scenarios
and analysing the data to predict the implemented scheduling algorithm at the eNodeB.
During the tests in the LTE test environment we could see that the results of throughput may
be different for users in the same channel condition also depending on the configuration of
their devices or some interference. As it was evident from the simulation results the impact of
distance from the eNodeB means more interference, multipath as well as lower SNIR ratio
resulting in downgraded performance. The throughput performance suffers as is clearly
visible from the data collected. We also observed that the impact of protocols being used is
quite significant in terms of the throughput achieved by a particular device. After analysing
the results of the tests, I have come to the conclusion that the scheduling algorithm
implemented at the eNodeB in the LTE Test environment is Proportional Fair algorithm
because the resources are allocated to all the users despite their position as along with
ensuring the user with good channel condition also gets enough resources to maintain good
throughput.

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The theoretical study, simulations along with the practical implementation of the scheduling
algorithms have increased my understanding of the concept of scheduling as well as helped
me to remove my doubts concerning it.

6.2 Future work


As 3GPP LTE proposes that the radio resources should be scheduled every 1ms which is also
called TTI in scheduling, this will place a lot of processing on the eNodeBs. The ways to
speedup this scheduling process must be found.
3GPP LTE also offers the use of higher order modulation schemes like 64QAM which will
enhance the system throughput to a greater extent but it will also place a lot of processing on
both the eNodeB as well as the UE. Investigating its impact should also be beneficial.
Utilization of higher order modulation techniques may also suffer from the noise created by
the processing in both ends of the transmission. So, this noise behaviour should also be
investigated.
Along with that 3GPP has also introduced SON in LTE networks which helps to selfoptimize the network performance, and as a major performance parameter is scheduling
process. The benefits of SON for Scheduling should also be investigated.

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7. References
[1] Motorola, Long Term Evolution (LTE): Overview of LTE Air-Interface, White Paper
[2] Motorola, Long Term Evolution (LTE): A Technical Overview, White Paper
[3] U. Barth, 3GPP LTE/SAE Overview, Alcatel, September 2006, Presentation
[4] Dr. Jayesh Kotecha, Jason Wong, LTE: MIMO Techniques in 3GPP-LTE, Freescale
Semiconductors, Nov 5, 2008, Presentation
[5] Jim Zyren, Dr. Wes McCoy, Technical Editor, Overview of the 3GPP Long Term
Evolution Physical Layer, Freescale Semiconductors, July 2007, White Paper
[6] Rysavy Research / 3G Americas, HSPA to LTE-Advanced: 3GPP Broadband Evolution to
IMT-Advanced (4G), September 2009, whitepaper
[7] 4G Americas, 4G Mobile Broadband Evolution: 3GPP Release 10 and Beyond HSPA+,
SAE/LTE and LTE Advanced, February 2011, whitepaper
[8] Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio
Access, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2009
[9] Elias Yaacoub, Hussein AI-Asadi, and Zaher Dawy, Low Complexity Scheduling
Algorithms for the LTE Uplink, 2009, Research paper
[10] 3GPP, Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)
(3GPP TR 25.913 version 8.0.0 Release 8), January 2009, Technical Report
[11] Tshiteya Dikamba, Downlink Scheduling in 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE), MSc.
Thesis, Delft University of Technology, March 18th, 2011
[12] Sajid Hussain, Dynamic Radio Resource Management in 3GPP LTE, MSc. Thesis,
Blekinge Institute of Technology, January 2009
[13] Giuseppe Piro, Luigi Alfredo Grieco, Gennaro Boggia, and Pietro Camarda, A Two-level
Scheduling Algorithm for QoS Support in the Downlink of LTE cellular networks, February
2010, Research paper
[14] Shreeshankar Bodas, Sanjay Shakkottai, Lei Ying, R. Srikant, Low-complexity
Scheduling Algorithms for Multi-channel Downlink Wireless Networks, December 2009,
Research Paper
[15] D. C. Dimitrova, H. van den Berg, R. Litjens, G. Heijenk, Scheduling strategies for LTE
uplink with flow behaviour analysis, May 2010, Research Paper
[16] Luis A ngel Maestro Ruiz de Temino, Gilberto Berardinelli, Simone Frattasi and
Preben Mogensen, Channel-Aware Scheduling Algorithms for SC-FDMA in LTE Uplink,
2008, published in IEEE
[17] Huda Adibah Mohd Ramli, Riyaj Basukala, Kumbesan Sandrasegaran, Rachod
Patachaianand, Performance of Well Known Packet Scheduling Algorithms in the Downlink
3GPP LTE System, 2009 IEEE 9th Malaysia International Conference on Communications
[18] Sauter, Martin. , From GSM to LTE : an introduction to mobile networks and mobile
broadband, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011, book
[19] Francesco Davide Calabrese, Scheduling and Link Adaptation for Uplink SC-FDMA
Systems, A LTE Case Study, PhD Thesis, Aalborg University, April 2009
[20] Jarosaw Medwid, Elaboration of laboratory experiments for teaching purposes in the
area of LTE, WIMAX networks planning, SON networks, Msc. Thesis written under
Professor M. Somiski supervision, IT-WUT, September 2011
[21] Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., 3900 Series LTE eNodeB Product Documentation,
Product Version: V100R003C00, Library Version: 08, Date: 9/30/2011
[22] Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., M2000 Product Documentation (Solaris10), Product
Version: V200R011C00, Library Version: 09, Date: 11/28/2011
[23] http://www.gsacom.com/
[24] http://is-wireless.com
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[25] www.3gpp.org
[26] http://www.eventhelix.com/lte/tutorial/web-presentation.htm
[27] http://www.radio-electronics.com
[28] http://www.anritsu.com

7.1 CD contents

B.Sc. Thesis DineshMannaniBscThesis.pdf


LTE MAC Lab Trial software
Instructions for running LTE Mac Lab
Source codes for simulations (DLMAIN.m , ULMAIN.m)

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