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Mr. Tasadduq Hussain
E-Mail: tasgis@yahoo.com
WHY GIS (Geographic Information Systems)?

GIS is a part of our life everyday and we may not even be aware of it. The roads you
drive on are designed using GIS to analyze traffic volumes and other pertinent data to
determine the best locations, materials, and maintenance schedules. The forests you drive
by everyday are managed using GIS to analyze health issues, harvesting capabilities,
reforestation opportunities, fire dangers, and more. Most utility companies rely on GIS to
develop the infrastructure that allows their companies to function; water, electrical, phone
and oil and gas lines are mapped , monitored, and analyzed all using GIS.
Law enforcement is using GIS to plot and track crimes and correlate crime statistics
helping to monitor and even predict the probability of a crime occurring.

WHAT IS GIS (Geographic Information Systems)?

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a computer-based tool used in a variety of

industries to map and analyze where things exist and events happen on earth.
GIS technology integrates common database operations such as query and statistical
analysis with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps.
These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and make it valuable for
use in a wide range of applications for explaining events, predicting outcomes, and
planning strategies.
Additionally, a GIS can be used to perform analytical operations to support decision-
making processes, such as site suitability analyses for future landfills or soil erosion
potential within a specific region. A GIS can also answer "what if...?" questions based on
different scenarios and situations. A GIS can be used to automate existing operations
(e.g., map production and maintenance), as well as provide enhanced capability to
analyze geographic information for decision-making purposes.
One of the most powerful features of a GIS is its ability to simultaneously use multiple
discrete spatial data sets to answer questions that were previously impossible to answer
using conventional mapping methods. By inputting spatial information into a GIS, we can
query data based on its location in the real world. When we link our spatially referenced
data to an existing database and query based on a geographic identifier and attribute, we
add another dimension to our query, giving us results impossible to achieve from a
database alone.
Any organization, government private is in some way or another strongly linked to the
geography in which it operates. A GIS that has been designed in a proper manner has the
capability of providing quick and easy access to large volumes of data of these
geographical features. The user can access & select information by area or by theme to
merge one data set with another, to
analyze spatial characteristics of data, to search for particular features, to update quickly
and cheaply and asses alternatives.
In simpler terms, GIS allows the user to understand geographic information in an easy
manner without having to go through large volumes of confusing data that is in tabular
form. Visualizing the geography of a particular location is no doubt easier that trying to
analyze raw data.

The potential and substantial benefit of using GIS makes it a very important tool
making the work of any organization easier and more productive. Some of the
potential benefits of GIS are:

♦ Opportunity to reduce sets of manual maps held and associated storage costs.
♦ Faster and more extensive access to geographic information.
♦ Improved analysis e.g. of areas, distances, patterns, etc.
♦ Better communication of information to public officers, members.
♦ Improved quality of services.
♦ Better targeting and coordination of services.
♦ Improved productivity in providing public information.
♦ Improved efficiency in updating maps.
♦ The ability to track and monitor growth and development over time.
♦Improved ability to aggregate data for specific sub areas.

Thus GIS's have become indispensable tools for governance, commerce, and
environmental and social science.


GIS provides a commonly understood and powerful framework for collecting,

organizing, and managing structured data. Many different types of data can be displayed
on maps and a great deal of information can be summarized. The visual display of
information can reveal patterns and relationship that may not be apparent in tabular
displays. GIS is a tool that can assist program objectives through project planning,
estimate creation, monitoring and evaluation, public information and donor reporting.
Most simply, it can display information on a map and help staff to visualize projects.
Information on a map is simply easier to read than in an Excel file.

a) GIS in Electric Power Generation System

Electricity is an essential part of our everyday lives. The electric distribution company is
responsible to manage the power distribution system safely and efficiently, which deliver
electric power from Area feeder to out service drops.
In Pakistan, the main drawbacks of the distribution system are poor maintenance of the
installed facilities, lack of planned network, and lack of monitoring and prevent losses
and manual updating of consumer records etc.
A transmission line is one of essential infrastructures of the power supply system. In the
site evaluation process for those facilities, it is necessary to carefully consider not only
technical issues, but also the impact on natural environment, the influence on local
communities, and various regulations.
GIS allows new processing methods to be used and provides high-quality
presentation of processed data. These characteristics make it an unavoidable decision
making tool in situations when data relevant to a decision include a spatial component.
GIS is by no means a system that will give a final solution to a user, but it will provide
the possibilities for a better and more organized analysis of information, which is a
prerequisite for making quality decisions.

b) Project Planning

Maps help to layer information such as population, infrastructure and physical

characteristics like rivers and mountains. They can also depict where projects have
previously been implemented and what type. Displaying features like locations of public
facilities in relation to proposed projects can add a new dimension to decision making.
All of these maps provide representation of data and are valuable communication tools
for program managers to use in decision-making.

c) Estimates
GIS has spatial computing capabilities. It can calculate the area of a village or
agricultural plot, the length of a road, or the distance between point A and point B - such
as the distance to a market. All of these factors can help to estimate the cost of projects.

d) Monitoring & Evaluation

GIS can display projects on a map: completed, ongoing, and projected. It can also display
amount spent, number of beneficiaries, and project type. This is a valuable tool for
helping program staff to monitor and evaluate all projects. These maps can also be
utilized for participatory monitoring and evaluation with the communities, to share and
discuss with the communities, partners, and stakeholders. Thematic GIS maps are also
very useful when evaluating a program or when doing specific case studies to assess a
topic more in-depth.
e) Public Information
GIS can be used for public information i.e. to make maps that show streets and names,
stores, offices, markets, mosques and wells. These are valuable tools to provide to
communities so they can make more informed decisions when proposing projects.

f) Find What's Inside

Use GIS to monitor what's happening and to take specific action by mapping what's
inside a specific area.

g) Find What's Nearby

Find out what's occurring within a set distance of a feature by mapping what's nearby.

h) Map Change
Map the change in an area to anticipate future conditions, decide on a course of action, or
to evaluate the results of an action or policy.
Map change to anticipate future needs. For example, a police chief might study how
crime patterns change from month to month to help decide where officers should be
Map conditions before and after an action or event to see the impact. A retail analyst
might map the change in store sales before and after a regional ad campaign to see where
the ads were most effective.
i) Map Densities
While you can see concentrations by simply mapping the locations of features, in areas
with many features it may be difficult to see which areas have a higher concentration than
others. A density map lets you measure the number of features using a uniform areal unit,
such as acres or square miles, so you can clearly see the distribution.

j) Map Where Things Are

Mapping where things are lets you find places that have the features you're looking for,
and to see where to take action.
Find a feature—People use maps to see where or what an individual feature is.
Finding patterns—Looking at the distribution of features on the map instead of just an
individual feature, you can see patterns emerge.
A) GIS Based Analysis on AES Lalpir Information

Figure1: Pakistan District

Figure2: SRTM Satellite Imagery of Pakistan with Graph

Figure3: AES Lalpir Thermal Power and Grid Station Marked

Figure4: AES Lalpir Thermal Power Grid Station Marked

Figure5: AES Lalpir Thermal Power Satellite Imagery

Figure 6a: AES Lalpir Thermal Power Poles and Distribution Lines System
Figure 6b: AES Lalpir Thermal Power Poles and Distribution Lines System to
Muzaffargarh Thermal Power

Figure 7a: AES Lalpir Thermal Power Electric Snapshot

Figure 7b: AES Lalpir Thermal Separator Snapshot

Figure 7c: AES Lalpir Thermal and Power Electric Snapshot

Figure 8: Muzaffargarh Thermal Power Satellite Imagery

Figure 9: Navigation Tools & Symbology

Figure 10: Electric Poles Attribute Information

Figure 11: Electric Poles Report

Figure 12: Buffer Analysis of Electric Poles & Transformer

Figure 13: AES Lalpir Housing Colony information

Figure 14: AES Lalpir House with Pole Connection Information

Figure 15: AES Lalpir Identify Houses that a Pole is Providing Electricity Analysis
Figure 16: AES Lalpir Identify poles that provide A Type House Electricity Analysis

Figure 17: AES Lalpir Closest Facility Analysis

Figure 18: AES Lalpir Origin Destination Analysis

Figure 19: AES Lalpir Route Analysis with Barrier

Figure 20: AES Lalpir Geocoding Analysis shows those houses match to Geotable

Figure 21: AES Lalpir Near Point Analysis

Figure 22: AES Lalpir Temporal Analysis

Figure 23: AES Lalpir 3D Analysis

Figure 24: AES Lalpir with Elevation Imagery

B) ELEVATION ANALYSIS on AES Lalpir Information

Fig: SRTM Elevation Data with GIS Application

Fig: SRTM Elevation Data with GIS Application

Fig: SRTM Elevation Data with GIS Application

Fig: SRTM Elevation Data with GIS Application
C) GOOGLE EARTH Analysis on AES Lalpir Information

Fig: Google Earth & AES Lalpir Integration

Fig: Google Earth & AES Lalpir Integration

Fig: Google Earth & AES Lalpir Integration

Fig: Google Earth & AES Lalpir Integration

Fig: Google Earth & AES Lalpir Integration

Fig: Google Earth & AES Lalpir Integration

Fig: Google Earth & AES Lalpir Integration

Fig: Google Earth & AES Lalpir Integration

D) Map Layouts of AES Lalpir Information

Fig: AES Lalpir [Lines Poles Sag] Full View

Fig: AES Lalpir Housing Colony Distribution System 1

Fig: AES Lalpir Housing Colony Distribution System 2

Fig: AES Lalpir Layout

Fig: Muzaffargarh Thermal Power Station
E) Other Satellite Imagery of AES Lalpir

Fig: AES Lalpir Airport Imagery

Fig: AES Lalpir Oil Depoo[1]

Fig: AES Lalpir Oil Depoo[2]

F) Other Analysis on AES Lalpir Information

Fig: Other Analysis on AES Lalpir Information

A GIS-based application has been developed for transmission line siting. This system
supports from the planning phase to the engineering design phase and provides total
solution for the siting process.