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# 1.

0 ABSTRACT
This experiment is divided into 4 experiment. Which is Boyles Law experiment,
second is Gay-Lussac Law Experiment. Next is Determination of ratio of heat
capacity and lastly is isentropic expansion experiment. Each with objectives to study
the relationship between ideal gas and various other factors to deliver better
understanding of the First Law of Thermodynamics, Second Law of Thermodynamics
andrelationship between P-V-T to the students. Perfect Gas Expansion Apparatus
was used in this experiment. [1]
Basically the experiment was a success considering all the objectives which is to
determine the properties of measurement/PVT according to Boyles law, GayLussacs law, heat capacity equation and isentropic expansion process were
achieved. Throughout the studies, it is found that some of the gas laws for the perfect
or ideal gas are just limiting laws because gas dont actually behave perfectly in the
real world. Nevertheless, in this experiment, the gas seemed to have obeyed Boyles
law and Gay-Lussac law in the relationship between pressure, volume and
temperature. The ratio of the volume of the gas indicates and expresses the
dynamics of compression and expansion of the gases. The ratio of heat capacity
gives the capacity or amount of heat that could be taken up by the gas in expansion
process. Although there is fail experiment but we managed to find the reason behind
the failure. Experiment 3, related to heat capacity ratio, the experiment fail might be
because heat loss and sensitivity of pressure sensors. As a conclusion, the
experiment is successfully done and the objective of the experiment is achieved.

2.0 INTRODUCTION
Gases have no definite volume and no definite shape. They expand to fill the size
and shape of their container. The oxygen that we breathe and steam from a pot are
both examples of gases. The molecules are very far apart in a gas, and there are
minimal intermolecular forces. Each atom is free to move in any direction. Gases
undergo effusion and diffusion. Effusion occurs when a gas seeps through a small
hole, and diffusion occurs when a gas spreads out across a room. If someone leaves
a bottle of ammonia on a desk, and there is a hole in it, eventually the entire room will
reek of ammonia gas. That is due to the diffusion and effusion. These properties of
gas occur because the molecules are not bonded to each other. [2]
The effects of intermolecular forces in a gas are generally fairly small. For many
gases over a fairly wide range of temperatures and pressures, it is a reasonable
approximation to ignore them entirely. This is the basis of the ideal gas
approximation, of which more later. The physical state of a pure gas (as opposed to a
mixture) may be defined by four physical properties:

## p the pressure of the gas

T the temperature of the gas
V the volume of the gas
n the number of moles of substance present

In fact, if we know any three of these variables, we can use an equation of state
for the gas to determine the fourth. Despite the rather grand name, an equation of
state is simply an expression that relates these four variables. [3]
Pressure Pressure is a measure of the force exerted by a gas per unit area.
Correspondingly, it has SI units of Newtons per square metre (Nm-2), more
commonly referred to as Pascals (Pa). Several other units of pressure are in
common usage, and conversions between these units and Pascals are given below:

## 1 Torr = 1 mmHg = 133.3 Pa

1 bar = 1000 mBar = 100 000 Pa
p = i pi (Daltons law)

The temperature of a gas is a measure of the amount of kinetic energy the gas
particles possess, and therefore reflects their velocity distribution. Since energy is
conserved, collisions only lead to exchange of energy between the particles, and the
total number of particles with a given velocity remains constant i.e. at a given
temperature, the velocity distribution of the gas particles is conserved. Note that
temperature is a direct result of the motion of atoms and molecules. Whatever the
type of motion, an important consequence is that the concept of temperature only
has any meaning in the presence of matter. It is impossible to define the temperature
of a perfect vacuum, for example. In addition, temperature is only really a meaningful
concept for systems at thermal equilibrium. [3]

Figure 1 : collisions of gases and the change in pressure when there is heat

Figure 2 : collisions of gases and the change in pressure when there is change in
volume

3.0 AIMS

1.
2.
3.
4.

## To determine the relationship between pressure and volume of an ideal gas

To compare the theoretical results and experimental results
To determine the ratio of volume and compares it with theoretical value.
To determine the relationship of an ideal gas, between pressure and
temperature
5. To determine the ratio of heat capacity.
6. The experiment is to demonstrate the isentropic expansion process.
7. The experiment is to study the response of the pressurized vessel following
stepwise depressurization

4.0 THEORY

## Figure 3 : Gas Law concepts

Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the BoyleMariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is
an experimental gas law which describes how the pressure of a gas tends to
decrease as the volume of a gas increases. A modern statement of Boyle's law is
The absolute pressure exerted by a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely
proportional to the volume it occupies if the temperature and amount of gas remain
unchanged within a closed system.
Mathematically, Boyle's law can be stated as

or

where P is the pressure of the gas, V is the volume of the gas, and k is a constant.
The equation states that product of pressure and volume is a constant for a given
mass of confined gas as long as the temperature is constant. For comparing the
same substance under two different sets of condition, the law can be usefully
expressed as

The equation shows that, as volume increases, the pressure of the gas decreases in
proportion. Similarly, as volume decreases, the pressure of the gas increases. The

law was named after chemist and physicist Robert Boyle, who published the original
law in 1662. [4]
Gay-Lussac Law is often referred to as Amontons' Law of PressureTemperature after Guillaume Amontons, who, between 1700 and 1702, discovered
the relationship between the pressure and temperature of a fixed mass of gas kept at
a constant volume. Amontons discovered this while building an "air thermometer".
The pressure of a gas of fixed mass and fixed volume is directly proportional to the
gas's absolute temperature.
The law has a particularly simple mathematical form if the temperature is
measured on an absolute scale, such as in kelvins. The law can then be expressed
mathematically as:

or

where:
P is the pressure of the gas
T is the temperature of the gas (measured in kelvin).
k is a constant.
This law holds true because temperature is a measure of the average kinetic
energy of a substance; as the kinetic energy of a gas increases, its particles collide
with the container walls more rapidly, thereby exerting increased pressure.
For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law
can be written as:

## Gay-Lussac primarily investigated the relationship between volume and temperature

and published it in 1802, but his work did cover some comparison between pressure
and temperature. [5]

5.0 APPARATUS

## (1) Pressure transmitter

(2) Pressure relief valve
(3) Temperature sensor
(4) Big glass
(5) Small glass
(6) Vacuum pump
(7) Electrode

## 6.0 PROCEDURE / METHODOLOGY

General Start-up Procedures

1. The equipment was connected to single power supply and then the unit was
switch on.
2. All valves was fully opened to checked the pressure reading on the panel. This
is to make sure that the chamber are under atmospheric pressure.
3. All valves are then closed.
4. The pipe then was connected from compressive port of the pump ti
pressurized chamber.
5. The unit was ready to used.
General Shut-down Procedures
1. The pump was switched off and removed both pipes from the chambers.
2. The valves was fully opened to release the air inside the chambers.
3. Power supply and main switch was switched off.
Experiment 1 : Boyles Law Experiment and Determination of ratio of volume
1. All valves are fully closed.
2. The compressive pump was switched on and the pressure inside the chamber
was allowed to increased up to about 150-160 kPa. Then, the pump was
switched off and the hose was removed from the chamber.
3. The pressure reading being monitored until it stabilizes.
4. The pressure reading for both chambers before expansion was recorded.
5. V 02 was opened to allowed the pressureized air flows into atmospheric
chamber.
6. The pressure reading is recorded for both chambers after expansion.
7. The experimental precedures than repeated for :
a) From pressureized chamber to vacuum chamber
b) From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber
7.1 For vacuum chamber, the pump was ON to released pressure until 50-60
kPa.
7.2 V 02 was fully opened to allowed the pressurized air flows into the
atmospheric chamber.
7.3 The pressure reading was recorded for both chambers after expansion.
8. The PV value then is calculated to prove the Boyles Law.
9. The ratio of volume is calculated and compared it with theoretical value.

## Experiment 2 : Gay-Lussac Law Experiment

1. All valves are fully closed.
2. The hose was connected from compressive pump to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump was switched on and the temperature was recorded
for every increment of 10kPa in the chamber. When the pressure PT1 reaches
about 160kPa, the pump was stopped.

4. Then ,the V 01 is slightly opened the pressurized air is allowed to flow out. The
temperature reading for every decrement of 10kPa is recorded.
5. When the pressure reached the atmospheric pressure, the experiment is
stopped.
6. The graph of pressure versus temperature is plotted.
Experiment 3 : Determination of Ratio of Heat Capacity
1. The general start up is performed.
2. Hose from compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump is switched on and the pressure is increased up until
160kPa. Then, the pump is switched off and the hose is removed.
4. The pressure reading is monitored until it is stabilized. The pressure and
temperature reading, PT1 and TT1 is recorded.
5. The V01 is slightly opened and closed back after 3 seconds. The pressure and
temperature reading is monitored and recorded
6. Ratio of heat capacity is determined and it is compared with theoretical value.
Experiment 4 : Isentropic Expansion Process
1. The general start up is performed.
2. Hose from compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump is switched on and the pressure is increased up until
160kPa. Then, the pump is switched off and the hose is removed.
4. The pressure reading is monitored until it is stabilized. The pressure and
temperature reading, PT1 and TT1 is recorded.
5. The V01 is slightly opened and the air is allowed to out until reaching
atmospheric pressure.
6. The pressure and temperature reading is and recorded.
7. The isentropic expansion process is discussed.

7.0 RESULTS
Experiment 1 : Boyles Law Experiment and Determination of ratio of volume
A. From pressurized chamber to atmospheric chamber
PT 1(kPa abs)
PT 2(kPa abs)

Before expansion
152.0
134.9

After expansion
145.9
145.2

PT 1(kPa abs)
PT 2(kPa abs)

Before expansion
108.0
58.8

After expansion
91.2
90.8

PT 1(kPa abs)
PT 2(kPa abs)

Before expansion
153.5
58.8

After expansion
121.4
121.6

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Temperature( C)

Temperature( C)

Temperature( C)

Pressurise
vessel

Depressurise
Vessel

Pressurise
vessel

Depressuris
e Vessel

Pressurise
vessel

Depressuris
e Vessel

110

22.6

22.3

22.1

22.6

22.2

23.1

120

22.9

22.8

22.3

23.3

22.4

24.1

Pressure
(kPa abs)

130

23.5

23.6

22.8

24.5

23.0

25.3

140

24.5

24.8

23.9

25.7

23.8

26.6

150
160

25.4
26.3

26.6
27.9

24.8
25.9

26.8
27.3

24.8
25.6

26.9
27.0

## In every decrement of 10kPa (pressurerise vessel)

Pressure (kPa) (y-axis)
110
120
130
140
150
160

22.30
22.53
23.10
24.07
25.00
25.93

180
160
140
120
100
Pressure (kPa)

80
60
40
20
0
22.3

22.53

23.1

24.07

25

Temperature (C)

## In every decrement of 10kPa (depressurized vessel)

Pressure (kPa) (y-axis)
110
120
130
140
150

22.67
23.40
24.47
25.70
26.77

27.4

160

27.40

180
160
140
120
100
pressure (kPa)

80
60
40
20
0
22.67

23.4

24.47

25.7

26.77

Temperature (C)

PT 1 (kPa abs)
TT1 (C)

Initial
160.0
26.7

Intermediates
138.2
26.2

Final
141.6
24.4

PT 1(kPa abs)
TT1 (C)

8.0 CALCULATIONS

Before expansion
163.0
25.2

After expansion
103.5
21.7

25.93

## Experiment 1 : Boyles Law

PV(initial)=PV(final)
A. From pressurized to atmospheric
(152.0)(0.025) + (134.9)(0.0123)=(145.5)(0.025+0.0123)
<<average pressure for after expansion=145.5>>
5.4593 = 5.4272

Based on the calculation, the difference between before and after expansion is
only 0.0321, therefore the Boyles Law is verified.

## B. From atmospheric to vacuum

(108.0)(0.025)+(58.8)(0.0123) = (91.0)(0.025+0.0123)
<<average pressure for after expansion=91.0>>

3.4232 = 3.3943
Based on the calculation, the difference between before and after expansion is
only 0.0289, therefore the Boyles Law is verified.

## C. From pressurized to vacuum,

(153.5)(0.025)+(58.8)(0.0123) = (121.5)(0.025+0.0123)
<<average pressure for after expansion=121.5>>
4.5607= 4.5320

Based on the calculation, the difference between before and after expansion is
only 0.0287, therefore the Boyles Law is verified.

## Experiment 3: Determination of ratio of heat capacity

V
Cv T 2
ln =ln 2
R
T1
V1
Where is :
V 2 P1 T 1
=
V 1 P2 T 2
160.0 kPa ( 299.7 K )
Cv
297.4 K
ln
=ln [
]
1
1
299.7 K
141.6 kPa ( 297.4 K )
8.314 kPa K mol
Cv=140.19 LkPa K1 mol1
Cp=Cv+ R

## 140.19 LkPa K1 mol1 +8.314 kPa K1 mol1

148.50 LkPa K1 mol1
Therefore the ratio is :
Cp 148.50
=
Cv 140.19
1.059

## Percentage error is:

1.41.059
100=24.36
1.4
Experiment 4 : Isentropic Expansion Process
)
T 2 P2 ( k1
k
=
T 1 P1

)
21.7 103.5 ( k 1
k
=
15.2 163.0

ln

21.7 k 1
103.5
=(
) ln
15.2
k
163.0

k =0.5606

9.0 DISCUSSION
In experiment one, Boyles Law stated that PV(initial)=PV(final). P 1V1 value is
close to the value of P 2V2. According to Boyles law, at constant temperature,
absolute pressure and volume are inversely proportional where P 1V1 = P2V2. Thus by
calculating using the equation, we can say that the experiment to prove Boyles law is
successful. Based on the data recorded and calculated, for conditions A, B and C the
differences value between final and initial are 0.0321, 0.0289 and 0.0287
respectively. Therefore Boyles Law experiment were success. Boyles Law equation
stated that the product of pressure and volume is a constant for a given mass of
confined gas as long as the temperature is constant. When the pressure increases,
the volume start to decreases. The reason is that as volume increases, gas
molecules are more likely to bump into each other and also to bump into the walls of
the container and also because the reason volume decreases as pressure increases
is simple- more pressure forces molecules closer together. if the molecules in a
substance
are
closer
together,
they
take
up
less
space.
Next is experiment two which is Gay-Lussacs law which is to determine the
relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas. It is the relationship
between the pressure and temperature of a fixed mass of gas kept at a constant
volume. It must be accurate for every increment and decrement of 10kPa. When the
graph is plotted, we can see that if the pressure is increasing, the temperature is
also increasing. When the pressure is decreasing, the temperature is also
decreasing. So, it can be concluded that the relationship of pressure is linearly
proportional to temperature. This means that as the temperature decreases, the
pressure also decreases, and as the temperature increases, the pressure increases.
One way to think of this is if the speed of the molecules is increase by increasing
their temperature the force of the molecules hitting their container increases and this
increases the pressure. This relationship is called Gay-Lussacs Law and makes up
part of the ideal gas law. Experiment two were success.
In experiment three, the heat capacity ratio or adiabatic index or ratio of specific
heats is being discussed, which is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure
( Cp ) to heat capacity at constant volume ( Cv ). It is sometimes also known as
the isentropic expansion factor. The heat capacity ratio or adiabatic index or ratio of

specific heats, is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to heat capacity
at constant volume. It is sometimes also known as the isentropic expansion factor.
Based on calculated value, the k= 1.059 where as the theoretical value is 1.4. The
percentage error is

## 24.36 . Therefore, since the percentage error is too large which

is more than 10%, this experiment is considered not successful. The error may due to
the heat loss and sensitivity of pressure sensors. Therefore, since the percentage
difference is more than 10%, the experiment was failed.

## The last experiment is to demonstrate the isentropic expansion process.

Isentropic process is a process which the entropy remains constant. Entropy is a type
of energy (like heat, work, enthalpy) and is by definition energy which is lost in a
process. We say it is lost because we can't generate any useful energy from it e.g.
work. Given that, Pvk = constant, where k is a constant. From the value of
temperature and pressure before and after expansion recorded in this experiment,
the value of k calculated is 0 .5606 . Both pressure and temperature of the gas
before expansion are higher compare to after expansion. From the data recorded,
before experiment the pressure is decreased between before and after expansion
from 163.0kPa to 103.5kPa and also the temperature which is 25.2C to 21.7C. In
fact, during the experiment no heat flow occurs in the system and no energy
transformation change .Therefore, the change of the gas in entropy is zero. The
process is said to be isentropic since there was no change in the entropy throughout
the process.

10.0

CONCLUSION

Basically the experiment was a success considering all the objectives which
is to determine the properties of measurement/PVT according to Boyles law, GayLussacs law, heat capacity equation and isentropic expansion process were
achieved. Throughout the studies, it is found that some of the gas laws for the perfect
or ideal gas are just limiting laws because gas dont actually behave perfectly in the
real world. Nevertheless, in this experiment, the gas seemed to have obeyed Boyles
law and Gay-Lussac law in the relationship between pressure, volume and
temperature. The ratio of the volume of the gas indicates and expresses the
dynamics of compression and expansion of the gases. The ratio of heat capacity
gives the capacity or amount of heat that could be taken up by the gas in expansion
process. Although there is fail experiment but we managed to find the reason behind
the failure. Experiment 3, related to heat capacity ratio, the experiment fail might be

## because heat loss and sensitivity of pressure sensors. As a conclusion, the

experiment is successfully done and the objective of the experiment is achieved.

11.0

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. The pump pressure must not be above 2bar as excessive pressure may
results in glass breaking.
2. The valves must be opened slowly and not abruptly opened or else may
results in explosion.
3. Before experiment is proceed, the initial reading must at atmospheric pressure
for both chamber.
4. Tighten the hose before pumping.
5. Before starts the experiment, each of the experiment must do the start-up and
shut-down step in order to make sure there is no gas left in the chamber.
6. Keep eye on the sensor while monitoring the board because the parameter
can increase and decrease really fast and read the procedure carefully.
7. Handle the valve carefully and do not make mistake by choosing the valve
because it will affect the data.
8. The place where the experiment is conducted must be at stable and no
vibration.

12.0

REFERENCES / APPENDICES

## [1] https://www.scribd.com/doc/177444955/The-Perfect-Gas-Expansion-ExperimentTH-11 (Retrieved 14/4/2015)

[2]
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/General_Chemistry/Properties_of_Matter/Basic_Propertie
s_of_Matter (Retrieved 23/4/2015)
[3] http://vallance.chem.ox.ac.uk/pdfs/PropertiesOfGasesLectureNotes.pdf (Retrieved
23/4/2015)
[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boyle%27s_law (Retrieved 17/4/2015)

## [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gay-Lussac%27s_law (Retrieved 17/4/2015)

[6]
http://www.chemeng.queensu.ca/courses/CHEE218/projects/GasExpansion/Expansi
onProcessesofaPerfectGas.html (Retrieved 17/4/2015)