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FOUNDRYWORK FOR THE AMATEUR ® Busy Bee H B. TERRY ASPIN —e fod 1 “—% t y eG WORKSHOP PRACTICE SERIES from Nexus Special Interests. 1. Hardening, Tempering and 9. Soldering and Brazing 18. Basic Benchwork Heat Treatment Tubal Cain Les Oldridge Tubal Cain 10. Saws and Sawing 19. Spring Design and 2. Vertical Milling in the Home Jan Bradley Manufacture oe tie 11. Electroplating Tubal Cain A aed J. Poyner 20. Metalwork and Machining eee 12. Drills, Taps and Dies gle 290 Je or rari tailor tte heeled ae wr Renee 1B) Worhep Diawing 21. Adhesives and Sealants 5. Milling Operations in the pune ee = Lathe 14. Making Small Workshop 22. Workshop Electrics Tubal Cain Tools Alex Weiss Pe S. Bray 23. Workshop Construction 6. Measuring and Marking y Metals 15. Workholding in the Lathe Jim Forrest and Ivan Law Tubal Cain Peter Jennings 7. The Art of Welding 16. Electric Motors 24. Electric Motors in the WA. Vause dim Cox ome Workshop 8. Sheet Metal Work 17. Gears and Gear Cutting R.E. Wakeford |. Law 4. Foundrywork for the Amateur This book first appeared in 1954 and has found a steady market ever since. Revisions have taken place when necessary, but the basic process of casting hot metal in moulds changes very little and revisions have therefore largely related to supply of foundry materials. That the book maintains its steady popularity is a recommendation that it really does provide the information sought by the amateur foundryman. Subjects include crucibles and melting methods, moulding sands and mixtures, making moulding boxes, patterns and cores, preparing a mould, melting ferrous and non-ferrous metals, tools, a home-built drop-bottom cupola furnace and other allied matters, all in detail and clearly and simply explained. The author, a well-known contributor to Model Engineer, is also a skilled artist, as his drawings illustrating the text demonstrate. FOUNDRYWORK FOR THE AMATEUR B. Terry Aspin stated bythe author x NEXUS SPECIAL INTERESTS ‘Nexus Spocal Interests Ltd Nexus House Boundary Way Hemel Hempstead Herts HP2 7ST England (© Argus Books Lid 1984 Reprinted 1987, 1989, 1994, 1996 is resorve No pat of hie pubization may be, ‘Mpecluced in any frm by prin potegepy mein er mane without wren permission rom Me subtabor ISBN 0 95242.849 9 Phototypasetting by Performance Typesetting, Miton Keynes Printed and bound by BPC Wheatons Ld, Exeter Contents Chapter 1 An introduction tothe or. 2 Cries anche care, a leting facies. Simple crucible tumaces. A “rmenolthic” Wurnace. The use of sold tel Provision of fread draught 4 Moulging sande. The essentit qualities Types ‘of sand ‘Send micuras: Making lean Bond Reference to loary and Randupson process. 5 The “fk. Home made wooden moulding ‘boras. The “enap” Masks. Seas Founders fake Metal moulding boxes. 8 Pattern making Allowance for contraction, Coreboxes and core making. Painting of patterns. 8 Making a mould Ramming. Venting. Provision Df runner and rier Feeding heads. Rapping. Use paring powders and quid parting, Baked moulds. Reparing a damaged mould. © Notes 00 the matting of on an aluminium and Cuprous alloys. Stier, shimmers and plunges. Fives snd inoculants. Tongs. Refractory wash, 10 How toll» miniature drop-btam eu for ‘melting ifon. Operation and maintenance " 15 2 3 36 5 * 85 2 ss CHAPTER 1 Introduction “Thar Is coope for the amateur foundy- rule, A, which must be purchased sn {ian in the home workshop of any site, of coure, the moulding sand. inormally ‘Those who possess ates as smal as 14° satura commodity). te maining ame apacity and whose workshop is nothing can. quita simply, be made at home. Care fore elaborate then 2 quiet corer of he two forme of feting tomas. the one Echen wil novereless, nda useful aly above ‘being intended, primary, tor Tiga No. 1 cucble, which for tha moking cutting tho Ingates. The lower one has Gf slumiriom can be heated in the open many’ plications. of general nature ‘ie. In such coaes i wil, pechaps, be Inlusing smoathing un the Jon faces of ‘ound convenient to Kagp 2 Small box of the mouide and presing book loose per and outside, were the moulding opers- ‘cls of and. D ie the stick for forming ions ean bo cared out minus any atten the runner For smell aluminium castings {dan isk of domestic Witon the moulds Ieshould be, roughly, an nah in ameter. boing cari inaiso and placed upon the Six inches. of broken broom hen Hearth for pouring. twill soon be admirable The pir of moulding boxes or ‘pprecieted that he fed ofpossbtes of "ask" at Ecome Infor full desertion most humble workshop is expended lster aso F. the hallow laale for Sinem bord mecue by the mers: skinming ie ross on he mote meta Sltfough the process is esterialy so and. the cribs tongs Ainole sec! primitive, ie none the less "The more fortunate owner of lorger Sffective end the beginner is soon asking machine Tous, with an outdoor workshop Himsa wny ne has not been enoving the and other Blessings. wll beable to. 0 Bena ot for yes Although limited to further ‘and equip himaa wha fally Aluminium casting by the resticiod edged foundry on 3 small ccale. He wil Making facies, such material Goes after be Abie to tackle castings in t vate of Ailend itself admiraby to the typeof to! matais. Including ‘on. tha. weight Sd fobs used i tre subsequent machining, form ofthese baing governed only by the Fig wil serve to ustrata the extent Timi of his own Ideas an tequlrements. Ie scuioment required for an initial Members of societies may lke 12 po0l equsineance with the small. eosle resoutese and add found faite fo tho foundry. With “ihe exception of the Kind of communal workshep mare usally zz 0ce tenner engine fam amateur carting rn. aluminum and ron, Tote weight of 7 encounter Hee emer coud an ape, 10 2 sill cupola for melting From together witha ervible fumaco fr the nonferaur alloys. The interchange ot patterne Between members would be ¢ Goon andthe, division of the. costs Between them would make possible the ‘ot orhodex meta moulding te bet of cumstances nd sthoush the medsuro of cern can be improve {Dia very greet cent by the eerie of fore tnd ihe ging of xperance, oe ‘S'Sawye 0 Aeon sone of extoment a thw moment when te mou fe shaker ‘kan th iho east omer “fue, one athes a the loge, when sicple‘paterne are muled an ca Sithut "much thought and, "waster ives "very much 2 suproa. There ‘Apert from the obvious advantages t0 tbe gamed ram a venture int the sence ‘fhe founcy, the sed intrest nvlved {Savery strong fector on its own. OF the tther processes inthe workshop, the Imojotty ean be eirecy controled, by the porate. trough every stage to comple tion, progress being observed, assisted modified to ultimate success. The fovult to be expected when 9 mould is ‘Opened after pouring, wove. ic always ‘inatier for conjecture. A perfect casting annot be guaranteed everytime oven it aways remains, homers, he cession Seth [ob ws enontored wach teas the. ingen’ of the ameteur toe {oa tuy fe interes filles Show ado wth othr branches of fro abecrcing of hoes, te Sepe? hs Eecomes’ vowed andthe beter is Understanding ofthe proce, a0 the dyes. of hie enjoyment ie irereesed Tourdrywork te put foward a6 an anernative fo the other: methods Eommont ppg nts home workshop fashioning of an object in mats jeating from separate pieces. or Hom a sll lump of materi an Be take of extme tedium, On the hand. once shite foundry has me well and. conveniently shes, even a “one of job ean be uite expeditiously certainly equal ¥ nt more satiatsction, by the reparation ofthe pater wo, ‘by moulin. end. casting in | pattems, moulds, caste. Knowing hi vn limitations, imposed by the capsaty of {ste ob sezorainly The son's quite complete. He would be 6 fo! indeed who ‘would provide himsol with drawings ona pattoms, for example, of an object ust oo large to be secommodated an his own ‘machines, or which demanded 8 process Te complete qute beyond he resources ot his own workshop a. 2.A ype! mou with te pattern, lL The pattom romalns 19 be used M rege) ard sn the eure is himsall Io possession of 8 fn stock of user! patterns to fall back and hho comes to regard therm 82 othe most valued woes hor point is that the. omateur {Panny citer scope 1 the hobbyist who HRA wi fo wer to te own deste reperes his drawings, makes his The basic requicements ofa foundry are simple, Firs a patom. a cose epresonte. tion of the abject to be cast In wood ‘Wood fs by no means the ony materi Used for paar, of ecursa, but forthe Purpose of the typeof work 19 be ‘iseussed hore t's probably the most liy_ favoured. By moans 10 be lator this fs embeded in sand contained ia moulding or and Iter withdrawn to form a cavity, which ie again 2 representation, but inthe nga, of ‘the abject tobe cast Metal contained ina table vessel is melted in 3 furnace orn fn open fre and is poured into the mould to fil tho cavity. Iremalns tong enough the aol. when the mould Is Broken up and the casting extracted. "8 ypical mould, with its patter, for 10 broducing @ most useful pulley wheal, s Sown Fg 2: Tai hn the esos process which can be expanded or ‘contacted to ft inevidual requirements find. although modified or Improved according to reumstonces, for. the ‘most primitive t0 in Industry) the most ighlymochanised "and scent, the same guiding principles app throughout auggested that the reader wishing to iment with foundrywark on his own nt wll ind thatthe bot reste are fom the woe of 2 regular rule ting pot. There are alternatives, of "An ten saucepan ‘or ever an ‘can have been known to be used uminium. Indeed. the former may fan actual value steps are teker to ct the interior ~ or rather, to protect re melee of Shy the ute ofa etractory wash Ppend). Many metal resol in luinivn Won parcuaiy $0 snd ct i not good, 80 that bringing the deta nto direct contact wih thot Protection isto be maintained, aly quent onewal Wiew of the fact, then, that satistactory crucbis are readily avaiable in a wide renge of usell sites cercaniy to tlt the amateur the begnar wil ne It to his advantege to obtain 2. small Supply atthe outset ond avoid the som times’ discouraging offct of tying. te make do with a makeshift, The toe ot Grucble most commonly used inthe foundry ie that of fielay. mixed with plumbago (another name for prepite oF nclead") and. except where special fumace arrangements demand. special hopes, the same Kind wil be found or ‘enlen fr any of the metals Imalting of pon trove boys claimed tort by manufacturers and is worthy of 00 sderaton in that fold. "The "esmmon ‘plumage varity wl give equal setae” tion fora metal, neu ron “The shape uovaly encountered snd the sees mostly to fnd favour inthe smal feurery ae ilusratd, with dimensions in Fig. 3. Tho ckatch may serve os a useul ulde when ordering the fst batch, This Shows the sanderdsizes and capacities of the SALAMANDER crucible and. is bed ws the "A Shape. A), although fot the smallest size, nals about 24 1. " Cf molten brass and may be convenient for beginners. At the other end of the foe AS can be used for up 1015 fs. of sat on and, whon at white Mest, can be ‘uite dificult to handle by one person thing amateur type tackle, Tho came eae. Ofcourse, would ane quite comforabty tren melting sluminum. All erucles antaining molten metal shouldbe oated Weith groat care and respect and larger pots ‘than this may call for more Epocialzed equipment aod, probably. an ‘Where sliferent metals are being With pokershould be avoided: itis beter to make any adjustments by iting it ‘ighty wth tho tongs and applying the poker tothe fe. ‘About the worse risk ettending @ po. parieary inthe caso of aluminium. sn feplenshing the Ini ehorge, which hi become molten, with cold matl. Of the larger places are kept back unt & poo! has boon formed when, the heb conduc tion now being fly api. they wall mle ‘more quieky. The rapid conduction of the heat, however, ean be a danger i ths tekded motel & immersed suddenly. The ‘alate capniie of ‘Sammanter” Gratiot mated itis generally advieabe wo ratain 2 Trparate pot foreach ane. Forte molting of nonferrous alloys the le of ane of those plumbage pote baring accidents of ‘needed in ther handing in and out ofthe furnace. The top is the weakest part and ‘should not be subjected to unnoeessary pressure tom the tongs which. inary ase, f0 minimise the "ek ofthe cusble Sipping though snd sping te cantons “astro, should always grip about one third of the way down The practice of levering the erie about Inthe Renae 12 Incoming charge expands and the aes ‘melted surninumy, fsing some oft heat rt tending to soy simaltarnousty. Cable to make room foritby rising un the pot It expands e free curwarde ae Grcked tet the result, ‘One remedy Is to have the. molten metal at wall above meting point Not Sluminim ~ betore acting tt. Arthe Dorhaps wisor plan Is t0 lower the Feat up gradual etore total immersion Used for mang ren, he fe of & ¥ fot so ron Neverthles, hay Hess tow toot risers nets wh rent crete wy Beckie tennis ocsrcd recon yen wo ke fs te tious hy cn. en Bice ron scdoral cr costes Crave te ont ote cucle vil avers me economy whan compared wth Bietscrse ot cxtincs tom snc. Eig ofc cn te crctte Nigh Bike temvcroure. combined. wit Ieee trugnt eve cl ral wocion teres inves ond Sionar al N's Beate to ctacoed bolo bovomes 6 anon fo horde or bros te unace Iori tos fs mon By 1 tne ho Eehatie wat fave Secorte reduced sky in any coe, 0 te carl be Biieg vival sho of rotor I srveiree savas 1 we sone Ecos sin eau wn ke Wataty wine rltng the more suscep. Bees, surtiom macesscor's Haak to trvacePlrbego testo mat la, 4 Enabling a grater bat of met! t be eeded ene fe chorre Below, Punsago creat. The ane o” the ‘ighnac ranch the end of te That the the various azo of pt ae evatible an thot cout lave. Tifeis also about Ine Sore, ne oman 9 purchase ot end cover together: Teiruse wil go Fong way towarss protecting the maton fretal tom some Of the elects of the unace stmosphere and to exclude fovign matter auch 9 ssh and aes. ‘An alternative fo the norma cover and sch ie tea erage fpr {nga logo il ehargo ls sown n fo th caso a second ere, wich ould be» cracked or damaged ones up~ inde over theft with the charge piled Uninet ‘The once prevalent elit in the practice of orneaing anew pot by lev “ {10 stand, upside down, overnight in 2 ‘ying furnace, would appear 12 be Unnecessary. Roturning. the empty uct tothe. furnace afer pouting. fncept, of course for 8 fresh molt woul Bao seam tobe sn overeat superstition, ‘peraly contabuting towards. shorter Geibe ie Ie may not be adveable to ool them t00 suddenly, however, arc eualy # warm spot an be found some ‘ere bohind tae furnace. The "kteher To foundyman may fin i eomvenient to place his pote in the aaipan to coo General, it may be said, plumbago ‘Gucbies will be found to withstand femarkabin amount of for uso and ever rough heraieg he Furnace imary importance in any found, ‘or sal ore the arrangament2 fr ota thas been inciested tht ‘castings are tobe lnited to» small [up to 3 pound or wo Im weight! Ip sm. ne spacial furnace is raqured "The metal melts ot 8 dull re heat °F of teraabouts according ta the | which can easiy be attained in 9 range. Thus, there is ile excuse, ot lad offing. for fing ‘onestt of the advantages to be by 9 medest acquaintance with ik Tete usually advisabn to fresida tongs will answer the of hanating the pot progressed beyond the scope of fnge, he amateur founayman “probabiy become. intrested in 8 of Inger capacity. Ariong ‘he fe posatlitis inthis eleetion making the necessary modification to fit foritsnew role For making castings machinable onthe popular 34" lathe, the stove need be Farge than toon to eighteen inches high A Bigger stove woul only use» greater ‘quantity of fuel than shoul, otherwise, be Feeeesary and nothing fs 16 be ganod by ‘hat, It wil usually be advisable to take way the cast Iron top to facitata the rary and tomova ofthe erble ad fhe fumace le to be bull into 8 fae 19 ‘ake use of maura rough sme former Sight modiication wil be requled las Showin in Fig. 5) 10 admit the end of the Stove pipe. inhi ease the usual acess the back ofthe stove has been cut lowe and the lining made good by the use of fhe of the proprietary fre cements. The Same can be put to excallnt use epait- ing any defeees Inthe fring whieh may sppear rom time to te. Neglect ofthis pint wil probably result in the wrapper boing burned through, 2 the lining of 9 Slow combustion stove ts comparavoly thin A Turnace exactly stated has tian known to make hundrae of eating in aluminium, bade and ir ‘Always, wien soil fuel is used, the provision of natura draught te. real favanage in lighting up: Except fr this 18 CREWING MOE LOWER TO TAKE AE. ‘FULEDVCEVEL (TH FIRE CEMENT however, eacalient use ean be made out Inthe oban. of the stove sone provided fn adequete forced dravaht i avaible For anyone nat wishing to oo t0 the cxvense of 8. Blower, @ very. high Temperatre can be ‘ff tall chimney. Auriniam ean be ‘melted with ease and heres a poseilty Of being able to handle some of th ‘uprove allove toe. About eight to tn oot ‘ffocrineh pipe wl be found sufficient. has been put forward hare 2s a practical lution ta the furnace problem, ho doubt thre are many other posses which ‘wil suggest themselves to the amateur. ‘One rather obvious alternative ist bud 3 ‘cuore secon furnace from frebri. The Same is ronderad more sanviceable if the bricks are enclosed within a. sheetiton \wreppee An example is Hlvetated in Fig. 16 and, being built to the convenin Gimensions of the brick, has.» fnace ‘cavity of really geneous capacity faitnough in the ordinary way crue ftumaces re equipped with fie bars an ch pan, such fofnemonts fave bom Gelsertey omitted rom he. versions Shown, Where the fre ts by ora 02 Coke, fie bors could prove 8 nuisance by ‘Becoming clogged with clinker These fermaces, can easly be cleared while the ‘workin progress fhe nod aries. [A Monolithic” Lining Inthe Industry, nowadays. many furnace Tings. follow the type Known 35 ‘manoith:” Tho terms mere descriptive ‘thon correct and roferst the kindof i rammed up on the spot ftom suitable feractory miter, within’ the. ca ly constructed temporary former. term used ta describe the finely around up Hs 2n Hstraion ofa small exampieHrebrick with which tne cay fe Fenton Turnace making use ofa diused — to improve it song erst high ‘temperatures, ard to reduce. the irstromoved with3 chisel tendency te eracking. The aadition of grog 142 hole cut clone to the alto alow ofthe ring being dried ot fo admit the stove. pipe. Another more quieky than would cinerwfae bo ng, which serves, coloctvely, at sn possi, hole and for blest. is cut at the Those Wing in an indus area wil A useful former the Glamater at experience ite efculy In obaning the furnace caviy, ean bo folled from necessary materia it an approach, fs ‘etal and ‘braced intemally with made to tho management of ene of the eden struts. It should be constructed focal brickworks. The Wantiy required = ‘with the wood suppers removed small and, f charged atl, the cost is Jatt wil srng inwards to facitate nogligibe:The quay of tho coy wil Vary fFomoval after the tring has been but there site ove tha or the type of furnace in question, result wil be euite stislacary, Inthe event ofthe distr being remote ” Indust; i will be found possible o give the characteristic “rng” and the 2 superior qualy clay fom one of colour should be aight. yellow brown manufacturers Having gone to 3 good dea! ef trouble ‘lay ad grog oe received dry ond so make cea serviesabe forme, vl led_ab troreughly 35 possible be wall worth Observing ale care “The matrils than mixed with use and, thus enjoy the ful advantage ot ve 10 fon per cant wetarto produces prolonged working it. Te main enemy flay to about the same con probably, clinker Te usualy forms petty a5 moulding sand, bonded badly in the lower part and meres alweys versaturatec. IIs fed into the a strong temptation to attemp is roroval betwen the forme’ and te urnsce by pounding withthe poker Nevertheless, par an amma down soidly. the sometimes t may be preferable loave 8 ‘and raring being cari out in partoulary tenacious ump adhesin 10 oud ond four! the furnace andthe lining than tore it bringing 4 pece ot tinuously es possible. A bragkinthe the same -awey with i, if forebly jon may result in aerack Te obtain dislodged. Somatimes it i possible wo of unvaried stongth throughout, clean outa good deal of the clinker we Fattomion should be pad o the jie n'a semi-solid atte inthe red hot ming to keep consistent ‘urnace, inmedately afr the fil mol necking away the wood ""Norreferenee hes yet bean made to the and removing tho former the mahal of closing the furnace mouth fof the Tue pipe can be isered anc wrile the melt ein progress. Generally Delew opened out andcleaned.up sll be found that the most stisfectory fatowel. The tame can be applied to cover ls'a slab of fabrick, patevoy in pars. to udy the lining up cases where the higher fomparsturos 970 aly, before its left to air Gry for 8. reached. To gue ascess its lifted off ot not ose Wan twenty-four ous. pushed se with the tongs. The rathor tho Lining backwards epainst, paras, the foundry frying out can now be accelerated by wal is Tie to rot tho eporator Wan 9 small woo fire Io the furnace the melting of rn en progress the cover ing Tt going untl the clay has let thus radiates 8 generous cont fo steam, Agraduslinevease inthe ton of white haa, ature can then be permitea by the Furnace covers of frabrick, subst as on of coal anid coke unt. ator they are to loca heating. ar very prone 1 2 2 couple of hows, is posible to. crack. Ita real advantage ft they are ho whole of the. interior of the easly and cheaply replaceable ssiy) made furnace with & ; Be Ie CE St ss was aaa a Rocce teieeat Gas Nien = ees a isurnnvaes meee hfs ect one Be csctec a: Sec reuains 2 ee, Aa meee ee | 8 good, sound ing shovld result smateur point of view. ‘There 3 ight with the finger it should owaver. we rather strong advantages to 19 Fig. & Some vacuum desners are ready tinued ae bers the suggestad use of coke. The fest is that, in one form or anothr, its 8 com ‘motity wich is pretty universally obtain~ fable. Secondly, where the meting of ion is anicpated it i probably posse to biain 8 for greater heat with simple fsppartes than with ither of the aiher fh. In thi ospact. it cata camares ‘well with ot fring, wien requires Special burner 9 voll 95 © rears. of roving Blot Tris well worth the trouble of snyene taking up founeryeork serious to make ‘an efor! towards abtaning 9 su0ply of indueial fomace coke. This material con tre racognised by is slvery grey colour and it bums with great heat without 8m srcoss of cloker forming inthe furnaca. “An excallont alternative can usvely Be ‘obtained fom soli fuel merchants an ‘mov come der the tie of “Surbite” or Some chor modarn designation. Te ‘omestic supplier shoul be able to hein ‘oith the kind of mal eoke he delivers for ee in domestic boilers. The einer ‘should not be deterred by any aiiuty in Shtaining wit he baioves to be the most Guebie fuel for tha Job ‘Some ott ‘shoul fst bo made using that vehi ‘casi avaliable, Afterall ary founders in Iron and bronte uses wood chorea" ig. 9 Ex Ae iis, 290 vot ower, 20 Forced Draught Wore blast it necessary, thero i litle sub tht electric biowars of one form o ‘other “provide the most convenient ‘newer Hone forge Blowors oF lance Dellows could. of course, be used a ‘ttorative but since a forced. draughe trust ‘be sustained over comparative) Fong period. Is obvious thatthe hurt fnergy expended will be rather conse a. Wier the fay high tomperature the reighbowhood of the Tumace th flor is not going te be performed ‘comfort Tn cases where alecicy, moins 6° ‘aherwae ie alae thes Hil usualy ‘bea grat sevartoge to obtain some ki ‘Of smal Blower Thare are mary oes by aovergers of surplus equipment. ‘try reavonable prices for use on ow! ‘otage. Crease a lage one fr preference leven the prosant furnace Is uit smal curpiue of airs moro useful than 0° fie able to “borrow” 3. vacuum Ministry surplus. The motors rated atone rom ts more normal function wil Klowat. and with a two inch dalvery ips Isdsqunte soppy of ar ready oof sluminium fexible tubing is ale 0 Fig. & shows the adaptation of 2 suppiy'a very comorabio craugh to any type of vacuum cleaner which is of the furnaces, cacussed. The. simple with an serangement forsising method of crecting the best ino the 35 9 standard tment A bottom opening of the tusnace Is whichis admirably suite tothe iivetrted in Fig. 10. rough, sheet iron Nhe low premure type of paint cow! serves to prevent cinders nd dust lower and, na doubt. there are blowing out the wrong way. Twerkahont sleaay cqviopad with Another kind) of blower suitble for spoliance. Fig 9s on exam of fumaca werk the Root sing vane ype Nol lower purchased from Air Fig. 11. Generally speaking is the volume of air delivered which counts Yor Teundrywork. Pressure par square. inh red be no more than five pounds. ‘ouer enring ta tmace lg 11, Sting ane bower a CHAPTER 4 Sand It could be tat from an ameteur point of iw, the greatest obstacle 6 the aegis: tion of sultable sand, for, although is 8 Commodity whieh form are ofthe most ‘shundone satura doposis en earth by means all oft has the inherent properies lich tt forthe preperation of» mould Nevertheless its the purpose ofthis book to show how # small founary con Be Sestmblea withthe si of marae most ‘aadily to hand and inthis respect, send is { bartcular casein poe Pethops = chelco of sand will be eset by a beter understanding of the ‘incion required of f, To Begin with ratstvaly fine gran ao is desirable to reprodave the seta of the pattem. ‘ede metal penetration and to impart 8 ‘Smooth and pleasing sppesrarce to the hating, The sand must be of teksctory ‘ature to withrand the hightemperature ‘here ft comes ito. contact wih the trolten metal and, In» mass, must be permeable to allow tho fee pastage of (Gases genereted inthe mould. dusng esting. Another important feature the property of tho. sand to hold the form {dvenfoit by the pattern Ths s known as Excapt,pathape, whore permesbilty is seduced by on overabundance of iy, the 2 fit tee of thaae conditions ae ust ‘encountered. automaticly inn sands. Tae i, of course, 2 wie in grain sie, The matter of bond, ower Is a propery which suis one deposit of fart founarywore rather than anethe: Ghen 2 sand which, though lacking > bond, fle the other conditions ths later propery con be acusted sifciay in many ways. ‘Many ametaur foundeymen get over the ctcity of obtaining sable sony ‘making a friendly "acquaintance wih Someone in the Industry, where 9 hu SGredweight or so i never missed. Oth Wwibe fortunate i ling in an area where Ucknowdged deposits of foundry are ‘ecu For the purpose. of the. or ‘oundky thie can be Used exact = ‘poled from the send. Although ad tions of coalduet or even horse monur= may be recommended by the O18 Har there is no fea! necessity fr iter. pa ticularly the latter in the handling of feiatvely small ‘castings Involved. ‘quantity of Mansfeld sand, which uso? ‘ensively in brags founcing, woul probably fepresent’ particulary valu: ese othe smal sale Fundy. For others, who may not be s0 co" venienty placed, there I 3 case for uss of ny kind from possible toca! fad acing tothe quel of Me building sand fs not without its ies an his mayo strengthens ‘sion of natural lay er even By, while fuler's earth, obtainable pany chemist, an eso be put to goad "Tho. Inter. under the. name of supplied invarous erodes per sulted to foundry requirements siso valuabin ae regenerating for used sard which hos become in bond. Sox shore sande, wes, to 34 sles sands, can bo ~ and Used for the purpose of mould Industral, s-shore sends are Foxionsively in the making of sand Targely "becouse of thew pe ily and bocauso they posces tle atural bord. The later fact sy 1858 paradox whore the matat of i of Such prime importance bat in “case the bonding agent, usually pric, burns away on casting ard the pies tty wen the MnO Durposes = usualy of the "wind Warety which forme fromthe ound aur coasts Far the best it shoula be treo from particles of “which are net so sefractery a8 the if Agatn, In grain siz, sve-shore ‘aries consicerbly between one {coast and another. One Is 83 fine, 13% popper and another fs much 2,10 be used ata Among the écognised as sources of supply ple aro Skogness, Soutoport nd bout there ate many mote, For ‘gran sand moulding exper tbe made using sitea sand Rad at tho rate of soovt one In twenty fuller earth. While Ie not praten the moulding aueiies wil be Rw hol the impression very we ‘and, for aluminium, where itl more ‘moisture may be tolerated Inthe sar. sil give the beginner every chance of ‘Moisture Content Betore use for mould making the send ‘must be “tempered” with water. I fet, Spar from mostoning the bonding agent the surace tension ot the water forme art of the grean bond. The quansty of moisture isthe region of mo pints of ‘Water to th hundregweigh of sand but ‘eit is unholy thatthe amateur wll wih to weigh out hi sand each time he com rmences work, tll prebebly be more Converient to ude th tempered sand by its characteris, In time, the Benet ot his "own experience inthe mater wi Save ae tho best guide but, 36 an inca Fg 12 Atettor ‘he pis of ‘mostang sone 23 tion, one test fst squoese han in {he balm and then break the lump two, Fg. td The tacture should be, cean. tetiout “arbolng” showing neque ‘nome, an anamot le mad wus snd too yi roby rst pro the ‘mous fang aay often atthe Imoment when the box is bea closed inate tho removal of the pattern Srmonly known s8 8 "crop out” Vor Shnoying 2 good dea of tne an eae ov Jt been wipetdd im prearing to mould a often the case wan 3 rom Gut oceuts Sand whichis too wot el ‘Stall reveal Hast when the mould Sropte he 9 minlerrewleano as soon 9 {he'meat enters Such 9 conan ca. of ‘ure be dangerous 24 Methods of tempering the moulng ond wil of eouree vary but one f feo) Eonvenience isto spread the sand abou: Sn inch tick over an area of Foor ond ster sprinkling with water. mix thorough (ait arden rako. Ite usually quick ‘nd more eftecive then using 2 shove: ‘The and shovld be paseod trough Qarerinch mesh siove after xing ara Al bean aed sdvaneage iit sfc fund for haan hour or 0: befor: ‘moulding commencas "Whon the mould is prepared thus an Lesin ts damp state to cove the met the. process is known ss green 3079 moulding and the stength ofthe ean town 88 its green bond. Sometimes however 6 maul iced out, ether fy nam oven, or partly (skin sod) by he Fig. 13. Temaring mouitrs ‘nd wnat ond ire ¢ Anather form of skin ying isthe ‘mould, an industalsopicaton the: mould ie rammed up ons Using 2 ated metal pit ‘The sand_ coming into contact the pater ie thus gion 9 hard stn i with added suenath fr roseting ive etn othe nearing met 13 mould is intended for dying out aking I is usual to make t fom oll ‘Sometimes the ol sand ls used ony ing. 25 tls comparatively expen fn in thet case Wt is packed found rand the rest ofthe box eg th groon sand. Ol sand s used, ao, aking, particularly inthe ese of ype of core used inthe production of Machine paris and model castings. [A the same time it provides particular problem forthe amateur ease ol san Cannot satsactorly be mised by hand. ‘Usa the basis ie slicn santo which \s aaded 8 proporion of 8 symthtic bonding agent and water In actual fact. although the designation is “ol sand” the proportion af all actully sed nthe mis {invally only about half that of the ‘moisture content ond sme. alo. than {he proportion of any addtional bonding gears which may be employed. Having ro natural sdheon, the sien sand must be reinforced with @ material to form ts ‘green bond an ater Baking. yon {inthe formar case the addition moy be molastes, dextin or a proprietary core ‘gum or cereal binder and inthe later 9 Sryng ol, uch 98 boiled insaed of is Used. Sometimes. 2 proportion of rod ‘moulding sands used with he ike sand 25 witha vow to varying the eontion ana Strength th ger or the ry tte os he’s may be, andthe ameter wil Sao fi room for expariment in the ronmeet "ical formula fool sand wou be inthe nature of one handel hy Shea san, two pres water two pounds cum apd one pin hoses a OF cure, the quot rogue a ny ne tie na ome foundry woul be very much less than te an inal robo, fourteen pounds, of sand wore sed with he famalndar of the ingraents raat the {ik wuld be ample The mod sare wil Koep Yor» considerate in 8 loses She arg n end he sbghe mud stich forms on thw ena ie of 0 t= hile the remaining ingredients sie common enaugh, emrin one wich ‘tay be ‘someting ofa. prlem 10 ‘polar K appens Sspuised bene name Ur another 98 prosuct of number of fires spetaning func supbes and ints Ueual form is ln te rate of 0 rong gum (Srih uml. A very com rion orm of te'mateal and one ‘Which ie Taidy ready obtinable. Te ‘Toke under the name: Deri, wed San fan bo purchases lon wth tho {cond cl om the enol part store ‘Sh ahop: in, ery etl form fo Stn een be prepared o flows "An eh of» pit 2 fc ors) of ringed le acde 1 fourteen pounds of shore snd ppd he flor and the wo combined as thorough os posle {ih tho ad of towel or small Boer Shovel The lt wil be found toi ‘eos enough Hatta pond of exis tral aan accordanca with tho iat Tone om the pocket with a quater pit of frotes"brd about ‘all the resltnt Tuantiy of gus edded tthe Sond ard ‘Snes Atte age the rau wil be 26 anything but satiafectory, being composes SF clots of guey sand and much Toose Stuff very acu to. amalgamete. The fmatevr wl begin to approciat the vale ‘and. importance of the mechanic: methods of mixing availble the ‘profesional foundryman, Mr however, he possesses an electric hand cil ofthe Wolf Black and Decker ir type. he has aq aamirable su ftutecloge at hand About haf the above ‘Quanity of sand is convenient deat wi Sra tims, where itis contained i a smi Dbuckat or empty paint tn. Fig. 14. The Simple ester shown fbent fom along oF auarterinoh diameter mild sted fo Spd the revolving lis passed round art ‘ound aie the tn whan in porhaps wo ‘oF thvee minutes, dhe sane wil Be cults thoroughty maxed. The second fot can bo treated In the same way and, itis then found that te mzure fea ile dry, more tt the Dentrine gum can be eddod ood the ‘rocess repeated unl tho correct cor Setenoy Is obtained In any cose, rene fiom a more valuable than athorwie. The ‘and cannot realy be over mixed Fo explain the. matter of the comet consistency of ll sand Te 3. problem probably be best xo compare its Characteristics wlth those of ‘common frown sugar except of course that it het sticky feels soft and smooth an hols the form. Hit sticks to father infective miking eran overabu Sence of molatire or gum is ndiates When finaly turned out of the ean stot mrining it shoud stand up ins soft bu "Sand 0 prepared may be somewhist lacking in green strength. Improvement this respect en oftan be offected By the upwards of fy per cent of ved sand with the sien tana or, iy by 2 small aeaiton of tule 3. The foundryman can often make isn this way andl be has a etirly ths iking. On the other the dy stength after beking may be fo be greater. In the cago of the oti up enily fom silea send, iin the modfod version ds one coves made from oll and be baked, quite offecthely, in 39 domestic oven. For best roauts the sand In ts gren st face of the core should be qults hare testa with the finger for making oil send bie tothe amateur oF & pariculaly exacting core or mou attempted may be on aavan” 9 obtain 2 quanity ready mixed, trom local foundry of fom At laast ono fm (coe append ypply a high aualty sand in quar 38 small as. 8 quarter ah Tes ready for uso and wit Moe's long prod in an aight wee fd, wh went ight pounds wi ‘many, many cores, it cannot be ed 0 great expense The methos outs th same as that employed Rome mixed sands ands catura of HOO°F is equally corock ns baked nl Ie 0 ven iy the amateur fourryman wil 13 with 2 elerenee to loam auialy "loor”) moulding. It Ie 3 ave outsize the scape of the home ‘and usualy describes the material fig 14, he sof spr lc itor sad In the preparation of moulds and ‘ores associated with “pit” moulding ‘whieh i cared auton the floor of the ‘hop and deals with casings to upwrade ‘of macy tors. Loom ise synthetic Moulding material composed ‘of sand ‘thieh fas been ily mile, “and an ‘edition of chopped straw, Norse manure ‘or wood sawdust. Occasionally, hore I ade to imorove its tenacity. The work ie highly sklled and: moulding i Inge pater inthe usual way. Blocking ‘The use, of powdered graphite or lacking,” also called plumage, applied 10 the mirace of the impression in the ‘ould has tho effet of aaaiting the Naw ‘of metal also imparts a higher fish to the eating than woule occur the metal ‘wore brought in inate eontact with the sand. The tendency of the Tater ‘sdhere wo the surface ofthe casting i la 27 ‘The 30cc inmower engine shown eet amare advanced sage much reduced. Graphia ja normally used 1 8 mould dressing fr kon and prous ‘loys Aluminivn 8 Wequenty poured inte uncosted moulds ‘Graon sand moulds are dusted with dy plume, which is normaly contained it Slime sotton bag forte purpose. The bog fe shaken over the mould sowing the ‘powder to fall and penetrate the cat. A 28 afl eterative i fine chen sive ‘Seinen, which fs tapped! Highly with he finger to releare. the. graphite. When pondered plumboge Is used ae 2. dressing For cores and dry sand oul, ts usual to mi it with water and apply i with 2 feforush The ears or moutd than da ‘Magan bare receives the metal Powered graphite is obtainable fro manufacturers. Another fm of ‘oul coating is composed of fo or other material suspended in tsvaly spit. base, This is most ‘pple by spraying and is for application to either gran for deyesnnd moulds and. cores. ‘suitable fr ferrous. aed non metals ond light alloys ae ava fad they have the seded acvantage inflammable. Thoy aro ipited application and impart akindied othe mous sand Wien has been burned loses is Thus 2 sprinkling of burned sand is te the font te of the mould amming up the cope, so thatthe elves wil come cleanly spare Dry ‘and may also be used for tho Durpose while there is, occasional for separating e mould by maans of fof newpaper pcial parting powders, which ‘ost effclanty. and which may posed of bone dust or produced foypeum, se avaiable and itis well ho touba 10 procure ane of thase sk progresses. Sometimes they ean articular sive, when Suet aver = 0 asst na loa witha. hing of cil sand moulds an cores paring, applied by brush or spre to patern or orator. exceptionally in aflowing 2 clean stp. This water repellont quid, eon be from fame of foundry supine. Soroving iauid paring or 3pphing Fp 18. The we fo sry gun foto apple. ‘on af raat dszags tthe maul liguid dressings to the mould in the same ‘way ts adviseble to wear some form of fespratox Ifthe only actual i effect the fal irtoton can ba very bad) Pordand Coment Pemaps. before leaving the chaptr on Imoulding sande. completly. 8 brat {eevee toons further techni al no be out of plac, It may be of irrast 0 se, ook yrycorwationty placed eth ‘egaré tothe more rio sane #0 tear that ordinary Pordond Cement can be ends used as b bonding agent Know, 2 the Randypson proces concer ho {ka of sca sand mised wth ton par cant fament and. aporoxmately, five pet cant "twenty-four hours and may then be ced Dut more rap 29 CHAPTER 5 Moulding Boxes For the kind of work tikly to be encoun fered in the small ealefouney, he sand is rmmed ito 9 pir of moulding boxes to form the mould. The pair of boxes are Known asthe fas,” whieh fs composed fe lower ox the “drag and sn upper fox (he “cope” In foundries, flasks ean be of cast it of fableated from shect (rota. Nevertheless. an excellent b- Sttute for the mstal box can be. made from woels snd conwary, para. 10 fret Impressions, there f virtually no tisk of scorching, even shen in is pourad 0 tethin alt an inch of te sds ofthe box. ‘The mauiging send ie. such good Insuistor Being much lighter in welen than the metal Mask, special attention ‘must be paid to welghtng the top of the ‘mould when anything Imo 2 eubetantis ectlon of casting is being poured ‘Otherwise the expe will probably ft with ‘loss of metal damage fo tho boxarid te ‘arte of 3 mould. Perhaps tI useul to (eque a hab of weighting the boxe’ Fi 16. 4 very simple type of wooden mauling bon or lak time. Atleast one possibe source of fa thue eliminated, uable form of wooden lack fe ted in Fig. 16. Ths of 8 moe cle ‘ture and. simpy. alle or rough s3W" edt wil be advisable to gouge grooves the Inside o8 an alematve, Fig, 17 aml, battenad hosed underneath is 2 ‘addition and comos in usaf for ling the mould. when that is sary, and for cating the mould tage i this ater ole bore clean the, wood to allow any. sand, might othorwise log to ain straight through. The purpose of the owl, of coure, is fo. atord.gxact locaton {0 the two box pats ensuting ‘thatthe two halves ofthe mould register szeutstly This method of dowellng is Tendered more exact and ise subject 10 ‘wear ithe dedi einforeed with 8 ema ‘ota plate Fig. 18. Pip. 19, Meta pate ede nr A more elaborate “form of wooden ‘moulding box is shown in Fig. 20. Obviously. a6. tho. size of the box is Ineressed. so iso must be its strength 9 ‘amy the dional weight of sand. A box {om Ines square may be close to hong 2 cuarter of hundredweight. Silay ‘wile isa simple matter te close one of the smaller boxes by frst registering one dowel and, by lowering the cope. by ‘degrees, binging the ster dowel nol with HS socket, when a sir Yochwigue IS employed. with 2 heavier box. the Supporting of the edded welght cen be fatiguing, ust at atime whan hare is ile ‘margin or eran The type of dowel shown Fore keope tho pins within the range of vison of the mouldor, wile he stands ‘vor the box ana elses ts more comtor {ably Fig, 21. One the enda of the pina are engaged. the regiter is effectod ‘utomatialy asthe cope is towered ‘Tho brackets holding the pine aro cut ‘tom 2 section of angle von and secured to the box sido with screws A sonvenient ‘ex of pin, which wil probably clear the ‘mest regular parting’ ne ikely to be a ban fom quarter inch eiamtr steo od ‘and serewell teach ond fr nutting tote Sides of the box A uselu! location for there handles actly ever thapine. Fig 2. ‘The “Snap Flask Gaining In favour in. mechanised foun- ries, and capable of adaptation on & Smal sal, fs the typo of moulding box Known ae he sn” fish In this cose the ‘ox pats are made In such 2 way that ‘shor the mould wssembled and cowed ‘orto pouring, tha flask canbe rrmowed ‘Goving the sand mould standing on ts ‘own. In that way tho moulding box can be tea over and over sgn, an united umber of moulds being mede tom only Single pir of box parte. The economy of bones offset to 8 ceean exert by the ‘ecm trouble atoled In making thar: in fact the cost of such flasks whan metal ‘es sr purchased may ba fur times tho price of the ordinary tpe, but the system FE parila advantageous when applied oMmoulds whien ar tobe died er bokod. ‘Shown in Fig. 24 Isa frm of wooden flak ‘which can easy be made “The box is hinged at oppost Corners. One hinge of wach port Brovided with removable in so th See swing outwards whan i requited to remove tom the mould. The feed Comers ae vetforced with metal angle Steps of 2 short length of ion, The ‘agieter pine could be smi 10 ether of the exampes shown, according tothe se ofthe box. When using snap flasks acisable to keep th pattern wll within the mould. ‘The halsinch margin previously eferred to rather leas tnen doquete when the ‘Sand lacks the support of the box sides ln the risk of beak trough ie ereasel ‘Normaly spout double the usual emount ‘of margin lowed and obviously cond Ey tions wil depend uoon the {ection ofthe cating ai the metal to poured. It athor-e matter for epor ment. Perhaps the most obvious apie tion of snap 803k nthe preparation et ‘baked sand moulds, where the Box prs te removed and the sand slone conveyer fo the drying even: Where tho halon the mould are required to be handles feparataly efter dying fr the assomy ctrcores and soon, hand holds! provided in the moulds themselves 25 asc fre locating. dowel inserted in th joint ‘When making any kind of moulding box itis worthwhile obrnning lsh a moth ft betwoen the two halves. Th sand wll thus bo rammed in solely ot ound ond the ik of sty paris fli Into the movid ie ruch reduces asks for base founding treitionsy take a ferent form. I Wal case 18 backing bosrae are provided and clams used 9 hold the parts together An ‘ample ie usizeted in Fig 25, which Biko ahows how the metal ie poured ftrough holes in one end of the bax. The extended pouring gate serves asa trap for foreign matter entering the mould ane 2 (ood "heed" is provided by the langth of fhebox Meeal Moulding Inthe ordinary ay . ‘would never hope to make Tor Nimsot 3 the equipment. neodod to cary on hit hobby So itis, ago, with the foundryman ‘though, 0 fon this book only ruses Ihave bean refered to ae being @ "mus! {or purchasing. An enormous, amount of ‘workean be done with the King of wood ‘owes dascibed. but there is aways the hence. that, progressing 10 the stay ‘where, fom the point of view of interes. Foundrywork becomes something of 3° fend In fot, the emetour may fel 8 25. Brose founger® Mask and, fan asset. Such may be ol cast OF ied construction and, in. aihar ‘10 kay to be somewhat cost, we compare with machine too or ‘of work they are able £0 do 5. tho outlay inthis respect wi to oly traction ofthe cost of his lauipment. Meta! boxes would Inst ime in the home foundry, ult as ‘are for heavy duty in 9 industrial and thus the nocossty for epaie, bor, just ata time wnen al coat for to proceed, would not ase (ofa size likly 10 find favour in Zh 9 minimum sandr depth of Wdahatfinches. CHAPTER 6 Pattern Making 28 Pau tig ga ang ‘proportions in the manner of mode! aralt Materia howe, vary conveniontiy be made rom IMGuetraly, end doubtless elso at the abeche using @ “modelaiccft” techn: stout Ices vaiey of materia can que. and balan cement. This timber bo employed forthe mating of foundry Intonded possibly for model bost builders Partorna, "Motel wood, nd pastor to is avalible, the balsa, in stip and sheet. Prenton tee, and there is Wile doubt can ready be carved and tumed it ‘Bar syotatc materals such 88 plastics necessary, coment easly and firmly and nd fre lass can now play 2 part For can largely be cut with o knife and 8 rule. ‘Mo purpose ot te book, Nowever, the Sheets of obeche a8 purchased have 9 ‘ood pettrn is vegerded e2 the basis of straight edge and 9 smooth surface, on TeeciRetow founcry, for oven te those which the design of the casting can bo Wen stmied knoeredge of erpentry the drown with greet accurecy. Relative olha"is simple and conveniont 12. points on 8 flat surface can be locates hone ‘Sih confidence, allowing. of course, for Tnmote recent years. folowing the post shrinkage where the size of the casting wor ofod af permite and acarctes. demands an allowance. Where smal ri inber of varying kinds snow freely avail are roqulod these can often be formod Sole Balsarwoud, ofcourse ough tis. satlfactony from the cemont itself ené aoe ee sr cattem makiegh reser small deals and oven tettring ean be tied py in thicknesses: fom shout added with great fact. Callese done 3732". famin.obeche and spruce as well sanding sealer praduces a good finish arc 2S mony others er now avalale fom hardens the su Moda thopa ned "Doricyourselt" stores Thi is indeed table-top” carpentry. & Br convenient cat sizes nd innumerable fie saw and w craft krife are about the SRetcne at homo, tein Engle atleast, only tools neode, although a smal plane ‘Re potomnmaker can choose the exact whose blade hes been caefuly honed and thickness of timber he requires fore joo “stropped toa razor edge can often Be 2° IMhond usvlipwith fay planed fish. asset 'A.jg-sew, a fine. endaaw (as ee tam Inte fore fong “rus” luxuries) ofa simp hand tet-saw mov De «shard wood woul! ba choc ‘needed for eating inca shapes i forthe uauel "model size" obs con, Wicker sectons of weod. Moding > eS re premieres ee emer SS Roc ea eer ae Se pacsumurccs Geren met Sutimen tee Patent ee pee Seer eee et coc cre eens omeet ate cece cen gemere eres Reece: Se ecereesaes eee @ end! ema or 26 7 8 ‘A set parts fra sorargun ncuding the pat conten 4nd in this attr exporionce teaches tion ‘Often apattera which fais to craw clean lca examples of amateur pattern fist can be adjusted and smoothes i> 9 aru -gvon In Figs. 28 to 42. Tho ‘Setcut places unt tis ute sevstecon, | ERE Ie the constuction of a pulley whe Plastic wood can be Used to very goo! Fig 2. Itt buat up or loming> effect Informing rads building wp ctes| MMR and iwi be noted that the bulk of nd leveling hollows and a good, stone i none se of the whee. The tue er cement is Ineipensable. Orta thesemaker’ pine with te points snip of are offen ese kay to sot the thie ‘hood than even the fast gimp pes. Fig 28, Construction of ato for Vpuley Fig. 29, Salt gutter rt bo ploy. vided in the lower box ieaving ly 2 lean draw when she wpa fe ied oft Kis the Kd of thing ich can bs embod in the design of 2 at the drawing board stage” The mative would be to split the pater, {Separate the middle laminations 28, a wide pulley with “cress section jes. The, two parts can be. held 3 pag and the extra dowel to locate spokes. Tt wil be seen that, in the cose of he 32 pulley, no prowsion hes been made isting in the groove, whieh would fa the una ofa core. te artlpated 18h a pulley would be employed fn endless veo rope and, that being Ie would bo desrable to. tum the | Bozoove inthe casting accurate tothe 60° fend concent othe bore, Nery often, where 3 pators ix requited ec oe oss ilar ‘compact. object. tho. natural wood snd carve cut the dete. Newer. fs, wen ono becomes used 19 the ofthe built up pattern, is wl often the mate saistactory method, 38 ess es ich more accurate choracter Fig. 30 ‘table for'a miniature locomotive. The Date of he oylinger, whore tie secured 19 fad glued at ight angles. The cylinder itecf'con comverienty he tamed to the lametorrequlod, ich wl fave just bore. The bobbin is tured to the same Tength as the bace and each ond ange i impaled by a coreprint. When the pieces fre assembled the section shows Plast wood is applied at the places Ircicaed and the pater is spit ough withthe aid of ie saw to eaparate tho Tales tor moulding Fig. 31 shoves the construction of a finned eynder pattern for a 3020. wo roks petrel engine, The main bulk of he Detter is fst but up of laminations Enwn our tothe cross section Thus. the flange atthe base le 2 square ploce the finder tslow the finned portion Is ‘les of smal dacs andthe opper part Shalt up of ferger dacs, Cther deal such {83 wanslor passage and exhoust and Ilot Stube are oded afterwards, when the pattern hes buen trac nd the fina turned ‘on the lathe The whole then elt down the midale with ain sae "The number of ses requited, of a Fig 31. Laminated eo ction af ator to ‘ringer ee mance nd nS RA SOE shown in Fig. 32. The taper ofthe fins is ‘omens exaggerate into raw ‘After the turting has been completed ‘and the fine clesned up with glaspaner {they vequle ery corfu sttontion i hs respoct) the bolts removed an a length Stdowel ved init pines. Detalis canbe Sted ane plastic wood appliec, wher= course, dapands upon te thickness ofthe timber ancy forthe ined portion of the ‘yng, this wil bo most convenient iit Js equivalent Yo the sistance between th fins Whe leminetone ore firmly glued Undor pressure, however. and slowed ‘et Bote turing, the above point is not Irepontant. Each’ lominaion is died though ‘ts centre, 4" and tho whole lot ‘ued and bolted together. A convenient farm of bolt. whore the tuning Is to be ‘ome out on a motatworking Lathe, Ie Couple ot holes for dowel pina are dil! ‘ean through the viner befershand ay ‘Fig. 32. Patt trevéed ov # bak iriwrig fi sil be no lifeity about obtaining two. haves, form of pattern which con ‘ite » problem is that for casting of crankcase. When the fed form of constuction is applies, ft rsolves ito quite 8 practical the middle Section of each Mal orn Thickness of wood and to set over Imparent on a crankoasa isthe (ofthe bolt "pads on the pare the castings are pated up for ig. One “suggestion. which wil ee results, isto clamp the halves pattern together temporary. a the pads in the form of sppropra a lengths of dowe! ofthe ciameter require. Fig, 36. Those con be aseured with gue and pins and, wher hard, sawen though 1 Separate the parts of the pater ie 38. Saw ble se ove forfrming ough sgt. “s qute9 Practical propostion ta core out the Interior tly using ether sl ores, where Fi 35. How to aban alignment of bo poss “3 the pattem ie hollowed accortnaly and leaves greenaand core in the mould Fae, ot soparate cores of baked sand. Wherever practicable. of course. the {ormer plan ie preferbie. With engines of Smaller capacity, However, were 2 wall thickness of aay, three stone of 2 ‘quarter Inch would be. excessive, the Crankeasa patra can be meds thor party cored or gute sod. The wall fhsknase may then be reduced to as ite tea sateorth, ft requted, when the Casting ie subsequently machinod Fig, 36. shows the pattern of 2 cranktane for 8 win cylinder four stroko ‘Seine, In thi caae the pattorn Is made Follow to leave ts own core and the use tte separate core, to slat the camshaft {2 ‘voided by providing for camsheft Clearance 10 be machined from the trankesse wall The Mywhvol housing is Shown 96 2 sopsrate patter designed 19 Incorporate the rear rain bearing In tis thee the main constuction Is boxike, with engine bearers and other deals Sdded. The ol filer stub shown a8 a Toone part tobe withdrawn from nse he 44 potter before rapsing. The indentations Inthe sand on ether side of the pattem justed to take care ofthe bearers ‘Ae a change from the laminated re bult'up conection of paar. F.37 Shows the pattem of & handwhee. of (gots. moder design, which hos Deen aperpepmdintnr el gad anv almost enialy fom the sold. As “conte ofthe whee! is wel she probably repreconts the. simalest Hee the wheel is fst ef al to action on the lath and the Srawn on and pierced sttermords. ‘wing on 8 metal working athe, © (ded woodcraw is ued, held inthe Fig. 38 isthe flywheel for « horizontal ‘engine and, Im this coe, the nated form of construction has been ein A iferent feature, however sth wy in which the contre cae. som ig 37. Handutect pate. [home cast 20cehavrontay opposed glow motor Caring were i igh ay rated down crane rect 4s they ar cutout a from a singe pecs oy ‘wood. The spokes ara sherwords cee {he sanded to oval socio, is employed wis tho next example, 2 locomatve whe, ‘shown in Fig. 38, i this caso the soohes fare ovel only atthe ont: the Back oft wheel i ft. Balance webs ean ver on diferent pars of wheuls I nocessoy by tho uso of loose i Similar to the. sogmert amped together nt of the wheel by means of woos screws, pasted botwoon the spokes Partin wax, oF modeling wax, ie ured > fil in and rads off, temporary. se Fig 39. Pata fr loco wee. spaces betwoon webs and spokes 'A quite ciferent form of construction ‘exombiy ofa whee! rom soparate spokes _ilyewatod in tho drawings of the cil {nd floes. The segments ar cut out frst headstock shown in Fi. 40. Tho bass»! find glues age to otige. The im formed thi is pace of wood, three-ententhe o! by tho aden of swing on ether side and an inch thik, sawn tothe cating at 2 th hb by two ccs inthe same way. The form the web It has projections.» ban) ulin ofthe spoken fs daw on the 809° cy which gre inserted and glued into ss ‘monted cic aftor tho glue has sat ond In the components 8 end C. Each of t= Wicd pats fra V.swin LC engine crank oe Is glued on oir side ofthe web. The ‘Bris bull up of dacs. The example ‘wot, made es 0 sald pater, tly faclitated by ‘lt pattern altnough this ood deal more werk inthe m making stage: probably unustiied Sy 2 very limited number of casings reuited For repetition work, patterns of this re are usually mode as plete ns. Thats a hel pattern fs mounted ister exact, on ier sie ofa at, Boare The deserpton “pls” Is 7 more eppiesbie to metal patterns in this way and associate, usualy, h mechanics! matoce of moulding. ‘fey presented by the oddside 9, volded in this Way and Such & "s leoasned, ster ramming uP BY ing the exposed ends of the pit pening te box (As iis oniipated that fow amarour ners wil normally handle repetition the aod pattom wil probably prove, fall intants and. purposes. auite factory. Very often he more ult 8 ‘oddsies” (the word iz used hore to esorbe the type of pattern, whoreas it ‘would be more corectiy applied to the ‘moulding technique) ean be moulded ‘more easly by the uso ofa ough wooden {empiate such a8 8 shown in Fig. 4. Here {es uted in confnction with the pater for the body ofa soray gun, which ise 4 particular ilustaton af the value ofthe Smeteur foundry. An Hlusation of the a sire gun in use for spraying moulds &s section is built up on wo hexagons Gepictod in Figure 18 Termers and, afterwards, skimmed ofc», “Tha pattem ix placed on the moulding the lothe to the camater required. Fie board dnd made approsimetaly level by ngck, outlet boss and brackst Yor packing up with small tips of wood. ete. mounting are added afterwards. and ‘The tomplate i Mited round Wand this, nterties tre fad in with plastic wood 260, is packed up a similar way to bring The patter finally split witha saw the itroughy ove with the canta ine of the two ales. afterwards, being. retaines attarn” Tha inverted. drag box swith dowel pins Superimposed inthe usual “way” and fFammed up. Whan itis tured over, the Contracting on Coating {emlate ls removed, and the parting ine A point aout patterns of which re fettied in with a. trowel. bringing. the mention has yet Bown made isthe nor ‘mould t0 the usual stage where itis ‘usted with paring sand or powder, prior the massurements to take cae of contac tothe eon of the cope {args evinces patterns ean be bult Inthe ordinary ways asting in slumium Lup in the manner shown in the drawing will contract a he rate of up to a quater (Fig 42) whicn isthe pattern fora cast inch tothe foot ot pattern according tothe ‘luminium pel tank such a5 mey be section, ion atthe rate of one eign inch fitted toa Iewn mower ora stationary Leto the foc, with most ether alloy sore engine. The domed ends area series of where ‘between the two. It wil be laminations 26 proviouly described for aporeclated that whore castings fr mode! ‘many of the other patterns, The contre making and £0 0 are only a fraction of = ‘ute an eniovrd pate ro east A desrpion ofthe technique soba opposite. Lower ia shows casings eta ram the poten apogee am slami elank Fig 42. xaos vinden pater a 49. Casting pated by Ios convection foot in any messurement, the sctuat fslowance due wll only bo quite smal. Frequently, therefore, wba found tat there a gasting Is to be later machined The alowanes for machiing, i made on the generous sie, will be sufiient to {ake care of shrinkage 38 wel. Obviously the demise of the probie wil be (Gevemod 10.9 great extent By the Sno dovign of the cestig contemplated fand more artontion wail have to be aver {ortho matter when seaetng has, sey, Wo fF twee bolt bosses, to bo. accurately ineates: spaced some sk inches apart. A ® Fig 44. Buting up 0 section with plate near contraction alowrance would thon tee cosy, bt as nde he wort sitect concn tate home wer: ‘itfenenuntr isthe Kindo ea aint ‘reimeng wen sometimes takes lcs ‘ie hiker sectors of casting ‘he fault becomes manest castings in aluminum and uprosn iloys whore» i a probiem which coon potest Se amateur ae, The snags mest {ake place sommehere when the mas Cools‘ond Ht shavi be te poly of te frou hare possible 10 eau ‘ocur ew tro the main Body of te Sesing, he prowl of» cow rome 3 forge tameter a 8 conebuton In ths Siesion Win he owed fhe tal n {he runer soles the certs reas Tui ong enough teed” the casing Matnogs of footing, however blond to the chepsr on mouiang Aa for 90 te fam concerns paternoxing I Brot come asta to bul sun Goubnr ports of B_patem 0. make Stowence’ for the “sinking. As ‘ray the upperside la caso! © ‘Shinaial ection of pater, for example. ere lene vl often prove an answer. Fig. 44.10 tne |IIG Sand cores are produced in ciforant Maes of vce heb orl cher New MMS" ny "cence as oasis ee Si tana sores oe oo Mn ees cr eee thu “coring the remedy ic. ofen Mera tl former Ine ars of ork Serres Coase nab ba cnen MET? Ges he a a erie sos ariceden Tan De MEME te Cottaes eae ae increase, wih contraction flaw, can be ‘orinlyprodominat. A corabox meotined eway aftrwards iperhops, its most elementary form, 6 inthe thstraon, Fig 86, Ta is in aod two. pat which are ‘Together byte pegs Ae A produces sagt, eyindrcl core 8 may be employed in moving + mor peta engine eye efor he i headstock sown ng 40. Two rectangle pces of wood ae ‘of ongth aqua othe lang af the eased and of Gepth to alow for ou th sce ough The JAPTER 7 nce has been made 2 number of 1o cores, corebonas and corepins following chapter ceels withthe hird fore which Is mada quite separately the mould and ie placed i the avi the moulding process hes been com sd. In sand. moulding and even, analy, in some. classes. of ie ing. where 2 permanent. metal mul orm aro mace from sand of 3 in} mix. such 98, has already bees ores and Coremaking two rectangles ate match’ and ailod fvough at the points iicatod for fing the pegs: Acrcles srive, of appropiate ameter. at either end while the halos tare rogistored: soparaod, he oles are onnected by ruled panel ines across the face of the wood. The template B la used fe 3 guide to gouging. Invuse, the two halves of the Box are brought togathor and held by the fingers of one hand (orn the case of large oF Uingainy boxes, by mesrs ef @ clamp) Wile te corasand is prose in with tho ‘ther, The box a el vertically on 3 Hat Surace, for ramming. so tat the lower Sd i closod and tho sad ie fod i le by lite and packed down progressively ‘To release the core, tho box Is rapped \igorousiy on ele side whan ft can be lite orraled out an tothe dying pate Fig 48. Site corer ith toate ‘When they ate baked, smal and simple cores wil ba atong enough to suport ‘hemseives and, general they wil be Suffclety permeable to allow for the fecape of the gases. Nevertheless. the habit! reinforcement ad venting of al! ores, large oF smal nica oF simple, Gan be a. valuable. insures” agalnst possible failure on ether sour: Reinforce: ‘ent takes the form of wires, of oven rns, ether placed Ia the box during ig 46. Showing how # sand core can be (eed ono reforced wih te. ramming oF pressed into the core Uterwards. The core ean be verted wth ‘he od of pointed wire ebout an oighth ‘ot an Inch thiok, which con be foreed i Spd then withdrawn. An sltematia is 3 length of wll waxed cord embodied in the cand during ramming. On baking, ot ourge the wax volatiles and eaves 8 ty cavity round the cord wih, In 909 Pe is probobly also charted away, Is teemique which le particulary useful tinen doating with intreste or awkwardly Shaped cores. ‘Sometimes cores, which ae formed of 1 Inrge body of sand, and which may be moulded In two or more soporte paces find joined toguther after baking. with ore gum, destrine or ether sanesve, can 82 Fig 42. Large and core mad nhl crab, be vented by digging @ hollow in the ‘eeper sactions of sand and connecting thie to outs formed by means as le 33) Seserbed. An example ofthis s shown ih the drawing ofthe haf corebox, used fer making the core forthe peta! tank. Fis 2Only a single half box was que for this core, both sides being Identical. The hal ores thus formed, by vitua of thom being mada hollow, also alord on fsconomy in coresend ‘Whan mould ie intended for iti with TeosD cores, provision for locating them is weully med on the pattem, The ore "prints," as they are cao, ako the form ot projecting pisces of wood fee to the sold pattern st the points were the ‘cored hale to breakthrough ha esting Wis often pousbl to embody features in the esign of 8 msl or machine port ‘which wil allow oF the cores being ae ‘utely supper ie woy without having 19 provide adsivonal prints and corresponding projections on the core Broduting hela in the easing cther tha? those sctualy required. The practice common inthe casting of fl sie eater jacketed cylinders and the plugs used f° Ealing the holes ara in evidence on the ‘des of the Boek. There are occasional waver other maans of anchoring 2 co tshich ie otverwse rather ineufiien ‘oortec by ts primes. Fr examen the fase of the powol tank, again, it wos se of caplet or suspend ore is cate belng vtvaly balances upon comval print ‘The atangement ts edn Fig. 48. The use of “chapots™ "Way is ite orthodox paetien 2nd forme ara in use in founda. In sitions in which the nile are paced is no. devrimant 10. the casting fever. Ono of thor isn the conte of Dutt bush and that willbe ciled ut apoing in any case. The other is Tithe. centre of the mounting wera, nthe unlkcly event of oy sge occurring, there. sample ness of metal to allow forthe inser ‘of 9 tapped pig. The nals ae lag in the mould fom the ise oe, the box is closed after tng the tho heads came inta contact with attr and evidence of them iting 8 ‘il incase ke his, be apparent Slight dlaturbance of the Upper erst ‘mould '49 is ptm. cylindrical one with a tapered coreprint atthe bose and a spigot not necessetly of reduced clameter. at the top for subsequently chucking tho ‘aetng for machining. may be made two pars, sotined by central sowel 35 Aan aldo simpler moulding but that again is a matter of cholee. The core, on the ‘other hand, cares al he intemal oatores Fig 48. Piston ptt ofthe piston design according tothe size land type of the engine. A piston corebox And core produced are shown in Fige 50 nS Basically, the box is of the Kind imustrated in Fig: 45. Due to the varying ‘damtara of the core and tothe tapered 82 Pip 0. Corboxopson ‘int, Nowever, more than one template must be used. When gouging out the Box iis an advange to carey th groove right through and to ft he crown deta the form of 3 spit plug, afterwards. For iting ‘the gudgean pln bosses itis desirable to ‘mark ther gant aceurataly and to dil fight through the ‘Dox. ‘Smell wooden ‘bosses are thon tuned to nclude 3 spigot ‘ft the cling, and ged in place. The Siignment ean thus be regulted with reasonable corainy Fa 51-Piton core Another example of eorabox and core fn tha for» wostoke einer Figs. 52 fn 53. In this case, wl be seen, the ‘ore embodies ta sxhaust and transfer peeagos and, fr thot reason, must be Sesigned with paricular care, as these {ime the valve events ofthe engi. “athough the foregoing examples touch only the fnge of the subject of cored ‘moulds, they may sere to indicate the oe ‘Generales upon which work and expe) rent can proceed, AS rl, perhaps, ‘amateur foundryworkar will enjoy: tn. (restos succose bythe moderate Use 9) Kose cores, particularly when desing ‘wah. comparatively tiny model come rents, but there’ will shways be the ‘occasion wien a cote is indispensabie ‘he Jodo whore the saving at Itc machining stage, more than campers: {or the addons! work of parermmaking and moulding nd, a6 ul, 2 glossy fish fe i bound pains, spit sheloe fulose are equally effective and the {of one or anathor bythe amateur ly be dictated by its avabiliy. tis “advortage, and worthy of conse ‘when shoring. the pat ta quick ing. slow dying point can easy spin 2 simple job over a couple or three bythe time the, wood has been rst. to a primer or underoxting, quite ry betore 1a fishing comt of gloss, which in be quite dry and hard before Iinimurm thre Is good doa 0 be for the use of brushing or sprving lose —periculary the latter whan a ‘Pigs 2 and 83. covebor ‘a Care Yor twos erinder = & Calutose filer is ely etfectve in making the surface > pattem even True, the filer is rather too Wooly there i 9 ney towards. surace cracking 10 “hor some weoks ar months But Painting Before leaving the subjoc of pattems 2° coraboxes altogether, ft wil be a8 wel Seal withthe quostion of painting ther Paint or varish is appled to 2 woods? pattern for two. reasons. One is io Drocorva it trom tho affects of molt ‘hich ie dletevious tothe wood, asi the grain, causing warping and softer ‘the glue The other eagan ls thatthe po sed a8 it should be. there fs no mason ‘wy patterns fished In celstose points ‘Should not remain’ as sorviesable ge any thers “Although the spray can arly. be ‘bettered for general pattrn painting thre ‘re occasions when the se of brush is Inalspensable. The example given In Fig ‘58 shows what happons when an ater |s made to spray paint between the fins ot 23 gyda. Orainriy ite oe no draughts ‘ven to ther in the fet place and, viously, ther surface must be vary Fig. $4. “Draught” on ne incor pattem “aed oy lobules ou. smooth ond unimpsied or the sand wil fling. The paint here hes built up round the outer edges of the fins giving them ‘what amounte to 8 negative taper and Taking oan strip impossible For work ‘ofthis nature there isan acvantage inte Uso of soft sable or squiral brush Brushes very sultable or all smal panting Jobs ar those which alin the category ot “rites” and which are usualy obtais- able In-a variety of ft and round sizes from artists colourmen, oF fom the Kes ‘of good ‘olshop which ators for the Feaurements professional decorator CHAPTER 8 Making a Greensand Mould Aniving now at the stage where, lot us Suppose, « modest but use colecton ot foundry impadimeata has been scaured. tho amateur engineer fing. himeait in heed of ane oft extra ems of equ tment in hit workshop. A small machine ‘ie. shal we eay, which would normaly fun to about £10 to purchase but whic, he believes, ho can make for hse at # Complete saving. tthe sme time he wil be able to embody such Weas or special features as may be 1 his own liking while ‘othing need be sd for he anjoyment 19 Bevderved rom the pursul Its also tus that he ean often make his own castings, Blowing even fer pattrn making ox wal ines ie thant woul take to order by Bost rom a supater| “The vice lustre in the drawing, Fi. 56, Included aban example and not wath any elim 10 spect mei. I would Mowvor. according 10. the sie. it was produced, form 2 vory useful adliion 10 {he accessories vod with any lathe up the popular three or four inch sees Hs onetruction cals forthe mang of wo fatter. one forth fied aw and bed of the vee andthe other forthe moving aw. ‘The castings ae tbe made ino, ig. 50 showe the patterns seperately and arranged on the turning over board 56 5A wnt ebjct eek — uy. in the latter ease, allowance ospeclaly with objects which may present 10 bs made forthe pins ether by 9 more intricate contour than the ne it ing holes to receive them cr for hand, ts by taking Me sae up in hands fm to overhang the Board. Some com: and throwing Ie virualy, st the pattern, cial boxes are provided with oes pins Deeper hols and crevices wil roxoive hus thee isn prob, more particular attetion to ensure tot The sand has heen prepared by tomer- the send penetrates ily ond with even wih water and has been slaved ready density Sand i raivn up 40 the sides of ‘use. Ramming commances by the pattem by hand. and pressed there rng the pattem ond. perhaps. the femiy Attention rots deta wil ensure 3 st etfective way of doing this, smoather finish tothe sides of he casting ready fer moulding, Both have 2 at base nd fall nto the. category of being the Simplest type of pattern to mould. Tey ‘10 placed bave downwards ane space 0 that there is room for them within The ‘an much at most of tho pattorns hel 12 ‘be moulded wil be of comparatively thir ‘ection, may be 28 walt choose Sor ‘fa simi nature. Usual, this wil be o! 4 composition chosen orginally for Its Suiiny to tha saan of work. Anche” sideration is, of course, that thinner 2p is more easly broken up Yor fling {ruibie, That does not mein tat the ‘of oride, compared with malten meta 506. wil be grontr the smal the thor way. However ie desirable charge the pot intial, with we greats tof meta a till contain, without ming to tight that there is no for expansion. Ile more convenient ‘do so while the ctucibe fe cld when, efuly fod at ret eniy ene further lnishment may be nocaseay to obtain Pot riely topped wh molten on, ‘One advantage wien might be csimed the wae of erie for melting on — pared with the normal precede of 89 melting ~ is that te charge isnot fnced to any great extont by the pick of furnace gases. Neither ae there any reciale sees, so that the Won when ted can be regarded, to al intonts ard poses os being in lose silat ts ‘rginal composition. Thus, a metal is ‘chosen for any paniculor choracteisies {as on example a srap cylindo lock for teasing 2s © minature Cynder can be taken that ite cltabity wil be, gel. fetained, Nevertheless, some conol may bbe desirable and fx possible, about which TRIS of some Importance to heat vo the metal as rapicy ae possible ond, to his tnd, there Is an advantage in having the Wenace at close 10 white heat brfore Fntreducing the pot Usually itis as wal 19 Blow up furnace, fly fl of coke, to 8 ‘90d heat before trying te melt any. “This charge having. boon party bumed down, the remaining ful can be rammed ‘down fay densely atthe Bottom to form 8 sold bed on which to stand the crucible. ‘Naglec ofthis point wil pray result in {3 hole being Blown right throug te sl ‘tan eary stage of the melt with 8 conse. ‘quent reduetion of temperature instead of Sh inctease. A this stage the top of the {ible should be jst below the level ot {he furnecs mouth ond small coke should be packed wall round it With the furnace over replaced the Bast is applied "To reduce the iran to 8 fall molten state an be expected 10 take rom ta 7 ‘warty minutes, according to the #6 of ‘the vessel used. Progress can be observed by the gradual changing in colour of the exhaust fame, rom bigs 10 yellow, whe ‘with the blast stil on, the furnace cover an Bead. aighty and the. prosrost ‘oted from the appearance of the pot. Bithough she crucible eel! may. be rearing white heat should be allowed emai undisturbed, ae tong the space berween seit and its id shows darket than the roe. te not unl the interior the fumace appears fused inte. one ‘lian, ite mass thatthe on ean Be assumed to have reachod & temperate st hieh ican be poured Hf the quantity of metals sufclent for 3b wal and good, but. n perhaps the ty of casos, more metal wil be equied than hea rested from the brimary charging ofthe crucible so, cut ‘fT the drought push back the furnace over nd it the cucibl id The ful wil also. ave. to be. replenished before ‘roceoding and. ring the intel when the pot ited ite whe smal coke Is packed underneath and. round the Imalten sag. whieh now covers. the rete, wil have hardened somewhat. This would hove made the a very ficult to remove Tater. Fresh motal should be Sided with cre is extremly dangerous {0 drop pices of on iva the pot. Sit ‘dampness can cause an explosion and. in ny 2350, no ane want slashes of white hot ron fying about Often wl be found that ia faity large piece fs placed i ‘omy fist tw en oso the tp 3 the malt and tudor addons can, be ‘made without ris The es ime oecupie’ inte-chorging, the smaller tho los of heat nd usualy it wil be found thot the second charge melts a good deal quicker than theft Im full-scale foundry practice the charging of © cupola takes the form of 6 coke, ron and imastone seed in layrs ‘The limestone melts and forms 2 aus slag, whieh Muees away the ipuntin ‘and at the same time, fats on top of he ‘moken ron providing a protective coating Inthe erie meting ofan, imestone = not used A quid lag can be obtained however by the ute of materia such os Forrtox aided tothe charge atthe com rmencement of meting. This has the sm0 brotectve effect dispensing withthe noes for sid and, at the same timo, banging the dross away witht when iis skimmed aft prior to pouring Such ational tems, Wwe not indispensable, go 2 long way Towards. the Improvement of amateur casings while their ost, on the other hands neaaie ‘To ‘ensure. thst castings of com paratively small section are easily machin ‘ble it I important to keep the slicon Eamtont af the rn fit high High sileon Eontont makes fora reduced tondoncy to thing whieh isthe enemy of the turn ‘nd tho tunation of he tool Evidence ot hin an ron easting is sewn ine ‘recture where the runner is broken of tows when an attempt ie mado to Sow off the runner instead the hacksaw Blade” febkted Bofoe she_sightest Impression Is made on ho metal Wh the trae of scrap metal te seon contents hot tkaly to be koown ond a8 9 gui oninst wasted efor, tough a casting ‘alng iit x impoasble wa machin ica simple matior te mako small additions {othe molten metal in the crvcie invmasiataly bafowe pouting. A meter i obtainable under tne nome of Lageoy, Which fs normally placed in the bettors 3° the pouting lace in which metal scarred ‘rom the cupola. For making the aaiton to 2 erie. 9 small quantity Is cropped {on top of the metal ater skimming 9° ‘tered in Thore ea sight thermic feaction which tens to ineosse. the ature of the melt Fut is iso ved, 2 condition of especial value re very tin waco ae beng cat "That the exact suitably of the on for 9b on hand is cificut to geune has faded but with due regard fr the tions outlined sbove, wil Se found ‘ries, erboble cast in the manner tated was made from 9” reinforcing artened a the centre to give sing tha bow and atthe ends for the 1 vertical positon and, atthe seme 2, permits tho handling of tho pot for ing The lng should be toast WO and, even then, prof gloves i an ‘absolute necessity whan dealing with ton. ‘Added security is gained by the use of S shaped ring or link botwoer the ams. Is pushed down when the jaws ao closed ‘on the cruel, taking some ofthe sirsin ‘ff the costars wrist. Fg 82. While such tongs can be used for cueties of varying sles an ideal frm of tongs as in Fig. 83s made spectcaly for sung soon and mgt eg th a cone Fi. 89. Disgram of the cuple when charged 7 Fig 90. How the snd bed ofthe wal is prpare etre ech mele raw pin, which holds the pate in position ‘hie the furmace isin use, Fi. 88. Operation The method of operating the cupola is ‘stated in the gram Fi. 88. Wit he bottom in. position a bed of oreen oulding sand ia rammed over the plate to a depth of two inches, Inaining from ‘the back of the furnace t0 8 Sept of oughly one inch where passes through {he tap hole. The sad shouldbe awn uD from the bed 10 form a gradual rads 10 the ning, More sand ls rarmad on the ‘Spout in tont of the tap hole ond a pect ‘hanna is mouided by hand {0 continue ‘he gradual alo he snd aed ight to the Fp. Fig. 90 shows ths in section. Also fs howe the conical wooden pattern round ‘which sand is rammed in the tap hole Teal leaving a est round ofice through ‘whieh the metal wil un 'S te i ighted onthe sand bed, using ploy of wood and ral coer “eoalte prefersly the ate. Sight aught ean be Eippled shzough the epen tap hole 10 tsesist combustion end furace_coko can be added graduoly unt there is 8 goo, a8 wollightad bed, some five of six inches Shove the tuyere, 20 1b of ron a charoes Seve this swe layers separetod by cok fine wth eras imestone, ie oF biock Shot added atthe rate of 30 to 40% of the coke charges. The slog which for ‘shoul be fly fd. A “gummy” lag bbe found quick to choke up the furnace Bertoulsy about the tuyore. Greater c fester quanti ot imestone may be use txperimentaly uml he stg Now toe ‘las i than epplind trough the tuyer= and the fst droplet cf ron should see it the top hole In fve or sx minutes. A” ‘hier appaarance then this may be 342" ‘an indication thet the blast = Severe and stops should be taken too flown the volume of air. Only experience ‘nl show, wth each particu cupots, jst Row much aught is needed to tain he Dost Toate Conversely of eourse he Sppearence of the won is. delaye” ‘ppreciably beyond this. it may be ‘aber thatthe Blast oo weal Tron shou be allowed to ran from the tap oie antl the flow becomes co" uous, A further charge of cok fle! by tom pound of rom with fax ean be faded at thie stage to “keep the pot fboling™ and. now the tap hole ‘een be lugged with greens ‘With 2 milatire cupola it isnot létbcut to judge whon the bulk of the Inil charge is melted ans some observ tion may Be made though the tore the blower tube is removed momen Charging of lternate layers of coke anc ‘metal cin continua unt Its estimsted that suffeient hae boan collated ithe wal. Here agai, exer is the ony practical gi “The metal is run trom the wall of tha ‘expala ino a lele for pouring the Mout. ing. $1. J" reinforcing wre is sabia for making 4 “or sk on shold be JSametnr, which ay be teed on. The ig. 91. “bot tek wth dtd indston oft sage of te bot length ~ about twelve inches. Red cay fan be ed forthe bot anc this can be ‘moulded on by hand. rough conical ‘Shope tis useful to hove two or tras bot Sticks ready” at the commencement of ch malt A shallow bad of san should ‘spread onthe floor immediately undor the spout io eollect spied metal and sso tw steady the lle 2 crucible may be used as alae, but this should ‘be preheated (co red If Dossbl) in the exhaust fom the trae Bofore mete ie eolcted Gut accidents ae prone to occur and, the metal shold ool in the pot before it can be poured t may ‘be difcut, i not impoesbl, to Femove without damage 10 the crucible. This could leed to intolerable waste of ‘9008 erusbles ena in my opinion, ot Ich better to go te sore logth make ‘or procure» mstl lade The etal edie teat ie made of comearetively tin ste! shoot end the inside ir protected botore Sse witha coating of refractory rote This ning i toneveed oh ta tatora Fig 924 commercial, seamiess Inde aoc ftr ining ponte 201 89 Fig 99; Laie tabioted by waeing hom sect ‘al Aorosimatty 127. capac. work commences and is therefore ‘agarded expandable in ay case "Small, seamioss metal ladles aro obtainable rom foundry suppers down 10 ‘capacity of 26 Ib. Thoso less handle or Sani" tre not overly expensive, but Fa 9. shows # smal, home-made ladle welded together from 16 gauge steel. A Dnvenint Band shane to sult and made ‘ror J" round toni also shown, ‘Normally “gsnister™ Is used for lade linings and tis i appli n'a moist stare by ind ond cried out completa before tie, Garistar is dastibed as 3 ighiy ‘Siecoue refractory meter and is usually Composed of 2396 clay, more than 96% ‘toon, 1% on oxide and the femainer ime and. magnesie. Uke tho crucil then ceoling with small quantises of on. (9,96. Tyatearband “sank” uo tothe feet of combustion, whore tne metal Is motes in mato contact nth the ful, hare may be 9 tendency for {he smal cypla to produce castings ih ‘ehed skin Mich doponde on the ust of he ron th whieh the ohare T= fhade up. W the. charge 1s compose: Cie) of serap as wil most ely be the hoo the amateur founery © corn Srrount of chilling, dus to slaon loss ea" be expected. The roference. therefore ‘teody made in the preceding chapter ‘egnrding the alton tothe mel f sma ‘uomiies of "Siicon,Ledelioy” merits Stention "Any of the devices sendy discussed in ‘Gnapter Two is stabe for providing the forced draught tos miniature cupola I ‘reed stated, an advantage to beable ‘ary the volume ofa 0 the teers In this respect assuming. that on lecticaly ivan blower ie used and where the fectric motor i of suitable ype tis probebiy a more practical solution to vary the speed of the mator thon to obstruct the flow of air by machanical meann. A ventlating fan controler hee been aed {or this purpose. In conjunction with the success. The controller has a graduates [ane whieh allows the Dower speed De'aglusod to that ging, by experience the result required. Ihe impeller crver bya motor ofthe constant speed variety il be found satisfactory to interpoce Stertvaype of tate In the dey o APPENDIX Where Do | Get It? 2 Each ofthe manutactarors listed below willbe found tobe in sympathy ‘with he mest requements ofthe amateur feunryman ond, often, £0 bestow @ measure of assistance quite outside what is general eparded 5 the normal un of business. ‘BRITISH FOUNDRY UNITS LTD. Retort Works, Chester, Derbyshire. Moulding Boxes. Fane, Core Dressings, Binders, Coaldust, Sends, ote FORDATH LTD, Brandon Way, West Bromwich, B70 8uL_ ‘No. 444 Cream for gore making. F.LHUNT CO, Foundry & Mil Furnishers, ‘46:60 Chapel Sree, Salford, Manchester, M3 TAA. ‘Salamander Cruciblos plus a wide range of useful accessories including Glover, Plambago, Parting Power, Fireclay, Func Ferro Sitcon, Moulding Tools and Tongs, FOUNDRY SERVICES LTD. and JELACO LTD. Dravton Manor, Tamworth, Stoforshie, 878 STL, Fiaes, Degaseers for ferrous and non-ferrous alloys of all kinds as wall se much urofl help and advice freely given. Of particular valve to schools. Index penne ‘Aimee Shing ey age Srpsaton anole fon 93 etn 2 Maine Seamer ~~ 28 ‘sees 3 Nn Sener Pia pane Stescout Seroaiie ” a $Me Sandra ser Fenn se Mego ne al ye Moston oor a Fee 18 Moidover oto sem ton “ Freemont (Ib Metres 2 oe rae = bam" “So Steoge To wn este ae See 25.28 Tomegons bond & any 7 Shea a5 Toews = Rowe a nae * cate 5 ® Srp nat 5 Snore se om Fa Sonn = Nanaia ” — oo Sees * Urata etn oa 35

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