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_ RET. &M, weaes3 Sa, vau [SPECIAL INTEREST MODEL BOOKS. eraoc ser Davee Brie 2R Ft plated 1605 Fcened 130168, 190,192, 190, 1905, 1997, 1888 “Thi edtion © 2000 Special treat Medel Books Lid. Tosca ine rine courtesy of £178) A ight reser No profs publeaton may De repre ‘un rar stam or arctan fm 07 ‘ipinen. seroma mechaneal sotoaqyng. ecarang Oates, thou te por wer arms fom he piss. Iso 0 asoee avs ¢ 0.9 JUN 200% “ypssoting by Praeame Em Pn ad ound in Great tan by Biles Lt, wines. co1a ah bran prostios Oy vlago sits tai forge ier or centres: many beaut tramploe of telework vamain, most omoniyin wou ron gras wich ane tesa in amoet al nso ul Ingein many counties Gas ond elect ‘ety cant developments an ithe inveition he nay Sry "fis book (The Ant ot Welding, for rmatntaln tat oon et) dows Mot set Sverre oa aren Sovatopea in industry, nan ssl eed Sd Understood for forthe nove, ‘io moy never sual have aeons ‘Seah ists writen noe tit nv a na: th ‘lary tering lero frp ao 9 poanbies z “ieding nae by no means reached the limit te posses, aed indood i Soul bos a te apoteston to Sgiaeing and smo spheres af oc- ‘ey ita any vets Stein ary ay inte eo ‘Hote io'are swongers to weing bit Imereatod, hs migh elude hone fom manogoment who need 1050. ‘usin mes with te noes out the subject even the ameter who \ahae to folow up thi abworing Sey wan fe fret eee ‘model enineerna ‘Some readers may have aad have cer gr te wag te Lindo thee | wou sy plese plans toad th notes on Soe. Welding Fascinating but dows involve cern ed iy such sgl ape aay faving th kein poston on the act: fore" elinder ‘esi common im'pteporing the book 1 have been azouty encouraged bythe asians ot {he Engianing dosing Board, who tiny consented t the ust rm Oe ae manual end. the Muroe Bison of BO. Limitod wo owe helped wth other susratons Hove, 1988 WA Vous 5 Contents PART ONE Chapter Chapter 3 ‘chapter 4 Chapter Chepter Chapt 8 Chapter 8 ‘hooter 14 Chapter 2 Chapters Aopenaic ‘openaix2 ‘pendix 3 ‘Welding by the Oxy Acstylne Process (Gs Welding) sare wit ld Seo {Ga Walding Oar Metts ‘rating Orlane Cuting arcing Ccestronand Sania Stee! PpeWelding \orical and Overneed Welding of Mid Stee _Bulding upand Reinforcement Resistance Welding TG and M. Wong, ‘Wold Symbols Aiseto Assembly Introduction In 1809 Sir Humpnrey Davy fist owed Slatinom eloerodes burt iaa net ut ome © year ate thon two Aussan ‘Semis Nios Von Bamedoo and Sloss im combinsion wh flr snr smetnadwnch th some mas ‘hte etilin sor earn ur ower, old soi crambock, on “acter scious drewback wes that nizogan trom the surounding smo ‘phe bake Saad nthe welt Shain 100)» Sedan engineer, Ost ‘erg patted ery ily cote [Red manera surovncing te ar thus ‘Suaing from the ates of [Emospere, Howove, wes ne nt ‘out 1o¥2 ha he at heaiy-costed sdetrodes were patented by Arr. Stohmengorin he USA (Stor oar numerous end verse Roving wepour “ame sme proseeng stole og ‘overngtnesrace of teweld sepoa ‘whchanoolng could col be fet used by Han Lowe Lo Chai Fc chem Fray, bower st enema posses PART ONE Chapter 1 Welding by the Oxy-Acetylene Process (Gas Welding) “The auipment consist ot ‘THe REGULATORS oe Ve es Eger fe at ne Notes on Safety - Gas Welding from any sours of hea ‘Sane by stm fe, Wes’ mest any sre ther te moieah rom any Sangerous fumes are prose © “Thre ae seve ake of gee waiding netic Kam fon of vlna biowpine wl ier wares to be weded chen hoztes of diferent size, numbored as Before screwing the regulators on to ‘ieeoptn deri nposton ‘roated with tichorethylene, or silat ota me aoopa ae tina on untae tin shut gar canteen ome Trae owen me ae ‘mi ngi aeaeheTeof odeshl ra Rn wagon wht ar prose inlaw Gut by anti te cine schon nso loee suitcase oe Bein ow aura bw oppSine monet ele dre by on ‘Sey ve sso ocguiher Bengecne Names Sry Reve! aw rr nets Aeon hcl ns when aor ce" ot ato aS See: Sees so fewene Seorensege etre oe “aivase cn en eS wna torn Saul es hind Sie ets fonnms watiucc oa Sr ace dao Ae sie a ate SS Rice ce Sasa ean nae es ‘Rorewich Neat en pie oleh coud Sime Ayo e ‘evenindar for inseed any ovine igo han Sema TERR gat cuts ieas to an omloson, “Te CANVAS RUBBER HOSES {iors tothe welding blowoipe, the red ttt" ste ad he Each for omygen They ar. supped ‘estunon nua ese andy and oan sea fo ema ha ethan ‘Read whe the oxygen one hoo ‘ormalihchana tens hy ee oe ot ne - propriate regaltors and wth wang Slope esse compe During onthe gos teach eye ‘te the socal Key, whe, by a voy, ‘hou’ be" lat postion on ths ‘onan evlinde” 2 thar cn ‘be {mad ff mmosisay ene of ene mr LoiiNG THe FLAME With the working prossure set at saute, ana wt a number 2 ore ‘et ghar bt hes nat a fving taht cand handy on ths bene mating sur ofcourse to kewp the and wall eway tors he flame an ‘he owls poimting nw aot direction, “Lsning eae nb tae iets oie may oc, Ts Inston" open "(oral te ier jb way fom the tip of te no, sing on Bsc erean nde ‘bes ite dangerous Wa backfire does tr tbe a to sae sde is esto Bunge the blowpipe into 8 bocet ot eter immoditely,eapecaly ihe hank tole to be geting hot have now Diowpipar bests So hot ss {ecm the bac of th ahr a Tame ise the ehanboy, bt modern blowpipe ite the ‘Sette: tip poe potion. les fe %50'much, at wi thats receeony et dose he vates Spain to shot off the lame ond str ADJUSTMENT OF THE FLAME Having got the flame going sity no. tray, 8. fasoneby under corr Sih yea re oh fame cmarge fom te nose sna into Sn thaed fame, il ba oe ‘S"aetyen, ond may sppenr aa" Sie aml. W's very oot get ‘Ne nar wit cone of fame sore “We wil for the purely s on experiment. that we 28 Shout towels Some mid see cay Sean (ak, cing Non t Iutoly noutal fame The importance of {his cannot be exaggerated for nthe {ice of ald tol om ores of oxyoen (Spresent nthe rn, is woul esesa neato n other words, burning of theta, An excoae of acayene in ten ich ana at ard and brite DSOme oe sree Sserese a SPSS ae att actin rear peed Sikes craton eige con ee Se Rat Sr Se on secompaniment ofa continuous eS So pal cies an Potato beatae te Stee mgs Teatanovomstannsromeie Sathse mms ge Tt po sncamemcems Seer ace ae creme ara Bear ent ti eel SSCL liad eaten ea Seco Speman oy eae: “Toe ria te ST NO Set nite aoe ne ahr es SSS cae tekoriciaeam ot ee Sah “henge tone. Socrearpceereae ta Seen Reiaeerme Eerste cine Rsowwnone Rusee renee he pi tng TSCA snp Serban sea ee site tae: i de tants ony SEAS e SSS San ciate RIS avcis SAS litle experimental practical wong, pectin wht mgt be called sion ocang “hie very good practice indod for tenn fe of ng Fanating the Bowpipe aed developing the el "and tennique so" MS ‘to, nd most not bo confined wih ‘Noting proper For our purpose wo ste sy 8 Gn of 8 gauge thitees ctup daar ofthe neh pretarbiy on rec Peng» No. nota ond fering te wortng pressure guns to Ae aah ede doing fare, and moving carefully acted {o'nata app th tome fo te meta Ain acta of fom ‘tthe welding operation! a an ange st ouhiy 48 but ths vores enor according to We parte job Invnana sna the welng operator Satis eer hr een wl Paul working condone” ape ‘postion tthe tp of heer hse {dna infos sear of oe suroce of ho etal witout setuly toning The ‘son fortis shat este hotest fart ot the fame, end thecetore te fost eticent positon for aueey should ondenvourto devetop eur st Sevelopng hole or ‘rater’ to usa the ‘more tchnical tem). When this hop wry a eon end hase ‘fa crater developing i observed, This Sun handing the blows i oniy Stained. by tong pracca and the ‘amor shuld not te too clcouraged Brocess of leaning 8 new technical Shi or erat. an the"only way t0 ‘enieve proficiency In any art by imeetng hese. diicutes” snd ove ‘ming te by constant etc wena et me hasten to re-aaure the ‘usent the his eed net be azote, Bnglere he wart eal wih cor Rave got toe big fame, and he fect ls Geta, an 8 the fame immediate by 2 ie fk Sacond ortwo, just allow tho motel to ‘pote, andthenprocsed norma. ‘however, you or lst toto the father edge of he nl, an pro ‘pedro end a awn et eran More about usin wong’ As |e ‘Eitor oft meta Noep on practang Bea aging van Eonoling the poe! of moter treta ‘ter good ape of practice nth the Etaigt run of beds of we sey Seventy, sna bot the same opt of panetration Inti connection iti be poten tet the molten mets forme tas in smal waves ond hs ‘tee ight hand edpe ofthese Plat. and ols the om steady on ives on ono spot fst aa ofthe ‘Se. and eld fer url the mata ‘ogi to mat adn snoter moment foot ot ttn metal begining ‘eset. en me have get pot ot ‘metal riety nd fay develope we Sisto" mone ony Tower, {ofthe famous lor ofthe surece of {he pat an teslng the poo of mo Sih “et Ro eal ing govermo by the te tic he re Ee setae, ter ay of good pas ‘roy a8 we disor fuson wold Drain but wih he addon of et lis wire consats normally (or he wading of mld tel of a ton sr [bso an excess oxygen, tan Doin several see, os ie tae (COPPER-COATED FLLER WE Appron Aporon anon fe 3 oo al me oe a ea) Normally supp in tin, (8H) ("Sometimes les eat oobtsin PRACTICE WELDS WITH THE USE OF FUER Wine sing the same material 38 in ou {sion welding rac, Le. 6 Ble. (iste, and abou be working pres {ste shin weisng wie i tei fanaincdentaly must be under ‘Sood tata nettactions gan eer to ‘ighchanded welders nly, et-handed ‘cording na rosed nese befor in usion wading, tating atthe ‘mot and procoeaing ina Tether ‘Sreaton The ony aaron thts. ‘ine heving develope ood pos! of iota tsa wih che wag anv imeematen apping mover, he esttnng tomate toe ot he Sectional tienes fhe materi 1th he wr must bar in mind ‘regards pus practice weld, we need {he Bea ee aad soa bs een ce ee Sree Sere ee ig. renin ensnne rast almost exacy the same ap: ra ia, Mat however come (Sethe baginser canot hope 10 Sin hat nh ae. Far he ‘So woidg wnth the ose of Swe ao ‘Sezer shove "Eonins to rate thao fit imple torr ban fae (rel process On racing thea of ‘ould qui davoap hors onthe edge Secouae of to host being 0 gray ‘Concentrated none sallaten Sow time runing te mare wren he ‘wait bul up the edge to normal in onining Yo practae these wa Shietng the ebjosive we are aiming ‘ihe main purpose of ewe practice ‘Beaune the stl Igortanoe, of imei toby, 00% teughout must nest ofthe mata being waded in [ther wera 10% aan mut be Schoved Intent and. purty Ih Passing, bacsuse the ronon Cann pected ta reach te sage ural ator fg practic) ican be noted that ‘rr to pae the fill AD. Tet ‘Reronaia! inspection Brecoyte Tea wich the welder must tue before bring llowed to work. anyting feelin thy wl bso doa ” | ' Chapter 2 dong ae ow ray © a | + ep eon Se we WhcPetype nd sss Sgt he = Epchec here ns | Exercises with Mild Steel (© BRS src cas or tno ooaton ‘ ao th a pare og Toy ‘Fats dane n onder to old the work ‘waded lt rope fo Ge Caried ut | mane 5 are we on 6 sini ecg wit, PR Taian tly anata slays te Me ‘GAUGE MD Steet SHEET meets Scheme te TB mghcb cand smut wa'and_ go ct baat poste hhh | Having Become thorough practisodin greet Ataratvly, srall tei Sup IME Gucusced, he taste shows be tort ae guthred, the cause of nat Yew. brug te, gamer teen orm onde ecm, WE are obi co he meat uch fms. Aany te gs rt ‘hei deers tore, Batiarence space mus be it unde Shieh the ome, jue sutelert to foes can be aod by the siled welds in now ‘neath the cua line of he seam 0 be HE ridge tna gop and ise the we bdgos to wor for hi intend of apart hi tray ngroncad, roel, an Stl welded Aso neces ome und of UIA Aether Theis shouidbepleed hues ail nd expereen ote (edad jim of two aecions of miki olde or ext on which suppor tte TIE ahem tne cen te eum rot, Dest vantage, Once ge the know | Bellgtrer erie eres Gowns when rnecceyrary #B guincrccroressouinencwets lngec Oy te ead acl Stamgunorethecommon pradee wives hosing west we ama, fu Grameserandone bout wo inches to ledge, can only be gnnad by at in mochine drawings] A'but weld is 8 Thor ae saverl dovices onthe market Be teh of ts Wee and 80 om, wed cannot tke the los of es A ‘ee jon in which the to aecona specily dragred for ths purpose, THE fetowing the procedure al the wey book can explain tha princes wich | Sepia age edge ara fuly used ela esonomocre, which a8 the nan eng, ie srocedace othe ny boot can ein the crn wt {Wpeiner by ean of welang to form implies ase econamenin gas autora OTe, Ne tear, be, walded. The govern this phenomancn and sat the ‘te completo whole. hit expedient ust @ piece of MB tmaruartoavelddatorion Thistemy peak, but from ten on, experienc | Inctha weatese then, two pieces sheet meal Berti 0; andscrowed'o fiat ‘falerenee tothe dreaded ord signa mst bo he bert eer simlerto ose we uted for our practice the bench, wh a sil cut nthe upper “torso butte reader may vest "To feu now to our fist tack. In | Fat ete a tw pesos of MS Serres trast wit not be the ost To. making ths acs what wear ‘Peer aboue Bag" 6 Gi, be ipa ate furor we started et ding‘ fusing a smal portion ef out ted Tens, eStore ehouid sett nding aa neatly Siatteane ae sequanes ee RaeB wie ee epee nl ch Uprreterably bn plece of rback i fomporture ofthe ony-aoatylne Nam ‘hvnatrl wey, tat the phthend inthis au, or fo psc. ahost labia pt oimparantingietit e"apwronmtaly 20076, andthe lace are iacn wewgle eat Bescon as Ws we od Reyrithe mieten male rama open, Seagate sm fom tS me tn te Tenn betg tt obeousy a aaden ttl be dap thn ae 1S sloce Inward tothe ach afte sa'sooh an we ewe done tat EStchisabrouteh‘ouriwotidcondec fue ie por now's gotten (Gamer towed sch he, 8 soon a weve do, he at ehon ay tne renting he fess tmecincarines ptoganay, utlewleelong ney weuldacualybe Happen Teck made ng Sto ad dng yor atts oh te nde ve free, ohn ee ee oateey macy conta Tice thre to's wading eat An lveannaach ter andeevng gt Sheyeltaa ht wos soul wan Dosim doy ae ews eg Me ‘Srdnor uising bi coutdbecsedon of sou iun. tSmin) tower. foe apn "Sng gat ae a8 ee a ing thos pecs, contracts. Now tie 8 1» Slang tho otc of ts rocond tase ‘woul bat draw tha edge sl more ‘Seely together nd th nox one sl Stuaiy overapping wa wore TO Ertino slong he soar ni way, by ‘etme we ezened tha ure endo Seslors Therefore, instead of sting thot ac atthe edge of te matra, ‘wo blace th etek In tho contre of ‘he Sam Taen by placing the tack ‘ernoely on ech ie ofthe cee {he nent sprees evony slang the lary ond he. expoion nd con {tron of stem tok bncad ‘Soporte the whole wey" slong he ‘stom: When completed, we have out 2 oes two pisces of shest met! partety ‘Scie Yogeter que staighe and Doro: mignon ready fo sg. “ht one more pot op above iis imporant th onset imiing De IBoch so pestle, ar word ‘ot ihe pine mest, ‘us, allowing Wt" co! Deore pro Now to complete the weld prope. Fiat revere the pate odor cory {the weld on the opposite sdk. Begining at he extreme ht hn sage cana opty mato ‘ge bearing In mind het the exposed Spe af hepa al onus mat token metals batore, ana han fond Inthe fle wire Once’ te, poo! of ‘molten metals established he eae ‘Drroewods along the ie of the sam, the fame the tip of jst sipping inte ite at th rl roca. the ewe : Se aed tng atthe wenn ‘meta in whch te fame moved ‘fom side 0 sie a8 tame uomaerinty noe wh the ‘om igo it eping pac wh th eal ofrmaten metal and foeang th Sire zane amare to manta he ‘enone mete upto hat ofthe en ft me mater, Thre ho ports Slain itup higher than this a ey ‘mors wil be saperuaus and probly ‘ny have to be ground of wl ot ‘ke the weld an eronge. “aoe point th ‘Shed wil be found hat he het (gradually tld up and Ineooe, 50 athe ono oval may ave be ‘ater end itmay be nacesary the fare of momenery err 10 ‘eid asl baring. and fst may ‘etouna nocessory to run ors ‘ve tho wel ts pint bull ehnledoe ira ar pie 2 cviousy the. noc, boom featoa, expands, coisas welto chock ‘he fare noon afer trang, 1 make Suiele si abscitey neta in caring out this wed ha opora tars sbpat ould be to ponte Be ‘atlas doopy 9 posi thout ‘cualy burning the metal and causing jatar to form. he dows happen, eginner’s dst etampt 0 ot pane Salar mentioned solar mpi ane ‘donne withthe weld You coh ‘Shey come Bock Ite who it has ‘Sool ft pa ‘On completion, the weld shoud re sant an appearance of wane of oven ‘Sepered fine waves, the sama with sree way gaa Bodo We te undeste shold pe {ho wold srtece with 0% pane ena ua hema ow Shnot ope LO ative a the age a desable remit can on be ‘Sino oar console braces ond ‘ermara tt wads osha She ‘with consione pocion ot hs {i be operator shoul eventual be ‘ble to seo te ea [EXEROISE SINGLE VEE BUTT WELD ‘Aor plnty of races onthe sbove ‘pee weld om sheet metal the ‘Sharon should sow be reas to pose {Sho attempts single woe but wold on ‘eker materi sy son Ms Edge Preparation. To butt weld 0 Dicea of this maori by the on Lcsvtene_ proces (commoniy ‘Sinply "Gat Welding) ie pecesary 0 ‘ovet'ne des or"chamfer them to {oe the normal arm) Tie gone 20 tuted together they form 9 V-shape groove The purpee ofthis Visto allow {rosorponeston,nfact witha he {Too penatraton woul be impos {hing Upto kin, ey Sn in hes an'be welded vithow any V oF amy ‘cg preparation by simply sings Sot Sop of about Yin om) be ‘ran the edges, whieh See neo SxERCIeE M.A Sure DOUBLE VEE intl up tgethor thy orm 2 ct 6 fitwnie preceding the tara ome te weld ie completed, the ey ute bi of practice “oting rum (or ase) ma 490 persion | p18 Ce } feels = a 283mm tio i ian, (aim, ce | ges EDGE PREPARATION FOR MILD STEEL SHEET ANO PLATE 17 Irveduetory manos! tothe eof ‘wong forthe complete navies ‘EXERCISE IV. CORNER WELDS Seog not Bop arama Bole ara te Stiectr ane Siooen een nae clea ea att asad noes Sepa vote anat eae ne She ctomab at aus Paci ioe Roe nS ore aie a oheniarctineas, Soccer oras & Scare ae So aa e e sap tee ry at era cae arora Epcot iter ite Senha smears aw ree 45 22g to sng are ae Dreparation for tacking, ne. of the ples boing ust to sand therm 9p Srvengle of rough 90, rough the rae nel 6 ot imporant The ony ty th aod gene ‘ther unl one a got etek on bt with patience ean be done orn tho rate fait arnt tthe ot these the eb fs made very much ior othe ind af Gmp enaes tho ‘to pans tobe held agatha vertely (Sige to edge 230" et acon recy the emer tha pol without Sing sri wir to frm a ack and fone "which "make possonng ‘Snes the taking operation is com plead ples te sso pa om tha Bane inn Invert poston and ‘orplete tha weld using: te eae tecnnue ae inv our pratice tolon fanat mote up the aetsecy must eos In mind tat dep ot wast See ets mtd hee tei: tere moat be no weak poe “Bis, on mepectng the underneath ‘de the pnetaton shoul be wae lndet showing through One rer and he etl lebult up too highron the corner woah ony eau ‘move unacearry workin auaning Of, {or the war henge sande! wh {hajobt The above oxrsice ofr [eran olamentory asamp 3 comer 8 wo, tut the operator shoul gat ploy Pade ese Fahy ‘eal ao rect bane tN Inthe cour a his welding Coes. ample, Box Fb. caring ted pavouay, the mon booy fe Ima ease fling machina ot Yo inthat cue tach sation veil Fave to be wide dopa. To Jo they tak theo onde ttre base, folowing the pocoaureoutined a Everio i but do not wold yet Now vs tacked section (La thobato wh once ohare oe se section, mek {topig. Now poteed Ya fac he tal ray pang tack abou inch, 9 area deal to et 9 taht Joi you tony» ight hemener handy ‘Rh th fap wah fc say ‘ally tightly together us making he ni he fave egos evra ‘he tse cages toca rocoed to feck he fda starting tom te boom com ta worong owas the. ope ens. Feat forthe oppose hl very fornia oe sore eran” dro, ew a0) {oat op everthing fk tor ar Urs have eachibe. By flowing ‘hr pocedure: the frees of oxpanion tnd eonracton are sped Soy Anger of osiadup eveseas e ror i most ae imporane se *he ‘Sea walang tet Wai on the sublet | would lke to command” another extaraly | 00d trating sheet scone tho'od of an aston nthe method ‘he assistant (wnting« pat of lat {med goggles) hols ths wo seclons togemereageto edge and ling 8 pao tongs o stisnen the welder ie tang of nF ‘ven momant Thus, the aston ean ‘move ha parts Upadewn as requed {eric eth wider pone ing the two section together for each {ek tn, wl he moa is st hot This metho’ eliminate all danger of ston, and gray fetta te Speraton of tacking, tut of cutee ‘Seoonde sony onthe avatiny of ‘hited sao EXERCISE V. FILLET WELDS. A fet wold consis of bead or Bonde) of wold xpos ln insite 8 omer, mado. by. two components Ssoombled usualy (out ns nacesar [90 No ego reparation eer Feung te tego An outa comer foi. Wie ie, using te to ger ofthe metal sheets ae the 90° ‘Sate of th comer na which ho weld epost a. Fotine Case» singe Met wa ‘mode. Toke two pieces of WS simiorto ‘Shoe Settham ptortacng xy a0 \n'Bxorcee forthe comes wel ne Fig. 1) and tack up in the samo way. Chapter 3 or the purpose, use two poess of awn sense cn ctor See ee tees Namie fo roe "vm ows So Tees eres Sony Sgt Sh ta oho oe SS" hl tn ee See Seats Pane ae foe ‘mit be remeve perio eon. Tilney eter os Sin Koran ener Eomoliaty nse ‘cast IRON ite as an grey cst Wheat ‘ery bara anit and therefore ot so abey fe weld, ane ino cris {realy nde ino het ‘mets to weld ond being st, not ‘Sobre, an thertore resists cracking uch ater. thir form fest rons "ne techique of wang cnet ron aie citorem from iat of mld se Frat. we uso nat clad Dur’ fame, La aah ight reef iene Bae 22. tii, naw oan te sno, ‘aight Yesiner fv at hoc the nner wt cone Not oo much = Nec enough to be vile “eile fod for eat ion must bo high in sicon content, at Tor he Durpose the suthor recommends the Bren Oxygen Co Als Super ican, tforbetor gua cstv, erect: ‘ie, a spac ux is necessary = Cart fron’ Wieaing Fx, neo supplied by wong technique. For experiment [urpowes wo wil ie a sma sah {war butt weld on good aust aay feast on sty Yen (6~ hk ‘in ic cml open the “nitharctoreanouldhaveno locked op ‘Brace and lo oo, precy tee Ye ‘Sioand when sted, fe meting point ‘taut ae mac ower tan that of ‘tls set he actual gure emi ‘oo! ate me about Naa, and eat iron sppyoxmatay 120° fo = No. ‘wil be found adequate fortis tie ‘ao, seting he rosaure gouge ion drs Sodan ts ro prepare the Materia. The edges of thertwo plees to be welded should bo {round to chamfer sngle of 99" an both Disced together in alignment. Note tat {headgear not prune an able Kne-odge, but smal ston is left Untouched forming a nose Ts Reps Inthacese ate broken easton up the two parts, 80 tot they comme to ‘pthor exact ‘8 they were etore Berg eoten ts very pont. fetiom, owe breaks ma salah ine: Feist the broken e099 i ff ne er exact a i the origina {Seng Having 99 ho ed ae ‘ered shove, pretaut the whole of ‘wth tis not abaciely necessary to Bring the metoal to ro hes, 96 he ‘wo bars ate pero free to expend ose ot 8 lrge. casting, however ‘would probatiy be necessary pre heat in spaisy propared. maf ‘teling whe sil ot then easing Tr urnace tobe cools down sow ‘iat eat he ond ate ia fad ana aire Ar sa fine a rao heaton [becuse castro doesnot ey ‘how signe of meting nl in foc ost at meting por ft theatre ‘tn lor oto iat noth pot ‘Stmelten metas soon a ttre Tn dent Koop poking nd prc t tha metal withthe Wer rod mt he Parent meals found tbe molting, and {han the rod mst contnos to be wad ‘oping the fae sand bing the foparhipoie ul stay srongtace (eormed, this puading stone cay in er ad om ole ron, Because’ of the varus gases tach re genorsted during he walng roses “fe posing, string ation loses up the Bow ols thy orm. ilar not one en ld ow forma 2 fay stout tack te Ieeward nd afte jem he operator row moves to the righiwatd end (0 ommance the weld proper. Not htt ‘Sot naceaary to lacs arge ma ber of tac a nid soe boeeue fh Sion sepagion an conan ‘anno desea Hom right ley ‘rang and puaing wth te lr rod Setneweld progresses steady slong to the atta ond of he ft ontnas ed scoped and fut Eelwthdrw sont, ana then played ‘verthe compte wld arent sow {te coo slow to ald erthng, for nverah mine, gradual withering ‘a tame Up the ang rocne ruth Posie All rough of ead rom Mery a mayo Guia ater woting, reg nt ony wth alten to beta. hard ard ‘eo cong froze ew se ceri ot te renuing wets nt Shou Se eaty mocha ong ater fer should ve vies"? tated a's buat of sao sat ‘aol url sop cal WELDING ALuMaRum Sind nds tet very welt ele Ios Bur nar eo choracoriice shh ame cy, te ‘Nuria te ot ao GOO whieh {Svery ow compored to that of tel or ‘Set on, for instance. The. second ‘Saracens whch exces ely {he fr of ode whine abwaye Dee: nt onthe srtaceof aluminum. No Smount of ing or wir bushing eon SERS Soin ina. hor tha ‘azo tis oxide Sim tho number of alloys of aluminium scolar fay mets ‘Semanal Mos!" "hese alloys cape ord wil not be deat wi Toe aor brpoues 0 sonnet wring of ths mate ch 10 the unntatd can prove vary dict beginner over teas at hurdle, be ‘hur eis tha fs sterpewtch 30 {hemos sifteut, and very ahem hepoens that because, he esl tas: ‘Socouraged ie with ti in min at {he author, rmambecng hs own ‘fea otra propoas te ea! wth ‘hen father greater etal, wth he Bet a ning he learnt ver hs {i pin ning 20 mach na hat ‘an seere him oth wl tem actualy ‘ery much enjoy weling ti beaut natal however wily impor tht may tea he moran Fa then, ‘welding to ste ih fo get curses egutomed to tha fa fe meta For tis purpose, 2 pleco 169 ‘atumilum shea eal wi ue 0 Sours sl Sti Se ‘Rion enen oyinder we shall need ‘ozlear No sme hi hat reso tmended is” “Aleaete’luminty ‘lrg, “afew, nthe Somim widing wir Yor the Bur of sn om sens. he {erect tama roquod ls very sok ‘pe with avery sight awe of Seeyene ete a of heer nt cane The Biya ang Rae No. now, meat the en ofthe Arie iad dip en “ght ina vere! postion wth tho {lined ond” ypwaras, by plowing the lao up and Gown tne Naxod of {heed hl be ound that hea lave rum own the wire in on tan Mo thus obviating the scene, ‘Stotnoniee having to cotnaaly 86 ‘oping note fe Amal point here wavs tagp the Alsace Tux Un Thy cloned hen ot in use a the tay cy daterraee o rasan ile of he fsion welding ‘tera n the sameway ae inh ovealo tor heat tho metal ft by Pasing the fame over the whol ofthe Etro tor a fw minutes before Si Bacau’ alumina fue 8 to spread over the whole arace Before wll meh nt one parole Bol ‘goed Imathod of gauging staan weno nat aot ‘Stance betwen ah and a ea {hat nike steal orion, dows not ny signs ofthe approaching meting pol except prhape ssp daraning Frogs of gry Thi one ete tinge ‘shion make a welding acu toe “ih Gay yy wh oor ‘lose and unveriing watch on the Seti t t a t gn Stan thf sort un ena rom 3 powder toa laud form thon 3 tii ter, te at bop to ths om at ‘artrshoga of fo. nese howe {he erro in your et han (rg ‘and ofcourse nthe eae af hel ‘ansed weer end Kop fing he ‘roca of te teal wie wating for {herman ol tobe tooched be ‘nse twa‘ one of the wove whch fine te operator ttl who icv tmoment fe ging te osu By con ‘Sandy fei the surtac ofthe mea sth iro hw operator en Port and so areadytpunge th flee Fo ito the pool of molten mata 96 Senta dovelops However, at he momen we ae ony eaceng fusion {Sewn hes never welded sara Siete vay fh ote or erotar tat, nthe canbe ‘ators nave he o oes trough ‘et period, but I you posevere Stoces fl erown your ors xarae in Butt Welds. Using 62,18 Sruge thkness to start with, ot 8 ube of pieces of about 6 Sn. and fiat Up into sore way 8 we Cid ‘withbutt welds In mia sew ecaes to {kin tcame way, te fst toch 2 ‘ery nc org, akeratay, te ot Sra vighe Now srg fot lear of ‘he oxrene ao fhe metal wih "od steay fxd and te mata! wl profected, ‘star wth tho. eng she feta be ren forthe Soi it in he pt ot Slang then o the seam, One oo Settee ak age tage of he metab otherwe iene ory nthe edge tne eta Riedie Sune smc, wit west ‘eau The fay sil dperator alo ‘ure avo burning, an thie a0 ‘designed tohlp te notsoslied, end those nexparenced. in” suru Woding the le Bt let unwed {oat ond. elded' whan tho ‘acing atl hee coe, Antes Sono above By dong ti; not ony {he operstor more resay fo stan fe Voi atthe moment the ras, at ‘ne af tho main Gugbeers of welding Siminum. Brankng this sn tows pero To procoes mmaditey ‘inthe wd Soon es mtr olnt ‘ecootary inthe fst Sttonen started he wil find the met owing smoot and every Spnealy. Ar the wel provoeds, and ‘hanea bogineto busi, re opeator find that he has to nave the ‘eed advance roar he {tpends on how mich preheating he hot carried out teorehand. wi Probably be nacesary to bul up the ‘Sign win ware flor wre to ave he weld procedure sls similar 0 that required for welding mi sie ceprhortne operator il nd at ho ‘ri nor ve toa much weeving, 1 “Roving the faye om set st but ‘ater‘ieep te fame. sanay whe ‘moving forward, smo drawh slong brane icking motion of he preccing fia wire So to rosetta staring Iu Soe a te edge of name Folding te tome stacy moving for ‘ard wmle atte some’ sime Siping ‘he tir wraith poo! of moon toch an raged wh 9 so ot the matey suminturn wit form tet Ino ty ued waves ro sob the Beane id rors wien fewer dsconcorng, but n't to iscooeged smi poe over et ‘hecater and on compton oto rn Fee beck to the dmoged part ond ‘teat tare Pace ee fa ment for the weiing! of sma rgom sz bn COZ procesaee and Of ouree moot lrge ongieerng fms Sha worts now se thoes proceses, fra hve’ done conse about T960, Even" many small worshops 50, Sum he gaat advantage at no cui iy impor fice of sraughiy rua the ome feta we ths ire Brash ht {Geer una altace re removed. Tie 1S"he ‘Simplest math, and indeed, pobaoy te oniy mathod avalabeto Etot for ernary purposes, the excep tlonbeingsmning onan to crn trcootfooae Thess mum be cleaned wth cause soda and then ntsc 36, {Siowed by thorough wearing incon WELDING CAST ALUMINIUM ‘Tha technique for hse wrayer Piha mht sr ‘gra, and petoraby the speci! ax {Sel h wl be fund ue easy 10 ‘wed ang 3 sight pudding motion ‘renner, mar nat os nna ‘hs of cast on Also os with est ron, ‘Batmun bs caret euppored on bars roca, so tat the wept evenly Sete ena in no lose can the fasting sag or crop whan ested “eight tompertre Yor the. pe- fst fet sais Wen the mt ont The fame "adusiment foe ‘imiiam i the came a for ought Shimiiom, wth atthe meron haze of ‘rcs seston, This realy to resent Fame tot sal on “iter lng wanes of fx must tb throught caonad oto prevent ‘hnonon Also the esting mst Ps WELDING OF BRASS: Bras ican aly of caper end sn in ‘Seround Save Pom St'the welding, To aved thas, te Budding coon win Bron “Type of tame This should be slighty dan, th sgh cae of St oxie lor sk) tooo on esac ‘tthe man le being welded wien Fos to conan to gos, and co To Egy amar nase sn tn ous ‘mts at a muchowrrferporatre hos ie lore commencing welding, hak ‘and then ip this into the tn of fox one oo thi ntervale a ond se rect The tse ‘eat the metal unis goo pc! ot fn ith sighiypucelng, sting ‘moton prosndein aire manne to ‘ot ior antral beh kong ‘harp ooo or blow ols Foie goes without saying that, complete Dehavton must be sehaved rough Sat When complete tno vough sree an easy be machnad away, or even ‘Saappoar and the recling job il Sppetr 86 one sold brace formato, ‘in he weld vewaly mee weLninc corre opp entat vary wal toweling, [iho ver song nts can sso be Scher ening ata {ares of Coppar ete vay high thee Ina conducy ~ K conduce ost Imotereiy than ny other cormmon thermal conduahy sto es tat t ‘moet win hat of amin Forth feawon Wie nocssory toe 2 much [arger st nose tote blowplpa than ‘sould be send forth samo hexose Inte mila steal and fame sclst ett alte Say nia pre meat Le toroophy cleaned ‘snd'dereare, by using» gous grease iver (it poate thirsty ge Preparation For sheet copeer of pte 1oeweg (aml no boveling oe ocreary, the wo edger bang rested ‘simple but wai wh’ gop oF Shout nal the thkness of tha thet plat For copper pes of Msn Batam up wo abn me) 8 sng bovis racossary, and or pst ov a abe av ths Aelding copper dopende 3 est deal Upon a apood with whieh ferred Sethe eae te it show be proeated by te Bompspefo.2 shor {isp wating nd th ile fod copper shuld be spreprate othe ‘hrs ofthe motor ic advent sang the a ‘rsh fix om both ses ren weld 108 ‘Then starting tom » point about fo tinue t the begining ofthe frat wel, ‘an finish ofthe remaining pan, by ‘Baring from the beginning of the oir Zs ganas ab compton tathod; Th le eto spread the hes Hammer the weld we stil hot THis hardens and sree he wel ‘Copper was oan be bent Up to 180, soarees wit any Sgn of reel ‘Without any signs of damage. They Chapter 4 Brazing Braing ie a very handy and stu ath af ining two metas ogee, fe Svante ing tat dee nl reqara zo much het and therefore oan casos wran too much old shorn olen camonet Isoiten usd in much heevier wor ae ington engin secre, ‘rear invowved. W fan algo te vry ‘aa intoeas of aetna lends ‘en vary wil to is mata provided [Sabla eon and bright et the ‘erat ja Te re one Sra Te Tectia of racing. Pouring ‘method, having gotham wel ages, {proceed Paha he wo of ‘rondo is Brareeci In confection ‘ry Braeteohe fn Preheat Thee So dite edt Shall uta feet in aoe ‘aug. Nom: having ried the work {0's goad ved heat Gust begining To ut ending anata sme, proceed ‘ih rubbing acon wih the Foo, este re sey mong ‘neta wt ‘be found Yo fow even ‘lang thewolalangth a thesea, end Sin'be haipe slong by cessor, ‘Stecping the lame song hina of ne ioe to encourage the fw oF he ‘moter beading metal wre Wl frm [eat oa emouth and vente On omoleton, the fx an easy be gnod ti by plunging io water ‘al att not an by upping. neon {Siye t may bo relevant % remnd ‘eaters that pnging not bres land ‘loo cobpo it watt seul stone isnmeals) the mata incomplete cont rzing parley ofl in he ace of eat ronal moleabi ant enue of the much tower degree t heat requ, whi oe ig factor In thease of eat om ice every uch lassen the danger af crac. But ‘Sonat be seas toc swongly at for Seca banng the surfaces (cat iron especii rust be sbsoltly flea ar righ. Basing sel method of uniting stains to, snare no gras sess ee coed ‘ave agan the suracoe most ba clean {echniqu esis to tat Sorbo ‘ama gion Sonics os Seth pects een Syl" heres SRN ce oe Eeenr pre re Sher oars spimeries sone Sores eran Sravatiasr ac gen, whieh fatal to aluminium. Host, {heap of th er vir stp et rom {he riginalaheetor 4 Tongth of na ‘ore ier vite end wie cil ht. ‘Tne tm a pcing up osm ut ot ‘ho then nn he oat and down form hin coving of fx ae previous ‘Souibed” ahr toting in tha awa! ‘Wor, slighty preheat the whee as my ana ropa petef fax on othe feral ae hen A oon ae nt ek thelr od slang the ine of the Jom, que followed up with the {tome,renning rod and fame fgathor aut nang ont tte sitenoe of he fx Chapter 5 Oxy-flame Cutting ‘no olding ads would be complete ‘tout a sscton ‘on this: Most 8p hainecng time employ automate Siting “machine “Talos “potiing ‘mochines of various ypee Th tat ‘hewtsronc phot secrecy ‘amish a photoelectric ol automate Shy follow tho design ot srowing te Bias undoresth: (Cast om cannot be Ex by hie method, exeapt with to use of speci "powdsre Obviously the ry the Use ot teas expense inches woul ey Rie te Seely ith nna ng meds “he pipe of exeuting based eal is mmeaitty converted tron ‘nie and the honcuting blowoipe ‘aks ac off gamely amie {rgsldng blowppe bt the noae s fcc omacene tame on 8 ‘Seating nozrawhien Sesto pure oxygen on tthe hosted meta: & folsoue lave for eontling ti Cating Ieee ewe ‘eho ‘an’ be sod on rid teal Sin ein tnctnecs ‘romp tis intondad tect pics 2 699) MS, 8 Nain. -20m) ving marked of he ine of tha ct, the ine because obviously an ordinary ak toe woul be brn way under St the worting sassre onthe bree ‘ioc ot up an) Tarn on bath aves on the Blawppe fe both oy jn and aeoyonel Sut with the Site wy ay on a Tighe inthe usual wey houping he hong ‘ol cleod and ode the lame, ast {o's neural fare: thse the esting Appi fn athe tere ge Ste cone ofthe am almost bu not Hes sec ac noma {have to nnar white cone seus in ‘oncact wit te oats edge of tho natal order te get © cule rts ene iy that tae 0 frtrome edge ofthe etal ners has Shon sare, and this ean Be seed to reat "Sovoriage,beese tb {e%ea macy tect es Tega, the fame ie moved steody ‘tong th ing of the ct gute sow, at 13spned winch seconde wth the Pro ae esta nk rr Sid ala eo ee Frmustshot off th cing feat op ‘ho metal gain, apd art ashe Botte secure which often "doce Ropers unly et sat ‘hutaroconoen aa howe oda 6 aes Wace ves we Tamera the eyinder whch ofcourse i be Ma ‘sige of hy nanrn ote nde of he ‘Mott tich ane warts in omer words Se mut alow forte dom of he orice ean hada om {hax mush 100 narow otha ch o8 "the zcrt of god lean cuting iin sways teoping te noms cles, the ‘tony ft ace In bol Tis inbietoecome dogo: endto leet tha cuting jet EMocive an suurte EUaing com oly be oboines tet tices ebeoluey ie and herp and Square wth tho ena of tn nora The SScompanying table gives obra use fovenreurting of rid sel of wating ticessee "using the Sar igh ‘XN Reatyiane nozaos. ‘Star pieen can be used in con junction wth oxygen in pecs of act Fee for cting purses especialy m prong machines eg, cosrges, North ‘ifr in combination wih onyoe Won eine for oxy arse Sing purposes ough ofsoee for weging. Thay are mosly used in. prting feocinees maining sxacy te re fue vnitorm speed and tones fom te srtace of ne metal = facrrs which mo human and can ropreduce its to hlp in obtaining» petty Sean ut by Oxfam A perfectly Seen drearonyfoctanad when tne artnet sagt a before commencing seteh cutlog. 9 Seat ROU yoy ‘once Ue toon how te onl cting [ests behaving. it amergo from the fone in tanned oorofer detores emit wa no et any {tn clewod bythe ue ofthe core ‘Se at th spell roomere mien sre Eipplad”by BOC. Limfed."On mo Seeount mod is of ste! wie or such. lite be ured, though In extreme easen ‘may be sed ss tamporsy auoatte, eoeler mene aaaceericamtcan IB eau eet rome tenet ore Eee aranrs Sire aati ers Re cea ‘Seypen arto high when csting. Ms ravenna cree ame Cutting thio MVS sheet with 2 Stopol the sopnozae specie: nde hi inser mora suing ‘towpipe can simply mt or be bur Sten nie ease Of te sap not, Dar of one ee ot sway and hs Sra comsing te nents) or te ‘eating lame, The cating Jt rear Bacar hal drt Gove contact ‘withthe sures f the sheet metal, omrary fo te normal euting nolo Sach ome aio) ove Uhe'aurace. area poeded In ng epoca to mate sure that the sega cling foward te process the tame precedes the euting boing hasta t ncandorcones bore tho'axygen ft can have any fet. fy fonvst to thin shot slate samt ‘ound se! bar canbe aia to oar Hangs ra twig tor ar promate. the tial process and sow eatngto start Immeditay Sternsve method of wel prepartion, ‘ton the naval metrods beveling ‘rot be used. Cough ls carted out Sirmeans of sped shoped nose shih aut groove nthe wortpace 0 a eid ain i depth are. oes Needeseto Sy, gouBng ont, ‘Sir or on vary thie materi oF “able for Ony Acetylene Fame cutting Pte Nessie Operating otness “Sie Pressures Tnahes inches pounds ‘omyoen Aes ease ew ees 1 os 2 — 2. Spd am fo - — Romambec hace tabs ar for HIGH PRESSURE BLOWPIPES” OMY. Low Byessure blowpips Toque lternt ures And may | 264 one fal word of ‘Naming " never wort without gloves nd goggles ard @ pa of tongs fo fess pera i one wants to ava bur, ‘etosineng etre 5 Gas cutting and gouging Recognition of euting and gouging ‘dofoct, their eauaes, prevention Sha permiasble methods of rectification ‘ton edge con ashy es "acity: wnere t recommando sped 2. top gh ya Be a te ‘ge Uni har ren eur bye eR arc adust the sano dtrce ‘areca he son of Stace by ‘Stenmeng atone ate PART TWO Chapter 6 Arc Welding Athough we have sendy da ith Seite tin mites SG aaa wth he meth” ot tere ight ob auch a tah ‘roars wth et was fou by pening» ren of ele Srond 88 10380980. ame nom Intent» corer ow Siro te malas The ‘nok ml stea woh ie sated ear Seveied, at at spy sing me ‘Srodes sho lng’ of bare ‘wire wien however, 20d oy Be aod with erent Th deawbacts tis wore het the ae was tet fo {uenty twas found nat by ana te Sletrade's ary tik contig of ax 8 mmanctactring fo incon ing the machine and bahty amped, the eogee bang Tore to fear by grat procsue A awh Ie Presse, Were ara at of aes, ad Sear ewe arty Notes on Safety — Electric Arc Welding ‘wwe ovoidsectdntally arcing Eearely onan init Nook Keep ge oyinevs wl wey fom are See tht the hand seoon. ramet 6 ‘Soggee sone ‘tnd wth good ey tation. resistance welding (of whieh move cron "tere i 9 world of deren in placer ita motor ar faces and rope equipped Tage, enaraning ‘onshops where even Yer ge abe aon worean by cariod cr with he if hime and tng cr, enabling ‘e"sone inthe down-hand postion, reeling In much neater edn ‘bade compared with 9 smal viloge Gerep, a Toc! tmty, or 8 model Saini’ woken bute ines Amc WeipIgEOUPMENT ‘An areweldng machine i bestcally ‘Sty an ctl raatormer wh ‘Pane aupiy om ytato amps which ‘ein wien reites very high Simperage The ‘weiing ansormer nvets the high maine vlog he ‘eval twophese power Sopp} at {epost bout 00 ralconane 38 380" domenio inhobby mogatins ste ad ean cope wimea a a nec {generators or foary convertor, but {he dlvor D. curt wheres the ‘ore corymoniy" used. Wansformer Ghee off Re. cont Ether fom feet” one ce, i for wading Slumisium "by eeaticare, using min ltd, cre Tomaver, for the purpose of this book uness pectsaly states wil be being used. Here ogni, these vary 8 Fale: Most of the bigger machines Incorporate fits for contincouly ‘arable current Thess oe Tar more ‘vantgeoue, oe with thie type the ‘Speator car” ast the number of Ship he requires for any portulor ob to" ne nse. Wit eed pot types he is rsticted to perhaps 5.10 Pernt pg into, whch moles Irpozsbe to oan vey te aus Iman of the corrent amperage: Wh Is (Shen Ssonous dowback nctrodes Tees se nowadays simost Uneasy of the coated type ha hated in varying thaknanos wh x Win there tie posse to hep’ re ‘eerode tpn cortragus contact ith the workiaes, whien mato ts very ‘mech earfor the operator to aciove Tren tven sige, Eee coe Sreteeweg (rem) tw i2drom, tam. Gamm, tosmg. (219mm! Gewg” (damm Seg Grom ‘uch om and 2g 7 ‘Stove ewp electodee drys jane Pollen wich atached by ‘he to th porive pole af ha wana {ormer and he entbang’ cam, wich ‘ing "ror the negative paw of the Inaehine, Ti lomp steed othe Stok ben tic of core, must be metal ona orien 8 te te fn'tep of the, Bench, on whieh the “in welders costal equipment tae enpping hammer wth tien {o'tomove fre sutng of sing ater ompleting te lds sao ie ad nother assent wre rush, bon ir eae oer ne ‘The fosthr apon shouldbe ofthe ‘covering the wie of the front of the setae gua are 90 ‘Sompulsory under the Industri Safety fepuatont, many operetors cannot 8 repro ba \woight ond the smal Smount a reuicion of movement but theater ‘rgee habit use of the ‘pron for sty renona: Slases and ‘abe of miter metal can cause severe bur! even if"you eeape pei Shine tone ona te Ss Te of a har Somgenarenss er es Tas See lleva Sorbet ray Sievesctaansaeet Souter ge sane 2 Saar ane tee tn Se Sop sarchebae ion Sofertesoes Bea ey Sosih verte aes 626, full proton. | know it {mpting to merely patch ples, of Sick papet over te deferens, it Betove ma hrs unless as tho ti ‘ie ay cn ponatrate eel. soulbe fend sosording to wher ‘oj inhand invokes nae mater, fl cnaaquentyhgner amperage, ot ghee wor SOME PREUMINARY PRACTICE ‘wetns Stang wh te enamine the whole thingie complete myer, the rt stop, ig to sah an the ‘machine, wnch wee assuring for {he purgose of sna fre slomantary Stops isa" simple ordinary wolina testormer, aneady commented Up 10 themaiaty aged dctican, {his’s metal onel orto ® 040 eee Bate ono beach ‘Now tang soy Gusto est oxpoe- ‘rowing crret abot a0 spe. ‘eater on th even te Bt ake hinge wary pots for Eoginnr fo got sorted Also Rav teedy small lee of ‘ fandSetean inthe hang gh EGS ited pon ust ‘ho piece of scrap mater me Sint une ine e {teen wal in rom othe eyes ‘rein one how to so complete fen) "site ta ate on te ioe of pS eae a uch “rvthing lm ite ring smote, ond Simos aby. But do have the een ‘Fis one prior to staring the weld ropes to gain tw eavaeages cape iy ta beginners Sang toe re Immediately befor string hoats up {hop ofthe electrode and he sams time pte a any suru x sla, traning se which might dosed Se See at Soest Seiobieeeenee i eer ree Ran nnn secon neater See SIR Geee SAPSr were mrs eien ne ‘welding tgif to the work When this Ses les aerate sane arate tt See reece ecient ats ay ima mea tana Sireasities a ovary ad envone asa whe happens SS reutie as ES oatw ne nota Irosraing snd iscoureging’ tthe fimeteur utters tana naea for any of Ke Deca tore fs 2 gute simpio way {i avoiding fe you gat s dead shor, title, perfectly simple meter to break ofthe siedroue from the work Bice. Thus panic, and. hong ‘rola tat sion oration a formidable rey betes fhe socret of succes ito the a rie pace tsp ei fr man wonpiece white the tip of the acon Wala ead. Tn opr oring surmounted these st hurl ‘eae ome Sentero mss ‘ihe tom toiget thorough ued Yo being abate Such inter te pre aon ‘st wosing, the fx on th electrode ‘ot long with the meal creo he ‘Sloctode, and In dong oats the Bice “Seema, proms te gue o enere hat dons happen To Bocome snd to tinguishing ek om tte metal Aer some practi ‘Theimportnt pin abou tesa 1h Sho rtm br alowed o stl a i inp would ston IS a gui nate teeet Siete baeit oere Sere eediome Sms rere a eae te Sections pein rele mers istnanienemen a ea eS ‘ihe ten contnue odo so. Kap the area hort Song tha hol ont oF {honed of we am grey asa i Bott at ple nolan ea ‘kor the Tang we com plata hie frm man, ster costing, Fas'ennpad of te 2g outing. No ‘osuking bed of weld Seposk should otrevesd ben even unbroken, Unie, anat nea melding depos Re ‘face esoming someting Te the Boainae wit oroduce this desl ‘au ois for ha es stom but ‘eat tobe ad She) "Should uo soon be able Shave roa pn — awh aig ‘Chpping’“mmesatiy the wold te finned mght rest In 2 bod el Featet sg ving nto one's eyes, wth, {aan bo imoginas. very elf and mr dengeraut fects Samat an tule revert ei the 299 Una weld has cooled of Ts has ‘ouble purpose, since tho coating of slag protests ts bo metal rm smo ‘shalcoqgen wc weld tera send te i a oy, ‘ht and ‘or imperant propery in sll ‘eal we, chen he cn conse ey © baad of wad cnt eat and ‘samy and of equ anh and pee ‘talon throsghowt, he ean” conse ‘himself proicient enought pess on to Someting "a itte more aavorces, ‘ough so the eatopory of pastes ep Chapter 7 . Exercises in Welded Joints 3 a= “THe SINGLE BUTT WELD | Bis ints simp tor is th ion of | ReRAarenl a eet SR ae eat ane Decne’ aca aatantenen, Xin corona Utama iacniedeck MONE Anse Sn see ers sShegen get te octane Spates ft wld ho, us atadee Sante Win apa oe | abberemensitead ses mies Samm ceo ete ent STS fn SS Me Wnt Stet towne Seu Shaougny eeh'8% Sinha genes (bm) ate bottom of the ve fe, arth ticker than thic'wacld the pais in slprment portant om ove t0'hve the edger prepared by the sarhed bench and eam thom — |! hamferng for bovsling! the soges own so thatthe operator coh work | {ebsloinzamust be qroundican eng fom lek Yo ght @ wghthandea 11 30 on ona ide {in to caso of poreor Alec handed pero would ot im waed aide wa fre tan Sincnitnam sige rep: "wera for bos cin rionteot realy eesenl bt forthe No."t2 tang. secre, | Bees fa pac etme tw no bred rd fe ‘Maines Cans oF Smt only ong edge sata pproxmotey 120 amps, Tis, WL fied be rae fom ha Shy mht eed cs riding cach pce of late along one ‘son ined together, ey form 3 {Deal ange of roy 0 Mowever Pe renee neat et commencing et tha end opposite the ck Bopnning well vet the lta tage, to get the men sig owing Theta sendy proceed tom Ie to A sai ‘eodna down he eee Sind" matnsning the. with of th ‘oi baad 2 thet ombasts the Fength a he sanm, and he mus roe competed and cooled, shuld be Bombe to uw thyough a ey pol, tne et de showing voting bi ‘Second star completing te weld on rte pice over, ond nce jue 8 Eight sesing sn" onthe oversee, sein thee, ete snd rant sexing, Sttedy speaking, he ‘Should ot ely bo necestory betauae, ‘oreealy, "comple ponaraton ‘Souls have bean sohived onthe ert ‘non tho eed nde et what the ‘rw irr Homevor tr unicaly that {he move wi be ble in foe to {Ethave tis dosible rut nest {vere Sdee¢wanprectuton: Ais, ‘there is another point: quite possibly Torebiy in fach the MS pine on ‘eolng May ave warped bacome Sent para Tie Te emveea by the oration oft main weld (onthe ean Soig’ sang ot the problem of tortion wil be deat ‘ern ne Book ovate VEE BUTT JOINT For Mt of nfm) an ve is {o0°s double veo edge reparation 1 mphauss wherever possbie bo. hute"ip many. coos Tei st nok Ee eso bas nag be roc nreoy ben paces pos lon and the underiga comes ina rectce ‘Souble wee butt wd the plates con ‘bev easly assembled” on the bench ae res a those the previo were charor ‘he edge ta be welded by grnaing an alo Bap an atom. rie line of each ago When the wo ‘ions re plac on he bach thoy wl ‘how an one of approximately 60” at be aepareted by 8 gap of about “en 2smml slong "the centre fat {Gaming tthe bench both hols them Stcuraly-ond minimis tho effects of Small blobs of weld metal losed ot ‘Sra points their"main’ fonction ining’ holt th seperate pers in ores lationship whe the malt ‘welds made. fle important thet each {he components echieved, becouse ‘offen heppene thot a whol, heavy ‘breton ray be held by tacks ont {he essombly Ts savanced enough fot the actual weling procedure o begin Every tecenad ahould bear oon ‘id and fa ena that pre ‘em operators dont uly epoecete ela on oscar prt taste, having toed the wo com ponent pcos togther while Sampo {ethene tna worac can now be fcimed ou on me oppose ise. The Wea lg ie mime Bae tlnger, mojo couse of which the Sentai th mld a aig To ite ourteract soe weling un or baby plaig' en opposing bond wea depos on he reverse sido hue ‘using the foros a expansion athe Grincnod of pana ue iehoped tet the anaar wate paral epecal ote ofthe above paseage, boone val point whien cotine 9 whele word of signifeanee, an because is ‘mpi satay conti the secret of ‘homoane by whi tat ret bu bar ‘Stovisng,sintoron cot be ateate wing tures te woreieca ov tne wald ean now bs cid ot inne ‘oe onthe roveren ade to that of he tie boos, the workce 12 again ‘Gerad over andthe ial weld earod tuto ha acke se This known 9 SNSeting run. or sang bows Aker Foaling the slg can be ehoped af a iia rayne ty ten hou now pregrt en whole soon otis pine. W ested, te surplus a xe = ot “Sore ‘teal ender ty ‘ter. yu wish. he plats cn fs 8 {eat now be sewn trough a any point ‘cross th ine wid on nape. rmetalthvouphouw "ne BM ON ‘SINGLE aNo DousLe vee BUTT WELDS IN HEAVY IS FABRICATION wor ‘isin the fe ot heay plate and ah wot at eer dng fly {hc prosns Also the speedy eich ‘ton canbe executes ar excuse at ‘SF onyacavano weling in att onadored tobe upto times a fos. phere, nd the two proseees do sicing it sorame inthe io ight Shean nar wcaed bya combination ofthe two own athe saged aro metho of NS oe ann) whe wang 6 ener yerng. Frequent bth proce hog Peavy MS plates shi gies ‘ut automatic ring machi See"onr scene png mach, ‘Shamring the edges of the wart bo srotmalded ater have referred to the ‘above. nore to ilusrate how the wo sytem ean comport exch ‘hin sconce and sommercally thane, the ia Single and doubloves burrweigs nheoier mater Inthese ‘ren, baeave the wea hes of nese ‘iy tobe much dnaper sod wider, ‘mote welding bea or posse, wil bo ‘nen sndmen eieed inte ‘aring each sucrosdng Dood of wd ‘Sepoct Thine bao esentito ‘make competi earn that nee Poe ot sigh ope og This joint Ip pothaps the most te. enty "ond daly used ofall te ‘etod joints canatnty need ‘Seeing tind onan nar We faviot to cary ot nr empetor ‘Emery involves th unning 9» bead ff weld depoa.ong te nino he Fincture of the two ‘scone to ‘be Welded whieh are seat an angle of 9 Gurpurseset tas oes of MS Bint 10 those used in the previous worccs canbe used two sat of ¥ So nite setae Gar okaerecarite dmactennis Sen nearer cash Ree a Space ives ares Receancat cee ER ose tty bd eneiyaatarton, because t 90 Seth Town a Cale, on fects to woon torn ends soy geting over tis pale whieh an bo closed os another ck of the pmrtve ha place he tack, be drops the seen al gabe the ben of the \terpise baore ena tm tocol of, telnet ks ok nos simpla enough, doesnt fis ‘ute any ater hla pracca. The ‘topes ean now be id rzomay ‘nthe bench when i pererty ebay {0 pce 9 correaponding task 90 he Saposito en "Sono wih ur pace pies ying ‘onthe banch opon de up propped by ‘mara kiamow inthe perfect poston for our prastn tlt weld. The pro naire Oris ie very ite eter fiom that ofthe single tut weld = trehava mbar ein wich wo pace roel sng sed bat {ora angi veo becsuae 9 let weld Wailers teatime to Geaurelsap before woring rom eho fight sting he Bre, eatabahing ‘a 004 pool olmten mata ond eping {ovate a thor ay pourle. Proseed fesay ‘slong the foot of {ocing the eerode sown so sendy foto ga tmoves clang, end al the ume there eno stg inefusons Te rader ‘itortn, ae efredo eat, Skompiee ted rier” All really ‘owt th axis of ite thought Sc sutegs even th order meen ITS cove tee f weld spot thon sly laying bess on opposite ‘Sane nave 0 be'uees to combo ihe ‘indemant ‘Steuenee! in ne ore of laying the Graldng beads terewn ae back ‘Sapp sit have or pace, but the | | loin the outer edges of the plates {anes io pars rom tho Boneh ‘Sita fn worgloce has previously ‘ean clamped to the bench, or sme ster so surface, ten this ec byte sing! ran when, # may Bo ‘arombered wo placa on the reverse ‘San Tho us of second band of wold ‘epost on te opposite sida tote fest. {Slntactina rat eecve nd splst ‘rate of he egies pistes wl oo verde eachother o ‘hat on whe the glean Igzor see cooing vont {Ste the ned for ten reduce, Replying the print to out fet, wal? the’ erat Sond he ensand oo engle fo te Tan cneaion Sy‘Eimpy turing the workpiece over cn me Boece mein ‘ow "voparmos._ncsortaiy. fin ser Pa nme Sating up To two sections” store Sse ‘odin we placed tbam edge to ep, ‘isshoud now presente priest vein ‘eile dou he tan fd ot SS The two sbutng edges of the plates ‘oe angle nw to ay Ufo delet the forces of convection SRST Sete sans ar a {Geter ofthe surrounding motel as a ‘Musrated,andaretoa an mporant th wold. These factors ate parculy fr h M ZL Before raving the subect of filet, raids word or two shouldbe include ‘nyinguticent and severalbeossfor | Seer meres pence cms | OMS FLLET WELDS ON HEAVIER MATERIAL Obviauly, whan vary much heavier os Sd peat tater meter han to GK ‘\id L AGS) eevee Raph ne Sitcom nay Bcc Ne sons ‘eee conederation in at welng ‘wort nish cannot bef ron N cr U Wl | Practice Wad on 8 Joint. Brey, teers eleva Ps top ‘Mowe sed forthe practi iat vi be tte on te bench a 230° enle fortes: hein lacey he i 2 ‘Tale month grab’ dodge canbe ‘ead an dacenbea alo. nesenay, the 0 ose wie the helmet ‘ie e places te ett om te ‘Siges of ho wortgnc, and le, the nme mayne can Rd gait {orcas of sntracton unl the tack has ‘ood of thus comprising 8 doe “The practice worpioe can now be placed hszomaly onthe Boneh ad evn done n the prace le pe Bovted by» pleco of pacing nthe vec Praton andthe welder can now pro ‘tpfosied above, to pice 3 baad of ‘wold on ach de tomato nore {O'couneract the detonon het Sasi Tolowed, this procedure ‘hack canbe made wits ste! susre "The ead may phage wonder why 1 aways eevee. laying” down practot place on the bench int Ferizortal postion, Tho rewon i tat ty Or eau, ay oper {oeany out weld in te. vetca) Peston, an alt vety often overea tipo protestonal welder however, 0d" bahough rome notes ons @ woe 6 Incl ater where poss Be dean caine cor 1m very heavy eons of materia “THE SINGLE AND DOUALE U' JOINT When wad is lle fr in enception iy hoa mater ey om about one ove to bet of such enormous pro Porton, ard would etn sueh vst “mount of grinding or eting eter treana of eharering, wih he eon SiShomay abl: Nomar, are ‘an bo employed forthe purpose of Fite known se Uo, When only She side of the materi! fe pemenble Sy single" poss ut both ‘tear wortaol hon the double ‘ks Soman sho be ered uptue hind of edge proportion which Ie'nat only simple ond fective, but ineohee'2’inmm of me and very Io ofor. rarely consists of eying & bead or wo or more eed of weld epost utlng's fay large te lee trode lay number 8 Sg, long the arte sary one razed can be wed fo he deube'exapt hatin ts case, the ead or bec of weg mata shouldbe sada cote fess of the Eine tobe jones or shown nF. m ‘A single or double joins sian cancapsbut applied 1 wo its athe Inortant Not In welded joint fie thy many mare than one weding ‘Wold tha Inn the soma omer, Sere io rept a he footing. of sl must be compltoy removed’ ater he compieion ofeach ec ead le comer “eon soi ced stray on ‘Hoc datorbon a deaoiod ear urter, teal poole todos wanauingl Ur, assang ron on ne ndorsise = novela this fs not oss, then rescore shoud ‘be ‘cere Inlaying het or ot rm, ‘nauring tet oly ee pene Siam through the materia, avon ro {dg hy Sought too ap sownrs. ‘As oon inthe iestsions the lp jit ‘oly conan ol to flor edn 8 {nen and of tha socton o's weld ‘Sng bead or pass of wold Sepoet Seponde onthe thiekaese of the ‘moral, Thstnesse of up 0 about Sin "erm ean Be, sewer ‘raldod with a sing bead ving No.8 ‘neg secede, wih tho sopropte Smperage, bur tor sme thet thon ‘hat wor more rune wl be found poco of Mi plate of 8 3 an can Eoeoa but op wl jor th wo ‘Selon ar mgd ogee on ot Iabung a apace tech and ofthe wel ‘rin ththnear ea 0 secede be foune suficant to complate the tone et “Ae ey ‘Semon he two sections oveter he ‘nest atup sto place a song tack at Both the upper dn tower sides of ho fraction plac, Ta ie easel bo {huen, evo with the" campe one fran Smmount of detrton can take flaca cape the compe wore Frstakony removed before the Hl ‘Weide areca eat 80 the mor Toot very sronly at each io bere Famoving the lps in-an scusl ranean ee cms rola. Chapter 8 Cast Iron and Stainless Steel “Tere 10 thes kinds of ast ron in overt ue, thet commonest bing ‘ofthese, grey eat iron isthe most ly waste! ofr tare br ‘han ie easton, beasce of frore easy machina Whit cat ron not rgerde very tvourebly fr ‘ang purposes Wallaabie cast rom, aes name ne ples, ear less bt tan ether grey Erie cnt os pcan ealing. involving. very alow: pro Tonged period of groaua heating t 0 No epee, ioe. ‘aoinn. “Sometimes the casting = Bac kine repre ft ‘order ts achiev he depres of Sty Shores co outer sin of gremer or pth ee care at Tmoine ‘ela bara ane be. ils th las aaure hich cau rateable cation to prover spect Cy ‘Near sealing wir wo cnt mesic Ione the of stern, ana tanner hard core of meta Forth purpose of thabook dacueson wil be Confined 0 grey cast von though ‘aia arte con be dea wh by [raeng lor bron eiing) whic has ‘ready boon soak wit eae Un oneisring tho welding of cost ron the pero quton fe says tien method of welding peter ther praiome, may finaly be deeded Syrewbodincy” Noga wating ple ‘ey be aelbie, or te jos may be for {oo tree and maseve t wea the g98- wading mathe wih no preshestng ‘mace ava, IF preheating farce ie avsioie, and the font too ge and Oly then getwelding probly does hol the’ advantoge, Besos hon al he {ho whole prosvos amore sattacry {2b rom tha pn af ow of machi {iy Sa sundae Trethed the. fing mati err tiicon ‘or sim lor rossi hae Shiny with th paren tact ron) metal than that use inthe at Welding method, thelr mes hots nck aly, or imi a that howavee, the srg ffvour of the aroeling of cst ron fest on the grounds of speed convent ‘hove losied and ‘esineted, tortor. grat resucing Clanger of ersking ofthe easing, ‘hoeg sea in conadering thie 8 Ser eu depnds oh sop fhe ralghtorward ‘cost Won ba. safe not secured in ay eyelet amply tee SS comparatively simple maner pe ‘aring no dices No prohentg fecessary, and. can” therefore be ‘ele in aun ny by ate get ightoraar orn can where the free are Tooke upon for inten 9 {factued spate of cat ron wheel, than pre-nexing of the whela costing ‘would be esse and forts purpost ‘ue rca io aki right be possible bulla terporny Takeshi oe rune to ob rein “Ease mopraion for i" wol, fs. it, omerwelss, ote east tne 96 ‘hartor mi snd the procedure Stnost Wena. once hat te oe trodes used ere of he nce ly type, Pea pect “Toso ar quite 9540 us wth the ae “ways top 8 shor os poss, Also, er ach fun ews, he og must be compte removed be ‘A Simple Exercise in «Double Vee Butt Weld aca ron or thie putpove et Sais t= angie sraghteraa fog ef» ting tthe or arin of fimary ‘slg shepe, woh hat hd fey square, ond of about 8, She iin tckness A casting of nis ting bing comply res st he on, Sha theatre tvoiving no compres” Dained carer, wil not need. Fe. eating, sthough no harm e done get eipmant avelbie the hae is played over te two stetlons os « -praimincy vatore aus starting ote ‘reting This woul vemove thc ‘fom the metal ond the werming.up ‘Sectheltoseve tine especial on tease cana te aon thot for mi sea, shamfring oy Seating routed tthe ee, Tia ing roped ine lasing ite of fractures cage ofthe casting oh {otched by arnding allows the broken ‘ges tone thamasvoe up beauty ‘ay for chamfening in poston. ‘sings No, TOewg. nickel alloy Spe aig nin tat cat ron ial seat roy cast mot at 1240", ‘mi coe matt about 149° “he ecu technique of welding cast Coning othe ikl ay dco Somuch slog tobe removed, but agen FPimust be steased that every parte ‘weld epost belore tommoncing 2 ‘Blowing one. The arc'munt be ket te. ahort ts possible throughout ‘tauming, thatthe tw ‘soctione perfocty ined up fet pace rong {Sekt the geo on eo hol the iho le. Aor completing one bed ‘oF ed deposit on tit side he work o piece should be turned over and th cd wel rocended with on ein tah) Si Gc oa noth sides of the aouble vee, the ting” on exoing shoul shop perfectly aright and in accra aig fant Wh eat ron, cong shoul raul = log ane Sow ‘endeng the wels dopa too Nr for ‘Siro acing Tp oe {n'y sand orby some aber protective sath fo cae a pole ‘Slowed the resting welsed jor Seen sind arate ce Filet Welds and Tee Joints in Cast ron. Tratetounttat Buncated or otherwise vewforead st uch junesone andere unio break tne pare ofthe secon rowever he ocson does aie rl tel lt welds an |ARC-WELDING OF STAINLESS STEEL Stiles staal in reasonably thick oF heavy sacione lds st vy well 10 wading by the electc oe brocto, ‘end forthe purpose, Sse sel Soe te beter woleed by the oe ‘icing mato, desorbed arr bt Seat of a by te TG or MG po ‘Sheena dase ner, However (he comet and mon stabi icrode {oreschparieuar yea “Apo from tis portent pont ac: wing ot oo! dove not Sion "greaty rom the naval te [igh dangr ameter of fondency forthe competed wots dept to erack fnconing butts ot racing’ esis leds usally due othe wel having ‘sf obiting the danger tet lny'8 bead ‘ot orinary mid sae we! dopo on to sah fc ofthe chamfer ofthe vee prior to preceding to weld th the Foros tet lactose This known 5 a "butering layer” ant hain to Brennen ofthe nal nde "id of afer each eae rocaeaing. wih the folowing ona dg Preparation. Edge propacton of steer ste for butt weld, both Engin and double, and Yor tee sng fd skit ap ina eacby Chapter 9 Pipe Welding Pipe (or tube) welding ie cally « in’tna sphere of welded production SIS i sey neceeny fr pe swan thot many of the ins Rave {abe cariad ut ater te pipe paced out Ms take A further pole tht teats of thot shape pips and tube ‘Some desarpive exporion of th par ‘ui work shuld be ncaa 0 et Us review the more ual and normal Into prac aignmant and ample way {Gaxomplan‘nstetotorm scrade by q ‘the to sodtons of pipe to be placed buted cose together bu wth small ‘be take at out the’ or four plots round te pe must be no’ gap or breath the con {ty ofthe weldno matter how rmy fae compton shi ‘eorssary. For the nshing ron sy ‘order to ensure thatthe final bead of ries ofthe weld th te Spertorcan sr te pa round to ut thes rely poms Toe etd on ftaonary pipe whien invaves gut lett vertcl end overhecd work aton |e where te overhoud welding teh Bese rot ati ang othe tore tl, on his eye oF ear: Obvi Rani of smen i uty found ‘Tansee bocnse ofthe ied spe n ‘Shien to manoetv'e, tough many ‘Dei tay ate ‘pacatori far sly to have ooops sath ted of speed woking ‘welding by tne undoubed hgh (ond Mltenrediimonstaryrewardsotare. ‘omen mponTaNT sows 1s Pipe WELDING ent conde ap at Water? ter or eld? Or go, pa reine aro at Aono {0 which the pipe of tube may be ‘Stared. Obviouy. also where oe re is monde to cay 2 ia ot fete ptr tes {ele would esse on impeimart 6 ‘e'ow Ths cal orl ndeare on n {het whi ony snglevee preparation for ln ee aa sme feo) joint» grt deal depends on ‘iethor + nt tre Fw 8 fue ‘questo pase ough te ssombled [omit the pipes smoly part of 5 {o't over tho horizontal secon. in ‘ut any hole noading to been ne however, here has 10 be 9 toe fiw atthe comtanta tough tha systery fuer and pipes, then 9 perfectly fovizontaly placed pipe, exactly con {orming the stead como of Fe for vertically placed) pipe. To ‘not uptodate nginosrng firme have Samples of mote Rn) ‘metalic template around the pipe and {art off ta cantour wt seer The Sime procedure to apoiteable for ‘Siete boing the vere pipe boasibe to coat wh whning oF Eka on batter, anginears’ making fa} and to uses ‘Sto lang ot te foraontal cose pipa to guide» seriber posubie to Erpite round oxencing he te $0 iSined yore on afte aliging it back onthe pipe and sxbing Contre punching about every #2n ‘Sten when sing whee vy ames Siw eb in ely toe burned “Once the vertical pipes cut to acose Ihlanthe sass pe ony necessary {ahold iin postion and exe round Manto aperirarogulad th ros Pipe. Thi ine, too, must bo conte. Bancoad fore spaing the sug Felp ts echive #00 eek prot amt Tete connection wah passing nes, Eve win hetostcara i Trvsay, the pipewort of te conta hssting syetom Yor lrge bloc st ‘thes at are the aay wel ba Steck ot pe which Ra fined ons atone moy nem impos, iotenoe ian aon f drama answer Simply cota ele in tnt fhe pe ‘Roe matpuston ofthe seco fr Gee blown) and weld up ‘ho lat Roplon the ext ou pe pe and wold it beckinto place andthe [ARC WELDING STAINLESS STEEL PPE ‘Stns sop plows present one rater ‘sic problem ks nw possible to far stalls steal Dy th normal xy. {iron preca and ether mone mur Seo Shs san rn {hen bo cared out by arnaing, oF rurtn’ ats popular termed. by» anata wor grinder or mt ast {ston fing uae en, 8 Sivek wane el rach ne ‘Su sing the some ethos as wth tile ste, ay ein te approprte Empl ith ha i ere ot pipe the shape of cn most conform {o'that of te bane pipe ath fine Sais oto! combo fut by thea are process which simply the oeinry metas electrode sssorpanied by 3 igh prossur to r= but his ges ‘only vory ugh conoured et th Sgtactsnop have iso oto Seared oy ging ee Whew oe {ey etn ring ae sacrage ean be sod witha vary ih Srmporage but ony ino ease gh a neon bn the ghee 8 ‘nanan ad grinding. However, tore i another method shins wo dis tes ofa no hy Sadie eal hpped way by nammer ond che nd the odges vad of re Wea. by'grnding ong, Then rm Thitaupeonmats,tetchniqu of ae adap hat tivo tho use of paca stetese och ihe cet Chapter 10 Vertical and Overhead Arc Welding of Mild Steel ‘def wscing but thoy pls 2 very Important parts wncing wort To 508 rial wang fst. The tus toe (rst exch ship reper and shipyard scopon of he Tot rm mt ‘out by the Upward Vertical {echniqe. Thi artan omy be acaied Dy long prasten After the root ta i Compt (we brow al eeaauert ‘herve and ontnued upwards 3nd fen run or baad! most overiap te ‘Single Vee Vertical Butt Wed The st ‘odes nord 1 oan aauate Baneration Ths should panetate ight rough the m a ta ‘ough to projec a the Back of the ‘Sposited therein de case of mato ‘over aay, Sin. mm thick one of ‘ore fther rans for bead) iy be ‘igs, wich the elcrode (row of ‘hence tpetortin an al eset Ing ne growed fam set se 6 San en eve tae {rough chipping and chaning o Siok of the weiss soning o appinp Fin ust be dope "With vrtcat welding ls impanane separa Teo ea jain, cttaling » good pel of me Upward Vortical Welding of Cor {the ful wectnel tmeksee ot tho Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Resistance Welding = I.G. and M.I.G. Welding “This form of welding is used exten: manufacture, Great numbers of thm Electric Are Walding Auminum —_—_escapably present on the curtace of Theivn Thott mois which sve suspandes fore te roofby col Welding of aluminum by the oxy- Slominium’ and te alloys. However ii sate poielny repo ievngeonah a owe ettes ean panna map ny bem nha ute sod ed Fhistc almost's purely mechanical down the appropriate welding "gut, pros and cons of welding ths metal by exe efor elost immeditly. Fe oertion In which very lie ute ingen require apotorentes fhe slgaoare roca The goatee, Riuted” spot woking used xian’ thetever nde job sores tear be Yonage ths method possess tt ‘Shivinca: fares endinmany ater repestod ef along he sear Freeda. Saues spaed, wiv = shout i tines inliocaring shops vequiing irge Tee soramentoned Fseh'wacing © grate: hen tho ofthe gor wel rol see met ja foto wiry ansherfor of rata ium, an most of i alors, serene Put Vode hens bel euterisn ce tum cect Out isc al end nly ronogh weshing Pek scot hecurestssutcnad an, Sieh Rll and oer ratwaye sto ue esac ing rein Kedieger santa viwan heehee Ce pcpgn Te 0 aks Gena orn connects "TA, o7 MG wold alte (hat le nebded eto ee the correct and they are forced together under gonral ure Yogay, and inact K haa _tMogphere oxygen td nope, te {ning nd the covet arparape, end tmendous presure ae tre curent's eon ginostsupaadedinrocen years frm tha weld ra, ing on eer are embchinedocstoreatsetieopers: swchedon Theraitan becomes one byiNamuch superar geceseiraige tele or enveloped by am ne ga {oe presnee the fot posal ver ‘hey requling only the slag and TG" frungetan Ine Gon or HG, Inthe al yao, eng oletode ‘Slr vassons Of ese machines Supls meal tab removes rutin fe hert‘Gas ore wongumes le used which doesnot bum nay oF aro ago exensvaly used n motorcar pertacty fished je rod tarpon ae or CO% woldng, Met Ho the weid the 2 norma de ene Hod, Rene regarded ae oreo 956 ree permanent aitough the tp tends (0 These systems of welding sluminiam Besoin pied aor potonged uss end totrhave gra avatige erste’ hes to be weed p ty toh pioaa ‘athods of welding siumintm in thst mut oo Hep ian and fea om filter arated Tefunes aheing spate of weld metal The ve the fim of oxide which ‘Sppronriate alee poroolin moze mst « a tas an 10 gauge (tor Sr ‘wed proper The Repo» clengoe ‘ced roger wi “ Sd the bond of woe rita! latersround TFG welding of aluminiom the Wolding Stainless Stee! by T.6. {hes oto ue 1 eoeh type To oan is sea fat soo sxpet antemation anges mos fy meted unt 9 a Progressing to etna ofthe seam Slomping up int ust way. Ths weld ‘nay be cared out by te aoarnard {oor tacks paced squaly sped along seam, Some fil rad may be She weld should ba carad out bythe Iehwara metnoa,and'ath ighy Foguired,apecty at end of un fo tee lo he get the ‘gee before commencing. Ov cer eke of wets bere rocsodng wit ‘Thar method este or tsknesaes ‘meted, tat pice he secon tack ‘hemant ofthe frst one. and the thd Fi Weling of Hone Seton ot (rm) ts gos shoul bs cher Weld Symbols most likely causes pine rate en =a ots ge ‘nda arte i a me inte a eos SESsSEe5 fur gh. sv pean Tent Se per seen pore toca imei on ne gine con ton Angsana suingrmusorees oa cae consrinaies Become oe Seine

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