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HEBRAIC

tie

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A
N

AL

JOIRN

QrARTEHLV

IN

THE

IXTEHESTS

MAXAOING

WILLIAM
Professor

or

Hkiikf.w

TiiKOMMiiCAL

axi"

R.

Protcmor

or

AssYRioMNiv

IN

IN

IIKRMAXN
iMCiiKKSStiK

IX

THF

VOLIMH

MARCH

or

rsiOif

Hkbkkw.

Ph. D..
or

JOUNS

L. STRACK.
orTllKHtiOY

iNtrriTrTic

EDITOKS:

Univkksity

THK

Butist

Chicago

tbe

in

8i'hoolk,

or

HAUPT.

LANOrAGES

SKMITIC

Pil. D.,

Lan'ouagcs

ASSDC'IATE

PAUL

STI:DY

HARPKR.

Pki.ncipal

am"

HEBREW

KDITOU:

Coonate

tiik

Skminakv,

OF

GorrriNOEN,

HOPK1N8

and

PRoncMOR

or

I'MVERSiTr.

Pii. 1)..1). I).,


rMVKHSITV

")K

li".l"l.l".

I.

1884APRIL

.885.

CHICAGO:

of Hebrew,
Tlic American rul)lication
Society
r. O.

AiMeiss.

MiimiAN

I'ai:k.

Ii.i..

TH"

^00/
^J

Ac

u./

\/

Table of Contents.

NO.

[KoTK."
March.
threi"

"Hkbhaica"
and

April

monthly

numt)or9

I.

The

PrHP""8B

The

HiGHF.K

III.

The

V.
VI.

New

VIII.
IX.

giEHTIOSS

\.
II.

Hebrew

Hebrew

NnrdeU.

IS-14
...

I4-Ift

IHividson

Detitisdi'a

on

I"-IT

derNeuhebrBciseben

Lehrbueh

Assyrian."

IN

.NEW

YoRK.

CoxTRiBi'TioxM

TO

Hkhkkw

Syxonomy,

TniUMlaUd

Aboth.

VI.

Hebrew

i'HiH(M)HAi"MY.

VII.

Uexerak

NoTEj":-Thu

IX.

QlESTIOXS

Klty."

AXI"

By

Taylor
By

K*.

JCuMrr, PM".

Jl-"

I*. .4. A'""nlrH

Rrr.

r.

of

Two

li-41

irhrtUtm

xUv

PiM^tleal

Kplirrams

MIchBeUs
BarB

Books."
of A ben

.Htudy
Syllables.- Hebrew
In the Junior
Hebrew
8tudy

pMDtor'sTtfiiimony."

IMUPhJ)

Philoi.ikit.
II.

.4n*/ii/"i/"/

:-lnttTme"llate

Notes

H.

BrtrminlC.

t"u U. Pick, i*h.D


By

Study.-nplJf
BniTORiAi.

By

Amstkiax

ActHMituatlon
In Later
Hebrew."

VIII.

/*vu*

By

SrPERSCRiPTioNf*.

THEIR

WITH

IV.

VanderblU
VacBtkNl

at

oo

Hebrtw
41-48
rnlver-

4B

AXSWERM

NoTit'Es:"Tur|"le'sCliaklev

^'-^

Manual..

""

HENlTlcBlBI.KMmAPHr

ilooKtf
"oR
I*./*..
The

THE

Varietie*

l!hrri"Y i"r

or

THE

III.

Ox

IV.

ro)iTRiBrTKiiN""TKs:-|l"A

V.

^K*."

p. A.

SI-*

axo

II.

Word

H^r.

Ph.D

S*-JI

Hriirrw

I.

By

Pntf. D. G. Lynu
The

S-M
lO-n

"""W

Life

and

TO

XI.

Nab"

Grammar

IXf*"'HIPTI"".N

PHALMS

B4MtK

the

1-6
Biblical

xm

or

pi" O^B^.

I.

of

CoxTRiBrTiox!*

X.

for

count

:..

Dative."
Kules

Delltzsch's

Ballin's

PmUJCKlAX

PiKKE

iwued.

Htirprr
Ckeoibilitt

T. J.

By

III.

V.

and

BlBLlOORArHY

HEMITIC

The

were

Quarterly,

ANSWERS

AMD

Notices:"

Sprache."
X.

numbers
a

Noteh

Editorial

Hook

Ethical

The

It as

Ifi.D

Syxosvmt,

Testament."

R.

the

IW.

By

A8SYKIAX.

oi*

Xote."*:"

Oe.nrkai.

L. Stmek,

Hebhew

T""

roKTHESTUnv

three

and

publish

to

to

Sri.LABLE.

CoxTRiBiTioNK

IlooKK

Monthly,

irrt/fcim

By
Wit.xess

//nvmiitH

Uy

iNTBKMBuiATK

Hebrew

VII.

Hebraica.

or

as

determined

1884.

MAY,

1.]

No.

Chiticism,

MATivE.

IV.

then

was

as

APRIL,

commenced

was

It

May.

If.

I. -MARCH,

"IxTKRMEiiiiTE

Kl"IT""MI%l.

VI.

II4MIK

VII.

HBMITIC

tub

Semitic

Alphabet.

Syllables."
VerlMi

By

Bjr HrrMdNn

LABorAOK.

Uy

Pr^tf.Jokm

L. Utmr*,

l\ C. tlB**"

/I. IVIhtmIMiI, Pfc.O.

l"1rBl

PvnoiilUaf

ImpT. diU

^^^
""*'"

NOTEB.

'"-^'

NOTII-ES
UlBLMKlNArNY

2"b""-Hkbmaic

^
.

4
NO.

I.
II.

The

9TiXJiM.t4

MrnKllNl

III.

(IX

IV.

D0'^'3"0'r^'^v3-

Hkmkcw

V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

Tmk

roXTKIBlTlOX
By I'n.f.

MlM^lXAXKiiri*

C'URTRiRi'TKi)

J.*"|

Arabic

The

Iho

in

StuUjr

of

*C

'"'

ll.*"

II'. Iltf

"5nun-

.\n"maU-

SylUabk's with

Opfii

l-*"

l^i
^^p'Tl.

""lm-inM*u.-p;*3**i."

rn4fUX"'ntcU

121

Ilv

AMyrbin."

""

'"*

lUr.tt.Piek.rh.lf

of

"^

"

Kthl""|"U*. KautJ.M-h'H

rniv""n"tiy

'^

"IIXo|.im;V

Uy

thf

on

Till

TIIK

OK

/-fc./"

p. IVfrni.

Fathkkh.

THK

Hrmarkd

of

Siudy

NoTRn:"
Vowel

8lMn

or

N""TKK:"

The

EviTORiAi.

By IV""r

oKSAVixr.it

li.irA"r. I". /".

WiUulm

Prt./. K. K*"im/s"-Ii. R

By

N""TR!(.

Arotn;

Hl"TOKT

THK

T""

A-IU

:5

'*

'*"

''^*-'''*.

Ity rvnt*

liMt.

I*h. n

L. Str^teK.

llrrm#iii"

/V".r

By

IV../. '"''""ni' ""

By
Yrak

Laxoiaok.

m"r."

IX.

(iRAMMAK.

ARAMAir

PiRRK

LAStorAas.

(iRAMMARK,

MAM-m-RiPTorTHK

IUbkkw

t"r

Humbw

tmk

IX

llBBKKW

IX

1884^

OCTOBER.

2.

.V.

IW

i:e

|:"

1:m

"

X.
XI.

B"M)K

NoncM

SUtlTlC

LIT* KK

BiBLlOGRAniT
.

NO.

I.

The

MAS!M"Rrnr

II.

The

Daohesh

Voweu-Ststkr."
Ixitial

ir

III.

THEOLDTBirrAMKXTIXTHETIMKOrTIIETAI.Mri).

IV.

AMTRIAR

Hamvt,
V.
VI.
VII.

SPECIAL

7""w

by Rtr.

KErEHEM-E

W:-I44

r). FUtrhtr

o.

By

/{" r.

TO

HehKKW.

14"-ISS
/"

/'iV;.. IVi.

".

l.VMT*

/V".f.

By

htul
1::" 1 ""

N0TE8.

lli8CKLi.ANEor!"

New

FitiwrM

By

N""TE!".

Xotf.k:"

In the

with

.4 tmrutlatUtn

Pk.D

Ai"9iYRioL,4XiiCAL

Gbrekal

Pn"f. (niir/.^il H.

By

LrrrKKti.

PM0X0IX"GT.

1885.

3.-JANUARY.

liy JtJtn

P.

The

I\Un".

Hehrt'w

in

Question

Twtament."

iln"if H, Ph.

KeliKion

1^.

IM-l?*il

AUilitional

(^ninunar."
of

the

Ka.v"lto"."

Wonli*

Antmaii*

Chaldtf

Hymn.

By

rael
Is-

Nairara
VIII.

BoiTtiKiAi.

Pn."fe*i"or

"

IX.

Notes:"

B""""K

The

Haupt*8

NoTHES:

9BMiTI(

Sertes

Hebrew."

of

The

prci"ent Number

of

Les""ons.

i*"\

!!"

IKI

IM

IKH

Hl"tori"ch-kHtl""eheK

Koeniff's

"

is;

Hebkaka.

Articles

of

Mltcheirn
Hebrew
hebraeiiH'hen

"

Lehrirebaeutleder
X.

Institute

IHit

IK!

Spraehe

BlBl.lOflRAPHY

1W"^ :5lt
.

N0.4.-APRIL.I8

I.
II.

The

CT1.IXDER

By

III.

PikkeAboth:

IV.

Wateh-bexHaeaek.

V.

SYKiAi'

Nebikadxezzah

or

TheS"kibe.

Pntf,H.

or

Ry

Versiox

By J. F. X.

York.

l\iul

B.

Pfri^, i^.D

VII.
VIII.

217-Sll
jEsrs.

Aboai^to

Br

l*in"r. Imac

IX.

10. II:

"clcncc"

XI.
XII.

Book

SCMITIC
Gbrbbal

for
a

p;0

Errata
^j'l'D."

Conneetlve."

Notices:"

Some

")n

Recent

BlBI.KHiRAPUY
IRDBZ

TO

Semitic

M.-Note

xx.,

lYof. Jtthu
P. Pttem,

i*n\f.
F. B.

By
the

I2".

VII..

Prttf.Jtthn

By

NoTE":-On

"^ITlt.-Oeneeis

Ry

roth.

Qt'ESTioNS.

('oxTRiBi-TED

without

X.

axdMazza
Ni/TEti.

ELLAXEMrs

IV..

//"tW,
SB-SI5

Orion

Grammaticai.

and

IL

"

Pleiades,
MiM

-JDI aw

S12-2HI

Hauitt, rii.D

Kixo

or

By R^r.

P/i.D
VI.

S. J...

Oinmn'r,

aw"-ill

Fathers.

THE

Pntf.

Epistle

or

New

L.Strack,l*h.D.,D.D

Satinga

OR,

at

85.

on

the

the

iHiAZ
344

|;"3^Dan.

ii., SJ;

17".-r"nSy

of

2M-S41

in Oenernl."

Baer-Delitx9ch

Source

(Jerman

Ph.

I^umhio,

M,

Dftito

Laniruaffe^

"E"r"iv.,
In

G.

the

IkMiks

or

E/ra

nnSy

Edition
Name

TWTV

of

The
v..

Kelativcii

I"", n3/3

34*

""

^Exra

"r-Moriah.--Con-

Pr"%*erb9.-Piir|M"He
247

2:";

"iK

3Ki

*..1"3lM
Vol.

Sfkvaj;

""F?EB^7II(^7I.-"

Vol.

MARCH,

I.

PURPOSE

THE

OF

Willam

IJy

No.

1884.

1.

HEBRAIOA.

H.

IIaiii'kii.

I.
The
the

study of tlie Hebrew


of the

study
for

them

the

where

they
of

kind

required, nor

afford

far

"o

as

he

as

duties
few

is

has

subject
is

must

go

lack

to

and

4ind
Who

we

portion

for

teaches

of

preparation

the

it

the

on

the

to the

Old

be

of the

language

i*emainder

exeix'ise

the

Ue

of

the
be-

the

pupil,

in which,

pwfessor

will

not

if not

nothing

for

woixis
text*

our

l)e
the

is work

we

have

in textual

are

in

texts

no

criticism

of

separate
yet l"een

has

deplorable state,

that

that

unsettled,

by the times,

of

Hebrew

-when

we

that

And

to lie done.

questional by those
Professors

we

has

Semitic

are

is demanded

there

tlie

yet
grammar
study of Chaldee, Syriac, Kthiopic,

written, that

versions

acwssijile on
of Hebrew

and

gnimmars

comparative

the

is

large number

ica
that Amer-

remember

gi-eat

biblical

ethnolog"'
yet
greatest uncertainty, that a critical Introduction

of the

Testament,

work,

of
our

Semitic

certainly that

work,

will do this

part

almost

genuine work

no

in

no

for

of the ancient

questions

realize

growing

that

yet to

are

matter

of

philology? \V\\ei\ we

lexicon, that

Germany,

notes, that

texts

year.

one

at hisdis-

language, only
i"ei'formance of his

The

exegesis, an

to

time

the

rudiments

the

of

work

to Hebrew.

not

studies

tolerable

Junior

given

in Semitic

Hebrew

practical text-books
with

with

rests.

and

Assyrian

chronology is
English

He

for

to be done

England
that

imiwrtant

facts,

language merely.

is

produce

He

as

philological nature

and

Testament,

that the meaning


synonyms,
satisfactorilydetermined, that for

not

that

and

of

work
to

bi"oks edited
done,

Old

so, to fit himself

Hebrew,

of

is crowded

original investigations. The

to the

divinity hall,

they
disoccupied largely in the cussion

is

professor

American

of

they emphasize"l

are

Discussions

Hebrew

of

appeared,
Arabic

during

the student

no

yet

yet

as

do

to

concerns

as

wcirks, while
Is there

given

professor of

in

engage

be

obliged

week

of the

"*4ui8e

It must
to be

far

so

student

The

expected.

here

even

and

theological instnictor.

hours

course,

Nor

hands

the

at

and
from

derived

assistance

exclusively in the

almost

on

instructor

he cannot

|x)sal is short.
"annot

of both

time

another

or

canied

are

the

slight attention

questions strictlytheological.

neither

are

but

necessarily secondaiy.

are

The

desene.

studies

for

languages, except

receive

Hebrew,

These

scholars.

language, except for distinctlytlieologicaluses,

Semitic

other

who,
?

for

recall
it in

monuMit,

Is It not

in
these

great

i-ellect.

demanded

of

llKllUAICA.

:"

tlie

who

men

Shall

with

greater

selioolmen
and

numbers

in

engaged

sdiolars

of all topics relating to the

their

do

in this

duty
and

valuable

Semitic

as

means

Its

of

ish
Jew-

in

larger

the

the

be

of

work.

afforded

of

It will

such

and

ticularly
par-

discussion
urge
to

topics

to

them,

education

higher

the

history.

or

tween
be-

It will

to

open

investigation

opjwrtunities

cause

of the

some

inter-communication

Semitic

will

pages

undertake

the

to

departments

by using

matter

lasting service

serve

to

the

this work,

publication of

of

langiuiges, literature,

calls them

pwfession

whose

to

various

the

of

minutiae

of

hold

for the

medium

original investigation.

encourage

those

aim

philological fields"and

technical

tiike

that

l)efore ?

ever

to furnish

theological seminaries

our

to

as

scholai's

than

It will

study.

this

of

results

these

American

zeal

of

literary and

''discussions

to

not

will endeavor

IIeukak'A

into

energj-

all their strength

devote

not

with

themselves

thivw

they

chaii*8

Testament

Old

the

"MH?upy

render

learning.

II.

In

the

the

now

of

case

those

it, but

would

have

not

far wrong

few

be

in

that

saying

of this

l"i, probably, endeavor

to do

they ought
After
Interested

that
These

the

on

study

of

as

be

either

In the

in

given

attain

not

that

study

former

the

latter

Kingdom

be the

hundre"l,

no

but

thing

and

take

of

for

other

claims

push

them

alone

and

of
to

a
one

cannot,

must

side

of

study
which

assistance

consequently
they

may

under

to be

carrying

the

perish

have

yet

an

this

fess
con-

undertake

of

it.

who

wa"

time

may

enabled

have

have

and

hence
them

to

regarded

the

it at eveiy

the

possible

portunity.
op-

ministry without

without
have

be

study,

will

instructor,

may

shirked

they may

such

on

department,

they

that

justly

it,or they

have

able.
un-

sufficiently

may

not

that

mentally

or

amount

would

entered

do

dropped

had

to

ing
remain-

sixty, who

sufficient

delusion,
; or,

remain

and

; or,

have

the

cannot

it.

in the

of

why

their

studied

and

the

the

the

immediate
in

the

case,

sixty ministers

yet do

same,

Because

not

they

the

it difficult

withdravv

with
not

they have

because

have

they find

that

living acquaintance

it: or,

nature,

because

nature

And

remains

desire

overcome

immediate
; or,

fact

to have

this to be so, and

an"l

more

or,

knowledge

they ought

obtaining

study

teacher;

assignwl,

reason

acknowledge
the

of

it w^hicli

have

may

are

than

nary.
semi-

Hible.

the

although

steps towanl

further

case,

(;"m1

they

the

not

are

for

necessary,

study

will

more

Of

physically

it,there

the

cinriculum

degree

importance, and

no

Whatever
every

supposed

from

case,

not

onlinary preimration, laboring

ever"

may

excu.sed

One

satisfy themselves

are

preparation
be

commenced

but

without

Ill the

help the

that

who

ten

exegete,

an

been

they did
carry

it up.

and

have

not

have

men

taken

make

to

of

ministers
not

work.

ticenty who

cases,

study.

indeed,

present.

or

hundred

every

who

men

hundred

it, and,

eighty, however,

reasonably

may
are

past

this

knowledge

some

desire

consecutive

or

study is desirable, and, indeed,

such

scholar,

These

least

the

of

these

Of

who

more,

every

reasonably

may

sixty

never

work

indispensable,

as

who

ten

their

in

for

reasons

earnestly

eighty out

systematic

any

from

they

least

at

at

truth.

generally accepted

the

upon

circumstances

work.

deducting
in

VBgaided
and

such

to do

not

that

is

have

not

subject.

/"ii,not

are

enlarge

do

supposed

alive to tlie importance

serefily,there

who

unfavorable

for

Hebrew,

to

cases

clei'g}men

it may

language,

go

but

to know

ought

ministers

Christian

That

It is necessary

to

from

cany

it,and
a

pressed

will-power
on

work

of

guage,
this lan-

have

formed

are

their

out

taste
diswith

needed
such

to

study

to attend

Plki'(""k

TiiK

school

instruction

wliere

which

encouragement

will

IIebuaica

the

such

study,

aim

and

to

are

in

of

the

that

of

study
aid

of

midst

the

Journal,

if

work,
better

in which

to decide

by

in

to midertake
of

the

that

study.

hundred,

eveiy

if

them,

and

means

of

three-fourths

from

encouragement

of actual

understanding

is written

had

not

in
possible, to engage
its prosecution.
These
things it will

incitement

and

have

they

ministere, sixty out

to stimulate

possible,
of

words

the

toward

language

Hebrew;

them,

them

these

because

or,

bring

to

t" interest

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;

but

would

to the

th"? Prlest-codex

time,

canvass

between

the-se

assertion
knows

of

most

nothing

of

this

ii.,

46, iqq.s has

the

oft

tlie
of

lxx"k, the

U^

Its

discusseil

reconls

two

in

may,

particular,

8o-c4ille"l flmt

Is only c"intinued
origin In the Jehovlst.

Prie.st-"*o"lex,and

the

call attention

rather

of

beginning

section,

the

We

l)est assured.

are

from

(I., 1 n.,4"0comes

far

According

reference

beyond

as

creation-record
in

to the

alluded

Jehovistic,

of

will

of

matter

very

uiKHi

consider

tliat

sources

too

Jehovistic
was

the

of

pnmf

we

be

original dcM'uments

f re"iuently made

tnistiness

The

us

to the

the

are

built

the

uni(iue legislative and

lately

been

what

to the

each

of

is

partly, independent

relation

parts

is to

times,

of the
In

wliat

compiles

particularly taken

or

; and

according

to
and

circumstance

Further,

facts, injismuch

modem

; for

documents,

which

in

that

and

and

detailed

document,

appear

probability, the

an
important
many
(the calling of Moses,

leading
in

named

differences.
state

will

Priest-codex

The

divei-se

of essential

regards

all

to
source.

these

sources

last

Pentateuch,

the

there

the

already

sources

the

law

his

and

parallel accounts

many,

exclusively

notice

not

suitable

the

most

was

ceremonial

this

omit

too

history, peculiar

because

analyzed

l^etween

according

us,

with

which

that

was

the

be

places,

discrepancies
do

most

come,

other

eafch of

and

partly

not

may

naturally,

priest and

have

we

existed,
the

most

numerous

They

preferred) who

from

take

constnict-

on

many

are

They

also be

may

partly shorten,

law,

original elements,

its

name

in

there

irreconcilable.

are

and

redactor.

they,

documents

complete,

will

the

when

evident,

; he

body

irrational,

an

been

clearer.

If, now,
into

original

of

tact

will

omitted,

mostly
and

the

have

to

in

greater work,

spiritual contemplation
liave

Pentateuch

themselves

which

document,

the

to

entirely contradictory is

the

care,

with

extol, almost

(which

ceremonial

priests and

is

codes,

contrarieties

Ckiticis5i.

admit

individual

the

it. which

of the

who

great

redactor
or

in

related

what

conflict

evident

between

follows.

together

circmnspection,

fundamental

even

IIiohek

those

Now,

man.

The

of

the

something

question,
creation

are

and

t4" whether
to

lie

knowledged
ac-

else.

representatives of the
Fall,

as

stands

In

critical

this

ency,
tend-

re"|"ect in

llKItUAICA.

Uie

the

of

account

Thfai anertion

(iod.

of

\vp

It

"

will

seek

of

gtKxl." occurring

*"

character

is tlie author

ooniiug

to

fifth

Um

my

(generations]of

Toldotli

in his
his

name

name

expressly

sure,

of

acceptance

And

account].

the
this

shuddering
death

Uie

eni

refrain

cannot

record.

The

heen

((Jen.

autliority to
that

thiji

verse

lie

so

be

is

there

evil
in

and

made,
of

immediate
hence

the

of

between

the

^"^l

called

not, to be
the

[of

wording
between

predicate

of

with
word

this

that

reminds

world

the

who

should

govthis

register with

of

origin

gat
be-

into

him

continuation

old,

the

It

genealogical

the

he

fifth chapter

pressed
over

even

in

that

repetition

have

14),

v.,
man.

Priest-codex,

the

constant

the

loss

entire

the

sorrows

sf)rrow,

with

the

comes

him

nevertheless

certainly intentional.

and

over

the

consideration

furnishes

and

well

must

the

the

first

sin,

also

must

of

account

creationhave

creation

the

genealogical register.

Attentive

an

formed

have

originally related

likewise

26-28),

i.,

origin of

Adam*8

and

very

(/,i"wT;/*iw. Rom.

nded

earth

[Glied]

it evil

with

together
death

agrees

times

book

is

Adam

God;

to

distinction

proof. The

furnishes

monotony,

and
that

(TtD'?!l"D
iniQ^D)
likeness

to

ac-

of

years

image

rei"eating itself throughout

suoceetling sectionj

each

and

rip^

reality

made

130

was

it is,

seven

is the
he

Adam,

Adam

likeness

creation-record

fn-st

the

this,

of

good,"

in

and

cliapter

in

that

'-good"

This

to the-

Priest-codex

the

Seth's

own

Adam's

to

this

(Jod

that

Now,

in

that

that

^lO^ (i.,31).

view

good.

even

upon

parts

tlie fact

from

following, points

accept

when

[l)etween them]

distinction

to his

antithesis

in

set

to

or

works^

individual

the

time

created

God
; and

l)egotten) Seth."

of the

which

it is said

chapter

When

acconling

likeness,

own

(the

of

in favor

separate

the

arises

to the

directly

(iod(D%lSj" HIOID)

of

likeness

in

good,

very

this

Adam.

of

ation
creation, in consider-

protest against the

points

followed
of

of

entire

the

which

imix)ssible

altogether

beginning

the

At

be-

may

instinctive.

and

detailed

thet"iedicate ''very good" 1J"^


contahis

remained

(lenesis

of

harmony
whole

the

therefore

not

conviction,

chapter

asserted.

has

creation

the

fact that

of the

occurs

word

This

of evil. t

it

entrance

redactor

the

by

speaking

of

of

times,

seven

account

of the

alike

tirst creiition-record,

account

on

contraiy,

prove.

{!.,4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 25);

the

an

account

iii., an

to

the

on

omitted

only

was

lien,

|"art"belong t""gether. there

the

This

with

us

the

of

divided

the

that

of

to the

first half

the

It is

that

the

ii.,

5, sqq.^
But

it may

is

belong

to the

by

drawn

how

wholly

or

chapter of (Genesis

second

acknowledged

Priest-codex,

Priest-codex
of

of

vei-se

this.

analysis,

lielongs to

belong wholly

fourth

pnx"f

critical

i., 1 -ii., 3,

the

to

all

from

is it with
the

Jehovist

Priest-codex,

concede

who
the

Jehovist,
Does-

ii., 4 ?
; or

the

is it

second

to
to

Jehovist?

the

In order

arrive

to

following points
I.

The

Tbe

would
t Only

load

too

w"f"i

Toldoth

wonl

pttMajfrc.

at

is

Fii.-""

constantly

till* Lntlii

Kitttfint;^

I*, xlv., 7, l" not

far

judgment,

correct

we

must

take

into

consideration

the-

^jri" tbt* Owt'k


t

"

good

WHS

bei-ause

exist ." and

**

Jehovist

in

itjicompleteness,

of

this

that

now

believe,

originally contained

it siiy in the

does

times

Six

and

creation

the

Into

We

"ooount.

l"rie8t-oodex

the

that

amrmed
sin

the' Jehovist

to

opposition

superscription

there

occur

subscription.

This

mutuluM.

inconsistent

with

tho

al)ovn.

here.
does

not

necessary

exception.

The

interpi-otation

of

this

verse-

is^

The

also true

as

Genesis,

does

to Xum.

4 would

V.

belong

Toldoth

2.

Toldoth
for

and*

the

so]

[Glieder];
them

what

; and

getting

THNill

begettings.

therefore
order

the

to avert

the

must

these

Rather
the

be

But

does

could

the

this,

following

have

not

is

belonged,

at

"the
of

the

which

allude

follows

to

what

of

sevenil

the

has

earth.**

been

fact remarked

the

its origin from

of

not
can-

assumed

in

ifuh, 1 ).

above

them

1h*-

n^l'?!^

language,

and

(wliich latter has

from

sections

important

the mentioned

the

lieavens

\^^*

after

comes

most

^J^f]after

the

section

the

usage

of

origin

what

through
or

with

this constant

to

subscription

indeed

by

"jS"3ni'?^1

but

begotten

were

upon

of

begotten

issued

who

follows

treated

the

have

those

are

what

never

of

it may

denote

words

In

mostly

become

conclusion

which

will

to

the

in. the

far

begins

(the heaven

an"l

the

in

the

tribe

of

of

sons

Moses
not

stand

If

we

stand
than

back

because

by

name

account

of

began,

stowl

first of all befell

incident

for all the

redactor

has

superscription
Blaewhcre

one

supposition

the

tion

It

of

they belong

these

another,

the

the

invariably

create"I,

wtifflx.

in the

related,

related

section

narrative,

Levi,

The

cliapter
with

along

time

the

while

of the

of

heiuls

the

tribe

1 did

the

has
and

taken

that

in

no

other

follow

section,

")ther words,

Fall

of

yiehh^l

to

indeed
up

see

not

of

soms

they

are

the

by him

and

he

cai^e.

(lossibility

n*7X^

which
after

chmi-

e|Mx*h-makiiig

Jehovistic

that

the

immediately

what
an

man,

so

of

state

present

equally riglit,I

superscription

Jehovistic
ban

and

of

U*

(v. 27).

(i.,l-ii., 8), but

This

creation.

left only the

be

tribe

itive
gen-

will

But
in.
only the
of the
[SfoMiwirfif/fr]

Num.

in

forefathers

as

sideration
con-

have

we

l,^/^.,which.

in.,

that

that

chief

notice

mentioned

at

nothing

following

one.

any

I^evite division

the

to

can

them

thing

is

Priest-ccxlex, v.,

creation

l)etween

Moses

points, which,

that, in the
the

by

of the

Kohathites

the

three

only,

future

the

Num.

passage

is made

reconi

in the

of

out

noted

the

further

no

service

be

further,

And

that

togetlier were

these

fieaven

of

that

earth.

which

There

both

muster

among

how

nin'Tin

upon

put to this

; because

significance for

in opposition to
the

been

m*?!]! n'?NV
whose

of

entirely analogous

yet

never

named

are

ask

now

the

the

indicating

mentioned,

is createil

this, it is to

beforehand

upon

instiince

is

also

be objected, that

intimates

rests

another

mean

Levi, of

called

even

redactor

Man

Against

requirement V
conformably
originated
i.,

chap,

earth.

might

46

v.

superscription, In^cause

of

were

pUN

Aaron

priests

the

it

to this

answer

from

the

follows.
i"

T'lK

of

has

,1^*01

Aaron

what

Toldotli

I know,

as

in

superscriptive

text

know

we

But

ii.).

said

word

very

something
taken

chap.

mind

as

co-participation of

Q^Ot^)

in the

its contents,

to

as

animals,

the

is further

transposition

with

and

by

(according

whatever

follows,

Plants

God's

to

the

that

Yes.

earth

the

of

to

earth).

believe

so

sections, but

Toldoth

[and these

and

According

cannot

"

Terah].

begat,

this, how

D^!DC*n

Elohistic

word

is
"j'7"3

the

have

may

beside

or

the

Tarah

of

^^^^

whom

in

only

origin from)

begetting

declares:

outside

According

"

ducimt)

derive

{arise from,

places alone,

following genitive.*

begettings ", the following genitive designates the ter;


begetrnb^D
27, rOH
n'?N1 "^^ '"^ """" ra qu(B gcnerata guut

xi.,

onginem

two

following.

signifies

example

{orta Aunt,

18, in which

iv.,
a

therefore

"

following.

otherwise

least originally, to the


3.

the

to

wholly
found

is

Criticism.

Kuth
with

occur

Jehovistic

undeniably

1, and

iii.,

Toldoth

Higher

used
made

account

it

as

the

to follow

IlEnUAICA.

10

been

omitted,

itoeeurred

because

has

the

Why

immediiitely after.

naturally

we

Ill any

th"* fa"^*t tliat

case

the

serves

Vanderbilt

about

attention

whi"se
liave

merely

Many

curiosity

arouse

Manuals

such

nothing

about

to say

brief

such
hpimer

Of

those

mentioned
lie fails to

the

and

complete,

it. telling

to

resolution

prnf-

writers, such

of

Uavies, barely alludes


wonis

in

whicli

it

faintest

of vocal

sort

(;es"*nius

consideration
**

the

end

the

same,

of

either

m""re

note

Hie

"

and,

line

at
or

of it

so

or

definition

Sh'va

the

syllable with

may

waving

be

the

"

to

medium

all criticism

"-at

thr

any
mere

one

or

after

by

but

in

imder

few

effecting

appoggiatura

of this

Sh'va
in the

Even

syllable mth

or

'"

the

in

con-

that

this

In
to

as

chell's
Mit-

real

stand

at

slight close of
following

and

we

given,

words

by
few

distinguished,

least
to

at

separate

amounts

his representative.
words

note,

medium,
few

arise

slight

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at

and

lines

translated

consonants

such

have

mentioned

foot

of vocal

as

looseness

and

and

that

8er\'e

of the

who

importiince,
only

cognition
re-

ment.
astonish-

apostrophe.'

mere

thus

for

its

attached

and

little

so

Green,

having

nothing

kinds

of

it

is especially

it,"" and,

indicated

end

Kalisch

excite

and

Roediger

sound

two

Mann-

and

given

it in

of

Merowitz,

has

loosely
by

have

treatment

Ewald

even

older

the

like, should

well

may

it.

saying,"

pronunciation

of

find

Bickell,

very

Sh'va

that

others

"

half shut syllables always

^^

placed

they

(iesenius,
in

it;

the

recognized

of

with

syllable preceding.
for

of

such

information

have

or

books,

who

of

Nordheimer

Lee,

have

that

find

vowel,

time

expression:
either

and

beginners

existence

surprising

silence

words,
we

account

numbers

mention

no

to

all

are

the

not

as

account

medium

short

the

up"m
of the

Sh'va
a

be

more

the

of

sufficient

expect

their

in

the

well

few

same

is

improved

syllable
that

may
a

give

Gesenius,

or

subject. Here

nuAjilf. and
a

unguarded

an

loose

the

while

lal"le." A

Sh'va

minds

There

Opitius,

syllable preceding

have

we

of

Sh'va

the

short

in

terms

Gesenius,

the

to

not

we

seems

flexion

occurs,"

of tlie very

swHiiience

it

Ewald,

as

general

by

use

make

It

in absolute

seek

alone

jHfstJixsyllables.'

the

learned

authors

satisfactoiy

in

us

vowel

do

need

siich

to

syllable, (Jreen

give

common

nor

by

loss

in

Jones, Wolfe, Tregelles, Arnold,

that

matter

is at

one

this

devote"l

but

i)assed the

that

of

of

Tenn.

subject.

Reineccius,

subject,"
those

as

Deutsch;

have

up

fore
be-

"c., lay

man,

DODD,

never

difficulty.

of Buxtorf,
the

compends

and

tihould

stir

to

or

J.

the

to

syllable exists, but

those

as

in

presumed
clearer.

and

credibility

Nashville,

have

they

of

fall

the

the

Syllable arise

grammars

the

T.

called

because

of the

signify that

l)een

once

difficulty here

no

sylhtble.

to

has

dotaile'l

of

SYLLABLE,

University,

Inteiinediate

the

only be

can

ages.

Pkofessok

li\

l^estions

of

enhance

INTERMEDIATE

THE

; it

more

wjis

statements
to

primitive

reBperting the histor}'of these

specify

now

account

written

tico

(ienesis,

of

redactor

cannot

Jchovistic

the

tlie fall

concerning

Priest-codex

of the

account

shorl

vowel

According

syl-

have
we
'*

no

must
is
to

too

this,

I'^pp.^^^Dp^
i^tl^^rii
i^^p"^?inaccuracy

of

definition

of

the

Hkhkaica.

Ij

make
and

hand,

intermediate

sound

syUable mieed

the

by Dr. Green,
Job

p. 27,

that

might

will

be

k'phith:-tlien
There

Infinitive

the

the

into

Hebrew

is

the

other

mind

mood

in

are

of

part

which

demands,

it

we

syUable

our

all

to

the

allied

closely
English

to-

it tits,

to

it became

part of

April

part of

as

more

the

the

and

of the

probability

consider

many

(ireen's, but

always

such

forms

be

in

"""!

Sh'va

lie vocal, there

If the

Sh'va

l)e vo"'al, the

which

lieing

.M^thf^gh,and
the

the

Is not

medium.

tlie

to

Infinitive

the

threefold

With

Hi ODi
preceding

needs
vowel

closed,

to be

of

minor

more

divisions

we

modified.

long,

the

open,

as

as

in

**c is at

in
the

is

the

way
in

take

latter

the

the

grammars

as

and

that

see

These

are

how^

by

this

the

it

alluded
of

silent,vocal,
Hebrew

rule

preceded

^rf??t^'
D?^NVi

just

by

first

such

the

Sh'

for

vocal

Sh'va

va

made

had

responding
cor-

threefold
be

moi

of

pronunciation

etc.,but

that

sees

may

given

no

insight

own

and

we

a,s

is

there

intermediate,

and

grammar

consistent

D5"1p1-

the

to, calls

Gesenius,

that

comes

it

his

point,

|?
finds

student

But

unless
at

not

T],DD'

word, making

syllables. By

points of
accurate

the

soon

or

read,

we

suffixes

M^thegh.

nomenclature

Sh'va

turns

somewhat

syllable, leaving

removed

never

the

thi.s

yet

many

Thus

know

to

mention

And

become

may

that

loss

are

view.

249), but

second

intermediate

TpD^,

There

Gesenius, before

this

of

the

p.

of

what

and

well

such

Is

but

our

(Green,

must

error

observed

number
as

the

division

which

additioruil.

further

no

Daghesh-lene.

likewise,

begin

perplexity

from

tion
considera-

the

remarks

work

of

treatment

syllable, as

subject

two

or

continually

Mi?thegh

toneless

one

language.

it

^"^

the

to

in his

us,

intermediate

the

author's

on

at

Sh'va

must

Sh'va,

for

grammars

no

and

had

we

clearly presented,
language.

*^

oj)en

vocal

to the

lUvision, quite

is

student's

Before

for ourself

other

he discovers

matter,

Sh'va

keep

given
of

given

this

passes

study

we

D5^D*li

If the

in

Hebrew

the

preceded by vocal

THp"!

as

the

not

space

find
he

the

unless

has

Green

has

beg
we

through

perplexed,

he

must

we

along through

course

or

that

syllable after

all

nms

must

the

in

satisfactory view

mistaken

greatly

are

flarkened

into

as

Dr.

that

yet assert

intermediate

outlet in

y],

just

it is

Like

question.

B'ghadh-

between

is treated

"

''"and

that

nicely

verb,

Daghet*h-lene,

of

and

in

in

one

Supplement

signification

in

prefixes
so

allowed

have

we

as

and

it there appears,

only

union

and

32.

x.,

the

in

of the

English.

Sh'va

of the

the

closer

because

Infinitive

the

Inasmuch

Unless

This

Editor

by

it forms

tlian

the

is

difference

this

for

reason

observed

form."

of

uses

good

very

'*

of tlie Student,

grammatical

the

As

prepositions.

other
No.

^'^p
be

to

seems

Neh.
"ll3tD'7

2;

vi.,

exceptions

Concordance,

FuersVs

radical

second

whose

verb

any
Num.

^, take

by

others

many

remarked,

be

here, it must

Yet

5.

syllables made

of

const,

find

and

given

^t)2.

6;

34, with

that

examples

the

^^s- lxxxvii.,

in.,

that

seem

but

used,

are

and

^ Sam.
'?1")J5

4;

xxxiv.,

mixed

For

Inf.

the

Isa.

given "with

be

found.

for

look

S^p

15;

x^xxiii.,

see

DlHD?

syllables in

intermediate

and

remarks

the

besides

doted,

or

it would

Inf.,

the

regaids the inseparable preiH)8itions prefixed to


interuietliate
syllable when
an
3
the role is to make
Ab

makes

^^^^ ^"^

^"

otiier.

the

QJ^J}*!on

syllable. We

next

D5131

be

would

what

between

the

beginning

in

otiier

the

the aret syllable of the word,


5^|nrii"g

the

suffixes^

the

when

intermediate

the^

when

Contributions

said

v.nvel

and,

from

short,

treatment

the

latter,

of the

grammai'

margin,

there

many

of

the

are

tells

us"

this

between

in which

those

given,"

for those

in

like,together

with

Green's

"etc.

the

of

Had

these

which

Sh'va

class, they had

separate

words,

in

^8

of the

and

DD")D"1^

under

letter

and

open

acute

CONTKIBUTIONS

TO
Uev.

13y

acute

is not

examples

that

as

will not

swer
an-

and

the

IfTN^

it

lil"ewise

proceeds

of the

consonant

syllable.

shai-petied
syllables

or

as

definitions," tlie aatte

syllable begins with, -in

next

little consideration
both

nature

liangs

prefixed particles, {^inH

defective

the

thus

it, but

because

HEBREW

p.

New

as

is the
ally
natur-

*7bp5 which

g.,

sharpened^ as

or

Doctor's

would

it, and

in ""fTK^

the

the

Yet

to view

come

that

under

closing

the

uncommon,

for all such

the

On

of

e.

"

of the

their

not

after

Sh'va

fault

that

*7pp.

in

sound

some

at

the

to

upon

subject.

we

consonant

vowel,

by

syllable partakes

intermediate

the

that

has

Harper

turning

besides, the

syllable,
the

has

discovered

same
as

by Prof.

On

when

And

well

very

consideration

the

letter,

double

does

is equally

doubtless

with

syllable teiminating
"other

into

Davidson.

following

consonant

being always

taken

authors

of
but

one

formed

are

p. 27"

to

tive.
half-ojwn syllable isverj- defec-

it, the

slight vowel

consonant

which

both

applicable

kindly called

language.

kind

the

closing

such

many

calls

definition

the

definition"

idea

upon

he

is

full exposition of the

vowel,

and

syllable

been

just considered,

the

"another

with

This
bl-(|'t6l.''

b!q-tolnor

as

rule

indicated, by pencil marks

of

unaccented

short

it is pronounced

close

loosely

10"

p.

It has

Jialf-ojun.

had

those

as

or.

that

has

we

processes

intermediate

the

tlefinition of
He

same

etymological

the

13

suffixes.

comparatively

defects

the

syllable by Dr.

that

his

appreciation of

our

here

find

we

that

seen

attention

our

intermediate

the

of

be

these

receiving

above

the

writing

Since

it will

given,

verbs, when

Synonymy.

D?*)?*!. TjlOeV :^9^t5'*^


D5*?p9'DD^PNil.
^pnU-

in

as

examples

the

and

nouns

to

is

IIeurew

to

of

it will

the

open

l"e

seen

closed^

and

in D^HN-

SYNONYMY.

Nurdkll,

a.

Ct.

London,

I.

the

i^iKf/,and

meaning

to

vested
blended

^li-na-a-tav

judging
"""reiice

the

^Djn

(ireat

in

by

The

of

function

word
suits

Sanhedrin
a

executive

lawgiver

sentence

and

li;Q}

pi.

has

they

or

civil
in

by

by

are

the

as

when

Darius

into

This

are

is intimately
says,

fuiniletl'^ (Xashi

rights.

no

primary

judicial autliority

its primar}' meaning

it I'etains

pi Jl*^, a

words

even

administration

judge,

(or decrees)

afTecting pn"t"erty
the

or

the

word,

executive

paH.sed from

soon

is called

capital

Semitic

hence

laws

affecting individuals

matters

and

Kast

and
"("''""f.

M"V'".

Hebrew

In

common

the

In

kul-lu', "my

deciding

pi,

pi,

^y

OSCTO

judicium.

ofllcial,and

same

the

p*^ and

and

causa

govern.

the

with

11).

or

to

rule,

to

at-tu-u-a

In.Hcr.

tani

Vulgate

both

indiscriminately,

used

means

often

translates

Septuagint

The

Rus-

that

general

of
ref"

post-biblical Helin'w. where

judicial

sentence

pt

IfJ.

fine

Hkuuaica.

14

fuudameiital

the

(3"HJ",with

Tfsi"rsub8tanUve
t3")C'9'which
In
to

of

from

OStb'O

right.

truth

of

latter

the

Is.

Tlie

2.

X.,

maintained

moral

other

and
of

element

and

XXVII.,

p*7 but

patriarch *8
to

be

snatched

to

respect

the

his jm"(

in biblical

disputes

grievances

or

^Hl

'DSCJ'O

is

with

of

its
of

Judgments
of

his

moral

reference,
these

God,

compensative

being

charged

Is. liii., 8
from

taking

where

the

righteous

almost

exclusively

arising

between

to

man

is said

Messiah

sentence.

designate
and

FOE
Hv

WiLiiKLM

While,
judgments

\^Ql^?2, by

man,

and

Ebkkiiari)
2.

H.

and

selection
C.

D.

G.

marks.

Rawlinson

of

cmpiis

D.

OF

only
of

the

the

exhibitions

laws, statutes,

Univer"ity,

marks

ASSYKIAN.
Ph.

Lyon,

G.

I).,

Cambridge,

Lesestuecke

Ed.

Leipzig:

2.

/.

C.

{= $6).

Inschriften

Tiglathpilesers

(Contains

long

Die

text

I.

Leipzig: /. C. HinHch,%

transcribed, wdth

Richer,

long
the

and

and

Keilinschriften

1883.

Price

valuable

translation,

G.

Asia," and

contains

Keilschrifttexte

Alte

marks.

London,

finest

Sargons

Chr.). Leipzig: /. C. Hinrichs, 1883.

15

das

Inscriptions

Pinches.

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und

Testament.

(Contains

Ed.

numerous

glossary.)

Miscellaneous
T.

about

(This is the first half of Vol.

Lyox."

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designate

glossary.)

from

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transhitions
**A

anl

S";iihader."

Giessen

embrace

STUDY

Assyrische

I*rlce 24

LoTZ."

commentary

to

exclusively

as

to

entire

PuoFEssoK

Dklit/xh.

l"rice 20

1880.

the

THE

F!ai\

Jliitricfus,1878.

almost

the

not

away,

etc.

BOOKS

II

used

understood

justice, but

regulations, precepts,

Frikdum

is

curing
se-

13;

passages

"btae

in

cxl.,

in

conspicuously

appears

These

him

Ps.

also

See

is^

onfe

n^C^l^'O,

e., assisted

decision.

legal, but

Hebrew

rectitude,
; the

and

judgment;

absolute

judicial utterance.

cause,"

my

Almighty

from

not

away,

is used

then,
in

2, where

4.

ix.,

tOSCTD
T

like Job

fallible

favorable

with

inherent

no

being equitable

from

Ps.

in

right

my

righteous judgment

the

exhibited

are

far

be

harmony

it has

of

embodiment

judicial

may

in

judgment

tice
jus-

or

reference

implied

an

equitable, but

just and

which

legal justice

hast

thou

"For

is

former

meanings

distinctive

be

righteous judgment,

infallible

an

The

reference.

monU

p*l should

; a

is

truth

Jnstiee and

having

by

p*!

of

establishment

the

designates

differs

It

standanl

objective

au

trial.

on

cause

erecting, setting upright, gives tlie

of

Uiought

V.

of

"

of

Assyria."

1880.

The

Price

Cuneiform

Edited
10

by

shillings

Inscriptions

Assyrian inscription yet published.)


Koenig's

Price

24

von

marks.

Assyrien

(722-705,

v.

(Contains the origin-

Notes.

General

al

and

IV.

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is said

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HAUIT."Sumerische

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of

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by II. C. Rawlinsoii
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vohnue.

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rue

elieu,
Rich-

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Leipzig:

Gesetze.

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Leipzig:

are

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und

C.

/.

Keilschrifttexte
J.

Leipzig:

appeared).

\si9.

HinHvhs.

C.

(in five parts,

Hinrichs^

IMce

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3f"

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Assyrian

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ai*e

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A.

11

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^Vkkadische

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Familien

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lo

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Paul

10.

translation.

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Carl

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about

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9.

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out

L'Inscription

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STUDY

Inscriptions of Western

Cnneiform

The

'"

INDEPENDENT

FURTHER

FOR

transliteration,

with

together

glossary.)

and

commentary

6.

character,

cuneiform

in

texts

1."

"

Sayce."

An

biwk, of the Assyrian

reading
had

Has

Sons.

Gi-ammar

Elementary

two

three

or

with

full

J/

language."

editions.

the

Get

syllabary and
Sam.

ndon:

Price

latest.

ressive
prog-

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d-

about

lo

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la Langue
Well

francs.

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Paris:

Assyrienne.
worth

I/Imprei)ieHe Xu-

having.

"GEI?EI(:/IIiM?OTES.-"Ethical

The
in the

same

returns

Dative."

pei*son

it were,

reflexive

e.,

he

('ant.

verb

i.
for hirtutelf,
vn.,

unemphatic

it,may

12, though,

taken

l)etook

himself

in prose,

Dj

are

used

always

in

rather

speaker,

ceilain

of

poetry

and

the

in

earnestness

heartiness,

flight, Isa.

and

more

unimpassioned

alone

PHS
-

meaning.

same

indicates

lviii.,

to

such

8 ; a

[i.*.,

or

In

diffuse
;

ist

er

even

may

is

Cant,
the

accompany

"jSQ^

vin.,

reflexive

14;

he tied
Amo"

pron""un]

zeal with

prose

8;

without

verb

action

[Ger.

gone

expression

xxxi.,

the

ed,
himself, is quite vanish-

pronoun

similar

most

c^ses,

special participation
in the

way

off with

off, made
1; nay,

xii.,

to the

in which

h(
Tf'?!!
"i*^

as

dative, joined

the

express

completed

himself

11; (ien.

n.,

!*""
i/^'l^tlHil

as

c,

has

and

in the

pronoun

palpably

very

itself,is terminated

upon

sich gegaugen]^ i.
as

An

with

tlnis.

which
and

in

he

this mode

however,
the

acts

action
; but

by the

it occurs,

ea.sy-going popular

*\*2^
*\V^ they hoped for

of

agent
as

or
pression
ex-

an

style, both
thenuvlves

pression
ex-

in

{i.f..

IIkhraica.

1"

Job
"lliiasttMircariie"//j/i.

applied

lime

"une

^Um^iL

of

aecumulatioii
Hitry,

Huch

QTlh'

Kwlw-

in

occurs

the

"IJ^*or "^J^V

root

same

The

salt-water.
an

adaptation

ru.

yaru,

of the

"^i^'

IHiTldsoB

Testament,
of

still which
several

and

places

i.,

18,

VI.,

"

"njj^

which

JMtes

giving

Tene,

Greek
In
word

is

imi

the

ohO-

best
viii.,

have

I"
In

with

xxii.,

word.
44.

been

The

3?pn

be

vast

stream"

my

for

name

of

in

seen

the

ti'amtu

ocean

account

on

is

ya'ii-

Bible

there

of

into

Thus

the

accent,
Luke

x.,

has

the

after

doubtful.

The

In

proper

27, J^^Q

at

^J^

in

for drye?Mi deov

is

given for

in

the

uncertainty

Gala-

tative
represen-

for it cweUhimg

introduced

things

volume

signifies angels.
is not

the

Society, by

several

are

dipped

never

and

edition

Ecclesi-

end

of

of

the

the

inal
orig-

Iloman's ii., 4,

the

for

best

equivalent

for dloK'Aripia;
the

/mKpoevfila [there should

Philippians II., 6, the

difficult

word

be

proper

"T^i^ not
is rendered" '^'^ti^,
df):Tay/i6g
D^")^J

"

whlcli
"

faihi to

who

tlwii
the

give the true

separate from
a

tme

its

of

probably

"stream,"

fifth

the

unsuitable.

or

Septuagint

i"

than

more

37,

also

derivative

may

Foreign

have

pause

some

retained.
is not

nD1")Nn

We

to

See

Another

the

executed"

incorrect

Job

passage

ya'ure "streams,"

send,"

"In
and

plural which

Matthew

interpretation

III., 16,

"PK'

an

In

John

ed
regard-

Assyrian.

British

carefully

words

put

bitter

and

correction.

l"rethren,"

my

is not

should

Acts

is

alone.

In

X., 20.

found

6, Elohim

of odf/^M
dttiMMo.

have

n^H

"

is undoubtedly

the

rocks."

C).

to

Testament.

the

work

[alterationand

need

In Hebrews

for

pleas-

"

according

word,

good Semitic

in Hebrew

New

edited

I"eipzig -a

15.

means

the

the

"

"the

to the

iJiUtzsch.

"

Nile, ^^^ (Assyr. Yaru-'u-u)

the

word

Eg"ptian

Frcdertc

of

n^H

by
or,

(col. vi., 46), where

of

name

in
of

(c. 1320

yari marti

e.,

clearly

extensive

degree

"Nile,"

aur

rocks"

out

form

believe

l"elltzscli's Hebrew

ou

New

I*rof. Delitzsch

tians

Hebrew

"

Hebrew

ya-ar-ri. i.

called

is

gallatu,

which

is

the

of

part

commonly

supported

the

hewn

I.

Nebuchadnezzar

of

large inscriptitm

is

in

Assyrian

inscription of Ramannirari

an

the

on

"channel,"

Egyptian

the

by

passages

The

hoechstselbst

dative

fashion,

ially
espec-

such

hand,

produces

or

opinion

"fountains

subterraneous

liking

and

13;

asked,

other

the

reference

''river"

This

means

the

Syntaa:.

explained

word.

ii.,

Aramaic

the

(Jer.

is at

^"^'"**t'/^
^*"''
M^

strong

On

4.

ipsissimi,

Hebt-eto

I'aradiej", p. 312.

in

remarks

and

wonl

0**^^^

"

eommentators,

I^t.

the

The

7.

reflex

word, meaning

Hebrew

10, where

XXVIII.,

H*? JIX*??!!

particle, in

the

having
in

-This

^X**

the cart

as,

3, cxxiii.,

I**- -E^ctdd's

III-

genuine

of

use

", cxxii.,

found

Egj'ptian

an

as

the

pronouns

is

a"

wunl

The

for

I*". cxx.,

by

eridenced

participle, which

22, xxni.,

itself, Isa. ii"

poet*

later

certain

intransitive

quite filled itself) tinth sJieaves, Amos


question
a
or
wliich a"ivice is tendered

In

intrude

to

apt

object,

inanimate

an

aii

has

which

(.,

In aenteiices
b

to

with

19;

vi.,

translation.

reading, the

the
And

In Jude

sense.

congregation,"
the

meaning

19, the
is too

interpretation is
of

the

Greek

rendering

free, being
is,

an

incorrect

an
"

who

^l^ypT-fp O'^t^'^Qil
interpretation
one,

create

rather

for, according
schisms."

In

to

He-

General

brews

word

the

10,

xi.,

Xotes.

-"01111(18110118"

17

is rendered

by

singular

Jin'^^D*

noun

"

its foundation,"
Revelation

In

since

it

better

wheit"s
2,

XIII.,

verb

than

"

in

Bible

the

for

the

with

Greek

it.

it should

be

In

be

used.

which
,.i/"(To////*".

better

be^ntDH-

after

nilN

^^riifK

is

should

for

stands

HVN^

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of

phiral

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reproaches;"

'*

means

the

is

substitute.

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el of

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""

llevelation

*)i{",tD-

The

text,

TJX

11

xxi.,

taken

mild

word,
4

xiii..

not

occur

is

the

wonl

wrong

Ijasis, is the

the

as

llevelation

In

Htthpa

loo

El-

zevir

of

parts.
which
the

1624;

but

of

such

should

text

Delitzsch
way

various

seveml

critical

himself

l)etter
been

is favorable.

innovation,

an

and

have

reiuliiigs

a"lopted.
But

however

the

Bible

desirable

are

such

at

as

indi(;ated

Society
the

in

Tischendorf's

last,
to

seems

present

day."

different

stand

to
in

l''iw)i Modem

Review.

Rules

of

Life.''

.131;

"7^ on

.1^*5 tr"*

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^^n

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:

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for

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clegaiit

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and

poetic

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...

IaumUi.
beauties.

dn*

This

work

Ih

very

ttcai'w,

and

in

ilc."H.TVtMlly

IIkhkara.

"BDITO^LM^OTES.*
Tlie
Hucli

of

publication
jouniul

$eemed
Wbalever

be the

the

tfon. they cannot

t3rpography,
the

l)e regarded

etc.

is veiy

undertaking
he

their

that

the

publications.

""xpre8.slyfor Hebkaka.
Notes."

Ira

and
M.

The

of

general

what

of

until

The

Morgan

who
the

are

the

is

are

at

cannot

l)e furnished

is

sufficient

possible. Short

as

Tlie

numl)er

t4"

even

Tlie
her
as

well

oriental

records

of

of

the

Kxihn

as

be
soon

has

as

under

of

matter

been

prepared

head

the
In

''

this

of

ieneral

work

for what

both

the

has
and

Ottawa,

been
to Air.

"

or

is

large

"

ly
patient-

us

and

ment
encourage-

it

touching

in

introduce

to

ments,
depart-

all of

great

as

interesting

upon

these

to obtain

possible

were

taken

be

Many

one.

topics

on

if

even

will

the

studies, is requested.

Articles

time;

one

beyond

with

bear

consideration, aid

in Semitic

Notes

be

it

make

profitable to

If

classes

both

not

The

Care

To

indicated.

been

to o(;cupy

one

and

im-

feature.
increased
the

as

from
size

of

In

into
of

This

history

in turning

past.

come

be fully imderatood
treasures.

secular

scholars,

ttrst number

Knist

will

never

ancient

of the

as

in

of

to thirty-two, and

twenty-four
the

subscription-list will

seem

to

yield

up

enlargement.

an

study have
the

articles

""f pages

present will

stores

nal,
jour-

interest

to the

scholars, it will

included.

space.

prominent

greater ninn1)er,

justify such

Will

.journal is intended

{lortant points will l)e

such

l"e diflicult.

Hebrew

interested

way

lliem.

variety

of

is assured.

Fletcher,

O.

already

and

cpiite distinct,

not

those
the

Their

translated.

be

will

fairly started?

departments
there

has

character,

students.

mere

the

these

journal
of

Pn^fessors

in any

are

liehl which
and

of

point

journal

all who

be

printed

O.

publica-

as

with

signed

indebtedness

Hev.

to

of

place

Park.

Testament

tluwe
once

of

acknowledge

to

to I)e in

clatw, viz.. Old

his

be

to
ever,
how-

them,

personally responsible only for

will

in German

shall yet be done

puriK)se

it ought

reacrh

desires

for what

Price,

written

the

place.

will

are

selections

the

able
reason-

to

in connection

published will

matter

every

consented

justice

hearty co-operation

editors

is made.

details, such

another

editor

nal
jour-

one

kindly

from

minute

in

each

the

except

Contributions

Managing-editor
done

of

most

is but

specified work

their

that

All

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for

the

proposed.

distance

announced

be

name

and

great

so

certain

do

great, and

is the author,

own

at

that

it is

and

such

effort,this

assured

have

Ilaupt

responsible

as

will

which

of

nature

It is underst4X)d
which

will

Kach

end

responsibility.

editorial

they reside

that since

and

to be

are

the

that

which

gieat,
But

other

of any

accomplish

to

Strack

Drs.

of the

burden

to say

the

put forth

will I*

is veiy

numerous.

are

success

absence

to

department

undertaking

the

interested

tliose

result,

Associate-editoi-s.

share

in the

calle"l for, an"l

may

exertion
The

in

to insure

be utilized

must

to be

in the

aiding study

of

means

it is believed

because

undertaken,

been

has

responsibility Involved

which

factors

tlie

be

may

The

devoted.

IIeukak

the

and

aided

is equally
This

man.

overturning,

interests

existence

Lileratur-Bkat

Munich,

of

until the

of this

within

six

of

the

explains

the

unravelling

work,

three

months.

ftterOi-kntalische
by Johannes

Orient

true

Klatt

made

moral

religious,

present activity of
and

deciphering

the

oriental

for

October, 1883, appeared

Philologie, edited
of

to
and

Journals

new

In

be

Berlin.

This

by

Prof.

Journal

Dr.

takes

Hkbraica.

20

Iiefoi* "r

ii i" said, that

Assyrian

an*

nds

l"een

have

uuiy

llebiTW

kindly furnished

has

Lyon

the

includes
m"t

of

for lack

who

Htudv.

thereby

l)ook8, and

tliese

of

means

render

it

would

otherwise

y^^ (3C^'1)and

from

In

ti-hv)is evident.

the

transposition of \

V'J^ and

verbs

lioth

lies in the
of

the

to

HTph.
only

is
may

On

It

ft is

Unless

with

11., ",

yy^

1) Tliat
4)

XII.,

four

that

treated

receives

the

(ri) the

nominal

(h) the

two

article

form

according

nj^*T

which

set

of

hold

this

origin

that

be

oi '!)

DIpH' ^y

V'"3. The

il,rather
the

Dt^lHi

be, however," that

verbs

as

G.

f^r

^Ji^'in

Hii)h, is heightened

in

difficulty
to

than

fi,and

regarded

heightened
deed,
in-

given, which,

one

irregular, and

as

accordance

to the

with

construct

'Jer- -^'^""'

Infinitive
be

^"'

the

of

laws

14;

verbal

noun,

and

to

Ges., 109.

jl^*!,as

nor

in

noun

the

struct
con-

vii.,

is also

Infinitive

^'iN nj;'in N^n-i^^nv

constnict

said

(1 Kgs.

abstract

an

as

seven

list

should

e.

article, it may
of

out

Why

explained ?

it may

of

ii must

prefixed

an

The

once.

suggested

Dpiri-

IJtph.,where

Article

neither

the

times

nj^n

adoi)ted, the

^"d
rsiHT!^ XV.'

receive

may

been

explanation

expected

the

be

to

unchangeable

an

is the

begin

to

take

To

sor
Profes-

city, purchase
to

compared

analogy

the

suc^h

i of the

liave

^iD

beinff understood
state

is

verbs

it has

^^^^ ^^^^^

to

at

or

one

prevented

QSl, Ntph., and

some

the

should

the

than

D?)p. In ;2^"in,tlie

^^om

follow

lengthened

principle .is the

what

In Gen.

H of

college
some

is to be

DpIH^

Dplil'

expedient,

an

lan^iruage, we

2.

becomes

merely

o.

compared

of

case

while

the

e,

changeable

l"e

the

to

the

Assyribe.

to

ANSWERS,

this

33pnJ"r DIpH

y^

that

fact

With

U'p^'n

("

be

AND

purchased

for

possible

desire

this department.

of

Hdi)li'alof ^"J^

in the

^^ ^"^

^DIH

form

Tlie

vowel

is the

How

be
in

better

request

our

who

ITaupt

what

difficult
At

question.

eminent

an

more

those

need

yet published

QUESTIONS
1.

for

public library, whether

furnished

well

ever"

no

Hebrew.

up

books

books

these

books

valuable

most

by

learn

Trof.

popularly supposed

is

Assyrian

the

Cambridge,

at

moreover,

it is

as

takes

list of

all of

Not

study of Assyrian.

so

first time,

for the

wlio,

to one,

assured,

are

difficult

Hebrew,

well-acciuaintetl with

roan

language

the

ologist, that

We

is not

would

With

to-day.

Lyon

Prof.

of

entirely out

it is not

York.iuid

New

at

who

overcome

is

work

jigo, but

yeai-s

l)e desiitnl?

couUI

Mil vantages

tnie

must

one

such

that

great

so

live

l*n"f. Hn)wn

Itallimore.

at

antl

many

8*1

difticulties which

the

3.

IIos.
not

c).

sometimes

as

(twice); Dan.
Infinitive

an

Here

used

iv.,
as

may
an

Inf.

be

struct,
con-

compared

(Ex.

11.,

4) ;

and

that

showing
also

ntl^
of

the

2) In

cases

of

while

Gen.

nDtt'il (^ Kgs.

njH'

xlvi.,

V'tJ Infinitive

Gen.

"^he Inf., may

8) may

be

used

l)eing used

11., 9. 17, where

x.,

njTT

as

\S) and

be
an

L" Chron.

used

as

ix., 18); the


noun,

former

pfr'^ the

Inf.; the latter showing

the

noun

case

(cf.

ity
possibil-

substantively.
is

found

not

only with

the

article

but

also

Book

with

following

in

noun

in the

article

the

a verbal
riJlTT^

idea, and

abstract

found

the

with

both
time,

same

do.

only

not

as

of

j^

twenty-five

regarded

the

(c) that

as

one

the

texts

as

as

noun

than

16)

verbal

an

which

of

Inf.,

an

with

never

xxii.,

has

nation
expla-

from

form

more

true

verb

the

but

Jer.

also

expressing

as

the

as

having

ii., 9 and

(Gen.

article

substantive

in which

(A'ei7).The

accusative,

article,but

the

has

the

er
eith-

r*j;definite

ilJTl^ft"Infinitive,

just

nouns,

it is used

as

in these

noun

verbal

to say

to make

cases

word

receives

with

and

article

receives

Infinitives, and

simply

object in the accusative

inasmuch

Hi^^'

article

of

one

it,it is insufficient

on

(KaliKch), or

is

Although

the

is

substantive,

an

governs

would

it is derived
are

JHI D10 HiT]

beciiuse

is that

this

article

the

has

state

constnict

*'""'*^^'^

Hiy}

{b) that

(T/reeitV Ctnfittomathy), or

21

dependent

manner

rule.

the

to

(a) tiiat, contniry

some

Notices.

both
the

special

at

other
phasis,
em-

takes

noun

an

jiccusiitive.

Is the

3.

variable
In

use

definite

object constant

somewhat

or

Mc"\

where

is variable,

lieing used
much

Syntax,

Hebrew

The

later.

the

What

separate from
Ijefore

poetry than

rarely

in

fullest

treatment

is ufcfjwnrj/

DrW

the verb
of

names

in pmse,

of

the

only with

(2) its

than

persons

and

with

use

in the

of

earlier

particle will be found

pn"-

nouns,

things;

litemture
in Ewald's

86-89.

pp.

force

Is the

said:

commonly

more

more

be

be

must

they

3) it is used
in

it may

question

this

to

sufiixes

nominal

4.

sign of the

answer

than

the

as

of the

state

constnict

T]Tp' T"*?iV l*s. cxxi.,

in

5 Y

C.C.
the

Compare
this

is

case

phnuse in Judg.

same

expressed
ff^

pD'H plir

riyhi leg;

explicative

is the

English by

in

xx.,

aind

noun

p5" PJ?^3

"'' "*^

appositional. Gen.

or

1" ; 2 Sam.

114.

an

xx.,

The

9.

adjective, thy right hnnd

'^'J^ ''V^*'' ^ ^""*


3, 11 ". 5;

The

-'^'"'2.

Muelirr,

79;

H.

force

exact

of

e.

g.

rehition

Etmhl,

p. 88.

^BOOH:COnGES."DELITZSTH'S

book

This

is

The

1W3.

(1)
iiijr

Old

many

single words,
the

of

names

use,

some

It is claimed

"

The

7',x".

Uehrtw

as

the

of which
that

the
that

Pp. XII.. 71.

of

and
have

viewed

Price.

fl.flV.

vie.,to show

one.

which

verbs

of

the

have

not

animals
rare

of Arabic,

In
In

the
the

for

that

asMistaiice
yet

referred

Mny-Augu^t.

not

fnmi

.Vnihic,

in

explain*

ncedod

h""on settled; (2) many


to in the J^evitical law.
and

occurrence,

several derivatives; (3) sonic

Assy rinlogy is

A"7rtokv)r

ASSYRIAN.*

he obtained

must

of certain

names

value

UmgHngi,

ProfMHor

definite

passages

plants, nouns

exaggoratetl, and

i.iTXM'H.

ToHtamcnt

such

is

.AHMvrian.

from

AND

articles printed in the Alhenfritm,

seven

of the book

pur|Kmo

hitherto, hut

as

reprint of

HEBREW

even

verbs of

grammaticol

mon
com-

"|uestions.

Helm'W

lexicography, has Iweii greatly


actually inaugurating a new era in this depart-

liffht of
rnlvotMty

AMyrliin
of

RcvMroh.

I.HpBlr.

tijrDn.

London:

Kmiu"bni(-

William"

Dk-

Nofimtc.

Hebraica.

22

The

iiient.

Assyrian ought

urgeil why

reasons

peoples

(1) the fact that the Babylonian and Hebrew


and
in loup c*"ntinue"l and close intercourse,

an'

literature

Hebrew
soventh

were

of

century

information

cite, for the

by the Arabic Sli


Assyriology shows that

lined
'.
.

DJO

(Job

on

or

f*"

hence

(hinh\

it is

dates

has

together

Assyrian
only

criticism

any

give

to

of

and

from

the

book

the

been

not

2 Chron.

ilrlnl\ lead

to

we

called

to

{a) unicorn

Cf.,

rest.

18.

xxii.,

(cf. Ps. xxii.,

lead,

water,

nij

1 Chron.

22 with

xxxii.,

to

and

lie down,

of V^^

synonym

9-10) is neither

XXXIX.,

the

examples presented: (1) '^H^

2. and

this, Ps. xxin.,

of

in view

dwelt

is usually
(Pi. '^H^)

the many

of

thitf subject,a few

that

attention

whose

students

of those

one

valuable,

is,more
time

literature

into

entering

Without

era.

our

at

fact

(2) the

Arabic

co-existent, while

indeed

be, and

to

21),

(2)
(/")a

nor

antelope (last two editions of Gesenius), nor (c) buffalo (Ges.), but is [d]
wild bull, skilled in climbing
rimu,
the A.""syrian
a strong-horned,fierce-looking
likeness
formidable
and
colossal
placed by the Assyrian
was
and whose
mountains,
of

kind

'"

the

kings, before

(3)TD*J is

enemy."

Kaining

Arabic

the

from

not

which

the

and

tanieness

310^

of

gentleness

father-in-law

surround, protect,

to

this, being those who

mother-in-law, from
from

not

same

animals

the

i^'OT^ f^urrouiid,
root

Assyrian
flock

the

support

Arabic

an

the

as

^*^ f/ood, kind, the

'"

fJlHfather-in-law,

hatanu,

Assyrian
to

is the

ed.),but

with

is synonymous

of

cause

from

the Assyrian

(Ges. 8th ed.), the

(5) 1^)^.flock, is

icall.

be ttmall,sick (Ges. 8th

to
root

cut,

family, but

also ntDIH

protect, whence

into

cut

father-in-law, illDH

Cf. DH

familv.

to

terrify the approaching

|nn, whence

(4)

parents-in-law,according

help,ftuppftrt: the
voune

meaning

another

to

entrance

J^pJ depart.

cf.

the starting month,

uisanu,
is

not

off and

but
(of.|*JJ
hud,floicer),

budding-month

the

ward

palaces to

of their

entrance

from

senu,

being

composing

ing
mean-

called

so

it.

root

11^3 build, beget, and

i" the cw/^Vfi/rr/


an

root

for

the

n!Dl"). nation,
otht?r
with

vast

Profes.sor

before

Delitzsch

dictionary,but

us

To

body

the

jl^^i while
T

completed

he

l^rospectusof

-:

^^'^'icornb, a

roomy

ceptacle
re-

ummu

Hebrew

whether

is uncertain

from

are

forbids

Space

men.

HDIN

HtDN)? '^idth, length,cubit;


of

tlf^Htnation,

DX)i

(=

the

insertion

of

dictionary alon^

shall

publish

it

at

once.

SPRACHE.*

NEUHEBRAEISCHEN

DER

only

has

from

son

""

''"^'^ ^"^

uminu

(=

ammatu

numerous

or

LEHRBUCH

following facts.

wide, whence

be

child, motlier;

Assyrian

^Ye have

J^

as

(7) Qljtanother, HtDN

meaning

examples.
his

same

ground.

Assyrian

is the

i^

(H) D"TN
T

from

bo-

from

this volume

which

gather the

we

do

thorough work in the study of post-biblicalliterature is


rendered
from
possibleonly by having a knowledge of the variations of the modern
the i)OHt-biblical
Hebrew.
No good assistance
in this department of study has been
furnished.
of service

Nor
to

supply the

to

and
*

Lehrhueh

SiRGKHiEO.
Nouhcbraeiwhon

as

tUr
I.

has

there

existed

demand

For

V)yfurnishing a

reading-book.
\ettheljraei"chen
Grammatik

bibliography of

any

(-hristian student.

dor

The

text-book

prominence

Sprache

uiul

Ncuhohracischon

Literatiir, Hf.rmann

L. Strack.

the

long time. Dr.

subject such

Strack

which

should

which

the

Literntur,

von

Sprache,
Knrlsniho

hi.

iind

would

as

been
both

serve

L.

Strack

Sieokkikd;

IL

Leipziflr:

U.

be

intending
as

mar
gram-

study of Rabbinica

Hkrmann
( 'a

has

Tinithn:

und
Aln-iss

has

Cakidor

BiBLiuciRAPiiv.

Semitic

recently assumed
of the

the

is intended

furnish

t^)

articles

that

the

of

expression
in many

Strack

respects

promises

that

by

so

into

Hebrew

lish into
and

well

as

taken

sentences

short

manufacturing
able

satisfactory* work

do

to

disconnected

confusing

and

ctmtinual

reference,

which

the

g("vern

of the

""ne

/*""/"when

preceded by
the

with

Knf
third

take

never

of the
l"cculiarity
With
of the

in the

in which

Exercises,

valuable

typography
and

and

MiHtcr

This,

they are.
grammatical

U^

arrangement

the book

and
go.

It is

Cakl,
.re.

Ueber

Keilinschriften

heraus^eg.
Heft

"

Hebrew

Orammar,

London:

C.

Rud.

von

Berlin:

l2o.

Balliv.

with

thujttth

infinitive

construct

(1) the Sh'va

Here

only reference

and

1h^ sufficient

little service

only

itself is

model

interesting fact

this

to

insufficient.

would

exercises

the

the aspirate as

the

to

in the
of
that

\"

It is

learner.

of teachers.

hands

beauty
it is

tm*

render

to

so

far

as

ecution
ex-

prepared by

BIBLIOGRAPHY,

SEMITIC

an

of

no

language,

take

letters

the

(/").the

seems,

brother.

Bezold,

it

in

and

Kxereises, there is given the book, chapter and

though

is accurate,

(fO In

^DilD. iDilD"
as

stated

might be selected of

tht"se

root.

inaccurate

will bo

of statement,
of the

of

it is in

student

j"rinciplesare

('')verbs

statement

this is found.

l)etter to jdaee the "key"


The

in it, as

that

but

will suflice: "? 123. In verbs

One

DHDD;

Kng-

phrases

than

plan

ordinary

instances

in 'the

rm|"erative,is manifestly

sentence

every

Bible

(2) such

The
no

entirely of

grammars:

the

uniformity

excepting:"

DHpS.

as

is

Numerous

or

sh^va,

the

Kxcrcises,

"

better

many

that

statements.

It in'//f.7"x/i

silent but vocal, and

not

the

incorrect

3. X "l- D- ^

with

closes

be.to the great underlying laws

throughout.

prefixes ]3, 3,

radical

There

silent

in

this grammar.

with

even

letters

adopt-ed
believe

not

manner.

inflection

faulty, misleading and


having

do

there should

as

is certainly

clause.".

meaningless

ume.
vol-

small

Vocabulary,

life.

almost

English, consist

This

Bible.

respect.^ impracticable. We

many

is

the

vigorous

fact that the

is the

into

Hebrew

as

from

into

part

GRAMMAR,*

HEBREW

of this grammar

feature

noteworthy

undertaking

If the

literature,
study of Jewish
zealously pursued, and
was

time

rich and

of

study.

preface

the

in Buxtorf's

bloom

BALLIN'S

The

The

of this volume

important, which

literature

Chrestomathy,

Strack,
ed,
furnish-

important writings
Only a few

most

in the list.

abbreviations.

means

produced rich fruits,may

has

of the

will contain

Dr.

in the

work

this second

enlarge

to

of

request

for still further

included

!4|"eedy
completion

more

general outline

Strack's

sur%'ey

basis

been

have

important

most

hope

and

with

Dr.

general

is yet to follow

part which

list of

Dr.

favor

third

give

motive

in Journals

appear

with

meets

and

this volume.

the

At

in accordance

prepared
to

student

the

comi)elled

originally proposed.

was

Siegfried has

department

has

rniversities

grammatical portion of

the

and

than

book

Carl

therefore.

German

the

in

23

with

Ke^n

Co.,

gemeinveretueiullicher

8ammlung

Virchow

7/""V/,

BxvreiiM"""
Paul*

1H8;J.

wl"'cte"I
1 PatornoKter

und

Fr.

von

Holt/^ndorflf.

Vor-

XVIII.

8vo.

fnmi

Uw

Hquare.

Illblc.

By

Ada

8. Bal.uk

7HX". Vp. XTV..

ftWlfiOV.

ftnd

K. L.

Hebraica.

21

Br

The

E..

DOE.

Manluk

Tablet

Fourth

T.

hist,.

No.

32,

Uel.\ttrk,

1883,

DELiTi^ii,

Juin.

6,

pp.

Hebrew

Die

Askenas,

redlg.

....

CjUw

und

Evans,

P.

von

Stuttg.

George,

London

An

IIalevv,

J.,

Paris:

d.

r.

hjl. Gcs.

S.

Der

durch

Vol.

d.

Verlagsverein.

llibbert

Trustees.

tables.

8vo.

Nebukadnezars

II.

I'ebersetzung

Vlll.

HIS.

relatifs

in

Com-

uud

8vo.

Peuples

aux

Semitiques-

8vo.

and

With

History.

107

iSoc.,\HH'S.

Introduction
8vo.

pp.

Stuart

Reg.

by
1

table.

Paths

(By

II.)
Lautlehre

assyrischen

zur

illustrirt,

five

with

nebst

d'histoire

et

Tract.

search.
re-

J3enhadad,

Belsazar,

tlie

by

together

pp.

1883.

1883.

Life

Iklig.

Beitraege

Maerz)

Hlmi'el,

Wis.",

(vorgelegt

(ioettingen,

zu

25

1883.

P.

von

April

deLagarde).

No.

(Sitz.

4.

v.

8.5-115.

geschichtliche

assyrische

Absduiitt

Jes.

Keilinschriften.

c.

Theol.

desselbeu

Erlaeuterungeu

36-39.

Quartaischr.

il.

Jahrg.

65,

ersten

Versucli

4,

1883.

682-653.

lIoMMEL,

Fritz,

Die

Encyclopaedie
Band

und

Erstes

Babylonien).

Adolf,

Die

Untersuchung.

Soc.,

uud

Sprach"

Spracheu

Buch

VIII.

XII.,

als

einer

Altersthumwissenschaft.

und

die

Erstes
Kulturen

vorsemitischen
541

S.

in

8vo.

Leipzig

in
:

Otto

1883.

Kamphausen,

a.

Voelker

semitischen

Einleiting:

Aegypten

"chl.

semitische

der

(AUg.

Schtdze,

Saycs,

d-. Co.,

Assyrian

von

(irundtext

critique

Knowledge.

Pail,

Xarltr.

8.

E.,

75

(ioettingen,

de

Londiiu:

Bible

IT,

3.

Mt^lauges

M.

Poole.
of

Diss,

Assyrian

Asarhad-

Calwer

dem

Steinplatteninschrift

grosse

of

llandwoerterbuch

Published

1883.

babylonischen

Maisoiineuvt

11ARKNE6.S,

Norgate,

Die

Tmiuy.

uieutar.

7,

1."

Assyriology.

on

ct*

Johannes,

Bibl.

herausgeg.
Lief

8.,

gr.

essay

tnuiscribirtem

Hal*

Zeller

Bel,

IJabylonien,

Bibellexicon,
und

light

Anamnielech,

Adramnielech,

Babel,

Assur.

1884,

Williams

FLEMJiiNo.

No.

32,

1883.

Accad,

"Calwer

im

the

in

viewed

Norgate,

d-

Artikel

Asnaphar,

Chaldiea

uud

hiift., T.

Precis

13althasar.

Language

U'i7/iatM^

Frdr.,

Buz

Precis

assyriens.

333.

32S

pp.

between

fight

5-11.

pp.

documents

les

et

the

361-367.

Loudon:

don,

Judith

Assurbanipal,

FRDU.,Tlie

Dklitzscii,

188:^,

1883-84,

Arch.

liibl

Soc.

de

Hvn?

Salomon,

a.,

Juillet.

Ijb

to

relating

Series,

Ci-eation

Oie

Pivcefd.

Tiamat.

aiid

EaiMANt'KL,

CosQUiN,

of

H.,
1888,

Fresh
199

Light
pp.

Chronologie

Bonn,

8vo.

1883.

from

the

(By-paths

der
104

S.

Ancient
of

hebraeischeu

Monuments.

Bible

Eine

Koenige.

ge-

8vo.

Knowledge,

London

Vol.

III.)

Bel.

Tract

^Y^mKjimj.^

I.

Vol.

APRIL,

PHCENICIAN

IN

INSCRIPTION
By

II.

Isaac

The

temple

the
from

the
;

Not
may

the

Taurians.

in

originally
The

or

Akademie
for

same

May,

of

is its

Renan

by

eight

lines

transliteration

and

for

Corpus

almost

of

lacuna'

shore,
sea-

the

rest,
but

before,

KOniglick

der
1870

May,

or

the

Artemis

of

published

by Schroder

Semiticarum,

hacriptionum

all the

Hebrew

appears

of

most

Monatsbericht

Berlin,

tu

in

in

in

Rodiger

by

of

that

been

of

Portumnus
Diana

or

priestess

as

has

as

Esculapius-Hercu-

Roman

the

came

south-west

sea,

dedicated,

Paralia,

like

collection,

collection,

or

Iphigenia

inscription

Cesnola

the

was

or

Artemis
of

Wisaenscha/ten

; and

di
same

and

temple

inscription,

this

This

C.

salines

Pala^mon
to

story

of

the
the

Eshmun-Melqarth,

incorrectly,
der

1872

oonsisted

following

B.

century

the

date

in

The

temple

mind

The

imperfectly

Prtussi"chen

to

the

Greek

the

was

away

on

named

deity

in

marble

Lamaca.

of

YORK.

Pa.

between

land

with

call

fourth

the

always

to

far

which

of

2.

D.,

Inscriptions

others

the

Scala

or

identical

probably

among

of

tongue

inscriptions,

Portumus.

is In

on

Phcenician

the

most

Marina

modem

les

like

York,

from

of

important

most

New

NEW

I'n.

Hall,

Philadelphia,

in

No.

1884.

may

easily

letters

letters, putting

be

It
filled.

supplied

in

bradLets:

[|iT^::iD-|'?!D^-.n:L-Di
ID *?nNi

1^0

'no

[nDyipnnp*?oiDj;
[pNfr oiN*? ^cn]

of

I
.

^""T

"

king
and

ti

K'

of

Idalium.

king

['Ebed-]

those

of

Resheph

[are] two

CItium

Idalium.

and

gave

offerings
and

which

dedicated

tth.*^

]..
The

Pumiathon

tium

arst

line

Is

supplied

from

the

matter

of

other

inscriptions

and

the

thf*
to

his

Hebkaica.

26

sity of the
of

remain
till

his (or,

the

bless.
but

*^

it

The
was

is

alone,

suffix of

this

the

third

It

third

and

uniformly

as

given,

it

such
first

the

Concerning

third

or

in

gives

line,

the

for the

room

of

number

THE

day

letters

and

the

the

with

that

Crozer

Ps.

Kind.

p".

3.

'*

4.

..

j^

*'

6.

"

7.

"

8.

9.

'*

"

"

the

the

day

Theological

line ; while

of

the

other

lines

that

The

is

tenor

of
sidered
con-

to be

of

and

month

reign,

as

not

are

when

the

There

was

above

supplied,

dently
evi-

severally.

SUPERSCEIPTIONS,
some

these.
Taylor.

Seminary,

Upland,

Pa.

I.

Author.

Musical

Directions.

notes.

1Mb

^n'^D
mHO^

"

(9-3, 5, 9.)
(9-3, 5.)

r^'?D (18-6.)

p^jcr
nioro

(21-17,21.)
notes.

iiDro

13.

15.

The

composition

generally

person.

14.
'

word,

it is to be

sovereign's

private

11.
12.

"

No

nioro

No

10.

2.

it

he

^lay

last

here

first.

show

the

C.

BOOK
of

into

of

close

uncertain

be

This

whether

in

on

Baknakd

|^^

one

"

to

enter

the

middle

with
Poem, Author, and Musical Directions,

By

Ps8. 1. and

of

THEIR

remarks

No.

sort

that

year

"of

common

*]1D*

to add

of

as

letter of

mean

here.

sense

month

WITH

of

the

of

offering of

the

words

it doubtful

observed

have
to

as

cases

better

the

tallies well

PSALMS

IncludingKind

addition

inscription (as here) records


no

test

but

well

make

inscription, standing by itself,may

be
said

is, perhaps, unnecessary

Phoenician,

in

person

be

may

different

Several

Apollo.
names.

proper

first person
the

of

epithet

an

the

following vIC^H].

the

with

composition

of

word

some

the

for

It would

six

line

of

end

the

at

supplied

obvious,

last

word

; but

room

was

there.

been

have

it may

there

line

which

is

requires, apparently,

Phoenician

in

good

is
last

the

the

the

"Jl, making

was

strokes

supplied
to be

{" appeared

there, plainly; which

which
In

plural.

word

witli it to form
a

of

either

first the

"

be

would

Inscriptions; and

such

of

n*?N

^^

three

*? is

other

At

be

to

matter

The

suggested

supply

But

my) I"ord."

Di?H

o""

of line five.

natural

the

line, and

the

line.

of that

end

to the

few

justified by the

is

matter

supplied

the

letters

the

come

we

and

case;

figures give No.

of

verses

in Ps.

and

verses

that

end

with

hSd-

IIebraica.

Musical

Author.

nvjo*?

I'L"

Directions.

n^D
pnii^-^;^

(13-5,9.)

The

l^o.

of

Ps.

Ps.

*'

Superscriptions.

their

Musical

Directions.

in*?

iToro

111-119.

with

Author.

Kind.

110.

"

Psalms

No

notes.

m'?)

(122, 124, 131. 133.

,1*70 (1-M,6,9.)

n*?D
"

144.

*'

145.

"

146-150.
Let

n^nn
No

while

without

any

ascribed

to

psalm

notes,

the

In

2nd

next

five termed

then

seven

The

first

David

to

nVJD*?
the

n*?D

The

David,

*11^7^

4th

In

not
one

the
5th

the

V3C*0

^^C*D

voices

in the

of these

notes

psalms

are

being

prefixed

are

occasion

or

^^^

whole

thirty-seven

Other

the

(countmg
named

not

of

sons

Solomon
five.

other

which

to

to

the

live

4Srd

term

QH^O,

Korali, the next


three

have

and

as

TC*)'

t*""

named,

not

one

one)

named.

not

(?) and
Fifteen

42nd

(except the

*70C*!D"then

the

to

named.
group,

Book,

rest

in

Asaph,

to

and

the

anonymous.

other

prefixed indicating

notes

are

and

three

times

and

to

Asaph,

of Korah,

sons

and

Seven

then

the

to

two

other

twelve

occurs

title of
sons

last to Ethan.

have

psalms,

seventeen
not

are

No

anonymous.

named.

to

one

the

of Korah,

None

are

88th
one

mous.
anony-

indicatUig tune,

note*

to

eight in another), and

David,
one

^ given
21*70/1

term

is ascribed

musical

ni*?yorr "^'C*

ascrilMHi

the

One

other

containing^forty-fourpsalms,

are

double

in the

once

the

"llOfO

term

Ac.

eleven.

eleven

rf7nn

Fifteen

thirty.

psalms, the

ascribed

containing

while

Book,
one,

of the

seventeen

prefixed jto eight.

occurs

four,

to

and

are

to the

more

H/D

the

^022*0

once,

two

term

In

to

containing

first eleven

nVip*?'"
The

next

in seventeen

occurs

Book,

8rd

n'^Sn

psalm.

to

four

the

first it

"c.

the

times,

to

except the last

term

In

ascribed

are

And

term

in eight.

occurs

four

next

^s prefixed to all but

tune,
The

the

of

thirty psalms

*7*^C*Dithe

But

nineteen.

")"{;"lltDfO' the last four

or

seven

times.

kind

the

(the only time

once,

anonymous,

H^D

term

containing

ITtDfO*

l^tDtO

pOtT

*" prefixed to

instniment,

The

termed

are

are

table.

forty-one psalms,

once,

only

in this

presented

twenty-two

these

time,

Book,

first three

DHDO

HVJtD^

David.

adapted.

was

I., containing

occurs

and

indicating the

nine,

rest

"l^OtO

facts

of the

some

Tlf^QT)once,

once,

collection)

to

tliat in Book

noticed

but

the

notes.

call attention

me

-will be
curs

(12-6.)

tlie term
to

fifteen, the

The

two

to

vid
Da-

occur.

"^lOTQ

(three of these

to Solomon.

to Moses,

directions

to two,

is

given

to seven,

remaining

occurring
other

twenty
togetlier in

twenty-eight

are

Hebraica.

nV^*?
mmiaa

other

notes

Now

^m^iw,^ there
these

and

If, as is claimed

diraeliQiia.

two,

no

by

why

Temple,

fbr the Second

do

we

such

especially

was

with

notes

choice

most

find the

not

psalms,

sixty-fivehave

psalms

of

collection

the

some,

fifty-one

four

with

except

eighty-nine psalms

first

of the

While

Davidic.

are

but

containing

Books,

whatever

choir

for the

oth

and

4th

the

in

that

directions

no

are

in

occurs

appear.
obsen-ed

be

it will

n'^D

three, and

to

only prefixed

Is

ar-

the

Mlms?
The

retained

hate

been

pot

in their

they

as

to ooofinn

there

are

the
of

some

him

to

"

of

tends

"

notes

not

were

with

found

were

"

notes

only

with

by

added

of song

service
found

statements

icles.
Chron-

in

editor, but

late

some

psalms

various

the

David's

when

by

they

and

5th

And

renders

were

it

Books,

fact

the

probable

proof

internal

course

4th

to David.

Books

later

Of

him.

in the

psalms

ascription

in the

writing

^Titten

four

the

of their

genuineness

were

The

then

question

Book?

And

this

In

ilre

Books

the

question.

One

theseoond

in the

"idlc

arises

we

have

view

is that

the

But

the

question

The

some

reply by

is that

only necessitated

attempt

that
all

that

contradict

may

then

the collection

however,

into

the

the

view

production

could

Divine

first
be

all

would

of

the

Temple

and

Psalms,

and

to what

esteem

they

I would
the
be

were

call
numl^er
ob9er"'ed

added

the

urge

in the
extent

first

before

attention
of

to

Will

its

position help

**let

the

instruments

in
tis

strike

to

is

of

manner

by the

"

was

no

Exile,

of

the

and

notes,
the

close

kind

In

view
of the

collec-

rearranged

collected

favor

of psalm,

of
use

taken, it is evident

collecting

choir

this fact

may

psalms the

the
term

whether
the

verses

that

it

song

means

rise

the

which
at
"

arranging, I
the

help

word
end

the

higher,"

or

the

in determining
in what

;r^^0^which
with
pf'^D- It
of the

end

to rest"

of

use

us

collected, and

were

appears

and

that

further

figures in the table with


and

"

notes

the

up," "let

the

musical

near

author,

view

Exile.

to determine

Psalms?

followed.

And

psalm

the

(especially

there

say

collector

the

four

Da-

after

of

in favor

before

not

writings generally

in the

verses

that

Hebrew

all the
5th

The

divisions,
the

that

according

of the

Temple.

this

David,

reply, however,

till after

more

no

and

Whatever

been

of

had

and

This

collections.

there

psalms

proof furnished

the

held

has

discussion

to

books

or

last

Temple.

first

and

he

Others

service

smaller

facts, is

the

chronology.

entering into

peahns prevailed

earlier

urged the classification

name,

especially

collection.

the

arranged

time

preserved

book

writings.

Temple

the

ser\'ice of the

principle of claasification

one

Without

will

for

psalms

4th

psalms
the

David's

gradual

thought
the

in

answers

the

about

and

Davidic

put in their present form

were

In the

of

from

the

consideration

psalms

period of

show

made

was

point clearly to

Taking

of the

collection

were

collector

apart from

not

are

theory

the

psalms
the

different

are

collected

was

were

years,

these

the

by

produce

to

600

days of Josiah,

How

Davidic

When

There

when

in the

find

we

question
Book

1st

arises:

during nearly

it that

them?

days of Hezekiah,

if unknown),

that

future

suggests the
as

is

How

psalms, the 8rd probably

Exile.

no

the

probabiUty.

this

to

'*

these

elaborate

more

this corroborates

present form.

ooeurrence

aseribed

clearly indicates

occur

And

that

certain

It seems

The

Uiey

Temple.

former

the

with

which

In

way

or

psalm.

"repeat"

disprove

or

all of

Contributions

these

In

meanings?

ancient

so

that

psalm

no

it

eighty-ninth, where

Hebrew

to

certain

nothing

TO

CONTRIBUTIONS

it

does

four

occurs

HEBREW

^^^ "^*^'

This

is the

which

lieiitzscliin liis excellent

to any

other,

lie derives

The
with

the

binical

root

^i^Z*

that

the

word

sikkim

of

Genesis

Account

given thus

"

The

This
flew away
on

p.

translated

That

the

Walrus,

mtDHD

would

in the

the

Dragon
of

time

ago,

but

gnrd'8

been

one

in

in

which

in

cock's

and

I^bbis,

The

subject.

the

preceding DHn

legs and

their

niJT)'is

translated

ence
pres-

in Midrash

tradition

liabbinical

to obscure

gigantic bird, large enougli

Behemoth
and

the

the
the

and

Crocodile

common

as

That

bea.sts.

wild

the

among
not

binls

the

position among

same

Mnco

(quoted

"ca}y monster
Egyption

of

of

Set

truth

it is the

ed.

is identified

of

with

the

sun

p.

W)

mentione"l

same

Smith's
the

Chaldean

^Vrablan

''). About

Bel

which

still adhere

of Hebrew

Egyptian
Magic

of Ikiiemoth

reality does.

than

the

Chaldean

with

^H^

derivation

(Anderson

Mythology
the

son

in I^normant's

Roc

and
But
In

Marduk

tlie

to it as

he

will

to retuni

Ritual

and

to any

and

this divine

other

of Midr'

that

i^ertiapsfind tlie
to

our

mythical

Assyrian Mythology

Genesis

of

p. 97) and
fights at

expUnle*! long

was

in Job

description of the Leviathan

the

flying obscures

as

the

professors

(cf.Sayce

*'

The

Zu
Zu

I And

edition)

in Oriental

cocks

to

in

spirits had

the

animals,

('rocodlle

the

Hf, I think

storm-bird

flies and

to

ing
long ago but for the theological bias prevailUie
and
of
Job
LetHathan
striking parallel to the

XXXII.

Norse

Pt
the

and

the

read

nearer

come

binl

panies.''
com-

admitted

giant-bird Zir"
divine

in

his German

in

is

fragment
out

however,

Genesis,

relation

versed

fields.

occupies

conservative

Let

p""etr"'to

takes

mythical

Tihamat,

trorm

first
went

gods turned

lias also

close

to the

the

on

fishes

the creation.

our

dogma.

roams

XXII.

and

XXXI.

Dead

the

dean
Chal-

Smith's

cocks.

corresponding

philology.

is offered

in

all those

to

through

ar"

have

in Biblical
Psalmist

it is remarkable

In

and

The

''

of

of Smith's

edition

7",believe

which

the

among

]^V^^

the

Par.

by its wings,
a"tl

and

6*

about,

Leviticus

lAX'iathan

line
Sikkim

to

veree

But

UgcmU.

lUib-

bring in

to

venture

not

ing-seer."
morn-

another

^^h

''the

Delitzsch, rather

comparison.

13th

and

Delitzsch

stood

is known

i's. l., 1 1 ,

moves

sun

Fr.

I^J

I do

Izdubar

turned

preceding

(which

ascertained

be

niJ' rr

Habba

of

preference

in

hence

says

86,

xxxvin.,

cocks.

Berachoth

could

all that

the

Sayce's second

In

s^'kim

word

mythology,

Talmud

2.

to

12th

Suburi

of Job

see,

for

in the

184, the

p.

PHILOLOGY.

discern,

latter,

peacock

occurs

Q^M^^ ''the spirits"

the

As

22

x.,

D^^^

corresponds

with

Occidental
see

cock.

to the

it is

signiflcance.

coimects,

cock

strong, reminding

spirits of Erech

in droves."
the

193

to be

Kgs.

HDD
=

except in the
it is that

Job, p. 468, adopts

on

from

its

to

explanation

Rabbinical

name

for

name

*^j1

name

City.

^^Jl thukhai

NDL^

Syrian)

(and

Hindoo

the

word

Arabic

York

commentary

the

times

ASSYRIAN

Kohler.

31

thing about

as

K.

Dk.

three

certain

AND

New

*1?C^

than

more

One

be determined

can

By

1-

occur

times.

Phelolooy.

Assyrian

and

p. 122

the

Chinese

bird

Zu

we

f. where

as

the
this

storm-blnl
are

told tliat

Hebraica.

Inbttitfon
Um

beooiiM

to

mnlnds

iloiy

the

(piDlwbly Simuigh
abo

whleh

with

back
Orleot

work
There
Yochni

handled

cedar

FaMea

In what

connection

of

to expreee

of

precious

of the

biids

"

stones

is certain

of the

The

relation
of

8.

derivation

TTH

hinted

the

to

legend

in his

at

bird

all kinds
stormdred
kin-

the

indeed, the

were,

earth.
bird

Zu

"

wife

his

and

Literature

Babylonian

generally explained

arc

not

"the

and

son

Marduk

in the
do

dess
god-

the

p. 40.

simple interjections for which

as

is deemed
the

this rule
Ions

of

HK

were:

fact

that

applies
and

*n

IH

these, too,

mourning
'IH

"

oh

They

well.

as

Tammuz

over

Woe

into

such

words

originally used

were

oh

the

and

{= Adonis)

I Woe

brother

has,

articulated

originally regularly

were

words

two

our

the

at

woe

to

examination

deeper

unnecessary.

isdoeed

woids

has

of the

mythical

of

f.). The

of

and

Zu,

"

stones

xxviii.

this class

ii., 272

bowels

Hygrin^s

of fire and

of stones

among

or

in the

three

felled

legend,

Ezekiel

in

midst

and

i., 36-37

stones

Sayce

reckoned

Isa.

I*rometheus

of the

"od

niCn

be

I'ngal Turda

god

precious

perfumes,"

walks

who

also

(see Cheyne

spirits of the
gnardians

gods

must

in the

Bar

of

egg

Compare

Izdubar

the

Chei-uh

the

that

but

opinion,

356-362.

pp.

and

of precious

nest

of

IX.

table

on

i*)-

the

to

class.

same

^^V

stands

in

mentioned

any

mountain

the

on

Zu

bird

this

GodB,"

the

(Davkina

instructive

most

sixty cities

the

to

tales

folk

legend of the big

inundated

im

Reisen

of

(Sal) legends

Zir

the

57t")belongs

of Venus"

Egg

collection

traced

be

can
"

recent

his

is,
and

ed
possess-

powers

which

Rabbinical

the

breaking

in

(Bechoroth

treee

The

"

11"7

of

treatment

which

*0 niTD

11. Conder

C.

also, that

little doubt,

"J^V

of

561),

p.

health,

TJieophrastus

in

Mandeans,"

the

notice

in his

Moab

and

be

can

the

eecaped

Helk

on

of

Legends

II. lOft-109,
to have

tccina

legend.

Za-Simurgh

the

lo

all

giant-bird"

or

life and

II. Tetermann's

to

here

refer

Kamek,

III.

life-restoring

Maimonides,

XirgU, Faust,

like

by grcAt magicians

iwwers

bird

''

restoring

of

legends about

Occidental

and

Oriental

oT the

OHyiy

tlie miraculous

p.

128), and

the

[and

Simurgh

The

wings "].

its

with

sun

from

Alterthumsk.

Eran.

Spiegel

reading

correct
the

^'obecuwe

Zu, endowfd

like

vividly

one

Germ.

Magic,
Simurgh

Persian

the

of

away
ed.

far

mountain

remote

(see Lenormant's

storm-bini

to

Turda

god Ungal

the

!"

friend

Thus

full
the

in Jer.

f.),and

p. 246
the

dead

"ong

and

the

from

Many

Adonhs

by

the

from

ideas

Chaldean

the

body

Jewish

can

or

garments

fringes of n*W
soovd
whose

ffioiRe

weapon

like the

(compare

with

its
of

be

now

of

of Isthar

and

(Chaldean

of

the

Isis and

and

Genesis

popular exclamations.

Maneros

and

Compare

Phoenician

Nephthys

ed.
of

and

phylacteries
Lenormant's

magic

the

Ailinos
Osiris

over

with

can

Genesis
off

of

knots

Sorcery

p. 45

be

to

knots

f).

e.

g.

pelled
dis-

and

by holy
texts

fastened

ii"tl the

as

p. 295

evil

parallel to Bible

^b^D)
(nW^tDp*)
and

Chaldea,

spirits which

warding

exact

texts

Magic

to

Chaldean

p. 76); the

houses,

back

malign

(see Delitzsch's

Germ.

HHtO,

directly traced

impure

names

the entrance

do"rr potts

brother

in Greece.

Magic,
at

by the weeping

and

lamentations

evil incrustations

things (idols)placed
at

husband

Egyptian

the

by magic spells of holy


Lenormanrs

their

festivals

CalAxUistic

n1fl^"

happily explained

lively airs gradually became

derived

the

been

Tammuz

parallel offered

exact

4.

the

these

iXh 'IK)

*^

18 has

xxii.,
'

Even

of

put
the
the
the

is already a secret of the god Hea


magical powers
or Muruduk
J{ftyheads, the murderous
of heaven,
of
the
Anu,
god
weapon

Contributions

*'

*'

how

the

of lightning"" with
"

fifty/"ce"

annihilates

the

(eodem

powers

The

5.

or

this

throws

had

to

water

as

Moah,
in

and

out

Magie

to

in

men

of

word

the

*)2f

in

evil

spirits, the
f ). He

p. 86

the

of

sun

nicated
commu-

demoniacal

modem

the

like

which
To

22).

v.,

assertion

an

Amen

Amen,

Assyrian

the

"yes''

woman

tlie custom

of

pull the
Yalkut

Midrash

for

Ps.

to

Beth

and

Magic, p.
in his

72.

going

Lenormant's

in

Jl'TIDt for pyramidal


of the

explanation
the

on

altar.

record, like Q^^

It

is

the

sense

word

''

KilllDt

pyramidal

going

far

too

high place, and

derive

to

l^t

the

prom-

....

.J.

of

head

of the

form

not

XQtJ^

Babylonia

and

AssjTia

t^*"

rTIDtK

perhaps

from

name

in

towers

Biblical

....

inence, in which

And

charmed

in Conder's

is found

xix.

real

jealousy

drinking

along the heavens

sun

*'tnie."

or

practice, Lenormant's

Accadian

been

tried

practice of the ^Vrabs


or

liave

to

187.

p.

incense

the

to exorcise

the

smoke

88

Genesis

order

from

appears

angels which

Zikkurat

think,

(Chaldean

merely

(Num.
the

to the

name

offers, I

not

the

on

ordeal

mentioned

The

oaths,

the old Chaldean

parallel

Chaldaische

in

light

the

and

343,

p.

7.

at

he, dispels

or

powers,

fifty gods

invocation, and

trial compare

6.

the

used

?,p^

certain

speak

Anu,

Synonomy.

79).

p.

word

incantation

which

all hostile

of

names

ILbbrew

to

"

Jordan,"

of

head

Euphrates/'

in

occurs

"\y
T

or

the

Talmud,

nor,

the

close

with

and

from

not

which

progeny

the

preserves

"memory"

male.

8.

Smith's

question whether

History of Sennacherib,

El, under
the

the

which
of

words

title the

offers

Maccabean

Assyrian

the
clue

the

to

has

history

Surubat

word

curious

Sarbath

name

to

down

"^me

might, in

"

Sarbani

aooording to

us

Origen ?

CONTRIBUTIONS

HEBREW

TO
By

Key.

l\

New

SYNONOMY.

""'oiii"ell,

A.

Conn.

London,

II.

nb, iy."rji.
pin nprrr.

pN, m)2}^
We

here

encounter

To

power.

often

Nor

in

the

them

fixed

rules

Greek

seem

in

ponding

terms

an

the

ancient

since

even

in

in

these
to

modem

for the

choice.
Willi

translations.
renders

invariably

unreasonable

blending

tongue,

continually

be

brew
He-

accurately, for

reason

in ancient

translating

in

observed

api^arent

almost

Septuagint

it would

no

noted

been

The

easy.

distinctions

the

of

notion

general

is not

another

one

mark
with

another

or

been

Perhaps

are

always

distinctions

which

have

to

Latin.

or

not

one

these

nb'

of

exception

using

have

general

did

tlie

expressing

synonymes

sharply from

them

themselves

find

of

group

discriminate

writers
we

words

expect

iox^x^
into

accurate

languages

criminatio
dis-

the oorre^

interchanging

significationand

no

either

in

usage.

pj^,from
its

the

unused

radical

meaning

of

power

from

the

expenditure

of

power,

by that

pX
hard
whirh

which

means

primarily

breathing, the
Ih

done

to

breatlie,derives

panting, occasioned

anfuUUus

ictihuM.

Tliia

by the
meaning

IlEllRAICA.

f4
"

"tmiftii
forte

its fli"t fnilU,

ami
in

pit, as
obUined

In

?T^?i3

*l^

root

the

Arab.

rather

tlian

of

sense

power

while

in that

(Job

strength
in

power

xi*.,

16, Isa. xl.,

bodiiy strength,

to

broader

might,

rendering
tkm

of

divine,

and

to

vindicate

is eaUed

Tnioes

of

mighty
from

of

works

preceding

Unlike

the

rolmst

of

O^KDC*

body

""

polnU

earth

into

from

power

most

Syr.

designa-

himself

God

chald.

u.

in

as

l^cj-a^

to

power

Worterb.).

Matt,

xxvi.,

designate

aspect, follows

positive

to

its purposes,

sustaining

Testament,

the

frequent

the

execute

and

the

naturally

the

Vulg.

in

view.

denoting
Even

is ascribed

omnipotence

of

in

in

which

et

almighty

HD

creation

most

of

is the

as

the

of

x.,

of

mind

man

clearly

are

in

Septuagint
merely

covers

notion

of

terms

the

the

sovereign
equally

are

from

is chiefly to

evidence.

(Prov.

Hebr., chald.

also

12, where

power,

of

senses

power

considered

reference

external

HD
the

the

alent
equiv-

proper

(Nork's

the

breasts

the

of

of

Thus

of

five

Both

God,

Jer.

or

the

"|1^D(and

dominion.

power

God,

up

The

aspects

and

potsherd;"

capacity

nn^f2)(HID

conveys

life.
like

marrow.

potentia),where

life,and

speaks

instances),

TO

and

of

of

dried

designated

HI^DJI

passage
of

is

of

springs doubtless

full

strength,

outward

m^})

authority

such

the

as

and

and

power,

the

to

power

virtwf

is dynamic

robur, inherent
in

so

12.

former

freshness

with

Rabbins

inward

xxix.,

of

m^if,

also the

These

and

moistened

vegetative

1 Chron.

in

evidences

5, and

Hence

manifestation

conception

strength, pT^,

strength,

(Jud. xvi.,

and

fullness

"My

The

This

the

to

(Fiirst),hence

marrowy

bones

is

passive, indwelling

of

their

intensive.

juicy,

the

TT, and

in

Avvaareia

appropriate
the

and

actively manifested

power

to

signification points

accompanies

and

Wr.rterb.).

discriminated

passes

its

is

Neu-hebr.

quiescent, latent.

as

static

6).

i..

DiniD

rabliin.

in

every

power

therefore,

5, I"an.

idenof

in

which

milk,

n^.

whether

'"X"T

which

(xxi., 24), enumerating

of

u.

miracles

or

(XXII., 16) exclaims,

full of

XXIV..

the

God,

latter

strength

Job

being

plural ill*)^2Jl, like

primary meaning

Fnlmist
and

New

represents

extensive, the
Iran

in the

even

of

usages.

iTTIDJ*
n^

power,

the

of

foi*nd

and

creative

whose

forth

referring originally

post-biblical Hebrew

In

(cf. Levy's

universe

the

are

usage

ose

power,

is able

of

personal

or

putting

pre-eminently

becomes

which

Almighty^

the

H^l^n.

physical

lordship,"

or

the

however,
fjj.^,

the

notion,

rule,

is also

to
while

K^aro^,

of its

manifestation

of

last, accordingly,

il'^IDJ

royal autocratic

throughout
this

The

SI.

like

itself against opposition.

simply

is numifesled

Hence

looks

former

restricted

This

^nnioTfia.

Septuagint.
or

exercise

the

H'TIDJ'
this

which

outward

rTTlD-l ^^i^^rs from

self-asserting might,

fiit^furto

in tlie

is

Vermo-

reference

primary

the

the

to

points

29), the

abandons

of

which
''

German

fast, compressing,

to

more

But

sense.

soon

coneepUon
from

looks

latter

Uu^rest

its

it

possession.

the

develops in

power

the

manner

same.

richest

procreative

riches," that

substance,

springs from

T)^

inward

its

of

property.

power

Like

-x"..

to

the

binding, making

of

act

the

to

of

conception

the

signification of

The

its

yielding

land

poetical designation

in

power;

fatigue, trouble,

hence

wearj-,

broken

newly

3.

xlix.,

aibilityand

both
itellgnatcifl

fHi^

of

self

signification of

of

exertion

by the

analogy

(ien.

further

^"

pK*

one's

pl" became

first crop,

the

to

working

supposed

the

From

Mfivw.

^"

HK*

eleftriy in

appMUB

different
creation
that

of

ent
inher-

Hebkaica.

reiuleriiig bard

of

idea

any
^

itself, and

in

what

cniel

or

'thU,

withoiit

to

tightncw,

ftnnnfwt

the

in

comimssionate

and

mild

im

Pharaoh

of

bad.

U"w

coed,

ftraiitlMiied, hardened.
It

itaelf

lercal

to

oaae

an

passage.)

Allegheny,

Trambited

received

1. Moses"
to the

I.

it to the

Dr.

of the
and

PlQk

on

the

eldeis

elders".

men

Judgment,

Law2

and

raise

hM

been
t

Ler.

"

L e.. Both

"

I. ".. From

nilr
"

xxrt^

only

as

an

in

law^.

edition.

Strack's
of the

study

delivered

deliberate

the

about

Professor

in

in the

aid

things

be

fence

published

prophets

of

Many
and

These

text.

some

[Editor.]

space."

4S.

the

In

"^:j tradere,
Wpgcrtny

Talmud

from

Moses

to

rit^

the

often

we

The

rpfefhrfouv.

the

of

this

.word

also

came

is

il^DD

oral

[i. e.,

713771

the

tradition

the

return

the

especially

tradition,

iii., 13.

law,

denote

to

TWifDl

TDD

iv., 3.

derived

the

Bible,

phrase

Jadayim

viii., 7:

v., 8; from

comp.

explanation

the

with

meet

Eduyoth

Slnal.]

transmit,
the

law.

unwritten

and

written

God.

acconllnff
From

of

lack

for

"

notes

intended

are

omitted

"

all the

translated

not

In this edition

make

disciples, and

many

up

the

and

three

said

They

Synagogue^.

(Jreat

Joslma-'i, and

it to

delivered*

prophets^,

the

to

and

Sinai^

Mount

the

translator].

by the

is

Germany.*

Berlin,

of

Strack,

L.

H.

CIIAl^ER

Joshua

D.,

Pa.

brackets

in

l9 included

IWhat

Pn.

Prof.

of

Edition

Hebrew

the

from

FATHERS.

THE

OF

Pick,

B.

Rev.

By

above

of the

exegesis

admirable

an

; or, SAYINGS

ABOTH

PIRKE

Lewis

heart-strengthener.'''(Taylor

187-188;

pp.

ly
base, coward-

his

to

given

been

made

be

could

it

or

tight-

God

that

heart
which

in

way

had

is

misunderstood

often

and

tivMiblMonie

only

there

that

1883,

was

good

morally

be

heart

evil

base

the

was

though

cordial;

March,

In Prineifoii Btvkw^

It

as

was

invigorating

aplrit an

it

means

strength,

giving

the

that

whether

heart

cowardly

It

Matth.

Comp.

2,

xv.,
the

concerning

text

"riawBlblo.Massora.
"

Joah.L.7.

Numb.

"

Josh.

J*r.

for

lony

mad

Jfmmt,

to

Umo

JMolrAc

Bra.
Ooatt.

"

the
of

I'tlm-

further

Westoott,

Lonfllctlnv
and

knowledge

of

people
hand,

Overde

der

mnnncn

Va-^ammlunu

\n

legal traditions,

oould

of

were

and

ruler
both

The

which

Joh.

Eberh.

Testaments

Synagoye,

fuer

die

dem

mit
Amst.

1876;
des

Wissenschaft

by the

preserved

were

Michaelis),

J. D.

(ed.

Alien

yroote

Magazin

it is true,

popular

occupie"l

embiKlltHi
in

defection

the

in

and

the

state.

writings
on

by

the

of

other,

difficulty
effort

foreign

space

imints

doulit

of

anxious

such

ctimnumd

evll"

instructetl

the

im|K"rilled

were

"The

remarks:

subject,

swmid

The

princlple"

and

have

never

oonfllct.
the

thlsiientence,

quotiuK

ladepeodenoe.
and

one

in

Interests

eltiaen, when

tranaltloa

tier {/rtmivn

Ihkj, p. iiy "i]. The

des

Verhindung

Babylonia,
Comp.

scribes,

developed.

whloh

"wrmii

Matuner

die

Berlin.

DiHseiiationes

Aurivillus,
Die

from

ix., 10.

Neh.,

See

matters.

C.

Kuenen,

Abr.

aft^r

convened

all lefral (religious)

over

iroi, p. 120-106:

alao

"tate

which

assembly

an

decided

fMr.

twmmamdt

the

tradition

Rambunr.

Hoffman.

Jewish

l"-n.

ds SyNOOoiia JCaynn. rtrecht


1727;
Leip. TttO, p. 19-lflO: A. Th. Hartmann,

Jodaathuros.
hut

xxvIL,

LJudff. U.. 7].

rlL. a.

Acoordlnv

"

PX

xxlv..

to

in

the

dissension
In

Moses
became

to

supremacy,

the

land

true
are

proportion
and

social

of

realize

the

of

source

best
as

practice

are

attested

settled

removed
the

priestly
third

the

life,

integrity
the

by

in

by

different

The

national

first
and

government

strength

of

prophets,

impossible.

and

in

an

the
classes

extended
of

usurpation
command

of

age

the
on

alone

PiRKE

2.

the

Simeon
to

used

Just

the

to

of
Be

say

Jos^, the

4.

the

contains

ceased

be

to

infinite.

from

the

city which,

of

hosts

Interesting,

however,

traditional

early

the

in

stage

although

it is

hedge

build

the

was

and

has

Gospel

of

and

Schemes

retained

has

what

8pare"l

the

of

superiority

(Lectures
I

TreatiBC

would
"

"

"

extended

"

to

have

manner

the

S"ribe

say

that

had

Judaism,

its

original

Is the

of

and

it

ill., p. Mtt sq..


If It

for

Thora;

in

was

his

refleo"

substance

Christianity."
Church
have

been
the

of

h"V"

exoelleiioe

sisted."
con-

VSTI.)]

given,

not

the

which

course

perception

York,

New

one

as

pathetic

and

would

the

unl"iue

were

not

up

of

fessions
Con-

for

Christian

its turn

in

sums

the

of

of

sighed

letter, the

the

councils,

of

the

of

the
"ec-

disappeared

strtking

necessity

and

force

and

round

and

and

scribes

the

(Christianity

to

in

Ezra,

the

spared

Iwen

that,

Bl*Asaa

Doctrine,

again

prospect

by

preservedlnstead

Churrh,

JewMi

the

adopte"l

been.

dominant

and

Truth

centur"-,
the

contrasts
was

prophets,

return

Great

tod

heaven

Mrth

2S.

xxxili.;

the

After

service.

fol. 49, col. 2:

the

of

name

seinsh

service

dead
two

God.

as

well

cities

Gomp.

moUve.

in

the

the

of

destruction

as
as

only

the

Alms

can

Alms

well.
to

particulars

three

is

well.

as

equally

rich

In

latter

(TlpTX):

the

to

Meton.

without

which

Hebrew

IliBtory of

Jcr.

nation,

that

spirit been

been
to

the

giving

by personal

the

comp.

Sucwi

Comp.

shown

"

the

often

the

this

of

of

the

has

rn^3;gl"

Temple

atoo

u"ed

to

prayer."

alms

be

of

1. e., sacriflcial

AhhodKd,

denote

to

exist:

genius

fol. 88, col. 2:

Nedarim

not

like

Rabbi

To

beneath

hedges

Sav^ing
and

the

law.'

Koran

well-nigh

self-condemning

of

the

schools

again

make
or

succeeding

counterworks

of

has

world

the

authority

might

Judaism

Prophet
on

the

in

too

the

of

of

we

But

and

and

Theology

of

sums

Jewish

with

Had

"

then

form,

more

history

that:

li.,83-38).

the

with

indicated

remark

the

of

(Herzfeld

had

and

ambition,

each

the

have

to

as

developments,

large

and

outposts,

an

subject.

simplicity,

erect

of

Founder

its

of
and

fences,

Salvation,"

of

the

in

crisis

and

the

To

uniform,

or

words

the

and

distinguished

continuous

not

the

of

aim

the

been

burled

was

Sheyks-el-lslam.

which

enormous

round

hedges

to

about

hedge

evasions,

from

has

in

is

there

disciples"

the

which

one

Pentateuch

the

manner,

the

of

anti-popes,

speak

more

vii., 29).

the

happily

the
'Make

make

To

Fetuahs

Christianity,

Faith

till

scribes,

But

More

81).

come

many

Impetuosity,

of
the

of

But

conventual

of

make

the

subtle

have

grown,

guidance

judging"

last:

the

was

Gemara.

intrenchments.

Isaiah

with

instead

of

and

this

on

and

tlons

effort,

like

obstructions,

disproportioned

equally

iMjpes,

(Matt,

Ezekiel

the

the

once

passage

Jewish

and

would

scribes'

later

in

had

spriniT'

p.
"

disease,

it has

not

was

approach

sentence:

the

which

the

for

law

charaoteristJcs
the

surely

must

Jerusa-

rule, duty

fiit^peh, Boston,
this

on

illustrates

precepts.

more

ing
receiv-

ritualism."-all

courage

o/ the

into

less

be

three

thorny

beneath

well

the

by

the

were

undaunted

which

motto

of

of

because

such

Stanley

circumspect

He

receiving

sake

defined

being

law, scrupulous

Study

branches

could

and

the

Dean

which

and

Be

these

of

successive

successive

synods,

who

in

Nothing

the

scribes

the

behind
and

been

the

of

tlons

of

ser-

Just.
of

of Jochanan

son

of

the

with
to

the
sake

for the

necessary,

Synagogue

all the

the

was

to

late

medi(pval

more

the

perhaps,
and

and

spirit.

any

Mishna

law,i

Simeon

not

superstition,"

awaited

great

scribes,

famous

law.'

of

the

not

Cordova,

the

in

devotion

the

the

explanations,

labor

Mishna.

though

the

than

elaborate

up

the

you.

Jose,

capable

lifeless

East,

of

itself,

predominated

generation

He

Synagogue.
the

for the

master

fence

{IiitrtniuctUm

to

of

order

the

Great

from

upon

seemed

the

remark

serious

Ezra

of

openness

to

be

The

end.

already

of

ascribed

form

more

around

Zereda, and

uprightness,

is the

history

in

It resembles

37

things"

master

the

8er^"e

of

Alexander.**

parasitical plant, the

the

three

the

Heaven*^

tending

frontier

saying

of

men

tradition

of

coming:

and

the

on

conquering

one

fear

Stern

faith

heroic

Ing

Fathers.

thb

of

serve

who

Religion

dying.

the
who

servants

the

of

warning
but

fixed,

only

by

servants

of Joezer

son

last

virtue

received

like

let the

and

reward,

the

of

benevolence.^

like

ye

of

one

exists

Sacho*

not

be

but

reward,

of

acts

Antigonus

3.
used

the

was

Sayings

; OR,

world

The

say

vice,2 and

Aboth

the

are

only

Is benevolence
of

bestowal
be

confined

given
to

to

the

the

niS*3i) superior

(OnOP
but

money,

benevolence

poor,

living, but

but

be

can

ercised
ex-

benevoltnoe

benevolence

can

be

mejr

living.

Judea.

Iv., 12:

11.,t.l2;

Up
D'?Di;f

I v.,

the

nameof

11, v..l7.-Dan.iv.,":

God.
Matt,

I.,11. Iv.. 4b, V


xxl., 9". Comp.,

Ol/^for
atao

God's

Lev.

sake

xxlv..

11.

Hebraic

3g

the

dUBt

the

let the

and

open,^

more""

indulgM

mudi

the

the

6. Joshua

tndltloD).

I.

tiMM

with

said

two

aloof

first

(Jahrosbericht

BMMtothMiM

ma

The

I (IfTT-TflwBerlin).

Zereda,

Tke

"
"

of

Ahoth

R. Nathan

before

him

Antigonus

OMedns,

more

"

Other

Baglqa
t

Me
"

Wide

open.

howe

had

the

Beraltha

Bloiet

Joie*t

""

noH.

It

LIU

alaorl

ad

nuudm.

rloe

phrase here
Christ

diHlpleaof

denote

to

the

li

"jlO
u

"lao
""

ioA.

xt^

8.

a^ K

Hm

opposite

yy

hratad
I'

teacher

rahM:

BesMee

alaothe

the

Acts

here

alM"

from

OoBp

IL. 9 [oomp.

Judenthum
the

pro

second

pre-

era.

them,

i. e., the

disciples

met.

sages

feet.

fervor

Comp.

not

and

15; also

v.,

him,

need

but

sit

Mark

reverence.

x.,

Trodag VaixalifjlTreTraidev/iivog.
the

bathing

water

drink

of

vii..

talk, gossip,

water.

read

we

i., 11, Jer.

as

thy

of

that

Job

everywhere.

because
the

with

and

Nathan
enter

Hebrew

is the

second

iii., 10 b, vi.. 5.

comp.

commit

you

at

older

last

adultery.

one.

D'DOn.

talmudic

formula

to

the

express

inferences

'a

t^K.

Elijahu,init.) the

talked

with

the

simply
followed

Talmuds

13

with

it denotes

Ecclus.

John

future,
by

book

woman.

II.,3, 4, 7,

pronoun:

not

with

reason:

-^3

and

and

but

i v.,

often

the

theinfln.:

abode

nm
full

ii.,4

of

is

sq.

quoted.

(Bbl.

denote

the

ix., 9

27]

the

Dm

DV;^3).
that

certainty

(he

will

at

damned,

last be

ye^vva
^

[It

regarded

as

'

v., 20.

see

Haoiga

and

Frankfurt

Nethanja.

now

der

great

honor

to

call

oneself

scholar

of

cele-

xxH.. 3.]

menUone"l

is., t,

E.

in

Christian

will

you

Rabbi

glosses,

ng

iza^detaoc,

Talmud

Maee.

p;? |J,
was

and

the

the

that

could

later

following

generally

Targumlns
Is

(erf.I.,16).
oomp.

Jemaalem

Is ahhrerlaled
""

In

he

refl.

lit, 1;) express

141-147,

p.

of

their

at

thy disciples

Aboth

; in

de-be

that

Great

Gerichtshof

middle

from

where

of

traveller

vl., 8,

(as in Thanna

the

of

gap.

down

his

all

are

as

but
is a

not

comparison

the

Biblical

rersa.

1866,

dberste

of

study,

of

we

the

to

manreUed

0|j(hUer Hebrew
yo ""* TI\p (eee

follow]

also

oomp.

of

i. e., sit

xxxil., 17,"

two

6, 8, 10, 12),

passage

orthodoxe

the

Antigonus,

7ra("d
rovg

is added

reference

heavj;

and

the

x.,

das

commencement

word

meditation

it

Of

plural with

majua
this

With

ine
tt

the

pious

our

vice-president

Der

fuer

city, think

that

so

attach

Decl.

towards

pair there

dust),

Joshua:

tide,

JVadoHmSOa

light and

first

every

Ocn.

room,

eatdi

on

thought,
n^Tf^ihlhUoal),
In

mi

"1

nj^

door

Rabbi

to

say

oomp.
a

from

the

(Jer. 11., 26).

mtoys

the

ai'^ 'loMttrof

ftfit

(by

neighbor,i9 and

iv.. 17.

ppK

receive

them

VeralagenenmedeilctJingen

Hoffmann.

flourished

not

enters

sage

and

i)u

rabbis

two

ground

reading
L, 1,

of

of

; win

beside

the

Lcttcrkunde,
it D.

especially the house

When

tL:

AeliLXZll..^

SCOf.

and

(denominative

the

on

tradition

,i3

heir

an

teacherie

Kucnen,

Abr.

see

for

before

2 Chron.

xi., 2Q;
the

Between

tkywaU"

Dttft

decades

few

pair reoelved

hoiiM

A
**

last

I Klnffs.

oomp.

Ifvt

AatlfOOiM.

of

the

ovotuiy,

(cl.
second

Uabbiner-Seminars

des

probably

first pair

wicked

the

president,

was

p. 410-413;

Z"ttoe"chicMe,

JfmttMtam,

thyself

from

nt
this tradition
^gmtftm* "ii^""w"wiM"tiinM
Afdceling
AfHMkimla
wm
Wetmtehappcn,

r,

for

(HI J^I) commence,

pairs

the

received

Get

himself

to

from

Arbela,

own

saidis:

charitably.

one

every

Keep

MMialled

the

MiVM

mamwdlagtotnAiUon,

whoa,

said

Perachiah,

judge

and

Arbela***

of

Nlthai^^

of

son

thyself a companion

for

of

the

of

Xithai

and

in

one's

becomes

he

much

sages

evil

causes

is that

end^*

to

the

(Hence

woman,

his

and

law,

Perachiah

of

Joshua,

the

of

rtudy

son

with

in conversation

indulge

wide

be

not

reference

with

wife).

neighbor's

the

and

this

said"o

thy house

Let

thy household

of

(They

with

said

Jerusalem,

sons

woman.'

much

how

wife,

the

be

poor

with

cooTemUkNi*

Ji"chanan

of

Mm

of

Zereda,2

thyself^ with

dust

and

sages,

of

Joezer

of

son

thirstingly.^

words

their

in

drinlc

the

for

meeting-place*

and

feet

of their

Joc^,

".

be

bouse

let my

MkP

Josd, the

them.

from

tradition

the

Ien,i received

A.

Irhid.
1 Oor.

xv..

83].

il.,2.

Cod.

Siddur

Cambr.

LI. e.

reads

in

prayer-book]

both
of

passages

the

year

Matthai,
1306.

so

Nithai

PiKKE

to

thyself

not

Aboth;

wicked

Satinos

or,

and

man,

do

of

think

not

Fathers.

the

89

thyself exempt^

from

pmiish-

ment2.
the

Judah

8.

of

law

the

of

son

when

gnilty

be

in

the

Tabbai

thine

when

have

let

them

dismissed^

when

they

from

thyself

not

thee,

been

innocent^

as

received

Consider

before

stand

they

eyes

of Shebach

son

said

litigants*

but

Simeon

and

the

; and

be

them

let

Tabbai

Judali,

if they

as

eyes

of

son

(by tradition).

the

as

be

from

have

them
ranger*
ar-

in

thine

thy

ence
pres-

accepted

the

sentence.
the

Simon,

9.

be

and

Love

said:

Shetach,

said

in thy words,

and

Shemayah

10.

of

son

cautious**

Abtalion
hate

work,io

Be

received

rabbiship",

most"

from

lest^

them

make

not

examiner

they might

tradition

by

and

searching

from

of

learn

falsify.

to

them.

nesses,
wit-

Shemayah

thyself known

to

the

goveru-

ment.i2
Abtalion

11.

lest

you

the

and

the

of

the

he

and

He

Bbl.

17K\

Bbl.

its

"10D3

"

'21

oonjug.

"

C"reful,

"

Lest

""

Theas.

lU.,

K/^irrkTu,
like

1879

Meyer,

Arbeit

"
1J

"

p;?

not,

Sanhedrln

Whoeoever

his

is worthy

of

ir: a;

enjoys

whosoever

2. t")

Be
man-

name'*

deathi"";

th"

Un.|ul8h

pro9|K"iity,

Is in

misfortune,

paid. ill..16, here

oneself

punish

divine

of

nij;,nii) especially

let him

not

let him

not

'} Ix^

4b

punishment,

hero

let the

take

at

im

Pesaklm

without

be

always
and

nriTJ

^'HTn,

in

trade],
is

InteresUnff

B.

by

usually

also

worked

Uw

Iv., 8.

done.

iv., a

Bsra

Berlin

Talmud,
87

b:

plur.,

reference

York

"

"^'ni.

to

t8:

taMhea

thiU

the

under

for

dominion,

to

with

l^K")
11.. 11;

this

he

6 ""trTwi'
his

not
tur

Jewish

tiUe:

IL, 9: S

1 Then.

34;

xx.,

iv.

ZrU

son

fi^tdri
trMie

Jtmn^

ed.

to

Bf

LUto].

ArtlMUi

it kills those

permliwlon.

nW^.
Ul., 10

"i:

relaUonshlp.

Iv.. l."; vl., 1;


Mark

who

hare

111..lA.-Oi"m.

xvi..

IS

moally

It."
Prov.

xxy.,

K^^f^f^n H

nmfy4X$oif

U].

[Comp.

Matt.

xxUL.

"

[Comp.

Matt,

xili., IS].

""

3'n

guilty.

3'nnn

to become

guilty, III.,4A

[Comp.

Booloa.

xxx.,ia.

Oenaaa

".

la ralatloo

men

irdoffTtJ KTian.
u

1878.

Woe

comp.

Bph.

H"md"m1tertd)tn

Jud.
1888

8;

xvUl.,
of

agreement

Delltxsch.
New

Pick,

Acts

comp.

the

fol. 29. col. 1

Kiddwhin

(as ii., 8). related

n"")a creature,

should

Blbl.

pH^^

like

formed

is

what

denote,

with

Hatidtoerk

wul

vi., 9 b.

demise,

departure,

H^'PS

stealing.-Franz

to

up

object

personal

with

xiil.,18, here

plural

The

to

12.

Komaru

[Engl, transl.

men

loved

loses

eminence,

leanis

make

to

Job

I..6.

Toma

rabbis

iv.,

Cor.

government

rwiy*^

of

name

SK). and

said:

he

peace,

law.

the

S8:

Hillel

1.,11.

'orte

dominion."

Rather

God,

to

him

bringing

pursued

1, despair

chastises;

is 3'n.

i^eriphrastic

fih/jjovM

langen

them.

iv., 6.

also

excellent

8.

from

who

Kabba

y^S}

pay.

U.. 1, 8, 10, 13. Iv., 13a; comp.

most

die,

Iv., 22,'plaintiff.

g.

fx^iTore^ue

[The

e.

opi"osltc

Innocent;

nS'^O

also

|n ^^2
depart,

to

to

t3fll7D

struere,

Comp.

course.

Litigants.

he

(C^K\T

watert,

and

same

8.

v.,

"-

misfortune

punishes,

pays,

D'Sd "I"^;*
verba
own

with

Hlthp.
Olam

evil

prosjwrity.

postbibl.

that

Hebr.

8odcr

and

In
in

redeem,

"

thou^rht

he

1; W^)Q

iv., 11. Plur.


"

here

the

words,

your

of

place

of

drink

and

for

and

to

blasphemed.

proximity

i''

to

respect

exiled

may

peace,

strives

later

despair,

thought

the

into

Whoever

be

tradition

by

loved

he

not, decreases,

\ffH^}

the

relinquish

j,nD

them

say:

be

received

Aaron,

something;

in

relinquish

to

increases

thouKht

v.,

of

and

you

would

may

with

guard

your

after

come

God

on

captivity,

to

Shammai

brought
used

who

and

disciples

kind,i3
13.

of

be

sages

who

name

Ilillel

Ye

amenable

disciples

whereby
12.

said

become

proTerbsays:

IIeuraica.

said

He

U.

makes

who

he

moreover

said

1". ffhtmr***^

reoeiTe

much,' and
*

doubt

and

man,

talking

aiMM

the

Simeon,

things, viz.

throe

Truth

and

truth

on

of

judgment

of the

speak

modem

qualities for which


to add

and

rlglitway

do

to

It

of

N.

a
1

ThU

The

"

ttme)

to

Jaa.

(Oomp.

-_._

The

xviii., 6)

quit of
wise

among
the

study^

in

indulges

much

direction

The

and

justice

of

on

the

world
for it is

peace,

gates.

and

too

great

is the

devil's

have

easier.

Seneca

workshop.

of

The

perplexed

good cheer,

is the

way

ued
valout

of time.

letters

of

be

two

are

It is not

expense

of certain
such

speed

strives.

there

is

The

He-

Epist.

says

sepuUtira].
In

instruction

for

the

law.

Nedarim

Comp.

fol 62.

ii..28. 44.

but

by

title.

liabbi

and

No

of

example

an

afterwards

brouMrht

11..8 immediately

any

the

was

Abraham,

the

follows

title

best

who

that

he

the

offered

three

had.

i.,15
highest

degree.

Kabban(here

for

Kab.

heave-offering, theruma,

conjectura,

ex

dando

vel

uj^

minus

habebcris

main

'flU

"2 Chron.

Menachoth

nDlK3,

part.

Leusden

remarks

vel

plus.

Si minus

dederis.

vel

here

given

was

50th

dando

iv.. 6; nlmllar

nO^n

]g

InveetlgatJon

vel

prodigus

(,i)iwnton.

the

exactly

meaaureoff

to

y,",^

Stodj.

do

i.. 6).

(") ^'^y*

'"-^^

up
; and

whoever

Accuracy

all

brain

vM

fol. 87 col.

additions.

than

more

aaeplua deelmaa
"I peecabia; phu

'^

silence

naturally

without

payment

any

without

Mfee

itwaanotnticBawiry

"

idle

1 Chron.

(Oen.

conjecture.

Tpm

be

and

brought

usually, the right

as

an

art.

Let

homtniM

Mezia

later

are

preeedlns

Int

et

occurs.

Baba

of bread
7

ett

receive

to

atreadjr

UM-IL,

"

but

fol. 8,ool. 1.

la Uluatrated
morael

"

"

Balhra

name

Tbto

flam

the

inohlMted

BolM

little

Y.

formation

some.

all evil, and


mors

had

in the

this, and,

time JKteKt

wa"

teacher

been

on

of Hebrew

be

can

observed

even

root

M, t: oMmh

eoLI:

every

to be

of the

writer

perliaps disheartened

and

And

Wheaton.

C.

Arch.

practice

beauty also if it

distinctions

many

speak

judge ye in your

peace

Morrlsonvllle,

nice

then

OHIEOGEAPHT.

By

plaee

fixed;

than

said

Gamaliel,

of

son

HEBKEW

We

present,

practice^^ ; and

the

perish.i

me

sin."

upon
"*

man"

for

better

anything

at

thyself

have

days

my

principal tliingi""but

eaoses

depwMJs

All

shall
for

tithing by conjecture.?

in

much

he

face.

for

Obtain

end)

will

when

law

the

pleasant

too

said

son

found

R^M^n

19.

indulge

hia

netar

the

is not

with
said

own

if not
of

who

self

my

I ? and

am

thy study

everyone

not

do

and

Simeon

17.

for

not

am

what

Make

Gamaliel

^Rabban*

16.

for his

(of tlie law

crown

If

myself,

for

not

am

the

of

use

Nedata

judicaberia

avarus

hypocrita.

where

halachoth,

xlii.,22; xxiv..

fol. 54 col. 2, i.e.,

correctly:

87

it is best

to

essential

doctrines,

signification

"

translate

v.,

doubtful).

man;"

(y) essence

SrTlD;'
B^mo

"31 J

nfi'^,

H^Oiy
v.,

IZ

offttid]r(ooUc(re].
**

11

(oh
'^PS.
(Comp.

It

Comp.

""

Zech.
In

'^^

"

Horn.
Prov.

II.,";

^**" essential

1 Cor., iv., 20; Jas.

thing.

i.,23.]

x., 10.

vili., 18.

quotations

^^* (/^)^^*'*

According
ii.,9; ill.,2

to
and

the

best

often.

witnesses
Other

this quotation

forms

see

under

is

ill.,7a.

later

edition."

nDKJiy

is

Gensral

brew

letters

perpendicularly
most

at

fingers
to

strokes

for

the

Hebrew

it is

letters

them

the

angles,
stroke

to

stroke

lines

in the

as

is made

and

case

downward
which

line

between

be

^ and

the

t3

and

stroke
would

be

not

from

its foot

at

"3 is exactly

cornered

square

engrossing

or

held
so

rule

to

as

(Spencer-

the

witli

first and
its widest

present

letter

of

ment,
instru-

pen.

between

each

made

made

are

two

requires
stroke, and

one

the

letters

when

made
the

similar

two

lines

stroke

is

n,

and

which

that

in

mode

naturally

When

lower

which

the

This

law

precisely alike.

otherwise
this

to

right

at

the

from

the

tendency,

point of junction,

of construction.

nature, the former

of formation

uncertain.

addition

unless

precede

of ink

direction

are

well

together

first.

and

it is

pen,

"].

brought

made

the

glides past

reversed

are

mode

flow

the

weak

accordingly

and

and

upper

to shade

which

reversed

is in the

line

observed

first

in

clay

holding

to others

^, Q, J, D

or

the

readily and

similar

by

with

impossible

of

letters

are

are

of the
and

If it is

manner

constructed

upper

letters

it is to be

by beginning

exceptions.

exceptional

These

the

in

accident

an

The

distinction

of two

being composed

strokes

one.

perfectly formed

in

less

only by producing

adding

the

hand,

obviously

probably

expected

when

much

as

horizontally Instead

be

general

features.

is

"^ is of

afterward

eye

these

were

avoided

accurately formed
and

the

certain

termination

latter of but

can

"

stub

rapidly in the usual

where

cases

''

pen

those

sharp angles

first the

of

was

with

letters

first.

and

clearly illustrated
the

stylus
should

As

note

construct

distinctive

complementary

and

to

correctly and

lower

produce bold

In

They
cleavage of stone, the yielding of wax

The

is

degrees

except

important

produce

This

also, all the

alphabetically,
to

by

shaded

require three.

equally impossible
make

Hebrew

stroke.

completion,

general rule

of 4o

41

right, and

hands

our

excellent.)

angle

an

to

The

in

horizontal

its

stroke, but

we

is

"),which

and

As

22

left

English.

easily imitated

surface

n, O

in

as

ian, Gothic, No.


second

from

written

are

Notes.

as

third

stroke

than

of the

like

^ with

distinguishes it from

of

strokes, and

like the

the

^ on

by its being composed

base

two

character

right

portion of [^

ed
jl is distinguish-

left shoulder,

two

Q is swiftly and

hand

of

instead

strokes

three,

as

by

left line.
addition

the

quite

as

of

much

the

mark, and

distinctive

the

formation

by its reversed

as

practised
tinctive
by jt" dis-

sign.

^EI]EI{7ILM?0TES."The

Accentuatiou

been

asked,

Job"

have

different
if there

books
it.
the

been

confined

which,
There
same

if

their

portions

poetical,and

was

to

at

Pss.

another

be

to

the

from

books

poetical character
no

necessity

xviii.

(see

the

distinction"

three

and

2 Sam.

for
cv.

xxiu,

The

Books."

the

any

when

regarded,

Books;

one

time

1 Chron.

x vi.

there

at

all, for
marked

and

should
are

equally to

seem

distinction

1-15, at
and

Prose

poetical aeoentuation

above-named,
be

I*roverbs, and

Psalms,

twenty-one

often

have

questions

Rooks"

(so-called) Poetical

lucentuation

clearly

was

Poetical

Three

tliree

the

Why
a

again, why"
have

the

of

we

witli

other
claim
find
the

8-22) witli the prose

Hebraic

"

Job
a

rafloMMnt

mocli

purely nmsicnl

idea

Tba

teems

"**"**"*

brief and

pregnant

When

and

bj

intiodtioed, we
weU

aa

tbe

Babylonian)

as

aereral

here, particularly
teacher

of
other

sUehical

division

in the

early tradition,
of

punctuation.

comparatively
and

recent

at which

oentory,
dead

written

that

signs

this its lat^r


tiaditional

time
ad

first

origin,

division

lose

MIdiaells

the

Testament,

title of

Theologians,

they undertake
is

man

with
**

capable

Uie

he

who

have

to

and

hands.

authors,
on

the
In

can

But
form

short, he

should

Manh'B
The
student

he

not

of

can
can

the

have
to

who

which
desires

I
a

came

the

to

the

its
his

seemed

the
had

draws
and

him)

been

its

tem
sysin

origin

in

not,

it would

in

was

all

probability

on

account

still

Wickes,

of
the

represent
Treatise

fifth

Jerome

and

to

due

Babylonian

closed,

It would

text."

weight
Jewish

he

to

had

of

early part of the

been

us, because

(Palestinian

from

in

the

trace

can

allowed

it

was

accentuation

century, when,

Old

no

therefore, who

labors

of

and

the

into

confine

the

on

I may

unless

abilities

nor

at

least be

of

with
critical

to

and

the

of

apply

predecessors

have

is

as

treasures

presented

and

which

edge
knowl-

much

so

those

have

Septuagint,

remarks

no

Eabbinic."

and

sufficient

acquire

to

thart

acquaintance

an

Syriac,

to

to whom

aflirm

to
to

studies

aspire

;those

in possession

others,

their

but

venture

Hebrew,

their

languages,

error,

Testament,

of at least

unac(iuainted

the

to

classic

been

made

Testament,

only with

see

Miduielis, Vol.
above

New

Literature, which

the

we

be

learning the Oriental

must

leanied

judgment

presume

had

only themselves

opportunity

man

no

that

accents.

Divines,

knowledge

the

Oriental

language

others; but
man

for

investigatefor themselves,

of Grecian

is

and

synagogue

the

(as it

being

quo

instruction;

neither

reqoisite to profit from


their

lead

joins

finer

books, although

think

seventh

the

and, without

understanding

Greek,

Those

books.

Books.

to communicate
of

three

Talmud

for

Study.""

Greek

by

(which

applied

the

heard

having

represented

interpretation of the

and

Oriental

on

it

of the

its interest

of the Poetical

to the

close

melody
fixed

as

other

by

if this accentuation

to

terminus

employed

the

verses

Talmud

in

perhaps
to

the

find

therefore

Palestinian

quern, the

were

the

may

allude
for

to

expect

the

not

but

variation

any

Moreover,

the

with

peculiar melody

of

Talmud

peculiarities," metre

venture

period,

era;

silentio

reading

writing.

should

we

to

as

does

also

their

to

hint

argtimentum

Jerome

books)
Psalms

the

help of

Christian

the

no

particular mode

attention

qwdal

gives

The

books.
as

aa

of

to the first centuries

aeoeota

the

cantillation

in the
the

By

to say.

unable

are

For

do

l^overbs.

improvement

this

these

the

of the

inappropriate when

been

have

and

Job

of

verses

whom

not

it may

and

enough,

tind

we

in

than

of

part

to

refinement

accentuation,

the

verse,

impressive, melody.

artiflcial and

of

the

schools,"

least,

for tfve shortness

greater

the

of

ehaiaeteristic

BuitaMe

of

compensate

to

At

niles

the

constniction

been

to have

synagogues

verbs, and

then

have

and

character.

with

frequently Interfering

more

grammatical
or
loficftl

tbe

Palestinian

the

ae"in)of

We

books.

other

the

as

way

siime

peeoliar to

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upon

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Notices.

47

"BOOI^:I20TI6ES."CHJLLDEE

TURPIE'S

the

by

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53

of

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noted.

xxii.

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neatness

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plan,

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MANUAL.*

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real

""SBIIilTIClBIBLIOG^^P^Y.-eBbklimkr,

Midraah.

Bbbtut,

G., Suggestions
critical

parative and
418,

1888.

BiCKBLL,

G.,

Principes g^n^raux

Paris:

Upe.

H.

BsveecB,

V.

Leeoffre.

Thesaurus

ten, geeammelt,

Inschriften

4) haar

ai-618,

n.

Frdr.,

Ahth.

und

Frdr.,

Fragen.
I^SRSmiOURO,

J.

Aug.-Sept.,

vine

EcTiwo,

as.:

Paul

Haupt.

Die

p.

Tafel

1-6.

Gutard,

gr.

atique Aug.-Sept.
IIalevy,

G., Dan.

oeUaniaes

Traduit

com-

p. 387-

E.

par

Phi-

cachets

Altagyptische

und

Denkmaler.

3.

Abth.,
imd

{VII.

1884.

5.

Leipzig: Hinrichs.

Israelites, Phoenicians
1883.

Bibliothek

Inschrif-

autographirt.

304,

p.

et

syriens.

planche.

et

305

Assyriologische.

Bd.

3.

1.

Kassaer.

I'dpigraphiedu

sur

der

carthagischen

Wissenschaften

notes

1888,

Yemen

Funde

und"

[suite] Joum.

Inschriften, hrsg.
Berlin.

zu

Strassburg:

de

Asiat

1. Bd.

Tritebner.

Unterstiitzg.

m.

Taf.

1-202

Anh.,

u.

1883.

lexicographic assyrienne (" 1-19):

Joum.

Asi-

184-198.

p.

i.,8 Ashpenas,

Joum.

s^mitololgiques, Jowm.
Observations

Linguistisch histor.

1883.

(1 BI. Text).

8., Nouvelles

Leipzig: Hinnchs.

229-277,

der

erklart

S^r. 8. T. II.

der

Sprache

Jui^, Sammlung
k. Akademie

Verb.

Society Oct.

Hinrichs.

H., Etude

et

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(VI. 766.)

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(1-3: M.156."

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grammaire

de

the

Co.

1884.

inscriptionum

Clbrxont-Gaknbau,

of

of the Royal

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Geographische

Note

study, Joum.

im

Babyloniens
"

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on

Ethnographic

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S. gr. 8.

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und

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BeitriLgezur

Am
nnd

les

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as.

as.

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1883,

Mis-

282-284.

p.

p. 432-467.

inscriptions sab^ennes.

J"mm.

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as.

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NoKLDSKB,

rerar

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Lief.

der

Texte

(8. 103-768) in

der

assyrischen

inscriptions

Inschriften
nach
4".

den

mit

of

W.

und
A."

zahlreichen

Thontafeln

Leipzig:

Hinrichs.

des

akkadischen
sowie

meh-

ErganzunBritischen

(Band

IV.-

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p. 149

Assyr. Bibl.)

Inscriptionspalmyriennes [suite].Joum.

as.,

^i^m^jmj.-i^

MAY,

I.

Vol.

THE

FOR

BOOKS

By

Neo-Hebraic
dead

entirely
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diflfering

During

in

Lyck

in

Jews

in

this

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instruction

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eighteen
until

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Iliilosophy,

Philology,

and

languages.

peoples
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270

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vom

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other

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little book

This
One

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some

reading
edited

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begin

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of

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simply

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department.

by S. Baer

correctly
a

of

time

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unpointed

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ha-sopher

Mark.

or

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by

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language

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LANGUAGE.

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properly

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teachers

NEO-HEBRAIC
Strack,

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Theology

All

periodicals

numerous

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announced

widely,

most

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never

language.

language.

THE

Hermann

Professor

The

OF

STUDY

No.

1884.

then

most

to

bis
und

auf

historical

read

Stticke

historische

Auswahl
Jahrhundert

Uebersetzung

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die

aus

Gegenwart.

Anmerkungen.

Berlin

The

pieces.

1840.

by

SchriftoteUem

hebriUachen
Mit

book

Texte,

vokalislrten
x,

298

pp.

Hebraica.

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texts.

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particular consideration

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(336-352)

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accomplish

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Poetry

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404

xvi,

biblical

find

we

.the aid of these

exerdsee

rabbinica

Chrestomathie

Hebraische

literature.

small

three

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1837.

contain

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^IV^C*^ H^i^^H

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neuem

of

literature

Martinet

Adam
und

difficult

offer

geo-

Latin

abbreviaturahistoricis, theologicis, glossario et lexico


in 6 parts.
322, 170 ; 326, 201 ; 112, 343 pp.

attention

Xeo-Hebraic

modem

1878

8 vols,

1841-48,

call

same

in

text

more

to

was

unfortunately,

but,

T*"3n O^N-

the

pp.

appeared.

not

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to

the

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Hebrew

the

of

part which

second

The

against

208

published

matter

contains

vocalization

1844.

Biesenthal,

Hebrews

to

Over

the

and

notes

Berlin
K.

J. II.

is

name

is

want

opposite.

prima.

Epistle

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chrestomathy

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sorry

in

Thtodor

notis

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are

rich

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we

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is

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phitosophical.

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many

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already

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aids

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Dukes:

Die
Sprache der Mischna
lexicographisch
127 pp.
Esslhigen 1846.
Alfr. Otigtr:
Lehrund
Lesebuch
zur
Sprache der Misclmah.
Erste
Abtheilung : Lesebuch
x, 135 pp.

is not

und

at

suitable
un-

hand.

grammatisch

betiachtet.

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first |"art contains

well

cliosen

selections

short
for

of the

grammar
in

reading,

of the

language

part vocalized,

Breslau

with

Mishna

1845.

; the

copious

notes

ond
sec-

and

glosaary.
Hermann

L.

Struck

MischnarTnirrtat
Karlsnilu-

"r.

TWs

iMH-ause

text

the

Spruche

Kurzer
Einleitung, Anmerkungen
II. Reuther; 48 pp.
I^^'ipzig1882.
Mark, 20 pf.

treatise, very

from

Die
"p-jf).

jl^3J"

und

*.Co.).

mann

der

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mit

of

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as

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einem

York

ethischer

Wortregist:

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Wester-

contents, is particularly suitable

biblical
as

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the

language.
factual

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this

difficulties

are

edition

for the

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explained.

The

to vocalized.
L,

A.

Wolff:

Mischna-I^se

oder

Talmud-Texte

Grosstentheils

mit

ernden

1868.

[in vokalisirtem
Urtext
Anmerkungen.
Leipzig 1866,

religios-moralischen

deutscher
2 Hefte.

Uebersetzung
158

pp.

und

Inhalts.
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Hebraica.

VARIETIES

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Shurtleff

mUm

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overlaid

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with

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pages

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nearly

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Uie

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forms,
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assurance

as

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alphabets.

southern

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unfriendly climate
various
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from

scholars

king of Yemen,

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name

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biblical

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religious divisions,

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the

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the

seven

letters, the

newer

adding

of

some

diphthongal,

palatal

Ilimyaritic

as

been

indigenous

It is neces8ar"'
found

and

for

elegant syllabic characters). To

Studied

still

to

Syriac, Xumidian

Roman,

the

not

are

four

adding

modifications

diphthongs

added

newer

them,

Yemen

alphabet

have

to

telling

story of

modified

and

of

Ilimyaritic

the

from

they

has

its

libraries, the

Semitic
and

Abyssinia

Greek,

syllabarium

old

the

that

contradictory.

and

peculiar and

own

of

European

Ethiopic Geez

of

have

Ilauran

in

in

which

trivial and

Syrian

"of the

of

five

system

represent

source

appearances

are

elaborate

of

to

and

says

of

system

all consonants,

letters, and

twenty-two

consonants,

an

system

consonants

simple sounds, being

old

adjusted

Lepsius

these, however,

immediate

the

and

the

also

the

gutturalizings, developing

seven

represented

Ethiopic, retaining

later

or

Ca,
are

wUm'

Hebraic

54

with

it, which,

discoveries

Other

TUniB.

alphabets

similar

if the

relics

yet approach
and

the

Egyptian,

in Syrian
We

histoiy.

Of

Syrian relics older than

fibout

dehris of S"Tian cities.


Hebrew

the

in

inscription
of

stone

of

Mesha,

Of

temple

discovery.

recent

bronzes,
B.

from

Of

Persian

C.

Semitic

letters with

showing

era,

Scraps
but

do

old
to

modifications

from
not

tradition

imfounded.

cities,if ever

complete

from

"

In

these

p" show

Hieroglyphic
have

have

no

been

from

the

Himyaritic
p

are

z, but

t,and
old

preserved
dates

either

(Pait)

now

identical

other

authorities

the modern

one

Semitic

as

at

be
in

in

to 200

the

us

old

of

number

Nu-

Christian

the

that

of

that

the

to

but
z

the

zh.
z

of

old
need

and

Semitic
of

letters

from

or

the oldest

Semitic
not

be

p.
so

in

to

the

nor

that

tradition

8, while

that

Barth

old
the

adopt

the

its
a

s and

Arabic

the

Libyan
w,

the

says

Libyan

Tuarik

the

only

commerce

b, Himyaritic

origin.

of

attained

have

inscriptions.

appearances,

languages

of

and

extent, having

Libyan

From

Asiatic

been

have

to

Libyan

Egyptian

The
shown

largely recruited

so
as

Even

is

Europeans

have

abroad.

or

preserved,

people.

science, philosophy, poetry,

made

give

most

stones,

alphabet

the

flooding Syria

home

form,

is old

of

are

600

are

appears

early date

very

were

is only
may

nearly

Uth

at

Neither

reference

a
near

among

of

invention

relatively, to

who

character.

cian
Phoeni-

these

give

Sanchoniathon

commerce

and

must

Semites

memorials

remarks

how

also

Phoenicia, of insignificant territorial

the

left permanent

also

Lebanon,

and

from

date

the

Moabite

Phoenician

and

various

literary culture

Phoenician

Hamitic,

Semitic

of

have

we

of

the

under

the

C,

All

C.

which

history by

Phoenician

absolutely,

Minor.

B.

400

If

speak.

Baal

to

B.

500

or

centuries
is

relics

of

much

the

Even

people of Asia

population

of

date,

600

of

old alphabet.

the
book

indicate

to

trifling extent, both


three

of

developed

illustrations

letters

some

There

insular

Plioenician

seem

common

be

socially,

was

uncertain

Assyrian

fourth

cast.

and

these

persistent

buried

inscription

about

are

fifth and

Chaldaic

midian, Phoenician, Punic

of

of

on

etc., there

the

of

as

Semitic

Old

Sldon

inscriptions

vases,

seals

of

Marseilles, of

at

ethnical

of

cannot

we

probably

are

Sidonian

the

king

small

seals, medals,

of

Siloam,

B. C,

900

epitaph of Ashmunazzar,
tablet

of

conduit

about

letters

Philistine

larger specimens

the

and

their

and

letters

B. C, exist, they

1000

script

current

Semitic

and

Hittite, Amalekite

in

era.

northern

the

to

turn

now

may

Egypt,

on

letters

again,

sufficiently extended

never

such

produce

Christian

the

have

alphabets testify of

Berber

the

and

to

commercially

or

letters before

We

alphabet

Berber

and

Himyaritic

Egyptian.

6, g, d, z, l^

are

Semitic

the

the
cast

Himyaritic

Such

of

of

antiquity

of

while

Berber

the

of

some

Semitic.

the

Semitic,

the

literary culture,

ancient

an

but

race,

resemblances,

supposed

story of dependence

same

found,

are

Semitic

many

Since

derivation

the

the

of
all in

Himyaritic

the

pre8er\'ation of
religiously

the

alphabets,
Both

seclusion.

of

doubts

origin of

alphabets

are

letters, however,

prototypes of

comparison

of

elements

many

of

as

there

the

confiim

they

Egyptian
any

these

former.

the

Berber

of the

have

common

Berber

secret

could

we

the

assures

Carthage

to the

nearer

If

r.

from

with
Some

letters.

from

derived

whom

letters

Berber

the

been

co-eval

were

Himyaritic

had

hitter

preserve

quite

Ilamitic.

as

and

Himyaritic

the

iBetween

which

regarded

of

varieties

other

of

use

among

generally

are

language

their

Lepaiiis dassitles

as

who

of

some

Berbers,

The

light-coloredtribes

the

are

Tuariks,

the

among

tlie

inscriptions of

to the

resemblance

some

revealed

soon

inscription of Dugga.

the

bore

differences,

maiiy

A.

seems

ts seem

and
bers
Berto
to

alphabet.

The

alphabet

caiTied

was

first

to have

is

as

developed

by

devotion

use,

Assyrian

bronzes,
small

dropping

the

before

that

older

Christian

Its

changes
of

recklessness
and

to

vieni

of

change^

to

in

and

on

inscriptions,

loops and

loops, opening
These

carefully

Letters

insular

and

circles,

progressed

changes

styles of letters

added

were

Arabic

people,

so

the

to

did

and

Syriac

and

passed

Syriac and

the

without

of

out

style

use

parts of

letters, and

added

it established

these

style bears
after

ghelo,

general

the

Christian

the

to

much

of

the

alike

use

in

and

literature

ministering

busy
to

period, giving

political intercourse, while


at

the

Some

of

the

Estran-

mony
testi-

extended
istics
characterArabic

and

Aramaic

and

bear

forms

facilitating an

literary

commercial,

sharply drawn

indicates

stages of development

various

Hebrew

lines of

of

sets

certain

of
crystallization

of

stoppage

before

the

of much

tokens

centuries

Syrians
in

This

considerable

of

Chaldaic,

all the

letters.

name

Its various

fied
modi-

letters.

the

civilization.

luxuripus
in

several

life,and

mercantile

Syriac style appear

cursive

writing, after the Macedonian


forms

of

it bore

literature.

considerable

in

includes

the

to

preserved

Syria, and

scriptures and

Christian

period

developed

half

effete

an

connect

to

It

Syriac.

or

development

Wiien

era.

in

common

was

Aramaic

mere

ble
considera-

dropped

parts of

essential

as

to

This

Arab4a.
It

limbs

and

lines

ligatures

alepfi

era.

northern

or

and

alphabet of

dying

and

sources

respects it resembled

other

rapid writing.

extended

of

name

varieties, covering

of

number

was

Syria

to

flowing type adapted

its letters

into

Eventually,

of

heart

in

Christian

the

after

soon

in the

is found

It

6, d,

them

corrupted

It

use.

reduced

and

Arabic,

ligatures.

their

of

samekh, often

dropped

primitive

from

amount

tained
main-

It
formed

and

them,

isolation

indicate

as

considerable

crosses,

also

second

The

with

Numidian.

is called

abbreviated

letters,but

the

such

are

them,

mere

lines, as

short

etlinical

religious separateness.
partially developed

Of

inscribed

on

first

or
are

second

as

Syriac

burial

tablet

century, of whom
Sabieans,

Syro-Galileans,

Christians.

letters,one

This

some

the
in

thousands

sect

still remain

Babylonia
near

Mendaites,

Mendicans,

syllabary,the

of

John

letters

was

found

publiRhetl by

Itebylonia, and

.labia. Disciples of
a

specimens

oldest

semi-CJnostic

Zablans,

Mendai,

alphabet is

of

Abushadr

at

in relics of

remains

variously called

.Nasoreans,
tended

lead

Another

Bunsen.

who

as

writing- materials

preserved.

Punic

Algiers, Tunis, etc., and

in

appeared

first

rudely.

and

modification

tendency

no

ornamentation

Israel, although

together.

distinct

four

era

of

at
and

papyrus,

such
such

of

nature

and

triangular

joining letters

the- separateness

and

seals

on

either

art, or

for

assumed

ones.

The

and

Persian

was

remained

had

reed-pen

afterwards

long

origin and

letters

They

writing.

captivity

were

rounding

and

parts

much

right.

fine

with

Europe.

to

their

Semitic

contend

Minor

of

indicate

haste, the

the

as

and

toward

with

as

of

old

to

Asia

change.

which

or

forms

old

Israelite

tendencies

show

early

as

appears

inscriptions the

made

much

literature

to

the

writing

the

55

now

knowledge

that

penmanship,

aggi-avated by unskillful
increased

show

hurry of business

the

from

results

of

the

towards

introduced

been

has

Syria through

lost

without

more

Alphabet.

Phoenicians

faced

letters

characteristics

the

had

letters
the

Semitic

the

from

carried

were

or

seem

changes

Europe

Syrian relics

all

centuries

fifteen
the

of

letters

The

by

originally

that

ignorant

to

the

named

Whoever

of

letters

that

probability

Varieties

the

Bassorah,
Naxareans,

Baptist, and

being much

of

l*re-

simplified,

Uebraica.

66

and

Towel

each

this

character

there
and

avB

Since

AdlcclaB

New

of the

MS.

simplUledand
with

Peshito

the

of

iHisiness
of

The

ital writings.
at

early date

an

were

also somewhat

have

next

Tlie

of

forms

older

the Jordan

letters

found

and

the

to be

in

are

of

of

are

so

the

Hauran

of

bear

the migration

of

of

the

them
of

use

by Prof.

of the

inscriptions being

centuries

Sinaitic

before

little changed,

is

inscriptions and

iU

from

and

Peshito

does

r, g and

cfc," and

and

of

ayiii.

very

these
The

E.

is the

to

Hat,

Cufa

ah, and

aieph and
Neshki

simple, while

so

lamedh

by the

use

the

7, the

much

modified

in

shallow
and

is

the

useful

the

dots

The

relation

same

Cufic, by the
alphabet
resembled

it

as

was

each
to

makes

to

assimilation
reduced

to

other,

make

the

these

letters

writing,
this

as

same

Of

and

these,

Arabic,
that

b and

also

forms,
gimel

seventeen

represent

the

t, z and

seventeen
did

used

deriving

Cufic
of

rude

painted,

common

the

alphabet

Arabic.

the

Greek

probably

Yet

or

be

evidence

rude

times,

other,

long
to

shrine.

The

very

scratches.

early Mohammedan

Bagdad.

its style
of

It

culture

have

it.

of

were

They

after

each

found

They

style, usually heavily written

In
and

only

Chti^-

1839.

and

some

to

as

course

heathen

Nabatheans.
to three

era

elegant Cufic

about

Estranghelo.

the

the

are

the

far

region

they

and

fication
simpli-

from

intelligence

to

near

and

Sinaitic

word

the

F. Beer, in

near

holds

to

the

Palmyrene,

or

and

so

of

east

and

Semitic

illustrate

visitors,probably

Christian

manuscripts

the city of

Neshki

E.

artistic, tasteful

an

in showy

called

the

to

Its

Xabathean

simplification

old

seems

The

the

Israelites, but

with

in

undistinguishable

of

among

first deciphered

very

the

begin
letters

lines.

to

testimony

Arabic

was

two

name

we

Sinai.

region

of

fully

Those

essentially Syriac

Most

lines
as

from

former

They

styles
to

greater slurring

process

short

kingdom.

general
Hauran

Nabathean

connecting

numerous

and

are

of

the

date

the

the

Malabar

style, of which

new

the

resemblance

simple

Aramaic

letters

general diffusion

writing,

the

puzzling inscriptions

once

use

carried

often

relics of

accompaniments.

most

of

parents
on

and

existed

Christians.

Arabic

four

as

region from

in those

considei-able
letters

and

"

aimple memorials
Some

the

Other

have

the

are

sociated
as-

in the

initials

must

Jacobite

inscriptions in the
and

strong Xabathean

supposed

of

more

and

writing

pages,

styles
they

other

spoken

increased

retain

Those

once

free

Syriac Christians

Its characteristics

an

inscriptions

modification.
in the

Peshito,

quite elegant.

title

and

era,

and

the

numerous

Sinai.

and

have

we

Sea,

Sinaitic

6, z, l,
The

other.

Peshito

formation

Petra, and

in

near

generally

a,

and

by the

in the

which

Dead

the

forms,

Syriac, but
make

of

those

are

of

used

Nestorians

influential

Mukatteb

Wady

the

by

its fuibitat in

had

used

for

are

Christian

the

often

of

another

usually called
to

IVliile

yet usually

are

into

away

was

The

used.

speak.

to

third

to have

and

Hindustan,

of

coast

Estranghelo

about

letters somewhat

Syrian

modem

and

were

much

Estranghelo.

style adapted

people, and

cultivated

shades

in

letters

degrees of skill

been

modified

are

It is

scriptures.

Estranghelo

ligaments, they

and

letters,which

Estranghelo

the

forms

style of the alphabet

connected

more

in

manuscripts

various

has

Estranghelo

is written

cursive

sliow

This

separately.

written

the

era

Testament

letters

Brtnnghalo

the

Christian

the

the

with

relics, formed

varietiee, in different

many

taittn

Of

Museum.

preeerved in the British

are

Four

consonant.

joined to its preceding

being

nine

and

forms
tional
addi-

sounds, viz.,the remaining five of the old alphabet, three peculiar


linguodentals, aspirated cheth and ghain, and the division of tsadhe into
an
a d.
s and

The

The

Xeshki

fifteen
of

characters

immense
the

to

adjusted

to

adapted

inscriptions.

interesting
which

in

style

to

North

ligamental

forms
The

history,

The
old

fourth

of

introduced

that

used

limits, and
political life of the

were

the

the

geographical
the

Palmyrene,
The
few

Samaritan

inscriptions,
differences

some

than

Arabics

numerals.

the

by

liOndon,
the

that

four

bears

Latin

of

to

it

was

in

1696

at

in

by Oeaeniua

given

Those

have

Oxford

at

Mlsoellanea,"

Irby

and

carry

their

own

in

row
nar-

stroyed
de-

which

events

belong the

this class

Tadmor,

or

which

Home

wall
in

been

vineyard

Brsoh

for

that

two

One

IflW.
"

M.

by

given

may

Bibliotheca

A.
see

the

in

hare

Rom*

Levy

I hem,

outline

of

of

ruln"

"

much
1
,

quit* wM

bora

In the **I"ltaohrlft

further

Land

vols.

dw

8poa*"

Bartheleny.

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myra,"
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hareglr"o

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at

are

",

Rome.

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and

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well

inverted

near

more

difference

"*The

Vol.

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publhihod

wa"

in

common

is much

Wood.

blUn^al.

are

our

essentials

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carved.

been

they

are

interpreting

in

intelligible. There

are

of

like

looking

grievously

blundered

"

lished
pub-

As

inscriptions.

Transactions

letters

ary
extraordin-

inscriptions well

few

of old

readers

ini

known

are

The

Rome.

and

Philosophical

Rosenmueiler's

Mangles,

by
In

them.

England

the

explains the SyHac.

which

version

of those

One

19, it being

buried

or

Palmyra

Philoaophioal

"

extent,

connected
un-

variations

confined

were

the

as

of the

alphabets

facsimiles of these

they

ten

the

in

such

less

or

from

each

letters

letters.

they have

Oe"enlu8,

Swinton

more

used

in

others

MorgenlandlsohenOesellsohaft"

Deutsohen
*"

and

which

Oxford.

by Land.

pubUflhed

All

having

bilingual tablets

1753, and
at

the
them

of

many

known

were

Vol.

representation

now

"

alphabet

is an

formed

was

the

preserves

limited

who

hinder

and

Bruyns

skill with

are

TransacUons,"

letters which

adopted

Hebrew

are

which

Uhenferd

of the

and

fifteen

Only

de

legible,

aid

care

tokens

Here

way.

at once,

say

crystallized

published

the

difticulties

the

by Cornells

in the

of which

between

curious

but

and

ordinary

in itself the

letters,relics of the city of

Palmyrene

illustrate

to

people

the

it may

base

angular

which

has

only

called

by diacritic

but

alphabets, carries

Syriac styles.

been

mony
testi-

something.

one

uncials, but

or

had

they

is

are

tanian,

mental
funda-

stiff and

done

has

Mauri

using

continuous

one

examining

of

grams
mono-

alphabet,

Neshki,

Instead

been

interesting

Saracenic
the

are

have
for

the

an

the

line the

on

very

is

of

Persepolis

at

also

and

curious
from

Semitic

other

cursive

the

by
that

modification

majuscules

evidence

found

are

letters

involution

is

as

Neshki,

general class of modified

last

process

in

student

alphabet

an

and

type by

use.

Also

it writes

letters

all the

the

forty-one.

to

letters

the

culture,

and

Arabic

much

varieties, those

is made

It

characters

above

Arabic,

culture.

all the

of its extensive
with

of

of

Cufic

preserved.

its

parts

old

They

changes

some

The

or

purposes

Mohammedans

surfaces, but

with

designs

early Arabic
the

African
been

increases

points

the

is between

has

Hagarene,

of

relics

as

other

twelve

region.
and

with

smooth

on

for

serNing the

vast

languages.

ink

fantastic

Of

of

points and

these

flowing

and

ornate

very

and

by diacritic

and

reed-pen

and

Persians, Tartars

the

of

57

essentially unchang^

commerce

of

tones

Alphabet.

reverence,

the

purposes

softer

the

the

of

additions

some

suit

to

and

literary

with

generally,
sounds

Semitic

the

remained

now

literature

for

adopted

have

of

protected by Mohammedan

centuries,

an

Varieties

II..

etc.
1

In

but

timed

one

insoriptlon they give such


recognised by Oesenlus.

much

iniwriptions
like

SV67. and

like 8, and
as

and

published

96ft,and

In

sometimes

Onf"*s

19TW. and

**

closely rpaembles

figure five times, which

Bunsen

In not

or

Hoffmann

resembles
Studies

In the

S, while
Bible

Palmyrenr.

ttlh Is like d.
Lands'

an

"l,k, p. and
So

also

Bstrangtaolo
r

In some

are

"onie"

BlnalHo

Hebraica.

10

bat

in

produced

are

antiquity for

Hebrew

been

have
B.

Rev.

Samaritan

letters

from

tlie old

many

differences

kigoe

at

by

and

in

2Xot

which

Hebrew

which
relics

is

There

are

coins,

second

on

Dr.

almoM
at
"

"tyle.
of the
Thto

much

In the
that

and
n

of

and

whlvh

ail reapecta
The
nK)dem

/ baa

the

extraordinary

and

late

plainly

given

difference.

fact

from

matter

is

d. D.
the

is

the

The

teth

are

in

Of

to

inscriptions
from

G.

published

of

and

mmek
above

Syriac
d. D.

are

M.

as

on

G. for

scarcely
the

line.

the

late

1869,

"

p.

potteries
279,

and

of

it

much

been

Hebrew

the

the

MS.

which

Is

ry
Libra-

Royal

Universelle.
the

in

recognizable
qoph

times
some-

because

of this

originated

The

are

Pantographia,"

is In

Palfleographle

line which

they

has

styles of

which

Hebrew

course

processes,

alphabet

century

centuries-

Perhaps,

Fry's

grives the

Sylvester's

lower

standing

decidedly

in Zeltachrift

1864

Christian
In

connecting

zain

for

Baby-

ancient

alphabet

publishes seventeen
M.

Of

small

of

silver.

pretension.

eleventh

on

bowls

be

style, and

Hebrew

of

stone

Israelite

Christian

seventh

to

ancient

conduit

scarcely anything.

professing

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MSS^

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the

assured

inscribed

and

copper

preten-

carvings
Of

C.

many.

Of

Hebrew

unsustained

of

peculiarity

The
is

MS.

facMmtle

Aramaic.

type.

Inscription

back

Zeltachrift

of

have

in

medals

Their

repeatedly multiplied by galvanic

now

palieographical

MentJcal

It,tm

we

have

object of interest,

an

with

B.

of modem

are

are

VI.

third

one

is much

vaunted

letters.

small

some

and

the

from
in

century.

VII.

many

silver and

BofleamaeUer

Parfa.

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l( to in

"

they

much

world

letters

from

between

Deca-

ing
painstak-

and

The

inscription

B. C. there

the

are

given

detritus

of taste

Hebrew

modern

trifling number.

dating

subject of misconception

along with

"

is

in the

the

Indeed

so

first centuries

memory.

are

There

as

left to them.

has

national
Christian

period

but

are

The

German

little drift

Syria. The

in

discovered

centuries

letters

destitute

been

the

recently

to

there

scattered

in copper
been

and

several

which

stand

Maccabean

era

are

worthless.

the

the

Christian

loiiia there

has

ascribes

than

of the

the

of

pristine

form.

the

the

Sacra,

Hebraist.
the

in

alphabet

wrecking

eleventh

class

are

546, and

their

loss

the

old

evidently quite primitive, and

Vogue

older

of the

fourth

there

which
de

than

older

the

relics

SUoam,

coins

In

the

D.

not

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what
of

phase

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the

from

inscription reciting

in

long surged

so

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people

preserving

probably be

Lastly.

the

A.

and

have

that

but

but

now

to

Samaritans

waves

abraded,

using and
are

ascribe

some

The

of the

and

MSS.,

of

text

as

its

retains

the

skillful

and

erudite

tissue
Chald-

Bibliotheca

the

primitive Semitic

the

letter

single

in the

of

issues

many

an

from

different

as

style

Gesenlus.

of the eddies
mixed

are

of

Penn.,

Allegheny,

Latin.

Nablus^

fully

very
of

Pick,

in

the

late

character

divergencies of

The

scholars.
described

is

with

Aramaic

The

text.

to have

from

Samaritans

the

strongly marked

is

and

language

to all Semitic

is known

language

MSS.

of

Syriac features

ale and

by

Pentateuch

The

of fiction.

saved

been

have

story of

whole

Samaritans

of the

nant
rem-

great

professes

of which

to

claimed

long

have

one

of

letters

equally pretentious

race

They

and

Aaron,

The

temple.i

Zerubabel's

of

burning

Pentateuch,

of

grandson

mixed

religion.

of the

manuscripts

some

by Abislia.

made

been

ous
curi-

as

trifles in comparison

to the

given

commonly
Gerizim,

Mt.

and

letters

in

alike

impoi-tance except

isolations, being

name

at

Nablus,

people about

of

uncertain

and

dates-

Palmyra.

is the

alphal"et

Samaritan

The

Hebrew^

Their

peculiar.

very

little

of

are

Semitic

of
of

characteristics

Greek

They

257.

oddities

of the

illustiations
the

84 and

them

makes

that

of Chaldaic

Syriac, and

Estranghelo

the

chlrography

D.

A.

all fall between

with

of

ehancteristics

the

they h*v*

is

as

The

Syriac.

Semitic

of

any

Hebraic

thoroughly

Babylonia.

again

in

1860,

p.

622, with.

llEBRAICA.

SYLLABLES."

"INTERMEDIATE

ON

D.,

I^.

B. Felsenthal,

By

Chloaso.

sUention

wboM

nen

hia learned

eommeooes

and

proper,

be the

never

purpose
can

ia aappoaed

correct, or, in

Diffb^h-lene

should

(f"")3^jQ).

But

speaker

or

audible

whose

majority

Professor,

But

2.

there

if

Let
the

take

us

oorresponding

lieinK without

syllable has
In the

8.

select

now

be

verb

short

foregoing
words

and

easiest

whose

third
We

the

must

we

whose

prefixed.

nph6
and

radical

but

^Qf?,with

likewise

is

what

way

radical

is to

be

upon

Let

us

Uying
method.

down

yet

How

have

to

we

apply

of the

the

") Daghesh-lene.

first syllables closed

words
ones,

"O'pPi
Op'l, nJ5
"jp*,

lables,
syl-

ed
indicatdifference

no

syllabication,
is, to

aspirate,

the

thus

same

aspirates.

We

little further

general rules

In the

In

the

q^tiu;

alogy.
an-

how

see

raphe,

i.

e.

similarly:

shi-kh'bhu;

:
:

and

being

by

go

the

though

first

would

; for

or

with

no

Daghesh

inseparable

We

process.

find

^t)^^ with
'?^^5,

We

find

similarly

therefore

we

"

for

look

We

also

accurate

very

Let
pre-

follow

the
of

ones?

in the

third

the

syllabify :

would

we

before

we

"c.
venture

Baconian

true

we

verb

D^DI?,

As

ijlD^,DD^'D,
bi-qHoi,
syllabify

M-dh'bh^r, W-s'phath,

(the construct

intermediate

Qal.

Imperative

of the

one

collecting examples

thereby

"D")5.HDp
^'

in

in the

syllabify :" Wq-tol, Wq-tol, Itq-tol?

the

one

an

orthography

proper

an

syllabify

read

the

answer

I^DC^^

as
examples verbs
class," Infinitives with

130*?. DDtT^. "c.

proceed

is

reader

manner

to

aspirate

difficultywhatever.

no

an

read

likewise

whether

Hebrew,

perceive
As

is the

letter

and"
lsl-"ni^l,
iTq-toI.And
thus, in order to be
bl-sh'nith,Ac., in accordance
with
the readings
4.

and

had

we

of another

second

We

so.

which

Mi-z*mor?
we

the

this

is unaccented.

and

lines

whether

to reach

find then

word

bt-q'^1, k!-"|'tol,
It-q'tol? We

or:

not

difference

no

and

is

raise

we

reading

intermediate, in

perfectly accurate,

sounds.

vowel

difference

do

we

following

Miz-mor

of

word

however,

deciding

in

makes,

qt-t'lu(Imp. Qal).

above,

Consequently

(V'03)

posiUons

said

surest

form

no
as

whether

or

DaghcHh-lcne,

r!-dh'pha,"c.

to

The

cases,

Dodd

qtt-luand

is,as

wish

we

Dr.

by

between

qlV-lA"or qT-|Mil?

us

between

of

of

distinguish, whether

can

Who

fluent

meaning,

he

for-mulf

by the learned
and

that

of
in

He-

meaning

pronunciation,

purpose

omitted,

distinction

in the

reading

fine

so

be

or

f"nyn-^l

happily designated

so

should

called

nor

Hebrew

to

the

showing

for the

cases,
or

Hebrew,

reference

perceptible

enounces

reality, it makes,

in

is

ear

of

purpose

some

be employed,

otherwise

or

the

only be for

"nefa qnestions, it
to be

If with

and

sense

In

accordingly.

of syllabication.

right here
to be

composition

etymological

the

divided

be

must

the

at all affect

not

where

course,

word

the

to bo exhibited,
"an

Of

sentencee.

do

which

and

But

orthography

Hebrew

neither

affect

all begin-

Prof. Dodd

ought

of beginners

special attention

which

Thus

Monthly.

of this

first number

the

the

qnestiooed whether
phonological niceties

grammar

WQids

in

paper

of

minds

the

subject.""

to the

called

been

once

be

it may
to such

brow

has

in

Syllable arise

Intennediate

the

Qoflrtionsabout

*'

1.

OnDp).

find

letter, we

ive
inductare

the

^"33,"5*^*1,
must

conclude

On

in

that

the

words

these

all

"Intermediate

Syllables."

syllables

first

the

are

61

so-called

intermediate

syllables

(therefore: ka-r'me, "c.)-

the
take

as

syllable.
in

qtn-yan, "c.,
Have

6.

base

with

first

thought

and

if

might

say.

containing

once

us

become

beyond

almost

of

will

and

indicate

to

such
even

careful

and

Massorah,

Bibles

there

Asher

and

Western,
schools

full

differ

Naphtali
We

"c.

in

Gen.

(with
D^*^J"lQp

the

Asher

this

which

is also

such

other

different

be

one

and

Ben-Naphtali

field

whole

by Ben-

readings

by

Ma'arbae

(a

the

last named
Ma'arbae

and
in

cases

regard

Ben-Asher

to

Ben-

and

D*^Jl*10D' ""d

KSph);

in

(i" ^^^

well

Ben-Xaphtali

27,

^^D*?

^JjQS;

XLix.,

; in

Sam.

reads

has

not

general grammatical

known

curiosities); in Num.

Ben-Naphtali

18, Ben-

Ben-Asher

readings the

^^^^

Massoretic

in Ps.

vi.,

mands
de-

one

(yTph-pS*|t:*j|")"

reads

Ex.

the

xxxii.,

reads

Ben-Naphtali

required by

many

which

in

readings,

syllable. In Gen.

closed

Ben-Asher

would

of

most

Rabbinical

and

Madinahe

But

like.

The

Readings

of

general

3Ieth^ghs, Mtlqciephs,accent-signs, Dagheshes,

DHDIOil

of the

The
number

the

and

the side of the

at

Ben-Naphtall

^^D^i

reads

y3S*7iand

the

30,

M"Sthdgh

Daghesh-forte

rule, and

and

words,
to

of

some

xlii.,

and

OnDnOn.

regard

random

at

the

Mdthc'ghs.

Different

differences

considerable

(yt-ph'ghS-sh'kha) and
']trJ"3*

reads

sh'kha);

in

intermediate,

an

Asher

spelling of
mostly

select

in

to

the

Massorites)

The

text.

consonant-

the

now

of

school

Massorites)."

points also

other

among

of

"

full of

pages

upon

in

so-called

Different

"

as

studied
the

when

is

importance.

of

full of

loss

thoroughly

folio pages
several

at

see

But

stand

we

such,

as

we

word-

cases,

properly.

find that

of minor

end

for them,

doubtful

word

soon

Upon
facts,

analogous

in

to

unaccented

of the

reasons

compare
us,

quite

us

the

At

Babylonian,

or

letter

ai-man,
which

upon

the

knowledge

text, which,

have

who

also

school
and

then

defective

or

Eastern,

(an

Palestinian

concern

disagree

and

we

preceding

mtdh-bar;

case

deeper
us

the

shall

we

points

this.

several

Ben-Naphtali,"

or

such

admit

to

found

to be

are

Madiuahe

the

had

have

in

which

it is intei-mediatef

the

the
let

dispute, leaves
other

and

material
this

case

with

to divide

how

Massoretic

Bible, scholars

of the

editors

of the

that

find

to

research,
our

and

i)aghesh-lenes, MSqqephs,

in

ri"t3D*lJIDi l^t

us

the

with

In

say.

Bible, and

letters

doubt

may

minds

our

Hebrew

and

sufficient

satisfied

are

we

the

that

any

If

our

open

we

closed, and

rack

to

engaged

slippery ground,

is

siwce
Yt-ts'^iaQ,

examples,

which

to

Daghesh,

not

construction,

^Ilbh-tah, in analogy

these

so.

one

M^thegh

a
we

seem

desire

not

Let

forms
whether

all

vowel

it may

(fl) has

q8r-ban, "c.

with

after

short

do

we

syllabify

now,

letter

rules, according

general

syllable

We

Ytts-haq, and

grammatical

same

third

analogy

we

the

the

model)

our
a

read

must

we

is of

(which

nn")*

name

closes

considerations

similar

For

5.

19, Ben-Asher

xxii.,

and
S^Ntt'*^'

reads

16, Ben-Asher

4, Ben-

xxi.,

'

'^IXtT*?;I^id.

Ben-Naphtali

11, Ben-Asher

iW(Z., xcvi.,

multiply largely these


7.

find

Besides
records

these
of such

either
less

minute

the

lxxx.,

11, Iten-Asher

Ben-Naphtali

DjnV

Ben-Naphtaii
niK;

"HN,

would

I^

DJHV

be

ea.sy

to

selections.

and

similar

marginal

Massoretical

and

readings of Ben-Asher

different

or

disafrreements
the

larger

commentaries

and

NapiiiHli

places.

In other

Massorah

Ben

or

annotations

who
as

Any

opens

the

one

such

Kn

we

who
more

shall
amines
exor

Haqqor^ by

IIebraica.

and

no,

world,

parts of works,

or

liayyug down

Jnda

of

of

CBcnisanoe

of

alreiMly
noticed.

has

and

found;"

how

many

Bible, viz., in Num.

the

There

Is

in

other

the
So

two

find

we

JOV*?

other

no

the

that

YVXtT^(J"**-'"" ^^)'
As

other

some

"^DR)(J"*"-xvn.,
Ifassonitical
have

that

of the

Pentateuch
read

farab to

thus

and

the

"And

Dil^th

in

may

In the

words

without

the

words

the
are

raph^

is found
; and

this

of the

Daghesh.

The

Ac.

Have

we

the
Num.

87;

others, have
there
8.

We

are

proper
no

the

last

il*^-

Daghesh,

in

was

lxi.

manuscripts,
other

his

Isaiah

the

has

that,
are

also

omitted

the

the

editions

prophetical

in

withaMethegh
word

this

occurs.

npH

to

the

Massorah,

Bible, the

the

after

Ilaph-

as

note:
following foot-

Heth

according

be

to

ation,
punctu-

several

constantly

found

they

of

appears

has

places where

mention

is

In

editor

learned

Ileidenheim

wherever

matters

such

editors

same

deserves

(the pericopes from


of

painstaking

the
It

*nit3.

and

pC^^

22),

xxxv.,

by the

HSs-de

correct.

chap.

all

find

Psalms

or

of this class.

(Gen.
jbcJ^B
to

t^)r\i7

words

of words

others, while

he

was

the

in

the

first

syllable of

been

totally

two
at

punctuation

DD!?!^")
35

xxxiii.,

nouns,

there

further

in

reads

in consideration
have

must

certain

word

in

article

the

in

is

such

these

words

place of acute

in

syllables ^'?

difference

noteworthy
I., 11

in

now

intermediate

'*

be

D^ri'^^VH' nyicr\n, nn^^b'?, Dost^'?, n^^f"?

asi3-t9n, nnDOH,

syllables

added,

Daghesh

and

as

which

Psalms

HVpO*

the

Ha-s'dhe,

in ancient

so

connection

DVpO^

Baer,

accurate

it is

has

the

in

raph^

note:

of

Haphtaroth

and

word

S.

certain

Synagogues)

yet in his editions

We

which

which

will

il^nilD

QSl
Dodd

times

On

4.

t^^l

instances

expected

editions

HDi^-

Nitzziibhim,

the

have

the

Ileidenheim,
been

other

so""

Heidenheim,

uniformly

to

in the

Section

"npn*

XII.,

W.

Prof.

three

letter

points

Infinitive
as

found

xxxi.,

the

is also

letter

should
in

the
one,

nKC'l
^"3-)

irregularities we

**1pn

not to have

books

Ex.

we

W.

even

seems

2), where

constantly and

noticed

Ac..

of

Isa.

col-

raph(^.

radical

80

in

in which

this,

i*- is i^

examples

scholars

is

second

*^"^

furthermore:

note

the

passages

NSDV'p

takes

nice

''exceptions

is

and

24;

that

days

conclude

soon

these

in

closed

also

remarks:
like

extant

mostly

the
who

or

of

manuscripts

for

that

Dub-

number

since

,-^will

rules

true

remarks

viii.,

Massorah

place the marginal

named

We

iv., 23;

is

is

Infinitive

the

Thus

cases.

himself

he

But

It

syllable

first

the

prefixed Lim^dh

all

the

in

others

and

general

lay down

to

covering

phonology,

Hebrew

with

able

large

very

Luzzatto;

D.

S.

Lonzano,

de

by Solomon

grammarians

readings

Firkovitsch,

Rossi,

De

hardly be

rtt^ii

we

of the

some

and

different

of

'rim

Soph

by the Jewish

Ileidenheim

W.

to

by JMenahem

Tora

Tiqqun

the

peruses

Xiqqudh

on

the Or

or

or

who

; or

hundreds

the

Kennicott,

by

leeted
that

works

other

numerous

Norzi,

Solomon

Mintath Shay by

the

or

('"^.T)*

Jehiula

ben

Je"|uthiel Ilakkohen

for

it

of

reads

loss
which

aspirate is contained,

discrepancies

DDDl^*!-

In

U;

Ex.

Aben

Ezra,

and

the

opinion

that

word
Gen.

expressed

xlvii.,

Egypt.

concerning
we

the
in

(R^'-m'ses).

DD^iT)
in

which

in

(lia-'Sm-^e?),and

these

DDDjn

find

we

cannot

might

the

reading

proper

easily find
give

us

when

w^e

parallel forms,
clue

as

to

the

meet
and

in

correct

"Intermediate

On

We

reading.

]^t^1(Est.

Shall

According
is

We

0.

referred

have

to

"c.
have

have
the

system

In

llabakkuk,

of

that

of

have

of

number

The

books

short

lay

read

these

rule, and

we

are

half-closed,
the

an

meet

HirSqs,

was

vowels

inserted

name,

very

of

He

called
of

is
ItDp*?

first

said

that

8. Hanau.

the

Others,

this

theory.

But

rather

should
D*5*?P"

to

becomes
from

be

author

than

they did

year

Op'^i

to go back

not

teach

or

to

any

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of

theories

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did
any

and

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plained
ex-

St^ghols.the
in

are

So,

The

works,

reality

gave

them

said,

e. g., he

this

being

in

this

case

phonetic

P"tti^

is

ItDp^^

l""t in this case

similar

in

of

long

occurring

after

theory of

the

would

not

explanations

vowels

of Hebrew

its

inr^|,took

grammarians,

grammarians
speak

Qes-

line of

eighteenth

he

; and

Ihhri, accepted

these

others

medium.

of the

here
qillliih,

as

short

syllables.

^^^

really be

eminent

not

as

or,

consideration

and
q"lliih.

cord
ac-

we

syllables in

the
PStt^l^s,

0*70*

not

boundary

Sh'va

^^9^

T'nOa

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first

the

vowels.

L'shon

more

to those

the

that

the

stand

should

Talmudh

Of the

subscribe

1200.

T'nu
and

equally eminent

probably be better
the

do

syllables with

should

properly be

eliminated, and

syllabication prevailing among


before

strictlySh'va

have

nevet

grammatical

the

in

Syllables."

ask.

first half

in the

that

which

we

on

it is

syrian"
"As-

MSS.

one.

half-open,

meritorious

r\il[)
myi^n*

them

derived
had

Sh'va

theory.

where

say,

Sh'va

the

the
these

Intermediate

are

others

conclusion

open

Sh'va;

lived

prolificauthor

stand

they

he

place. Ben-Zeeb,

vowels

who

Ilanau,

impossibility the first Sh'va

say

vocal

in

them, intermediate

Qam^t8-t"atflph8,"c.,inthe syllables under

would

nor

the

Semitic

and

syllable can

Some

he says,

the

with

of words

difficultyby another

^5*?9' derivative

11.

silent

"

unaccented

calls

way;

MSS.

to

syllables ; they

open

first time

is this ?

ways.

syrian
As-

or

containing the

preserved

open

the

special

adopt

various

another

Solomon

who

not

The

Babylonian

uncertain

the

short

the

as

here

uscripts
man-

whicli

punctuation.

Prof. Strack

forced

How

embarrassed.

and
uscripts,
man-

Bible

Orient

MS.,

ancient

number

the

edge
by this publication knowl-

subject of

quite

tlie

position, "c., from

Odessa

then

is an

the

the

for the

unaccented

Prof. Dodd

as

or,

is neither

grammarian

century, and

taken

difficultyin

syllables

two

Jewish

too

that

in

answer

be

not

must

enitis evades

rule

in

form,

readings

text
to the

of

text,
in

old

years

Tiberias

And

also be

our

return

reality we

Grammarians

words

call them,

not

points
we

mJl-1'khe,dT-bh're, It-q'tu? Are

vowels

the

in

tlie

shall

forty

an

Since

compare

(Gen.

most

Massoretic

called

reached

America.

we

discrepancies

ours,

Pinner.

by

our

to

in

part of

in

in

the

larger parts of these

now

as

But

this

and

digression

it down

vowel.

with

we

of

HJON

words

elsewhere

or

from

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'd^-nSth?
tsSph-nXth,

Or

variance

at

Palestinian

4)

i..

a"d

flJSV

these

last

and

punctuation

important

this

quite
the

readings,

less

After

10.

Massoretic

our

the

(Ruth

decide?

readings,

Crimea

the

published

fac-simile
If

shall

Within

fac-simile

Europe

pointing.
with

1844

ancient

Western

published

in

have

was

strange
in

it with

uncertainties

is, in distinction

system

of

scholars

of

all.

not

We

who

of different

punctuation

punctuation.
book

is

possess.

discovered

newly

how

now

spoken

discovered

of

we

And

records

this

been

system

far

tlie

But

But

is

Tsa-ph'nSth, 'A-s'n"th?
Mi$thi?gh appearing under

the

thus

have

syllabify HS^J^

to

read

we

undisputed.

not

how

enough

Dai'phon.

Norzi,

to

"ditions

7)

IX.,

4o)y

XLL,

well

know

Syllables."

and

It

Hebrew

ante-Qini^i times,
vowels
a

and

short

Qam"^t4(,or

af-

Hebkaica.

54

tor

H5l*m,

"

^Ti

voeal

in

Sheblier

By

for them).
enumermte

they

Sh'vi

seven

vowels.
the

differed

word

"5C*n

with

one

Gmmmar.

spoke

Romance

by
Latin

upon

grammar

after

system

in

departure

the
that

Hebrew

syllables, "c., and


Was

taught

and

still

are

would

we

lene, and
and

as

yet
as

In

another

the

Why

peculiarities?
place

is there

construction,
without

instead

number.
lies in

the

It

they

to

Why

text.

good

is there

AVhy
and
a

to

me

that

the

most

new

sciously,
uncon-

knew
short

and

long

Hebrew.

the
are

many

now

influences

generally

soon

of

is,

such,

as

of

or

above

explain

we

the
can

correct

answer

Xaqdanim

and

cern
con-

Dagheshdispute,
its many
and

there, none?

and

grammatical

same

be

These

"full"

word

questions

and

Massoretic

exceptions,

Methegh,
of

the

conclude.

Methegh,

must

verse

Massorites

or

Qimhic

we

the
or

spelling
here

Such

that
the

but

how

another

the

Southern

They

into

were

before

text

the

matical
gram-

this, for
the

There

readings

all

But

here

M^rka?

in

present age.

our

Maqqeph,

is there

in

their

also

over

doctrines

remarks,

as

and

is certain, that

after

Hebrew

the

feasible.

thereby ?

in

fluenced
In-

Qimhi's began

was

short,

doubtful

are

are,

it

theories

main, the Massoretic

thereof
seems

and

matters

MflnSb,

statement

long

or

much

additional

''defective"?

here

so

still adhered

some

is, critically considered,

puz7Jing
in

it may,

unimportant

like.

the

as

corresponding

uncertainties

numerous

such

mostly

either

were

far

Qimhic grammatical
and

taught
the

advance

uncertainties,

this

be

as

the

on

pattern of

they imitated, consciously

so

of
who

Moors.

with

the

two

study of the

the

by

right

were

of

out,
with-

his

brethren

formed

had

the

one

science

reconstructed

Latin),

the

philology effected

felt, and

widely

Concerning

12.
text

in Hebrew

But

this.

soon

in

they carried

so

real progress

doubt

who
were

doing

Grammar

which

five vowels

had

Latin

In

grammar.
of Latin

system

Jewish

Jews

in

and

the

Arabic-speaking

his sons,

word

syllable

the

closely connected

more

called

the

Christians,

among

partly guided

(and they

it is with

than

of

history

their

among

grammar

he

cultivated

as

Sephardic

the

the

Provence,

and

him

after

is certainly

Language

Arabian

Semitic

Arabic

the

Hebrew

Semitic

eentral

lived

Provencale,

While

basis.

new

understand,

who

(i.e.

classes

not

the

dissolving,
into

Sh'va

divide

that

Qimhi's (Joseph
in

the

in

lived

Qinihi,and

Joseph

Grammar,

three

better

the

and

Latin

the

whose

did,

Pyrenees

the

the

said

to

the

and

silent
not

Tzahoth

for his

Yathedh

and

With

Qimhi's

Qimlii'sdid

the

of

side

other

new

and

did

he

book

period commenced

dialect, and

Arabic

Latin.

T'nu

Sh'va).

vocal

The

Hebrew

into

'DC^p

David)

and

Moses

sons:

word

the

do, but

names

then

came

Sh'va
Ezra

Aben

we

other

{D*D^D)"

kings

account

to

Gabirol

have

vocal

to

above-mentioned

the

ben

poet Solomon

his hymns,
and

in

tesh-bhi; and

Hebrew

giMt

syllables t^-sh'bhi, as

^^'"*

others

grammarians

grammarians.

modern

these

seven

regard

^^

(HltJ^O)-

more

^"

in^

read,

be

to

from

also

the

them

called

They

servant

ancient

the

subdivision

of

process

called

Ihev

had

names

lliriq, Pathah-gadhol

llolem,

P'thiha,

fundamental

for

has

Tzalioth,

book

his

in

Ezra,

Aben

the

towds

Hallevi,

J""^*

Pktliab*

Sliureq, Hiriq,
Qamotz,

them

calls

language,

(Abu'l-Walid,

vowels

principal

Ciizari,

book

his

in

d'Aboiil-Walid.hy

Opycuks

the

in

be

must

Semitic

vowels

fundamental

these

calls

1880"

Paris,

11. Derenbourg,

"

J.

poesesses

Yodh,

that

of

facts

actual

three

et-T"q rib- recently published

RidUat

with

Hir^q

or

the

with

Hebrew

ttiat the

Tsere,

or

accordance

In

Ac

thty Unght
his

Shdrfq,

or

asked
to
came

almost

these
to

tions
ques-

their

On

final
of

firstly, by

conclusions

the

they

had

VI.,

4;

is

There
three

those

of

the

them

points,
this

their

become

own

rational

have

have

punctuated
of

toachingij

It

with

was

them,

as

well

make

as

well

might

had

their

one

or

the

is

11

XV.,
in

thtf

having
of

the

the
sound

of

would
the

and

XVII.,
a

that

words,
this

the

(ieiger's

work

Other

had

plausible

more

than

longer

raph^,

be

points

writer
which

might

in

the

^^^s

of

that

to

be

idol-

for

intended
is
have

firet

years

inserted

worshiper

easily
been

it

of

Oeiger

would

enough
noticed,

be,

we

as

dash,

is

and

Middle

the

p.

i.

the

lack

of

of

in

those

If
verj*

Judges
another

gives
has

])ecome

interested

forbids.

as

were

the

by

293)

space

e.

intention.

article

refer

merely

first

Daghesh

Ages

spoken

this

by

M"qqeph.

accessible.
but

that

translated

reminded,

be

V.

who

understood

following

who

But

Fathers,"

raphe,

later

Massorites

"-tendenzios,'^

(Urschrift

Daghesh.

should

the
the

Micah,

into

insignificant

being

as

the

be

[small
is

here

Vol.

"

should

This

with

listener

or

this

it

UDOD'^D

ago

of

distinctly

that

Rabbis

Some

prevented.

reason

it
that

words

reasons

give

brought

Christian

Daghesh-lene.

of

was

the

have

two

for

We

are

in

may,

Hammidhrash

protest

by

to

now

reader

was

verse

the

Daghesh

(in

Beth

have

They

")3"1pJ^^

just

we

may

Daghesh-lene,

just

we

were

important.

his

'IptJ'J,and

purpose.

the

words

the

to

hundreds

considered

opinion

K{ii"h

^D

Maqqeph

order

HDOD

omitted

exceedingly

the

where

punctators

seeming

cident
ac-

everywhere.

point,

the

may

hagadic

or

comma,

exclamation

there

Daghesh-lene,
almost

abnormities.

or

of

Kiiph

fii-st

already

well

little

and

they

halachic
and

in

ing
accord-

there

punctators

instances

their

12

between

put

few

the

write

ical
diacrit-

traditions

Here
and

when

or

conclusions

here
with

Soph'^rim

their

that

MSthegh,

an

Jellinek

addition

the

put

as

ii.,

in

son'';

second

considered

was

Ps.

conception

Xacidan

Ex.

Kilph

^Y

often

Maqqeph,

this

adverbial

We

appeared

that

"

earlier

in

Maqqeph.

the

for
a

In

by

an

"purely,"
In

may

^'2

in

of

often

yet

have

Maqqeph,

add

greed,
disa-

one

doubt,

judgment.

it

to

us.

reasons

messianic

but

with

And

put

suggests

translated

to

have

connection

against

")3

it.

'examples.

XIII)

p.

and

omit

them

two

is

we

well-weighed

to

closer

it

as

as

pens

semicolon;

places,

some

which

the

guided

best

harmonize

to

their

considerations;

to

as

But

times.

have

may

so

in

found

was

and

when

2;

iv.,

them

made

they
and

deeper

text

it

then

and

agreed

about

majority

Massorites,

Ta'anith

were

the

scrupulously

the

two

left

and

considerations

by

which

in

most

that

(Jerus.

Naqdanim

as

copied

manuscripts

beclouded,

the

their

two.

the

accent-signs,

led

been

may

of

found

they

tradition,

them,

the

acted

had

they

of

when

65

which

they

historical

reading

who

text

which

before

vowel-signs,

regard
to

old

an

Secondly,

"c.).

the

and

them,

manuscripts

accepted

Syllables."

retaining

before

manuscripts

faithfully.

"Intermediate

ITebraica.

":"
I?OTES."-

""0PI(IBIITED

of

in bis
explanation
-Davidson
Sin?., Impf. (Jal.
is
incorrect
This
surely
is
dropped.^
Ou tnr/ormativc
this form
snys that the }" "/
considerations
the
following
plainly he is in error, we suggest
rtiow how

and

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Fln"t

IT'fiTerta:

to

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fi.

retains

at times

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injjhy*f^m

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the

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to Gesenius

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veri"

the

in which
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the characteristic

firmness

first radical

preceded

as

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2.

for

in accounting
that

would

to be

seem

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8.

^ has been

radical

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verbs

Syriac,

Arabic,

for

as

conj. iV.

3!
iHcb.
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isBxck.

of

in

the

true

shows

ot^^ to

its

after

pre-

character

very

against

is

explanation

of

w^eakness

characteristic

the

stances
of in-

number

first radical

; indeed

of the

of the

it, that

should

we

one

vocalization

experience

not

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can

remaining

preformative,

J^.

has

little

culty
diffi-

hardly

say

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; for this

analogy.
the

elided.

cognate

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how

the

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for

is

found,

favor

of

our

view,

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the

class

typical form

discussion,

tnirfians:

form

is in

languages

mention

to

jiel,gives

syllable whose

as

Davidson's
and

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denies.

preformative.

of the corresponding

the syllable under


which

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of J"
weakness

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^^Ij^.i^

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conjugations.i^

derived

the

weakness

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have

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verbs

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this

first radical, we

preformatives

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testimony

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in

in

instances

two

it firmness.

give
of

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formative.
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fiom
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us

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ing
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furnish

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form

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impf. Qal,

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the

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.k

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in

tnX.

trated.
illus-

quite fully

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may

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preceding

constantly of this class, but

is not

character.

its consonantal

in

quiesce

first radical

it is the

when

prim, rail }". which

verb

o^X

to

is the

leading peculiarity

their

on

tendency

its

and

consonant,

weakness

Tlie

sound.

these

causes

wwilrnniiiT ot^BS

take

to

verbs

very

frequently reject

is to

be

this

contracted

is to be

that

true

In

similarly explained.i^

MSS.,
form

seen"3H

to

was

developed.

(in old

MSS.)

of

that

raphy
orthog-

intermediate

an

the

consonant.!"

orthographically analogous
in old

the

that

but

Thus

ularly
reg-

'*

Oram.
:" 2 Sara,
20.
-Prov.
2Mlc.lv.,M.
^ Ps.
r"thed.,f$",l. Kern.'/.
i.,10
cxxxix.,
xlx., U.
: 2 Sam.
lo 2 Sam.
n
Dt ut, xxxiii., 21.
xxviil.. 34.
vl., 1.
Ps.clv., 25". oJer.ii., 36.
xx., ".
u
u
""'- See
" 68, 2.
Ho".
Ezek.
xxl.. Zi.
xl., 4.
Ges.
Gram.
(Mitchell)
xlii., 5.
Kautzsch's
Hem.
Porta
n
Lingu. Orient., Tom.
Syr.
1,2. le Pctcrmann,
III., p. 37.
Kurzgefasste
Noeldeke,
"" Wright,
iaolio Oram.
1 39.
Arabic
Oram.
2d ed.
Vol. I., 8 135.

"

"

Hbbraica.

F.

by Dr.
bj

German

or

lo waste

La-bra-dor

Lah-ra-dor

important

matters

claim

be taken

up

too

therefore

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is

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not

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may

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details

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minute

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detail

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sustain

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accurately.

witliout

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words

such

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texts, is only

beginner,

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to

intended

mainly

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ject
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cor-

material
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members

members
sent

original
a

embraces

books

twenty-four

periodiciils,there

the

suppose

does

ber
num-

that

study of Hebrew

equally

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occur

first

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their

statement

this

school

subscribers,
accomplished

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from

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true

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copied
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the

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to show

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subscribe

to

is

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has

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special Supplement

of

have

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easily

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the

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without

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instances

rules

nothuig

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re"iuired

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of

published

the journal contauis

support

the

Hebrew

final

or

matter

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opinion, should

our

studied

statements

s"r!iool

of

view

authors,

the

why

reason

sufficient

it in

the

any

pronounce

syllable.

have

unaccented,

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to

liour^s study.

notice

several

"

who
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student,

In

is

peculiar

so

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raphy
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neither

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DJl'l?'^^"' without

^H'V

as

able

all

in

essential

pronounces

supposed

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and

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word

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Sh'va

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simple (or open) syllables,

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discus-

against

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intelligent understanding
the

scientific interest

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of

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progress.

language

accuracy.

intelligent understanding
nor

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to

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Hebrew

pnictical importance

syntax, the

should

and

fruitless

objection

of

and

etymology

relation

of

respectableknowledge
it with

of

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we

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force

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English,

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Otlier

What

questions

studying such

ayllabifyti-ting or ris-ingf
philology is long.

"

leani

to

l)eginning

Frenchman

his time

entii-elyagree

cannot

we

and
pages,

some

original matter

periodicals,"
two

seems

contained

little

selections,

matter.

journal
will

be

of

this

measure

nature
of

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rank

disappointment.

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can,

at

Kotb8.

Editorial

of fact, tlie public sentiment

matter

formed.

be

to

Tlie

Can

editors

of

they

desire.

all that

in

investigation
"much"
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be

succeeds, help

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for

assistance

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improved

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employed

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system

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at

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as

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this system
is

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whole

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good
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of

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scription-f
sub-

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tem
sys-

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cast.

be

it

transliterated

The
system
Contributors, unless

understand
to

been

No

suggested.

satisfactory.

requested

are

is desirable.

following has

easily be

contrary, will

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preparing

words
The

probable.

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to

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so

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clianges might
upon

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higher lines

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be

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done.

difficulties.

future

made

men

valueless.

signs adopted.

desire

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the

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let

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is yet

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literature

immediately

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with

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some

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cedilla.

year

caimot

transliterating Hebrew
in

exactly

agree

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aid

now

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value

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Much

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support

it deserve

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A

compared

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study.

done

IIehraica

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conform,

as

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far

ble,
possi-

as

articles.

CONSONANTS.

*?

bh

I"

ts

00

sh

dh

kh

1^
1^

")

ph

th

h
VOWELS.
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a

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')
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originallylong vowels

The
whether
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"

the

writing in Hebrew

following forms

(1) Quiescent X
vowel.]

and

arc

H-

are

^"

always marked
he full

encIo"ed

or

with

(*)and

the tone-long with

{*)

defective.

parcnthenis.
[Quiescent ^ and * are
in

regarded

as

expressed

in the

IIebratca.

70

Tlie

rcUinetl simply for orthographii-alroasoiis.

(3) U'tters

'S guttural.

2 f. s. of verbs

Perf
(2) P"tUb-furt"ve and the helping pattXh in the

in

as

V^t)-

is not represented.
H.vllahle-divider

represent^nlby +.
The transliteration of Zeph. ill., 8 furnishes
n''iim+y'h6-va(h)
U-khen
bakka+H
is

Miqqeph

of

example

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nearly

form.

every

1'yum qd-mi l''"dh


ki mlsh-pa-ti l"-'*9ophgo-yim
mam-la-khoth
l'q"-bh't,""i
zS'-mi

Il8h"p5kh

''le-hjfm

k5l b^D

'"l"^Pi

k! b'esh

qtn- a-thi
k6l+ha-'a-r"t8.

a-khel

t"-

"BOOIfM30TI6ES."LEXICON.*

OESENIUS'

Tlie

Miihlau

and

Volck.

eiglitliin

the

whole

Profoopore
tkms

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receive

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Massoretic

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be

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how

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lexicographers.

our

tion
indigna-

them.

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linguistic study.

Testament,

their

account

given
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Siegfried,

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liberals.

work, which

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to

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vielfacb
18S3.

charge made

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etc., has

(Wllhelm)

Nctintc

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views

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quire
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Miihlau

biblico-theological lexicon

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future.

serious

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its author

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critics

Gesenius'

interfere

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protest

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Siegfried

lexi(;oii of
hihliffhthenUtgical

into

by

to the

Their

Messrs.

some

the

Dori^at theologians

rationalist, and
a

Literaturzeitung

to

their

Robertson

Professor

Goettingisdie Gelehrte Anzeigen

party feeling is probably

Hoffmann.

ron

generations

of

has

First

edition.

Dorpat

the

by

first of

the

by Prof.

characterized

dignified silence

(rontroversy.

Theol.

in

introduced

Dissatisfaction

ninth"

"

jfiven to the procedure

Tlie

was

last

prepared

been

have

changes

series) were

of the

iiuml)er

at his strictures.

school

the

tlie

protest amounts

such

Tlie

improvements."

the appeanince

work

of this standard

editions

last two

been

not

consulted

certainly be based

Hebraci0che"

xlvi. 978

pp.

on

Chaldaelsches

und

umgcarbeitete

Siegfried that

AuflaKC

Larffe

8vo.

the

form, especially

correct

von

often

the

that

enough.

Massora.

F.

Muehlau

ueber
und

W.

of

lexicon

das

of
the

faith-

were

Volck.

is

text

edition

]5aer's
A

If this text

Handwoerterbuch
Prof.

Massoretic

Alte

Testa-

Leipzig::

Book

fully

usetl

should

we

find

less

fault

complain

that

Miihlau

and

Doubtless

many

such

emendations

when

(especially
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of

lack

words

in

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biliterals.
the

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example

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bar

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brief

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to

text.

suprgt"ste"l

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of

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])een

acceptable.

reference

when
of

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cmcmlntioiis

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the

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not

then

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In

the

language,

firet

hardly

rather

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second

place,

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the

omitted.

Probably

always

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may

den

either

hands

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is the

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be
their

is

to

to

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of

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of

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than

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is

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instrument

to

with

which

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trample.
and

up(m,

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we

lie

well

Ik* indudcMl

or

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or

in

student.
to

"lefend
himself
esting
inter-

two

eats

one

Semites

the

"

have

wash-basin

it has

would

been

never

oriental

(Laganie

break

to put

manners

basin.

the

we

originally the

I-agJU'tle'^Orientalia
it

that

from

comes

a.spire" the

skin, the

might
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nnit

least

at

n*7{"

been

have
to

tioned.
men-

aspire.

Gotl

goal of life.

complexion.

"^tS'Stherefore

is to say

something

makes

Theologische
.\nzeigen

color,

change

man

notices

two

from

which

this

Literaturzeitung

1884.

Apr.

ii

especially

sho\*'8

Laganie

of

method

as

the

help

so

the

notion

might

publications.

o"^ii

In

p"

criticisms

and

l"een

paucity

language

all
to

individual

repnMluce

from

conjecture

ought

have

Thirdly,

ptD

stage
of

matter

is rather

them

S^X-

hypothesis

one

in

Semitic

fingers.

\ty

into

from

scientifically

is not

the

from

feet

letter

the

primitive

one

and

(Tl

twenty-

triliterals.

that.

at

IHO^

quoted.

veil

or

from

come

tendency

of

conjecture

largely

so

is

al)out

with

is derived

")^3

rightly) if trampled

siiys very

which

all

be

Ciinnot

eaten

i^

servile

article

over-sensitive

j1^^X!D

its

not

remarks

is

to

made

in AnUiic

for

such

wa.s

many

so

^NO^

we

in

giKxl.

is

find

t^i

a.s

so

1J3

could

1Q

there

varieil

so

far

S)
same

stage

mologies.
ety-

form

yy

when

theses

Iwck

it"ols

given) written

root

into

expand

violent

mO

is

that

to

not

what

when

this

usual

single

supposed

of

doubtful

p^O. 110,

harder

already

its

meanings

often

what

of

object

them.

then

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hand-lexicon

^^

that

Fourthly,

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and

of

should

fact

know

actually

had

one

the

this

monosyllabic

that

be

the

those

assume

supposetl

retluction

Why

we

hardly

can

conjecture,

of

be

each

the

is uncertain.

in view

it

that

monosyllables

if

place,
to

when

pD.

all

to

up

triliteral
in

expand

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01^,

with

all

sup|K)s"'d "1^.

heads,

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identical

(some

to

all.

1^^,

shake

given

trace

to

first

were

mO,

to

begin

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stems

it is

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that

pailial consideration

amount

is here

*l")tD f'""ni

if

the

the

supposed

are

Lagarde,

^^D,

for

from

etymologist

objection

no

of

father

letters.

the

biliterals

l)e

"lO*"

four

of

pleaded

is evident

text

(pioted by

would

also

the

effort

be

hai-dly

can

space

proixised chanjres

as

of obscure

and

will

offere

disiwsed

are

proposed

neetled

vereions)

is restricted

case

critics

the

neglected
are

the

71

place.
That

than

Volck

on

hand-lexicon

Still in

ures.

of

based

Notices.

(No.

i.

e..

to

bring him

is drawn

1888,

Nov.JT

will

repay

gooil

or

Iwd

iienisiU.

(No. 28), and

news.

They

(tottingiwhe

are

found:
Gelehrte

1).
II. P. SMITH.

Bibliography.

SEvmc

^SBIIiPri6:BIBIiIOG^7IP^Y.D.

8rRAM:ni7N,
Male

Tillim,

lUjertragen

Deutsche

In*

U.

de

Abt)t

Tractat

Der

Mm

Kawicz,

1888.

Halle

Wtlnache.

WiTBNSCHB,

Megilla

"

Noten

1884.

X., 298

anter

buch

der

ladu

mit

Chrestomathie

of

also showed.

haggadische
iibertragen.

Fiierst.

J.

Anmerkungen,

Scholien

talmudischen

Discussion

der

his

regard

more

Grammatik

Leipzig,
und

Glos-

als

bearbitet.

work

fiict

are

notice

deserves

suitable

mostly

The

l)eginiierwill

not

this

on

but,

his

able

be

than

Halacha

the

to

systematic, philological training, as

pp.

die

Deutsche

Dr.

ner,

Winer'schen

edirten

ihm

paid

and

matter

ins

Deutsche

Lese-

Leipzig,

pp.

has

ehnstomathies

Rabbi

von

ist

das

Male

ersten

Beriicksichtigung

von

vii,268
author

Aug.

pp.

besonderer

zu

1884.

[The

Mose.

Verbesserungen

B., I\tlmudi8che

FtscBBR,
sar

Buches

und

Achai

Dr.

ins

iv, 117

Rabba

Wajikra
Zum

Lie.

[sic] voUstandig

Tosafat

nebst

Rab

de

von

[1884]. J. Kauffmann.

M.

".

Vorwort

einem

Midrasch,

Kahana,

Scheiltot

Elieser,

Talmud

Mark.

pp.

Midrasch

Der

des

Aualegung
Mit

185

xx,

iibertnigen. Frankfurt
Aug.,

Mit

Mechilta.

uiid

Sifra, Sifri

(tnon,

R.

de

Pirke

Natlian,

de Rab

Pesikta

Taiichuma,

Rabbot,

Mldrasch

Jeniachalmi,

ersten

ziim

auf

nalime

Riicksicht"

steter

mit

Talmud

Imbylonischen

des

Taamt

IrttctiU

Der

O.,

the

account.

The

the

hand,

on

work

other

this

other

notes

senting
repre-

the

author

Winer

grammar

chrestomathy

without

the

upon

to read

of

authors

teacher.]
Berliner,

242

D.

Nutt).

Erster

ZweiterTheil:

pp.

[The above

Lessons

by Prof.
in

of children

use

Text

II. L.

Hebrew,
and

the

editio

nach
und

erliiutert.

imd

Ilerausgegeben
Theil

Xoten, Einleitung

furnished

B.. J., First


the

Otikelos.

Taryum

A.,

(London

Register,

xii, 266

Strack, partly by Prof

without

points,

unlearned.

Part

the

on

I.

8vo

Berlin

Sabioneta

A.

old

1884.

J.

v.

Mark.

10

pp.

1557.

Strack.]

English

Plan.

pp.

16.

London

N.

Y.:

Knapp,

For

Castle

d' lAimh.

Bkkciier,

W.

J., Drill

Lessons

in

Hebrew.

Auburn,

Peck

d;

Thompstm.
UissELL.

E. C,

1 Samuel

Publication

FuiEDBRici,
Serials
and

with a Vocfibulary.
Society of Hebrew.

C'HAs., BibUotheca
and

Essays

France,

on

of tlie East.

ilAUO, Martin,
Pinnis.

in

1883,

History, Languages

Leipzig

Essays

Edited

Orientalis, or

published

the

and

Chicago, Morgan

Otto

the

in

England

the

Tlie

Books,

erican
Am-

Papers,

Colonies, Germany

Religion, Antiquities and

and

ture
Litera-

Schuhe.

Sacred

Language,
enlarged by E. W. West.
on

and

of

list

complete

Park

Writings
3d

and

ed., 8vo

pp.

Religion
462.

of

the

London

Truebner.

Heiss, J. B., Uebungsstoflf zur


braisch-arabisch-lateinische

Laoarde,
zu

p. de. Persische

Gottingen

']8vo

pp.

arabischen

Formenlehre

Wortereammlung.

Studien, [aus: 'Abhandlgn.


76-140.

Gottingen

begriuidet auf

Leipzig
Dietench.

d.

Otto

eine

he-

Schuhe.

k. Gesellsch.

d.

Wiss.

^Y^mKjiW.'i^

OCTOBER.

I.

Volume

of

Professor

not

is

It

but,

for

forth

clearly put

of

discussion

technical
be

"

term

It will

Bgrmitted

which,

far

so

view

general

of

the

the

word,

ui

T)'?pi.iT31

NoTB."

Before

{ B.

Nor

) has

^C.
I

V^N

"

"

HiB^

Hcbracischo

8elbststudtum
H.

Heuter.

Hebrew,

New

its
of

case

(on

fuer

pp.

further,

that

is, thus,

and

Every

say)

in

and

the
solemn

addition

imiwrtant

an

of
of

basis

is

explanation

following

syllable,

better

because

chante"l

are,

the

mention
the

on

the

may

syllables,"

all

explauied

still

and

of

getting

omitted

of
mediate
Inter-

here

opened

of

"

use

Right

''

term

grammarians

were,

hence,

it.

to

also, every

is,
is

found

only

in ) conjunctive,

den

When

own,

the

J^" pT H N^ Hat^ph

e.,

cf-

Here

syllables

e.

g.,

B.

Weetermann
70

pf.

Go.

c;

).

c,

mobile

(or of

syllable
(of. my

grammar,

{ 10, o, 8).

with

vowel,

e.

y.,

Hermann

Cbioa"o:

Litoratur
L.

Hfnick.

Amerloan

^^')p

have

syllables always

These

Von

sh'wd

of

distinguish

we

UebunffMtueken.

Untemicht.

Mark

("5,

closing

{ 2, b).

mit

first letter

it receives

f, C

has

punctuation

of

system

then

Syllaules."

York:
in:)

add,

Babylonian

Grammattk:
un*!

xvi..

of

ok

Jewish

consonants.

Syllables, i.

Open
"

the

Close

the

two

vowel

in

I make

why

through

matter

called

are

purpose

be

to

are

the

for

^511);

labials,

with

no

6), and.

the

the

that

the

entirely

(an exception

vowel

follows,

almost

grammar,^

consoimnt^

what

be

can

that,

in

play

on

to

Felsenthal,

Hebrew

I hope

into

thrown

For

Syllahles."

of

with

have

to

in

on

sufficiently prepared

language.

reader

Testament

Hebrew

my

Neither

(a)

^6,

Old

the

discussion

Rabbi

syllables

be

come

tlie

and

( lose geschlossene Silbe).

term.

as

of

what

exceptions

I wish

begin vnth

must

word

the

Beginning

{A.

DINDn'?'
of

"

of

new

of

synagogues.

contained

subject,

majority

writings
in

rythm

may

the

be

in

part
Dodd

may

that

also

syllable

is

know,

( nNHpn

sjicred

not

of

clear, from

attention

the

as

The

exceptions.
euphony

call

he

that

points

be

take

subject

forms

light

loosely-closed

to

whole
so

various

some

Syllables."

the

various

the

to

Berlin.

of

by Professor

beginner,

the

Hebrew,

in

syllables

the
of

underetanding

real
such

how

show

to

Pu.D.,

University

place,

commenced

Syllables,"
merely

rather,

the

2.

LANGUAGE.

Strack,

in

this

at

purpose,

my

Intermediate

Theologry

Number

HEBREW

L.

Hermann

By

'"

THE

IN

SYLLABLES

THE

1884.

und

long

IV^^
vowels.

Zum

Vokabular.

Kari"nihc
PubltoaUon

und

t"clp"Ur:
Hodcty

of

Hebraica.

74

Exeeptions
be

can

la followed

pSpp

c.

y.,

When

the

*C?*C*n(lirstand

second

in

the

(firstsyllable),'ir (first),
Qpn

e.

consonant

closing

e.

the

J II.
(1) the

long,
T

In

syllable

short

vowels,

vowels

a,

have

called

"^H-DD

y.,

e.

e,

(2)

ii,nor

nor

the

(first).

DHvOp

g.,

e.

the

only

find

we

neither
a,

closed,

are

vowels:

following
vowels

the

naturally

vowels

short

^,

a,

e.

g.y

|t

In

II.

closed

however,

often

mlqqeph

is

the

used, and

III.

in which

The

the

At

(1)

of

note

by

also

guttural) PXttS^j. Then


lengthened, namely,
;

T to

e.

e,

of

means

the

when

toneless

becomes

-|p)

a).

?i,

e.

of
g.,

doublyTbut

really close

last, or next

the

the

the

to

{^^-tp ^n'l

tone, generally

fliK^

to
^Dlff.for "tphr,shim'';
a

g, e.

syllable, is

last

syllable, if with

open
,

(exceptions, ^11, i),

helping- vowel

ordinary

An

vowel

o, as,
.

"

case

helping- vowel.

(especially if

6 to

ISO

g.,

the

are

of loords.

generally S'ghol, but

in

short

the

(if), Qjf;(with), which,

Syllables,i. e., syllables which

Opened

end

done

of

of

occur;

may

particles D{"

two

form 3t^^^")
(?72,

the

this i" avoided

long vowel

tone, any
the

T, e.g.,

(as is always

Especially worthy
I K.

with

Ultima

vowels, sometimes

6rb

vowels

tone,

; hence

long by contraction, namely,

or

also

third).
third), HD"'') (fii'st,
(first,

short

with
o

e,

is

vt-

Penultima

closed

tone-long

the

i. "., when

same,

syllables).

wSyyaq5m

syllables with

Unaccented

syllable

the

(^^'^^syllable),

this

daghesh,

g.,

(/., nVV?

are

|tt-

i G.

following

(second
'?jp-p

consonant,

consonants

syllables always

closed

word,

same

two
with

by

Unaccented

IF.

the

in

sh'wa

; the

open

are

(of. " 10. c. 1).

Klf D

sho-m'rim.

consonant

followed
".

y.,

consonant

(second syllable).

sharpened,

long vowels,

Onpt^'

IDp, but

". g.,

open,

doubly closed, when

called

are

by another

vowel'is

considered

are

i. e., tlioseending
Syllables,

CUmd

syllable). They

syllables,with

mobile,

sh'wi

II.

i E.

with

closing

Unaccented

is the

liquid

virtually doubled.

as

flyUmblM

ID.
them

the

regarded

Mora."

(Sni),in which

(876, c) 0

suffixes

verbal

in the

found

are

qodhsh, rohb,

for

g.,

is

rpf2
*

^^^'

iHl

"

milk, tSr' (cf.227, c,(Z).


the

{ L.

If the

open

syllable,c.

hence

short

I M.
c

PittAb
form

In the

in open

then

remains

nni)D

In

(^5,

Examples
The

(in
vowel

gr.,

(fem.) God

;"

to

also

in

unchanged

a), ^];'^)
(^72, n.

ease

(cf. 72,

also

first

used

.),

as

helping-vowel,
in

thus

in the

dual

ending

closing consonant,

the

divided

lengthened,

suflix

D^__.
if

the
receives
the
pronunciation,
is not
and, in this case, this vowel
be

i to

y).

n.

a)

of

lengthening

also

|*^ ("28,
as

the
'i

Hir^qis

The

to
ilj;'),

not

H"^?

'^^j^ y!gl,^y)

of words.

order

10, a, 4) ;
is

verbs

e.

preceding vowel
'i

the
for

syllables,as,

the middle

to the

(/.,

of

last letter is ", then

'TTi^tj^j
"your

jTuttural, frequently, in
corresponding

imperfect

place, e.

to the

next

y.,

(2)

take

not

*8 retained
c.

{P.

guttural,

nj;^ (?27, e),n;;i

apocopated

If the

ry_,
80.

y.,

last letter is

vowel.

frequently does
JN.

to the

next

it is

hatSph
ened.
length-

'il'^),n^^^-ro.

when,

instead

of

the

hateph.

llEBRAICA.

76

individual

studied,
And

or

what

genend.

As

FMeaieh

of

that

upon

principles
While

the

of

of
of

is

witli

new

in

the

introduction

general, and
German

is

and

almost

and

change

the

Semitic

no

more

work

not

philosophical

even

The

father

in 1786, and,
him

and

"

the

"

It rautt

ralta,

e.

Codex
t

Is
We

points

g^

the

sign

shall

of grammar

In

Its whole

in

HehrtVD.
"

In

of

not,

forgotten

forgret

der

theological

its

bearings

thus

on

assumed

of

appeared
breadth,
Oxford,
neueren

language.
grammars

are

the

facts

to
in

in

is not

by

the

English
called

ary,
element-

and

only sporadically

and

language,

it is

to

approach

nearest

done

been

fairly be

rudimentary

the

is Wilhelm

theology,

methods

date,

mention

English,

and
of

that

similar

based

factie princeps

have

Important
of

of
a

among

most

not

KTI

excellent

thorough

these

1881.

Sprachwtssenechaft, 1869,

Benfey'^

and

unprejudiced

mere

abstract

in

and

the

or

exegetlcal
so-called

phire-

Priest

points.

number
upon

and

bom

was

Theodore

practical

KIH

who

philological science,

critical

problems

many

Halle.

Semitic

of

Interchanere
and

Gesenius,

at

independent

an

the

and

has

laid

can

our

of

in

introduced

was

thus

which

representatives

later

It

day there

work

is contemporaneous

facts.2

of

whether

to

old.

The

productive

or

and

and

philological discussion

into

present

giammar

such

arc

however,

Edition.

his 0"9chUMc

that

some
as

sole

the

has

grammars

decades

professor of

as

antiquity
have

length
2nd

all

important

discussion

purposes.

other

and

group

intelligible

for

and

sake,

works, still

Testament

exegesis

leading
entered

of

old

the

\\Titten

the foundation

upon

Hebrew

higlier Hebrew

^'alue: In fact,

Old

are

own

methods

the

explain these

most

be

not

the

original founder

the

among

loMphioal

of

in

and
than

philological

the

member

one

case

the

Hebrew

six

strictlyto

in 1843, died

of

or

to

yet, about

to

its

translation,

of

confining themselves

calls

five

building

grammar

endeavoring

to

for

rational

than

As

of

longer

sei*vices

aim

and

more

of

as

probably Kalisch.

and

has,

philology in particular ; and

exclusively by Germans

language,

our

practical stage,

as

ment
depart-

decided

attractive

more

dignity.^
basis

of

the

the

in

the

was

no

also

now

in

for strictlygrammatical

language

hand-maid

studied

and

more

in
in

is, at best,

been

grammar)

in

systems

than

it

reaping

methods

quo

have

in

philology

new

case

made

Hebrew

as

yet they

into

discussion, in which

day,

the

making

the

special language,

present

rendering

Hebrew

independence
This

of

objectively, and

Word,

God's

philology in general

as

the

of

practical aim

student

only purpose
disciplines.

an

Hebrew

is studied

all grammars

liave the
to

such, the

as

family of tongues,

so

tongues

been

mechanical

improvement

theoretical

and

philosophical

ological,
mythbeen

never

Semitic

/?i statu

more

language, left the

the

old

the

this study has

of

feature

of

the stnicture

on

and

the

prominence,

is this

advance

here

of

radical.

more

(and especially is this true

it

fact that

and

has

introduced

from

departure

more

in

comparative

particular, have

manner

assumed

scarcely anywhere

studies

scarcely any

and

marked,

voiiLB

became

and

aims

the

adopted, and
lexicon

Semitic

of

the

problems

and

phrase, and

relative

method

in

new

and

again

here

revolution

also, and

language

also

in

Hebrew

the

decades,
fruitful

present.

at

as

of

in general is true

of language

too, and

the

were

grammar

or

of

benefit

understood,

well

so

is true

particular; they,
the

The

the

abundantly

historical, ethnographical,

life

and

soul

past few

in
so

languages

to

in

power

been

has

applied

been

great

so

otiier researches.

and
much

found

been

pliilologyhas

has

learning,

of

all departments

recognized

been

study, which

of

eoibpeiBtive method

the

since

this

has
r.si^-v.ally

fttcU.

p. 686.

monographs
study

is Driver's

on

of

the

Use

of

special

language
the

Tenses

Methods

Semitic

philology.

marian,

that
of

other
due

to

and

his

fact

the

this

Thesaurus,

the

began

the

his

and

English

translation,

Volck,

folio

1522-f 166

apparently
work

in

known

his

now

added

and,

down

work

the

exercise

an

book.

exhaustive

our

octavo

pages

of

and

explained
that

the

possible,

what

and

words,

He

confines

the

but

himself

literature, and

make

these,

of

this

to

give

aim, and

Allied

in

(died

use

of

authority

of

to

later

the

data

in

date,
in

his

place

advances

to

he

was

and

by Rodiger, and
has
also

in

1817, his

collection
of

only

found

ate
elabor-

method

both

of all tlie data

principles from

the
to

wherever

compare,
Hebrew

of

forms

illustrative

an

Au"-

closely printed

and

explanation

as

made

who

his system
the

best

had

908

in the

voice.

Testament

Old

abstract, philosophical theorizing.

iii), he

that

says

is

attention
the

are

the

the

Hebrew

Old

was

his

object to

on

the basis

and,

faithful

expression

it receives.

two

is In

given in the
of

than

massive
There

it

forms,

Lehrgebdude

treatment

the

smaller

editions

Sprache, an

of tlie tnwlitional

upon

in

grammar

contribute
results

has

grammatical

as

an

all tliat the

comprising

in

1866-68.

explaining

upon

and

Arabic

offer

more

of Hebrew

in the

insists
from

in

by Miihlau,

made

of Kautzsch,

special point

His

of much

the

grew,

decisive, but

of the

collection

explanation.

has

character, and

deduction

(p.

of

by

hebrdischen

find

for any

sympathy

independent

too

differs

have

worthy

nomenclature

new

and

work

der

it

out

published

were

empiric method,
makes

and

edition,

and

of

grammar

the

so

1810;

could

capable hands

we

larger grammar

spirit,though

While

B""ttcher

nici,

alone,
the

is

large

ninth

is collected
Orient

edition

given
analysis of the language

critical

in 1863) edited

work.
of

his

rational

collection

complete
this

and
a

tongues

little

very
to

complete

of

cher

has

introduction

the

In

little

his

dictionary of

death, thirteen

grammar,

is nowhere

to the

and

more

but

opposition, in his lexicographical

smaller

offered, and

cognate

to these

any

partly,

the

make

Robinson

in method

first

Lehrgebdude

Lehrgebdude

his

less

that

in

the

which

Both

the

to

which

the

editions

this

It is the

such

do

Lehrgebdude

days, in scientific

this work

out.

as

True,

data.

these

carried

language

in

author's

Hebrew

on

it is in

and

these,

own

Out

treatise

giam-

language,

our

large Hebrew-Latin

the

further

fuehrliches yrammatisch-kntisdies
and

into

apparently

which

etc., of

found

entrusted

to

\*ith

least

than

us

lexicon,
of

of

and

idiom.

the

at

of

editorship has been

brought

Hebrew

history,

Of

number

appearance.
the

scholars

by Rodiger,

least

at

1813;

is, at

translated

grammatical

Thesaurus,

Testament

grammars.
in

appeare"l

their

Old

successful,

more

than

the

geography,

of the

this

and

than

according to the opinion e^cpressed lately by


Strack, of Berlin, is still the best at our command.!

completed

pages,

explanation

his

and

among

dictionary, in 1815,

also

as

been

yet English

acquainted

acceptance

more

77

lexicographer

better

have

recently appeared,

literature,

languages,
the

department

publication of

smaller

Miihlau

this

namely,

which,

as

are

works

And

Professor

as

with

both

grew

others.

greatest works,

authority

(resenius

his

botli

Hebrew

in

finds

system

of

systems

an

of

of

some

Gram^iar^.

Gesenius,

students

that

empirical

lexicon,

is with

leading authorities

of his two

good

It

English

the

abstract
use

'

Hebrew

in

no

of Bott-

volumes

language

Testament

more

In

Uiaii

subject, especially in tbe

grammatical
on

the

basis

teck-

temUm

of Hebrew

chiefly in his protest against

Gesenius,

arrangement

and

explanation

of

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78

nch

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ill 1875.

ikktM

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evident

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page

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to

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Therefore",the study

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its general

volume
In

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19:

distinguished by greater antiquity and


by its mobile
in the younger
Many features, which
languages have
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1827,

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Dictionary
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younger

comparisons
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is

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Curtiss, Jr.,

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great

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der

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whole

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Olshausen

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picture

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linguistic-comparative,

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Ewald

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1877.

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to

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name

that

the

writer

of

materially from
An

where

pathah,

and

the

followed

be

all the

sufBdent

to

gathered.

Yet

which,

best,

at

characters

initials ; but
medials

as

have

"

was

In

Ps.

cxin.,

'fli^O, with

word

two

that

write

ImpaiaU,
March

the

In which

22. 1884.

bound

conclude

but
Bible

the

the

mystical

the

differing

; and

taken

games,

as

up
in

take

pure

dagesh,

the

kind
definite

any

have
of

here

an

of

some

the

; but

fact
itself

it would
well

from

lished
estabfacts

the

absolutely phonetic

system

of

Grammar

the

rules

^^

the
is

course,

overthrow

conclusions

qames,

hand,

marked,

Of

some

gutturals

other

raphe

could

of

*)pD1 D*nj7"

ignorance

carefully written.

draw
we

the

on

have

before

games

give

confusion

'T)T) *)^1

from

this

will

table

the
in

The

interesting.

more

Hebrew

with

the

present

to

show

since

use

punctuation
nnfl,

It

of

that

characters

square

which

the

MS.

of

an

Qamhl,

name

It Is

pointed

because
In

that

there
way.

are

three

See

the

MSS.

that

that

Qamhi's^

that

there

of

Massoretlc

Cf
of

interesting

the
the

entirely of

exactly to the initials,


printing.

absence

'SllD.

of

style, at least, possessed


of

asserts

shows

is punctuated

MS.

unusual

terminals, consist

show

Ezra

with

rather

seems

five

invention
to

Aben

comparison

correspond

the

seem

opponents.

njDKD

point.

punctuation

is a

note

and

exception

seem

in exclusive

7. there

another

also

note

his

SiSdD

discussion

grammatical
but

were

seven

tradition.

Ps.

to

"1

is

0"15"

which
about

of

even

are

characters,

MSS.

without

the

18).

xlviii.,

cannot

text

results

of

knowledge

peculiarities of
not

to

suggested

The

only been

The

him

not

been

MS.

one

seem

should,

these

well.

has

consonantal

century, have

Hebrew

with

arbitraiy.

seem

study of the

twelfth

MS.

the

attempt

it would

representation, without

rules

we

of

all this

that

do

the

katef pathah
luitef-pathali.

with

that

the

does

instead

without

suppose
nor

pre-tonic

games,

that

Is.

handwriting.

way,

variations

hundred

frequently

suggested

evidence

system

system

Three

lie.

with

of

points proved

five hundred

over

n"3DnJlDi

ludicrous

and

vowel

by mugaf, is pointed

It may

be

the

article

IfS^l^ is written

that

of

they

before

^)p2'^

text.

certain

had

hatef-jnithah. The

is unknown

in

God

xlvi.,

and

receptus.

textus

show

notes
to

as

of

passage

pN ^^^i^D"*1-is

letters,the notions

the

counted

the

in

fifty-six scri2)tiones2)lence,and

have

ordinary
strictness

extreme

little work

this

the

examination

appended
idea

the

writing

We

the

in

different

is

HirTN

J*-)N-

3, and

v.,

former

^^^"

In

for

DI^ Ot"C^ HDI


in

yoch

occur

scribes, the Massorah,i


of

(cf. Ps.

above

double

to
do

eiglitdefecthrey which

"^\

^^p^

6,

the

in

'

place of

in

i's. lxxxvi.,

is added

and

text,

7, THNH

^^^^

Ps.

In

given

is

quadralitamm,

have

we

occurs

passage-Dnj^"^

whole

"^,

construction

allowable

an

latter

8, the

cxli.,

for

9,

cviii.,

I^s. xlvi.,

I"

Ps.

In

striking.

are

numerous,

very

"yi*^u*ini ; though
^^y!2^^i^' ^^^' ^^^^^ '^^

read

from

importance

view.

the

for

we

of

considerable

of

are

not

poetical expression.

more

rrtr^
^"

while

text,

"jmXnV

xxviii.,

D*rr*?X-

written

is

points which
yielded some
well as grammatical, point

in
in

cxxxvlii.,

the
the

The
2.

Bibliotheque
Athenceum,

Hebraica.

84

10.

I-

"

") for

Pathab ("=")under

nnpD

in

wanting

Dagesh

qames.

"3 and

in

J^.

"

under

Pathab (" )
for

for

"-"

batef-pathab (" );

for

Dagesh

wanting

in

^.

Dagesh

wanting

in

J^.

sere

Scriptio plena;

dagesh

Shewa

{" )

simplex

sere

(" );

for

(" ) under
seghol (" ).

(" ) under

qames

(" ).

(" ).
"] for seghol (" ).

(" ) under

Scriptio plena;

Sere

{" ) under

Qames

njtr

nrijnn

wanting

in

^.

j| for hatef-pathah (" ) {given

under

as

Scriptio plena.

sere

Sere

(" ) under

(" ) under
for

J^ for seghol (" ).

seghol (" ).

*] for

(" ).

qames

Pathah

(" ) under

for

qames

(" ) ;

holem

( 1 ) with

for

ft

shureq

"

{)).

Pathat

(~)

under

for

qames

(" ).

Pathah

(" ) under

for

qames

(" ).

n3

PSALM

Hatef-pathab
for

shewa

Pathab

LXXXVI.

(" ) under
simplex

(" ) under

Hatef -qames
.

J for seghol (" ).

^ for pathah (" ).

Scriptio plena;
{" ) under

{" ) under

Scriptio plena.

^jris

simplex

(" ) under

sere

J for pathah

under

(" )

Patha^

14.

shewa

^1

13.

(" ) under

variant).
12.

pathah

*) for

Seghol

Qames

nm

in

dagesh wanting

patha^^ (" ).

for

11.

(" ) imder

Qames

ran

}"

{t)'

qames

Scriptio plena
n

(" ) ; ^latef-pathah (" ) under

for qames

1^)

J" for

(" ) ; seghol (" ) under

qames

(" ).
for

(" ) under

{" ).

qames

l^ for

qames

pathah (" )

,T

qames

Qames

{" ).

(-7-)under

^ for pathab (" ).

Hatef-pathab

(" ) under

pf for

qames

(" ).

Hatef-pathab

(~)

under

{" for

qames

{" ).

Seghol

(" ) under

"7 for

shewa

Seghol

(" ) under

J" for

sere

simplex
(" ).

(" ).

under

for

On

Hebrew

Dagesh

Manuscript

in

wanting

Hatef-qames

of

Year

the

ISOO.

85

".

(" ) under

for

Seghol

qames.

(t)

under

J for

(" ).

sere

Written

'"^

Seghol

(" ) under

{" for

sere

(" ).

Seghol

(" ) under

{" for

sere

(" ).

Written

'"".
t:

(" ) under

Qames

Qames

(" ) under

Qames

(" ) under

*1 for

Our

MS.

Qames
-:

for

pathab (~)pathalii(" ).

^)p^.

reads

j^for

(" ) under

pathah

(" ).

Pathah

(" ) under

1 for

Pathah

(" ) under

"1 for qames

J^ for

Seghol (" ) under


Pathah
v:

pathah (" ).

'""

Written

J for

(" ) under

(" ).

qames

(" ).

sere

for

(").

qames

(" ). Seghol

(" ) under

{^ for

hatef -seghol (" )"


Written

'^\
t:

X for

Seghol

(" ) under

Qames

(" ) under

for

(" ).

sere

pathal? (" ). Pathab {" ) under

j^ for

hatef-pathah (" ).
Qames

(" ) under

{" for ^^atcf-patha^(" ).


"

Pathat (" ) under


Qames

(t") under

Written

for qames
for

(" ).

patha^^ (" ).

'"".
t:

(" ) under

simplex

Shewa

Scriptio plena.
Qames
11.

Qames

qames

under

under

2 for
1

patha^? ("
for

i^

for sere.

).

i)athab (" ).

Patha^

""dw

*] for

(" )"

(" ) under

Pathab

Qames

Seghol (" ) under

(" ) under
(~)

".

for

(") under

{" for batcfpatha^

pathab-

Dagesli

(" )" Hatefpathab

^-anting in

{" for batcf-iMithab(~)-

^,

(~)

Hebraica.

86

(" ).

simplex
Written

'^^

under

Pathab

(~)

Qames

(" ) under

J for

for

(" ). Qames

{" ) under

pathah (-^).

under

(" ).

qames

for

qames

pathab (" )"

{" ) under

Qames

(" ) under

{" ).

qames

for

(~)

Hatef-pathab

for

(" ) under

Pathab

Qames

batef-pathah (" ).

for

pathab (~)-

for

pathah (" ).

^^^

(" ) under

Pathab

14.

under

(~)

Qames

IS.

J2 for shewa

(" ) under

JJ" for ^jireq. Seghol

Seghol (" ) imder

Pimctuated

(" ) under

Pathab

(~)

Qames

{" ) under

{" ).

pathah

Delitzsch

thus

Qames

for

It^M*

^ for pathah

';^for

under

(" ).
(" ).

qames

f^ for

pathah (" ).

"^ for

pathah (" ).

for

pathah (" ).

for

'^\

Written

t:

Dim

prn

noKi

Qames

{" ) under

Qames

(" )

Qames

(" ) imder

"3

pathah

(" ).

Qames

(" ) under

*) for pathah

(" ).

Shewa

simplex
for

*) for

(" ) under

seghol.

Seghol

(" ) under

for

batef-seghol (" ).
(" ) under

Seghol

16.

under

J" for

(" ). Qames

sere

(" ) under

pathab ("=")"
Hatef

-qames

Seghol

(" ) under

(" ) under

17.

(" ) under

under

for

(" ).

simplex.
for

seghol

Dagesh

(" ).

(" ) under

J" for batef-pathah (" ).

Qames

(" ) under

^{ for pathah

C^mes

(" ) under

Qames

CXXXII.

(-)

under

for

The

for

(" ); scriptio plena.

pathah {" ).
MS.

omitted

pathah (" ).

C^ames

I'SALM

l.nY^l^n

qames

t for shewa

Ilatef-pathab {~)

I?"? Sere

for

gives it

pathah (-^).

^^T).

in

f.

Ox

Hebretit

Manuscript

J^ for

Qames

(" ) under

J^ for liatef-pathab (" )"

Qames

(" )

under

(" ) under
(" ) under

Sere

(" ) luider

is

under

(" ).

qames

^jatef-seghol{" ).
for

for

^{ for

-ij^r Hatef-pathal"

"]

pathal? (-=-).

qames

(" ).

seghol

(" ).

(" ) under

Seghol

(" )

Qames

(" ) unker
for

Qames

Seghol (" )

under

for

for

for

j;

for

*) for

(" ) under

(" ) under
(" ) under

out.

Qames

patha^ (" )"

patha^ (" )"


(" ).

sere

pathah (" ).

hatef-pathah (" ).

{" ) under

stricken

afterwards

was

pathal? (" ).

^ for

imder

Hatef-pathah
Pathah

for

which

(" ) under

Qames

Pathah

^ before

{" ) under

pathab (" )"

(" ).

sere

There

for

(" ) under

Pathat

for

87

(" ).

sere

J" for

Ilatef-pathah (" )

5.

1800.

(" ) under

Seghol

S-i!vV

Year

the

Seghol

Pathah

4.

of

Patah

(" ) imder

simplex
H

(") under

for qamee

(" ).

{" )"

qames

for

Shewa

pathah (" ).

^ for qames

(" ).

jl for patha^ ("=")"

Scriptio plena.
Qames

(" ) under

Hatef-pathab

8.

(" ) under

simplex

Shewa

;?3tf^:

patha^^ (" ).
fl for qames
*T

(" ) under

Hatef-pathal? (" )

11.

*! for

under

for

qames

(" ) under

for

pathab (~)-

Qames

(" ) under

for

pathab (~).

Pathab

under

(" ) under

Scriptio plena.

(t).

pathab (" )"

for

Qames

Seghol (" )

(t).

J^ for batcf-seghol (")"


*

for

Qames

(")"

simplex

Seghol

(" ) imder

} for shewa

Seghol

(" ) under

for

sere

for

pathab (-)"

("

(").

).

Scriptio plena.
Qames
"

sere

(-)

under

(" ).

Seghol (t)

under

for

IIebraica.

88

(" ) under

Sere

;| for pathah (" ).

(" ) under

Qames

} for

Hatef-pathab

nrmp

Pathab

for

pathah (^).

(" ) u"der

for

qames

for

(" ) under

Hatef-pathab
Seghol

(" ) under

(" ) under

l^

liatef-pathah {" ).
for

^*

for

(" ).

sere

pathah (-=-).
(" ).

Scriptio defectiva.

15.

Qames
3

(" ) under
for

qames

}^ for hatef-pathah (" ).

for

Pathah

(^)

Qames

(" ) under

*t for pathah {" ).

Qames

(" ) under

under

nv^9"7

rrjp

noTO

for

qames

pathah {" ).

XLVI.

ID

(" ) under

^ for

Qames

(" ) under

*) for pathah (" ).

pathah {" ).

Dagesh

Hatef-pathah (" )

under

Seghol

(" ) under

for

hatef -seghol (" ).

Qames

{" )

for

pathah (" ).

for

{" ) under

(" ).

Qames

under

Pathah

(" ).

PSALM

1.

Seghol

(" ).

under

under

(~)

(" ).

]f for hatef-pathah

under

Hatef-pathab (" )
14.

simplex

shewa

{" ).

sere

Pathab (" )

for

for

wanting

in

^.

pathah (" ).

Shewa

simplex

under

hatef-pathah (" ).

Scriptio plena.

^j;

8.

Hatef -pathab (t)

under

Pathal? (" ) under

"

Qames
T

-:

(" ) under

in;

I'athah

Pathab

trip
6.

;| for

for

pathah (" ).

seghol (-).

pathah {-

Pathah

{" ) under

{" for

hatef
".

for

^3

-pathalj (-=r)-

) under

(" ) imder

pf for
y for

qames
qames

(" ).
(r^).

Qames

{ r) under

jjffor pathah (" ).

Qames

(" ) vnder

for

shewa

Qames

(" ) under

for

pathah (").

Hatef-pathab
under

("-:)under

,*7 for qames

j;

simplex

for shewa

(" ).

(" )" Scriptio plena.

simplex

(" ). Pathah

("J

On

Hebrew

Seghol

Manuscript

under

Qames(^)
Pathah
Our

The

reads

j| for pathah

(" ) under

Hatef-pathah

{^)

Pathah

under

been

under

under

Jt

for

^or

(" ).
(" ).

qames

{ir) under

t5^ for pathah (-= ).

Seghol

(" ) under

for

Qames

(" ) under

for

Qames

{" ) under

for

Pathah

(" ) under

for

s"re

""

)"

hat"f-pathah (

Hatef-pathab (" )

under

Pathah

(" ) under

hatef-pathah {" ).
(" ). Seghol

qames

J^ for qames

for

Qames

(" ) under

;| for

Qames

(" ) under

(" ) under

'or

for

(" ).

(" )"

qames

pathab (" )"


pathah (" ).
LI.

K:

j for pathah (" ).

{" ) under

(" ) uader

Pathab (" )

'or

under

for

(^).

sere

(" ).

qames

Qames

(^)

under

for

pathab ("=*)"

Qames

(" ) under

for

pathab (-=")"

Hatef-qames

{ ^)

under

'or

qames

(t).

Seghol (-)

for

sere

).

"

Seghol

(" ) under

Shewa

simplex

(t)

for
under

batcf-seghol(-)"
T

'or

seghol (" ).

Scriptio plena.

Pathab ( -')
nT\n

).

{" ).

Seghol

4.

-:

Scriptio defectiva.

NH?

""

^t^^l^^

patha^ (-~).

Qames

Qames

"

after

(7-).

for

sere

PSALM

2.

added

for qames

(" ) under

sere

ipr.

has

(" ).

J" for hatef-pathah ( -t).

Hatef-pathah (-7)
Seghol

(v).

inj^n.

D\lS}"

word

1300.

pathah (" ).

for

( ;r) under

Qames

for

(- ) under

Qames

Year

the

J^ for ^latef-seghol(vt).
under

MS.

of

The

yrV

uuder
ia not

Jf for
found

(").

qames
in

the

MS.

under

Uebraica.

Qamee

'pnip

under

(v)

pathab (" ). Pathah

^or

(--) under

for

under

for

batef-patha^ (" ).
Segbol

(" ) under

Pathab (

) under

{'-) under

Pathab

patha^ (

for

simplex

shewa

t3 for qames

(" ).

,1 ^or qames

{t)-

(" ).

Qames

{t)

).

(- ) under

Sere

J for seghol (" ).


'^

Hatef-pathat {" )

r^i^?

Qames

(t)

mider

both

Qames

(^)

imder

"| for

and

hireq.

for

(t:) under

"7 for

Hatef-qames

(it) under

tJf for qames

(" ) under

Pathab

Seghol
for

Seghol

for

for

shewa

qames

(-r).
(" ).

simplex

(" ). Hatef-pathah

for

batef-seghol {^).

pathab (" )"


J^ for hatef-seghol (" )"

(" ) under

Scriptio defectiva.
Shureq

(1) with

Hatef-qames

JH for qibbus

(^) under

(7 for

(" ).
qames

Seghol

{" ) under

J" for

sere

{" ).

Seghol

(-tt)under

{" for

sere

(" ).

Qames

(" ) under

Qames

(-r) under

J" for pathah (" ).

Seghol

(" ) under

for

for

pathah (" ).

sere

(" ).

Pathab

{~)

under

j^ for

qames

(" ).

Pathab

{" ) under

j^ for

qames

(" ).

11.

12.
13.

*?N

(" "

(" ). Scriptio defective.

qames

(" ) imder

pathah (--).

pathah (" ).

Hatef -qames

under

^inOfT.

for

under

(^ ).

Qames

(" ) under

fy

'an

rrp*?nif

1.
(Some

late

pUDOtuatton
dOM

not

has

erasure

of

2 and

appear.)

TJX

been

D. with

made
what

In

the

object

On

Here

is

Hebrew

note

Manuscript

Year

the

CXXXVUI.

In

nn"?

the

MS.

fyp.

it is numbered

nn"?
The

JTT*
2.

nirrnrx

is

D'^inD 'D
with

pointed

and

jn*
as

^2

98

1800.

nn")

HinND

PSALM

of

The

Massoret.

yet

"

contains
for

probably

"

correction.

note

have

we

above

MS.

it

*JJ^1ni

qames.

3.

the
other

MS.
word

In

placeof this word

contains

"JirnKHV

beinj? ^iveii

as

the
iant.
var-

8.

PSALM

CXLI.

The

number

XOp

is written

by another

hand.

Written

2.

*:)5)

Df7*7K

.03

ilHJP

Written

3.
6.

jn.

{""J"

On

Hebrew

Manuscript

of

rp.

The
notes

last
to

page

this

of

Psalm.

for

"

"

141

13

"

for

There

"

are

13

eighteen

Scriptiones

plenae,

Scriptiones

defectivae,

for

differences

56

occurring

once

each.

the

Year

1300.

IIebraica.

96

THE

TO

CXMHlUBmON

OF

HISTORY

By

TERMINOLOGY

THE

Hungaria.

Budapest,

In

of

number

May

the

they called the

"h*w"
view

tliat the

to mark

grammarians

I have

enoneous

(Stnssburg
repeat

and

Already
Baer

and

Strack, 1

are

accordingly

10

called

sounds

not

using the expression

giving them

its rulers

M*na^em

and

set

the

over

DTITN

in Dunash

the

latter calls

science

of

vowels

ben

also

"

as

Walid,
that

rulers."
in

DO*?0i

called

are

(Liber Responsiorum,
etc.,p. 25,

Anm.

Joseph
himself
the
not

the

bestowed

with

entirely frcm
made
upon

niD*?0 Tin

D^nnt^*0

p.

in

"those

H'^K
find

we

HIDN

of

the

Arabic

the
die

new

text

the

grammatische

Derenbourg,

Opuscules

Ibn

is there

in

the

and

to

its pronunciation

them

founder

iiber

Ganah

vowels,

D^HIt^f^

function-letters.

Labrat,

of

M'nahem's

grammatische

the

is known

and

ben

et

against

over

and

criticism

28, 1. 22) cf. Die

they

anti-critique of

his

of

by Dunash
his

calls

he

the

nor

O'^^^D

pDm

and

Hi^DtJ^NDDl^ll

work

root^letters

Shesheth,

Stem,

whom

division

following words
been

the

though

sense,

n'^OH

4a). According

in

midst

serving

and

nVniNH
point of view,

who

"

They

consonants

they determine

""

also

they (the vowels)

same

p.

^^

ed.

1.

to

The
c.

p.

6b,

pupils

Terminologie

2.

Qimbi

itself,namely

ed.

as

between

to

latter

ben

the

in him

"

briefly

ha-t'amim,

nHH

7b)

p.

speech

18;

p.

will

government,

Hayyug,

neither

contrast

the

of

in

1882],

But

the

another

ili^DtJ'(cf. my

reference

by his pupil Jehudi

from

Jehuda

is considered

The

M'nahem,

appears

[Wien,

274).

sh'wa

grammarians

5).

DO*?D

p.

In

there

term

of

fathers

seven

p.

word

place (1.c.

opponent

the

des...Hajjug

least indication

former

the
"

"

of the

Filipowski,

DH**?)^
DHtDltJ^

in

their

the

thing, although

grammar,

Trait458 d'Abou'l

old

Labrat

of

another

rulers

Sarug,

ed.

Grammatiker,

consonants."

lords

the

under

rulers

at

same

vowels

Hebrew

sh'wa,

their

recensiones,

Terminologie

the

are

but

The

Hebrew

traditional

as

(Mahbereth

and

the

(criticae vocum

the

possessors."

Q^bl^^OV

also

the

is confiimed

meaning;

letters

says

b.

is

als

Digduge

'nOHl DH'^C^OD

word

then, the
and

cf.
5

twenty-two

are

M'nahem

00*70,

Hebrew

this view

there

HI^Dt^'DHI,

the

they

common

considerations.

0^^*70
D0'?D

t^i"

That

Ezra

stated

oldest

^^^^

ancient

sh'wa.

Ihn

the

the

upon

by the

"

have

further

over

because

motion.

"the

vowels

rulers

as

''kings,"

the

n^^C*10"

What
some

the

serving

Abraham

work

D^D'^DIO D"DD

"

is based

used

was

the

1.
with

calls

kings, appointed

seven

iTrrDNI

in my

this

supplement

the

are

shown

Asher

This

of

says

(DO'?D)i

kings

seven

remark

vowels

with

contrast

1882) p. 61, Anm.

Ben

are

for

"

kings

the

already

i. E.,

here

"

the

them

called

(n*1t^*D)-"

servant

appellation

Felsenthal

(p. 64) Dr.

IIebraica

''They

aote-Qimbi grammarians:

GRAMMAR-

Backer,

Wilhel3i

Dr.

Professor

HEBREW

OF

the
"

ruler

into
old

theory

new

five

long

and

terminology.

Know

that

among

the

the sh'wa
seven

of

Hebrew

five short
His
is not

vowels

vowels,

definition
a

vowel

kings, for the

begins
cannot

of

sh'wa

by itself,and
glory

of

to

assert

emancipate
begins

with

that

it has

kingship

was

not

{mD^*?^.^ N^i Hovy


^^M
n};)^n nrj" Nntrn
^d yi
rt'^i;
t^^
^D D^D^Q ni^Dt^ni. I quote tWs passage
jnj
from
it

the

J.

only

sh'wa

not

short

sh'wa
the

be

the

later

of

the

thirteenth

sh'wa

at

dispoeal

my

of

the

H^^N

That

by

Mr.

served

of

read

the

by
the

We

the

sh'wa

will

introduces

1523)
division

of

vowels

to

]^i^n

Ibn

DniN*

idea

that

signs

of

Asher

the
the

I will
vowels

quoted
sounds.

improve

which
in

is

found

Derenbourg's
nOJ^

Heb.

and

the

the

Manuel

HO^j;^

DO^ro
by

long
the

p. 65,

b.

but

all

ones;

book

same

we

also

of

du

Lecteur,

p.

has

in

connections

84,

p.

noD't
correct

the

nVnW.*"

just

as

Hen

signs.

appellation

Saadya

on

iiKDJJ
a

1866)

i. e.,

consonant

207.

seven

irr:n

(QOO^D

an

Uie

'or

stiii has

the

(EfodI)

Duran

onij*

commimd,"

to

of

explanation

(Wien,

he

^ut

(Venice,

HJpO

Kohn,

letters

their
the

refer

other

partly

nnx

D'D^O

odd

nr

commentary

Arabic

the

to

ron

Prophiat

and

the

govern
to

of

long

xnrj;),

because

vowels

above)

to

kings,"

is

(which

DiDDN

word

the

niip

governed

are

system,

a,

Also

of

use

"

kings

opportunity
in

1"*C^)i with
DHDi^.

jniin'?

58

in

who

Friedlander

ed.

of

'*

j 1Ci"*

Bulmes,

d^odhh

Hl^lp)

P.

purpose.

Nip

name

five

15,

i.,
next

old

niro

the

Kgs.

the

ninicr^o

serve

HyNI

Levita,

mentioned

Bom-

in

the

grammar

D^pHpT

ones

this

the

Efod,

called

are

short

for

ascribes

npiin

this

five

(nnip^H

it, because

expressed

his

in

says

d?^"?

Abraham

ny^c*

Nnpi

in

vowels

e^oiY?

D*D*?0

(Ma'sd

sounds,

transferred
seven

of

iTIC^O

three

to, who

vowels

the

he

and

the

to

into

Ezra

of

in

Elia

later,

Moses

to

HDVi'^
as

close

concerning

Levita.

njnil

years

the

at

says

Elia

by

feminine,

as

hundred

grammarian,

apart

only

vowels

"7^ o'^yon

on^iD

set

here

referred

be

may

read

]MDp

0^:^^^?

section

the

edited

pi

influence

an

lived

introduction

an

as

N\1

be

Two

collection

kings,

ten

printed

^'2C^^

sh'wa

refer

often

(KICTil
-senant"

exerted
who

on

reference

term

centuries,

fourteenth

section

any

the

Rome,

found.

vowels."

the

Qim^i

as

of

is

the

without

this

Qini^i's

sh'wa
of

it is

vowels;
Moses

tlie

serves

the

to

but

with

il^C^D

is

system,

'?^1Jb

but

D^p^lpl^

1546):

designation

(i'lthe

*p1t3

of

of

!yiC*D

nw
l^:^b^

is,

is

collection

new

nirc^
k-id:

which

influential
the

was

of

of

b),

Jehuda,

the
In

beginning

degree

same

beginning

work,

^^e

i"

vowel,

ben

iinSc'O)-

most

formerly
vowels

the

into

the

the

of

vowel.

definition

mrN).

Benjamin

(probably

emended

metrical)

in

not

t'ol. 154

']^"mn^n

is

no

Fiirth,

is Jiot

officin, Venice,

HN

Qimhis

-which

sh'wa

(cf. the

printing

ed.

sh'wa

little

grammar

be

the

and
his

"nijnjnn
to

The

"

grammarians.

in

Qimhi's

are

put

"servant"

it

'^l^^tD'

his

b;

yet

'l'?nD

in

138

N\n

for

used

on

berg's

fol.

not

because

*^*DC^
says

nnncrt:

to

came

ten

kindly

copy

also

simply

niTin

D*D'?tD'

term

him

them,

(ed. Lyck,

ni;njnn

the

manuscript

for

is

like

Qirahi, however,

the

the

then

king

handbook

David

or

the

Ilalberstam.
The

to

^roni

"^"3D^

p'l^fn

S.

the

of
Uxik

the

^^^^
J/*3D*?N'

musical

seven

Jeti*im,

meaning.

"*'^""

Hebraica.

LANGUAGE.

ARAMAIC

THE

The

1 1.

Relation

Biblical

of

Aramaic

Mass.

Centre,

Newton

R. Brown,

Charles

Bjr Professor

BIBLISCH-ARAMAISCHEN.

DBS

GRAMMATIK

KAUTZSCH'8

FROM

D.,

Germany.

TuebiDgen.

TRANSLATED

D.

E. Kautzsch,

Prof.

By

to

Remaining

the

Shemitic

Languages.
The
II., 4b"

28; Ezra

of Gen.

words
The

vii.,

iv., 8

of

closely

Shemitic,

the

or

West-

the

related

Old

the

11,

x.,

Aramaic

Aramaic

East-

of

narrowly,

more

Jer.

12-26;

of

member

the

with

of

sections

few

vi., 18; vii.,

"

47) is

xxxi.,

latter, together
branch

occurring in

dialect

Aramaic

Testament
well

as

as

of

group

North-Shemitic

two

dialects.

forms

group,

the

(Dan.
in

the

maic
Ara-

family of

languages.
generally, cf.: E. Renan,
Gesenius-Kautzsch,
langues sdmitiques.
g^n6rale
there under
hebr. Gmmmatik
^ 1. No. 6 ; B. Stade, LehrH 1,2, and the literature
of the
der hebr. Gramm.,
buch
Leipzig 1879, |" 2-11 (with searching consideration
d.
hebr.
later literature); E. Konig, histor.-krit.
Lehrgebaude
Sprache, Leipzig
in
in
1881, {8.
(Concerning the Aramaic
particular: Th. Noldeke, "Aram"
Schenhel^s Bibellexicon
I, 229 sq., as well as in the ''Ausland," for 1867, p. 778 sq.
in Ztschr.
Wohnsitze
and
der deutschen
und
C'Namen
derAramaer")
morgenl.
und
der
113
Nation
Gesellschaft, Vol. XXV.
aram.
(1871), p.
sq. (''Die Namen
"
in Riehm's
des Bibl. Alterthums,
Hdworterb.
Sprache "); Schroder, "Aram
p. 79
in Herzog-PliWs
2. ed., I, 601
Protestant.
Realencyklopadie,
sq.; Volcky "Aram"
to the literature); H. Strack^ Einleitung ins A. Test.,
sq. (with copious references
der theolog. Wissenschaften
in ZockUr's
Handb.
I, 191 sq.
(Add to these : David,
de la langue aram^enne
grammaire
[in the Syriac language], Paris 1880; B. Duval,
traits de grammaire
syriaque. Paris 1881).
Tlie above
definition
of the Shemitic
dialects into (1)
a division
presupposes
tlie Arabic-Ethiopic branch,
the
as
as
South-Shemitic,
distinguished from (2) the
three chief -branches
of the Shemitic
North-Shemitic, including the other
family
and
the Assyrian-Babylonian).
(the Canaanitic, the Aramaic
Concerning

The

Extension

of the

and

the

West-

Aramaic

x., 6, concerning

rehob, who, according

the

Dan).
to

In

to

of the

the

the

(with

second

points of

the
the

as

conflict

Judg. xviii.,

Canaanitic

the

and

contact

with

the

exception

of

regions South
boundaries

of David

with

began

the

the

adjacent countries
Aramaic,

not

Aramaeans

on

the

of Damascus,
of

Israel

of

Beth-

neighborhood
further

advance
until

South

finally" about

language

common

upper

cian
Phoeni-

West

kingdom

immediate
to

the

South-

the

(including Hebrew^
it became

the

of the

course

and

of

in

the

Dialect.

territory between

28, lived

dialects

the

the

was

1864;

Aramaic

Aramaic

century B. C"

country in Syria, Palestine


Detached

far

as

early times, however,

dispossess

middle

dialect
Sea

Paris

West-

the

territory includes

extending, therefore,
(cf. 1 Sam.

of

Mediterranean

coast-line). This

family

4. ed.

Gradual

home

Euphrates

and

Shemitic

des

\ 2.

of

of the

ramification

the

htetolre

of

the

East.

all borrowed

from,
directly therein pre-exilic books
however, can l)e established
even
of the Old Testament
the soil of the Northern
on
composed
omon
kingdom, certainly, e. g., in the Song of Soland in certain
A direct
less
doubtinfluence
parts of Judges.
of Aramaic
was
opened by the deportations of Israelites spoken
of in 2 Kgs. xv., 29 and
6 (734 and
B. C); for after
722
xvii.,
that, according to 2 Kgs., xvii., 24, (cf.
also Ezra
iv., 2, 10) the thoroughly
depopulated land was
occupied by colonists
who
had come
in part from
Aramaic
territory where
was
spoken (e. g. Hamath).

Hebraica.

100

The

Slroek

Aramaic

an

was

Epipbanes,

Antiodius

A.

ins

(Einleitung

there

had
with
presupposed,
valid, if we
the
least
after
Alexander
at
that,
Great,
165),
T., p.
at the
of
of Daniel, which,
time
of the narratives
book

still remain

would

conclusion

above

with

intenvoven

was

die

Alttest.

of

ooenrrence

text

was

howe^'er,

for

the

the

same

would

chapters in
higenious fancy which
Hebrew

1876) realized
the

Attic, and
HsBREW

i 4.

The

that
of

influence

the

Hebrew
after
the

border

impossible."

of

favor

Hebrew,

had

the

only

the

proved

such

by

passages

to-day

until

at last

understood,

was

and

do

As
even
as

finally
perhaps

"

of worship.

language

to

time, two

they

as

schools, and,

the

Ptolemies

For

spoken,

are

by

C. ; previous

the

intercourse,

such

as

be

can

as

of

Aramaic.

languages

of

conversation,

B.

century

than

language
"

This

the

Aramaic.

by

of

language

ordinary

Hebrew

D., however,

the

further,

mention,

government

different

the

last pre-Christian century

at least in Palestine.

in

where

as

case,

to

O.

third

the

rather

Greek

even

sway,

that

regard

Intercourse,

the

as

of

end

of

here

of

exerted, through

been

territories

A.

Language

the

in

dialect.

Doric

of

We

Venetus

Grsecus

of

as

In

men.

Ezra, which,

Gebhardt, Lpz.,
(ed. by
parts into
Daniel, by rendering the Hebrew

so-called

preserved only

first century

people,
17

had

have

may

was

the

is

from

dated

first Seleucidse, in

lang^uages
upon

book,

dispossession
be

must

an

the

be

Supplanted,

actual

Aramaic,

of

to

into the

learned

the

affirmed

have

the

Aramaic

for

Hebrew

translation

his

in

that

visions.

des
Vollendung
the
(''Cur in libro
contrary, Merx
sit dialectus?"
Hal., 1865) explains
that
the Aramaic
the assumption
on

book

in the

languages
the
people, and
two

of

book

the recently written


der
von
Weissagung

Onlli,
affirms
r.
On
Gotteareicbes
(Wien* 1882), p. 515, sq.
adhibita
^Vramsea
DaoieUs
juzta Hebneam

Stmilarly

the

readers

dialects.

both

with

equally familiar

been

have

must

and

writers

time, both

that

that, at

satisfactorily show

In Aramaic,

vn..

late

by
Luke

as

the
iv.,

sq.

post-exilic colony at
figuration
by a glance at the conthe North, a population speaking Aramaic
extended
settlers
to the gates of Jerusalem
Jewish
tolerably near
places, the new
; in some
Add
to this
were
evidently entirely surrounded
by neighbors speaking Aramaic.
That

Jerusalem

the

acquaintance

with

take

place,
of its territory. On
must

fact that, for

the

Aramaic

satisfaction

foreign tradere, with whom


tlian in the common
language
to which
even
Tyrians

of

abroad

were

accustomed

of

the

regions of

then

their
could
of

the

is shown

wants,

the

Jews

transacted

be

Palestine

settled

in

; cf.

were

hardly

Neh.

Jerusalem,

dependent
otherwise

cording
xiii., 16, 20, acother
traders
and

familiarity on
are
spoken
languages
from
each
be observed
other) is possible, may
Switzerland, Belgium
(especially in Brussels) and
to the

come

inhabitants
of
part of all the
(even though they be quite different

to-day In certain

rest

part of

the

itself

most

were

to

the

of

business

upon

from

on

it were,

as

district

city.

where

That

common

two

elsewhere.
That

Hebrew

for a long time


after the decided
victory of the
conversation, was
due, on the one hand, to the zeal
of the learned
sacred
the
men
and, on the other, to the significance of Hebrew
as
language of the entire people. The
first is attested
which
by the fact that much
is undeniably old in the language
has
been
to the post-biblical Hebrew.
handed
over
The
of Hebrew
in the reading of the Old
exclusive
is atTestament
tested
use
tradition
Jewish
by the uniform
that, in the public use of Scripture, the
most
that was
the
oral
allowed, for a long time, was
interpretation of the same
into Aramaic.
the latter fact, it might be explained how
From
the hearers
ally
gradubecame
familiar
form
with the Aramaic
of certain
Word,
parts of the divine
as
to follow
from
Matt, xxvii.,
46 and
Mark
34 (cf also Beiiss Gesch.
appears
xv.,
der hi. Schriften
des A. T., p. 723); but
the demonstrative
force
of such
passages
Luke
as
there is not the least intimation
of an interpretation after
iv., 17 sq., where
Aramaic

as

the

was

understood

language

of

The

reading is
interpretation

the

reader

of

while

the

which

what

Law

is

be

may
mode

this

of

is

read

read

the

of

had

procedure
if

only

we

*^c^

intended

(D^plDfl)
conclude

and

that

in the

presupposetl,
no

Mishna, the
in Megilla

when,

than

more

But

translated).

not

arisen

the

at

time

informed

accurately

were

101

one

the

to

verse

habitual
iv., 4 the

translator,

prophetical reading (cf. also iv., 6 regarding the


Law
by minors, and iv., 10 concerning the parts

the

but

indeed,

It is true

appears
to read

directed

are

and

reading

thereby annulled.^

not

permitted in
interpretation of

three

Lanouaoe.

Aramaic

the

of

question

Jesus.

might

the

to

as

of their

date

it is another

We

of

nature

introduction.

whether

decide

the

Just

**

tainly,
cer*'

verses

little may

as

Zunz

with

(gottesdienstliche Vortrage der Juden, p. 61 sq.) from the


about
of Job
the middle
of the first centur"' and
Targum
of
still older
Esther
and
the
in the
Targums
affirmed
Psalms, all of which
are
that
there
of the Law
was
record.
Cf. on this subTalmud,
ject
already a Targum
on
Bleek-Wellli.
Einleitung ins A. Test., p. 606 and the citation there from the
in which
Jerusalem
it is forbidden
Talmud,
to read the interpretation from
a book.
the (infrequent) prayers
in the Aramaic
Concerning
language, as e. g. the so-called
after
in houses
of
Qaddis, originally "Concluding
haggadic discourses
prayer
cf. Delitzsch, Gesch.
der jiid.Poesie, p. 136, Xote.
mourning,"
we

of

existence

written

The

" 5.
Whether

in

indeed

Aramaic)

^Vest- Aramaic

Whether

composed

the

Compare

Testament

friend

language

of the

illusion.

The

Ecclesiasticus
the

of

Sirach

Matthew

accurately
the

dialect

-daily life, the


hold

to

Savior,

xxli.. 2, [cf
leal

and

below

work

on

Asia

in

the

Knowledge
on

the

the

Sursl.

The

all

formulas

was

would

Shemltlc

then,

be

woof

of

useless
of the

In which

the

the

rests

Talmud

whloh,

I 6. I,

learned
was

the

was

was

Paplas

as

Is true.
not

were

to

aoooated

for

language

wont

were

The

ln,Aramalo:

wrote
."

The

tlie laws

ilem.l

an

The

show.

in

the

on

Hebrew.

was

book,

maic
Ara-

literature.

iflpaiSt6taXiKn,M, It

St. Paul
the

of

ooavatw

by the exalted

people of Jerusalem.
of the

language

benediction,
the

temple

the

of

dead

the

be

to

traditional

the

In

Talmuds
the

of

language

Acts

worship,
law;
and

higher

xxi., 40;

of sTnagog"
the

further,

Midraahim
form

of

stating In the
Josophus
originally drawn
up for his oompatrtou

are

partly Aramaic.
was

certainly
now,

only

to

the

means

universal

by

attempt
New

also

desire

of

*0'^)0.

pp.

the

into

form

below

(In

on

tliat Is, into

The

Matthew

Is called

Hebrew
which

small

Testament

the

New

Hellenism

part
as

at

not

educated

of

portion

translate

apostles thought and spoke [7] for the moat


Renan
(Hlstolre generale, p. 159) regards this

Hebrew,
the

among

bis

and

that

unlikely

for

continued

as

this

addreesed

language,

his narratlTe

understood

was

himself

only

written

was

Talmud

In the

the

also

his

Solomon

of

Hebrew.

Mishna,

people and

lamentations

mother"tongue,

Hebrew

of

were

that

war,

common

it

of

holy

holy language

proverbs

Jewish

contrary,

Therefore

the

was

prayer:

popular
the

31

he

{ 7).

there

Testament

of Jewish

fragments

The

**

from

It is said

But

Psalter

were

Lord,

ff"i^f"crof
r)'efifniic
which

In

aniiqal fables, the

Hebrew:

the

-even

1 6,

domestic

parables, the
mostly

but

xxvl., 14, and

the

New

language

Its

as

the

quite

the

In

In which

the

[? cf. oonoeming

it is

which

below

In

extracts

his apostles;

and

Targums.

prayers
in

the

Christ

so^ialled

of the

Nevertheless

controversies,

Acts

tlA" Hturgic

xa"^alnTi

language.

Hebrew,

lktUt"eh

questions.

translate

of

Exile

of the

by FYan*

other

to

to

me

days

the

in

and

sermons

Palestine"

of

vulgar

written

the

1 1 and

(Leipzig, 1888).

Palestinian

codification

and
i.ipatffri

distinguished.

Aramaic

and

collected

time

regard

the

in

after

Maccabees

their

in

the

even
was

(cf above

"

Society

entreat

and

epitaphs,

from

had

that

in

the

coins,

appears

of

to

Palestine

Talmud

of Jesus
first book

of interest

cease

in

remained

Hebrew,

that

not

Hebrew

on

says,

does

spoken

Palestinian

inscriptions
as

mine
was

be

Testament

Bible

Foreign

of

(including

of this question

treatment

and

of Jewish

domain

(or

remains

books
of the Old Testament
Apocrjphal
was
it Is entirely impossible to show.
Jerome

Aramaic,

T.]) might

of

which

idiom

original

British

[German

"A

the

Aramaic

The

so-called

West-

in

noteworthy

very

of

Translation
30, 31

of the

one

any

originally

Old

the

undecided.

the

to

belong

in the West-

existed

remain

chiefly

Dialect.

Aramaic

ever

must

Here

portions of

New

language,2

religious ^^Titings.
Aramaic

West-

the

yet existing belong

The

of

profane literature

and

pagan

any

Samaritan)

Remains

the

of

Diaspora

Testament

is Hebrew,
In Hebrew.*'

least

the

probable.

Aramaic

the

nation.

the

Aramaic.

1ob""

Aramaic,

[Disperskm
Into

not

of

languagv.

T.]

PalestlnUui
Our

Lord

Hebkaica.

102

mrwog'B

Chaldaico

oomposed

"9

I2, p. 491

pit"test Real-Encykl.

wCmlnto

the

sq.) names

in

Judith

and

translated
the

out

Test."

A.

of Tobit

books
and

Aramaic)
(i.e. West
shuts
means
no
by

sermone

des

article, "Apokryphen

Schiierer'a

B.

in

pioof paasagee

the

(Me

them

from

conclusion

(which in
this
in other
indubitable, cf. Schuerer
places),
is almost
p. 505 and
of Judith
the caee
text consequently
the Aramaic
Hebrew,
tliat the actual original of both texts was
of this controversy, occasioned
discussions
recent
(For the more
itself a inuislatitm.
Uiat

Latin, but

of Tobit
book
from
of the
leian
text
a BodJfetAauer's issue of an Aramaic
in the
Wissen1878, see in my
report of O. T. studies of 1878
MS., Oxford
Gesellsch."
[Leipzig 1881],
der deutschen
Morgenland.
Jahresbericht
schaftUehen

by Ad,

"

p.

on

eaam

in

himself

dedaree

OraetM

28;

I3ee his

*'The

of

favor
Tobit

of

Book

Hebrew

modern

in

'Jetc.

''

Aramaic

the

sq.). Likewise

original

of

fiir Gesch.

Monatsschr.

proverbs

Tobit.
u.

Wis-

of

Sirach,
and
citations
partly in Talmudic
partly as
us,
which
small
Sirach " or "Alpliabet of the
(as the so-called
a compilation by tliemselves
with an alphabet of the Hebrew
in connection
proverbs of Sirach)
of Sinuih
son
book
of Sirach.
These
original of the Greek
nothing against a Hebrew
prove
in
Hebrew
of
translations
matter,
in
part
independent
part
proverbs are, rather,
der
Gesch.
jiid.Poesie (Leipzig
of a later compiler; cf. Delitzsch, zur
additions
Blumenlese
(Leipzig, 1844), p. 31 sq., and
1886, p. 20 sq.), L. Dukes, Rabbinische
details
be found
more
concerning the literature of
especiallyp. 67 sq. (where may
of
the
text
Paul
to
Fagius
(Isny,
1542) Dukes gives here
according
these proverbs);
proverbs of Sirach (besides forty-two Hebrew
ones).
twenty-three Aramaic
Judenth."
1879, p. 145
lee
tesJud
to
down
handed
have been

"

"

Words

Detached

2.

and

in the

Clauses

New

Testament

and

in

the

writings

Josephus.

of

in Palestine
at the time
of Jesus
language of intercourse
be
of themselves
occasionally in the N. T., would
have
arisen concerning the idiom
fables which
spoken
sufficient to contradict
any
Jesu
Cf. with
regard to this Reiske, de lingua vernacula
Christi, Jen.
by them.
di Cristo e degli
dissertazioni
della
de
and
lingua
Bossi,
propria
particularly
1670,
in disamina
da
del sentimento
di
della Palestina
tempi Maccabei
Ebrei nazionali
1772. '4.
the Neapolscrittore Italiano, Parma,
recente
By the latter is meant
itan
un
his
de Christo
Diodati
and
book
Graece
Doniin.
loquente
(Neap. 1767).
"
in dem
ZeitUeber
die palastinische Landessprache
F. Pfannkuche
Further
: H.
"
Theil
der Apostel, ein Versuch, zum
und
nach
de Bossi entworfen
alter Christi
der
bibl. Litter.
Vol.
in Eichhom'8
viii.
Allgem. Bibliothek
(1798) 3, p. 365 sq.
de Judaeis
H. E. O. Paidus, verosimilia
Palaestinensibus, Jesu etiam atque apos-

samples of the
aposUes, which

The

and

the

appear

dialecto
aramaica
sola, sed graeca
tolls, non
des neutest.
Winer, Gramm.
Sprachidioms

N.

T.

diction

with

references

aramaisante
quoque
| 3 (Hebrew- Aramaic
the

to

locutis. Jena

1803.

coloring of the

older

Delitzsdi
literature). Franz
und
seine
Jiinger geredet
"
in the year
haben''
Saat
1874, No. 27 of the "Daheim
(also in the Zeitschrift
auf Uoffnung''
of the vernacular
1874, p. 195 sq.); the sanie, "Traces
tongue in
Student"
the gospels'^ in the "Hebrew
(Chicago), Nov., 1882, p. 81 sq.; Dec, p.
104 sq.; Sept., 1883, p. 1, sq.
of the Galileans
Concerning the bad pronunciation
indicated
in Matt,
73, Mark
xxvi.,
appeared
especially
xiv., 70 (Acts 11., 7), which
in the complete
ignoring of gutturals, cf the Talmudic
proofs in Wetstein, Nov.
etc. illustratum
Test, on Matt, xxvi.,
73; Meuschen, Nov. Test, ex Talmude
(Lipz.
The
raised in particular with
to the Galilean
reference
reproach was
1786) p. 119.
pronunciation of Hebrew.
Below
we
give an
alphabetical listi of the samples of Palestinian
Aramaic
in the N. T. with
the addition
found
of the most
important witnesses, namely, the
Codex
Sinaiticus
[S], Alexandrinus
[A], Vaticanus
[B], Ephraeme
Syri [C], Cantabrig. [D] ; WH
signifiesthe readings which
are
adopted in the critical edition
of Westcott
and Hort (London
1881), Tisch. the readings of the editio octava
critica major of Tischendorf.
'"

die

Ueber

many

palastinische Volkssprache,

welche

Jesus

"

the
errors

This

New

Urt, sifted
Testament

and

critically, seemed
commentaries,

inaccuracies

in

reference

so

much

butf also
to

these

in

the

more

the

excellent

words

have

necessary,
Clavis
been

as,
novi

dragged

up

to

test,

along.

to-day,
of

W.

not

Qrimm,

only
many

in

The

Single Appellatives and

A.

(Tisch.,

'A33a

of
below

contrary WII

the

on

final

of

the

of

fl/c,

E,

i.

of

Oxoniensis

elsewhere.

and

In favor
axO.^afiax with S A.
D and oKrlAafia of codex
aKt'/fiai^axof codex

cf

the

OHpStt^

difference,

same

^^d

(for aKa/.) is probably

a/cf/.

36

xiv.,

contrary Tisch.

is also

"

"

the

on

in aatiax^avei

below
I., 19.

Acts

however

ax

Laudianus

e.

p,

with

against

fluctuation
same
regarding the accentuation
state is seen
elswhere"
Emphatic
cf.
flex
although properly speaking, only the circum-

AKE/.fiafidx(so WII

Names.

Proper

a3,3a\ the

Mark
tTariip^

{^2f"

106

so-called

"a.J,?ai"d,
^o/.yo^a, ua^iuva
is justifiable2

'

Language.

Aramaic

in

paKa)

simply

due

in

the

to

the

transcription

*^pn;r"piw

J^Q'^

influence

oi/"iro"r

of

/.

upon

shown
elsewhere
to confiafiafor (5f//a to the inclination
form
of the Sh'wa
to that of the
the sound
mobile
following vowel
; cf. Qeteand
the literature
in Note
I 10, 1, 2), Rem.
inus-Kautzsch, hebr. Gramm.
3)."
of 6cfid (so cod. E) reminds
of leipax
^^ t-b" Greeks
us
Safiax instead
X^'D-

vowel,

preceding

the

"

that

conclude

we

if not

of

was

sharp sound, why


misunderstanding

occurred

HOI

as

an

in

(Leipzigl841),

xxxiv.,
SeptuagiJit cf

the

8
.

in similar

not
of

of

error

(e. g. lapm'iaK, Num.

vowels

final

to

there

that

even

addition
a

such

actually heard

here

cases

writing nO*Tt H^^Di


copyist ? Concerning the

the

elsewhere
111*1^)^

must

or

the

Frankel,

orstudien

of rf,^, n,
den LXX.

zu

v,

97sq.

p.

Bap^o?.oualoc^ Bapi^aolr, Tiapujva, Bapvd^Sof,Bapaa^l^ac, Baprt/uoJof,all proper

Bopa^idf,

xi., 16, 18 sq. with


X., 25; xii., 24; Mark
iii., 22; Luke
[also S in Mark
22] present BeeKe^hi/.^ the reading
in.,
ever,
by Tisch.; the suppression of the /. in the popular pronunciation, how-

BffCf/3oi/.(so WII
S B

"^2 s(wi.

with

compounded

names

while

adopted

Matt.

C D

would

be

scarcely striking)

^)^t is

it). Now

certainly

h^y ^J/J(i^ot*^J^3
as

equal

not

the

to

modem

Grimm

even

^^\

Hebrew

has

dung, but

only the signification dwelling can be supported. In spite of this, the meaning
of Bet/.C. as '"''Master of the dwelling, or of the kingdom " (so e. g. Meyer on Matt.
finds a confirmation
of this empty
X. 25, who
appellation in the preceding cMKo")r(rrejected. Zebul

to be

ndTjj^)is

is rather

*?i*32

of zebilb (cf.y\y

modification

have co-operated
elsewhere), although in this modification
I., 2 and
may
''
of pronunciation
Beelzebub
in
(so Bandissin, art.
merely convenience
also
but
of
the
also
the
Herzog's PRE^),
thought
^yf dung, ^*\^tdunging {and
offeringof idolatrous sacrifices!).

Kgs.

"

not

under
to what
remarked
was
correctly, according
ififia 66)
A
House
is
of
C
John
the
in
of
Grace,
reading
n*3'
v., 2; for JCIDH

Brr"eaAd (more

N'IDn
T

"

""

(instead of
chesda

the

elsewhere

reference

usual

the

to

need

J^'IpH) one

XO^H

Biblical-Aramaic

appeal

not

dream

the

to

"

Syriac

is sufficient.

On

the

WII
according to cod. Sin. have adopted ^3ir9^a^d (WH
contrary Tisch. and
place t^Tidaaida in the margin, as the reading of B). In tlie appendix p. 76,
WH
the opinion that both readings (of S and B) are
perhaps only bad
express
Cf. de

a^a,

or

similar
Is to

the

LaQor^

of

aooenta

be

Romans,
ultima),
moreover,

the

renounce

remembered,
is

for
or

without

may

which

)"
VC^^Vt

we

derive

to

of

be

other

Do

to

being

the

the

hand,

these
them

(Leipxi^, 1S66), p. 80,

tone

that, when
cf. naaxa^

law

rest

as

the

This

penult

upon

an

(the accentuation

**

Is closed

; properly

(not

dosed

transferred*

for

itapav

K^K.

and'

language, but it
merely sharpened)

olMpa

speaking

accommodation
of

write

muat

the

ohange

always

living

to

the

It Is to
^^

be

also

Qreeks

hefore

penult

tradition?
entirely Ignored by Jewlah
above. In Joa. Antiq., 8, 7, 1 X'tvatat ^A^'V

been

one

accentuation

In the

it existed

Mdp^a

Note:

Cor., zvl., S,

man."

intelligent

an

actual

examples
a

in

Judgment;

my

paroxytone,

from
had

afterwards

to

doubt

as

over

that, contrary

"K^*?"^V*appear

the

on

carried

aiKpa

Abhandlungen

according

reputation

restored

words

accent

clearly

ge"Ammelte
words

foreign

an

Is

and
open

mMrked.

^ ^^ ^

ioop^i

Hebbaica.

104

of

modifications

[Kn*r

the

same

n'3

theVocal
name

is probably
form
/5;/i?s""i^a
ftri"aaiSdequalling J^-J"i
n^3 (cf

correct

whose

name,

Oiii""]; nevertheless

^^"*^**^^f
in John

i.,

"

45) place of fishery is

explained in Mark
iii., 17 by viol
difficulty. That fhavr/ is impure
Galileans
spoke for "jg (so e. g.

with
S A B C) is
and WII
(80 Tiach.
manifold
wonl
The
2^"orr#r.
offers, however,
the uncultivated
pnmunciation for '^3, which
.

^.

hebr.

(Ilorae

current

sh'wA

as

e.

OGy

g.

Jermne

Mark

on

for

noabhyim

the

right in demanding
to be
commonly,

is

(OJpn 03'

for

the

It

writes

thunder, but

M.oaaa6a

noisy crowd

thunder.

i-usiling,noise, not
of

"

meaning

DiH)-

sure,

Strabo

hence

that

t^y) mean
^^^y^ is

and
C^'1J|*1

Aram.

^^^^

D*N*54

little does

'*]" ^^s

for Mft"i""^"^[K"lVO

of people and

assumption ; not
testamenti), is a monstrous
has made
appealing to -Brot/y/j"OM,
Xi(//i(/bo",
had
the
that
Jews
17),
always
pronounced
iii.,

assertion, which

is the

better

novi

Lexicon

in his

Brelxkneider
much

impossible.

not

son

thunder

another

is

"

^enei-eew

question, however,

Jerome (on Dan.


has
Non
ut
this account
a right to affirm
:
i., 8) on
legitur Benereem,"
especially as
plerique putant Boanerges, sed emendatius
firmitate
et magex
he himself
Matt,
name
boanerges
on
x., 4 explains the
that
in every
most
It appears
to me
nitudine
fidei."i
probable
way
\y^ (PJl'l)
"

whether

"

angevy

conceivable

word,

and

cf. above

ya^^aM,

aft3a) John

on

13

XIX.,

J^n^jl (emph.

of

state

by

above

the

cf

WII

yo7.yo^d)with

above

under

Worterbuch,
In

usual.

the

the

to

in favor
and

nn3i
eyes

ask

must

KiT^of John

in

I., 48

Syr. fashion
and

v., 9 with
of the Aramaic

Mafiuva (80 Tisch.; WH

the

etymology
very

assumed

Did

Jerome

33; for the

xxvii.,

Levy, neuhebr.

to

elision

und

^^^

of

state

emph.

as

the

chald.

had

been

'

and

ening
by length-

compensated

best

(S^ D

witnesses

""i^e^ thyselfI

HniDriX

is

It

regard to i* for ]i (with Dag.) cf


refer
properly speaking, can
only

; cf. below

elsewhere
S B

CD,

t#fi?a, which
true

that

the

(with
kovii in

N"3*5,emph.
the

Latin

of

suppression

Mark

state

v.,

of

legio,but

41)

was

yolyo-^a. Since
the

to

we

eyes,

the

unaccented

not

intended.

tl^^rock.

probably

first

tion
by accommoda-

\Vj7above

see
fiafujvd,

is uncertain

doubtful

derivation

; for

cvepy^^

in

mind?

the

from

by icii/, (= tJQ, HltD


have

with

vii., 34

originally ^innBH^

Aeytuv Mark

The

Matt,

could

With
by Pa'il.
Imperative,

whether

final vowel

in

on

this

moreover

transcription of sh'wa

to the full
be for the purpose
of conforming
sh*wa
the form
aKe/Mfiax) and
consequently could be Ethp^'el ;
of Ethpa'al is the fact, that
this form
is in use
as
passive
anyway
not less, that
the Targum
the
Is. xlii., 7 expresses
on
opening

")

(see above

of the

l^rhili

pronunciation

Tisch.) Mark
to
nHSHN)

and

Pattal^ under
but

S A

fteEXa^eftovl
; according

Syriac gagulta, the first I is elided

the

point

vowel

the

3jl)- Concerning

vowel.

*B^fa^"i (WU
would

of

oKE^^afidx.

ToXyo^a (80 Tisch.;


of

is fem.

JOJI hill,which

cf

it is

to assume
this might be expressed by viol ftpovrvg. Or are
we
(Saat auf Iloffnung 1874, p. 208) a peculiar provincialism ?

(Tisch.; WII

Ta^Sada

the

that

DeUtzsch

with

in

is contained
C^jj*),

than

impetuosity, rather

angry

We

on

dftl^i)
=

X^^O

KJiDXD

writmg

TQJ^ (= object
does
o.llot)

exist.

can

suppose

great

state

(so Grimm)

of

not

emph.

The

confidence).

deal

in

tiis case

of

flOD-

rests
root

upon

pl53,

The

Lagarde,

Be
stem

Gott.

gel. Anz., 1884,


to

^f2y corresponds
is authenticated

which

the

to

the

in

of

change

yieaaiag John

I., 42

and

(Hebr. ITtTD);

became

to

naiujvac

ptDJ^Q,whose

p!3i*3

weakens

T)OD

pSO,

or

to

in

p3X!D"
ilar
sim-

way

finallyto lOJ^*-

"ION*

the

Note

under

a3fia) Luke
the fem.
KIO*

from

state

elsewhere

for the

^^

instance,

^'*^mistress,emph.

NHip

105

278, refers

p.

Arabic

one

Ma/ii^rt(cf.for the accentuation


=

Lanouaob.

Aramaic

KITtS^D emph.

transcription, Noldeke

the Note
(cf.for the accentuation
which
emph. state of HOQ^
XnDS

Ilnaxa

under

of

us

Matt,

a33o)

and

elsewhere

lord.

"^^

from^ ITB'O

state

reminds

would

38

x.,

of

anointed
for

Ufftrai

"gf*.

xxvi.,

2, elsewhere

to the

Hebrew

correspond

np3

Jewish

tradition, on the contrary, demands


^
which
the Syr. pescha
J^HDD
also corresponds.
'?a33om'i
Mark
John
16 with
(so Tisch.
the contrary
on
xx.,
x., 51 and
SAC;
WH
JM^iiowEi
with
B; far more
badly attested is the reading /"a.i,w",although
in John
Lord.
The
vocalization
xx., 16, D also presents pa3,iuvd) my
is surprising,
for all other tradition
knows
only the forms pi and jl^^. Is f"a3iavii
^

also

Galilean

(so WH

"Pam

provincialism ?

Matt.

22

V.

in the

according to what
word

is not

IV., 10

Matt.

contrary Tisch.

from

pn,

prh*-

The

but

Textus

Receptus,

state
2 Cot.

under

a3,3d)Luke

however

posed *13t5^ (not

would

correct

(more

Ta.iiM
contrary Tisch.
above
in fyafifhwi)
ei
=

cf.

^ua);
emjttyy as

?pn

again surprising.
form

i the

xii., 7, is

carav

adopted

only attested

by S* A*

i., 15

of

for the

directly

of

state

J^^^^C', emph.

presup-

"

Hebrew

Grimm

"^^CJ,*

as

states).

Acts
again "^a) so WH
ix., 36 "^ith B C,
with
S A (cf.concerning tlie vacillation
between
emph. state of X'^O
SopKoc (cf. Hebrew
Xn*DD
be

instead

tabhitha

tabhy'tha people spoke

Yodh, or to the Greek


contrary, the form XH^DDi

the

S" D;

axsASoftax,

on

accented

from

is

TOD

That

be

must

abbreviation

of

above

3.

and

itKcpa (cf.for the tone

T:a3eiM

/xixd with

said

was

vocalization

elsewhere, emph.

the

what

a,?/3d,the word

on

from

state

and

with

by Grimm,
D2

the

on

transcription of

remarked

was

emph.

N^rri* (proper name)


larava^

S2 B

with

for this vacillation

The

appeared

ear

with

and

"^V)-

"

with

to

so

which

the

on

resolution

speak, is

ChHmm

of

the

sonant
con-

impn"bable;

not

on

rafit^a^ is rather

identifies

Ta?j^a).^
Ztschr.
f.
I am
reminded
by Siegfried^sMiscellanea
ii., 10 (in Hilgenfeld^s
wissensch.
Theol.
3, p. 358
(in Matt.
xxvii.,
sq.) that, after Ta^tiHa^ uoax'va
Cf. Siegfriedin the
have
been established.
XXI., 9 and other passages) should
have observed,
the New
Test. (Commentaries, as far as we
cited : "In
passage
Lex.
26 (cf.also Grimm,
'QaawA
to the X^ Hi^lTln of Ps. cxviii.,
is reduced
at

Syriac (cf.below

N.

T.

No

1879, p. 473').

uaavvd

be

not

can

of

''

feld. Nov.
have

test, extra

Levy
to

is the

word

passage
follows

As

Syr. T. I., 1H79,

atM)ve.

receptuin,

1639."

p.

may
In

liaving been

attention

my

which

with

fasc. iv., p. 26, I

see

form

the

Levita*s

Kllas

rendering of

Greek

N3"J^'1n"

intended, but
from

position
ex-

abbreviated

an

be
Note

called
that

oomparMl

Siegfried
Hiigm'

to

also

others

in Biblical
the fonn
of ""riii^ from
exception to the derivation
and that Anger with HUgeiyfeUVs approval has referred to the Aramaic

tn the

neuheb.

9\r\ (I),citing in addition


mark

canon,

the

taken

Hebrew,
I

Thes.

writing the

Since

w"a

{"1 "H.

petition,

that

IxJio] in Payne Smith,


says

this

with

Tisbi, the

in his Sefer

pronunciation

doubt

identified

Lrrv'9

Ctiald.

WB

to

his

writes

uobor

own

die

M^O!)

"nd

explains

opi'nioa
FMsofcsr.
Tarrumlm

(L. 4S8n

thU

who
with

set

the

from
the

tho

Arabic

matter

formiaUi

**

S"iM"Ui(tl mAld.

rifht alreedr
aooortfloffto

to

r""

F. *o.**!

Hebraica.

106

of

tlie correctness

to

therefore,
as
doubt,
to be
no
Theie
Vtrii*
appMirs
seciindum
also
(Evangeliorum
Hilyeufeld
this
with
Cf.
811^1 an explanation."
the
who
gives
meaning
25),
1884,
Lips.
p.
etc.
supereunt.
Hebnieos,
quae

K5

As

of

abbreviations

^^^

rVrfW

cf.

and

of

p. 206

sq.

Sentences.

Aramaic

N0*7 'J" *n*?N"in


^'^^N) before

Aramaic,

the

atu/iafiax. Of

under

{=
ifXtt,
/jifta ;(ui"^aiet

f/^/,

Salome
il^Jr\J2^

the

of

elsewhere, the pronunciation


above

for

Matthaios, Matthaus)

mention

may

Joseph, Lazaro"

XXVII.,

on

"ccoitUngly ^m'ny^
Stead

we

for

Psalm
2, according to WH,
'E/.coi^
xxii.,
46, Jesus cites from
Tisch.
D t/asi, hence
f'/Ad)Aefia (S B ; more
contrary f"M"ei,A r/'/.i,
again /.e^a)aa^ax^avel (S A ; B has aaiSaKravti,cf. above
be, moreover,
would
This
be
in Tisch.
the
leaving r/Aetout of account.
same
paxa);

In Matt.
t"*M (80 S, B
would
oorrcct
aa'/A.

time,
Jose

as

Delitzsch, in the place mentioned,

B.

on

of that
such

names,

many

(from which

others;

same.

popular language

the

"np
(yvh) {or^xfyi^,
for

for the

-I. Merx

to

of

chamcteristic

striking

the

appeals

and

MM,

jfiTtt

oldest

the

'^
'tJf'

established

be

not

can

is

gives
only
reading is adopted

Uncials,

OilDtJ?^-^^^^

very
;

striking, since
aa,3, for

on

by WH

in

'^tf^cf

Hebrew:

in

citation

the

^pt'^N(in-

Hebrew,

the

course

Aramaic,

the

like

of

which

the

margin

"
"
Western
(Gr. Lat.); probably it isAppendix
p. 21, is designated as
forms.
from
the Aramaic
Hebrew
the
as
distinguished
to
reproduce
an
attempt
In the parallel passage
ITuoi,Tisch. DmI), next S C /f//a
Mark
(hence WH
34, S A B C give e/ui
xv.,
B
with
D
WH
the
give
although this in Aramaic
?iafia,
Tisch.,
also
on
contrary
(so

in the

and,

would

K0*7 nothing); finally,aafSax^avd (so WH

be

aa3aKTaveij
the

Into

which
contrary D again ^aip^avet,
(:a/3a^i?ave/).
reading
tradition
of things, the oldest
to this condition
appears

in

ss

for

verse

t/jut,

testifies

Elias

upon

Matthew,

cited

was

by

on

v., 41

Jesus

united

was
a

(more

afterwards) Tisch. with SAC


A
the contrary
D
on
SBC;
to

equal

ra^tda) not

{Meyer), but,
Hn**7tD
best

the

Aramaic,

and

circumstance
with

it than

proof of early and

Ta?u^a

in
the

moreover

which

829, finds in all this


Mark

S^ C

Si

has

also

got

of B

twisted

According
the

Tisch.) with

and

correct

r/M

r^Xei. De

or

Lagarde
in

would

Grimm),

properly speaking, to

be

once

more

"

to be

the

with
GGA,

the

B)

i?a, as

is

which

T.

N.

play

well

text.

as

kov/h

would

be

1882, p.

and
Tisch.
(so WH
nevertheless
again (cf. above

with

that

beginning

the

agree'fefar less

systematic corrections

ra'AeiM
(WH
Kovfii).TaXi^d

Xn*'7P (so

it

that

*r1'?Kat

with

indeed

Syriac, still

Kovfx

with
in

less

fem.
of K^'^Djuvenis.
}"ri*'7C0i

to

The

in
reading xohfipoints to the suppression of the toneless final vowel
in Syriac.
as
1 Cor. XVI.,
22 : ftapav adu
WH
and Tisch.
cording
ac(better ai9a, cf. above
on
a(3fta)
Lord
to all old witnesses
is coming, (or has
: our
see
T.)Appendix.
come,
not T}nt^ W^D
of the a of both
the confluence
words
when
(Grimm), with

attested

pronuciation,

i. e.

these

words

sounds

in

(cf.Bib.

-:

combined

were

{futpava^a),
[but probably

'{"p;^,

as

the

form

also

written
Syriac ; it is not in consistent with that, that in fact i^y^f2 was
l""*.; perhaps more
correctly i^^\), the toneless final vowel beings

Aram.

suppressed

in

pronunciation.

dialect in Josephus, cf. B. de Bossi


Concerning the traces of the West- Aramaic
work
ing);
siftalready mentioned
p. 55 sq.; Pfannkuclie
p. 459
sq. (both needing
Bleek, Einl. ins A. Test., 3. ed., p. 54 sq.
the
which
influence
Concerning
West- Aramaic
exercised
Josephus in his use of the Old Testament, an essay
upon
in Joh. David
Michaelis^
oriental, und
V. (1773), p. 221 sq. con-^
exeget. Bibliothek
tains something.

in the

IIebraica.

108

Vol. XIII.
(1884), especially p. 349 sq. In this
in Ilerzog's PRE,2
"Siinaritaner"
reader
the
emphatically, that
be permitted to remind
every
place, "l"o, it may
editions
of the Tarthe
based
dialect
Aramaic
upon
of the SamaritanJudgment
fall necessarily into the gravest
errors.
hitherto
appeared, must
have
which
gum
of H.
Petevmami
Samaritanus
Pentateuchus
is true, lUas, of tlie expensive
This
1882; III. Leviticus, 1883, the last
(Faac I. Genesis, Berol. 1872; II. Exodus,
und
Zur
Kohn
Dogmatik
Sprache, Litteratur
after
that,
("
edited
by C. VoUers)^
that the usual
had
206
conclusively
and
proved
103
sq.)
der Samaritaner,''
"q.
p.
words
in Samaritanand
roots
maic,
Arapeculiar (so-calledCaucasian)
of
the
MSS.
the
of
Targum,
such
as
a
corruption
nets
solely upon
of the
original Targum,
perhaps
we
possess,
is incredible;
according to Kohn,
is given
text
only in the Petersburg
(a relatively pure
only a few fragments
of
in
the
215
a Samaritan
fragments
Targum,
Kohn,
sq.,
p.
fragments edited by
codex
of the
Bodleian
from
Library and
a
which
1874, issued
Aiitt, London,
"
Pessach-Haggadah
of the Cambridge
City Library, and, finally, in the
one
to
codex
Franz
from
The
1
belonging
Delitzsch).
a
edited
on
by Kohn,
sq.,
p.
ture
large admixleaving out of account, perhaps, a somewhat
original Samaritan"
and
Latin
words"
is as good as identical
well as of Greek
of Hebraisms,
as

assumptioii

of

"

"

the

with

6.

Palestine-

Aramaic
Remains

Written

The

known

otherwise
of Aramaic

(at least in the majority of cases) with

on

Jews

to

us.

Stone
in

and

Papyrus, w^hich

originated

Egypt.

I. 226
sq. ; III. tab.
Oeseniiis,scripturse linguseque Phoenicise monumenta,
characters
cf. Euting, in
the written
4 (Alphabet)
tab. 29-33.
and
Concerning
in Chwolson's
Hebraicarum
the large table of characters
Corpus inscriptionum
482
to about
( Petersb., 1882), col. 10-16, according to inscriptions dating from
of this kind
100 B. C"
The
were
most
lately published by
important monuments
xxv.
the I*al8BOgraphical Society, Oriental
Series, and
they are; Part II. Table
Museum
of the
British
and
(from the collection belonging
XXVI.,
Papyrus cvi.
of Blacas), with
description by Wright and Noldeke, and
a
formerly to the Duke
this
document
dates
from
to these
the
literature do\ni to 1877.
According
men,
either
the earlier
the last part of the Ptolemaic,
Roman
or
period, composed
by a
to
sort
of
as
a
an
Haggada
or
Egyptian
Jew,
Aramaean,
(more
probably)
by
pagan
and
is strongly alloyed with
Hebrew."
Phoenician
"xod.
The Aramaic
I.
Further,
in the
found
in 1877, at Sakkara, now
Part
the column
Royal
v., Table
lxiii.,
Museum
before
bears a parallel
at Berlin, which
represents a libation
Osiris, and
of Xerxes
the fourth
Egyptian- Aramaic
inscription, dating from
(482 13. C.) ;
year
und
fiir agypt. Sprache
cf. Lepsiiut,
concerning eine agyptisch-aram. Stele, Ztschr.
xv.
Alterthumskunde,
(1877), p. 127 sq. ; Lauth, agypt.-aram. Inschriften, Report
of the Session
of the Munich
1878, 1.,philosophical-histor., class II., p.
Academy,

Of.

97

sq. and

148;

with

PrcBtorius,

ZDMG

xxxv.,

442

sq."

Table

lxiv:

the

celebrated

four-line

is now
at Carpentras,
inscription,which
kept in the Museum
and
in Southern
the inscription, a female
France, and
represents, above
mummy,
this an
adoration
before
Osiris.
over
According to Lepsius and others, the stone
belongs to the time of the Ptolemies
(see below)
; according to Clei-Diont-Ganneau
these
dominion
monuments
Egypt.- Aram,
over
belong to the time of the Persian
in
Aramaic
the
official language
Egypt, i. e., 627-405, or 340-332, when
was
named
Taba
the stone
Egypt ; and the person
was
daughter of a Persian
upon
officer and
who
native
Aramaean
had
married
an
[If so, it is
Egyptian woman.
true
that Hebraisms
such
as
^"{" and ^Hp await an explanation]. Discussion
stone

the

stone

has

lately become

animated

(ZDMG
again, since Schlottmann
and
sq.) supposed that metre
rhyme are
the same;
cf. Halevy, ibid.,xxxii.,
Nach206 sq. ; de Lagarde,
upon
richten
der Gott.
gel. Ges., 1878, p. 357 sq. (also Symmicta,
II., 56 sq. and 79 sq.)
Of
further
mention
the
of the
documents, we
inscription upon
a vase
temple of
in the
Louvre
Serapis, now
(cf.Levy, ZDMG
xi., 65 sq. ; Merx, ibid.,xxii., 693
PraUorius,
ZDMG,
sq.;
442; Clerrtiont-Qanneau, Rev. Crit., 1883, No. 21,
xxxv.,
p. 415 sq.); for the Egyptian- Aramaic
inscriptions generally, cf Clermont-Ganneau,
des
monuments
origine perse
aram(5ens
d'Egypte, Rev.
arch^olog.,vol. 36, p. 93
sq. and 37, p. 21 sq. (also separately, Paris, 1880).
over

187
xxxii.,
to be found

sq.

and

767

sq. ; xxxiii.,

252

The

Of

extra-Jewish

7.

The

for the

most

A.

of

de

Count

later

ruins

addition

Vogue's

tlie

see

were

older

given

first by R. Wood, The


Ruins
in de Wette-Schrader, Einl.

literature

Levy ZDMG
given, dating from

times:

inscriptions
an

inscriptions

these
1753;

T., p. 79); in

A.D.);

in the

of Tadmor

(Palmyra)

and

part bi-lingual (Aram.-Greek).

(London

nineteen

109

are:

Inscriptions found

Palmyrene

Facsimiles

Palmyra

origin

Language.

Aramaic

are

thereto

ibid.

centrale

Syrie

Vol.

314

and

sq.

896-578

xix.,

(Paris

615

xv.,

and

65

xviii.,

of the

Seleucidan
282

xxiii.,
well as

of
ins

sq., where

(85-267

era

further
sq.;
extract
5 of

in

in
sq.), as
the
asiat. 1883 ; more
than
all however
Journal
by Euting in the Corpus inscriptionum
9
Semiticarum
17-28
B. C. to 270
A. D.).
Blau
(Inscriptions from
ii., Table
73 sq. (iiberein palmyr. Relief
mit
ZDMG
XXVIII.,
Neue
Inschrift); Mordtmann,
Palmyras in the Report of the Munich
Beitrage zur Kunde
Academy
1875, Vol. ii.,
in.,
1-88; Ed. Sachau, palmyr. Inschriften, ZDMG
Suppl.-Number
728
xxxv.,
For
664 sq.
other matter
thereupon by y^ohleke xxxvi.,
see
Eutwg
sq.. Remarks
in the report of the DMG
in Buethgens
for 1878, p. 63 and
Report for 1880, ibid,
the linguistic character
of this inscription, cf. Merx
ZDMG
Concerning
p. 154.
674 sq. and
85 sq.; Sadiau
ibid, xxiv.,
ibid, xxxvii..
562
XXII.,
especially Noldeke
of Noldeke's
In
notice
content,
(without any
previous work).
they are
partly
of deserving persons
dedicatory inscriptions, partly inscriptions in honor
pagan
and
partly epitaphs.

The

8.

Numerous

first A.

the

Misled

and

Inscriptions

Peninsula, in Idumea,

the

Hauran

1868

and

of

Coins

the

Nabateans

elsewhere, from

the

the

on

last century

Sinai-

B. C. and

D.

in these uiscriptions,
which
occur
names,
So particularly Tuchy
long time, as Arabic.
395
129
der
ZDMG
Bottdier,
Ausfiihrl.
Lehrb.
and
heb.
so
in.,
yet
II.,
sq.
sq.;
these
Arabic
Sprache 1 p. 6, where
inscriptions are explained as North- Western
in the Supplement
also is the older literature).
(set right by Muehlau
p. 644, where
A
this
correct
established
more
on
by Letn/,ZDMG
judgment
question was
xiv.,

they

by the
regarded

were

Arabic

numerous

by scholars, for

82 sq.; xviii.,
261 sq.; xxiii.,
435 sq. and
652 sq.; xx
630 ; xxii.,
v., 429
sq.; xvii.,
Blau
508 ; xxvii.,
133 ; further
576 sq.;
ibid, xvi., 331 sq., Meier ibid, xvii.,
sq. and
and
in particular Noldeke
703 sq. and
637 sq., as well as de VogtW
ibid, xvii.,
xix.,
363

the
the tame
Hauran);
1864, p. 284 sq. (Inscriptions from
orient., p. 149 sq. and Appendice
p. 21 sq. (Coins of the
such
from
Nabatean
two
Petra, cf.
kings from 95 B. C. to 104 A. D.; concerning
in Syrie centrale
also de Saulcy in the M^l. de Numism.
1878, 193 sq.) and
(1S68)
semiticarum
ii. (Paris 18K"),
inscriptionum
p. 89 sq., finally Euting in the Corpus
Series issued
tab. 29-35;
Part v. of the Oriental
and Table
by the l*alaeoLxv.,

in

the

in

the

Revue

arch^ol.

Melanges

d'arch6ol.

graph. Society.
More

9.

voluminous

extra-Jewish
Vatican
and

MS.

of the

Petersburg

of

remnants

origin lie before

in

us

Gospels, which

"West- Aramaic

translation

completed

was

last

(These

MSS.

the
a

D.,

well

as

with

union

and

likewise

Bible, preserved

the

A.

1030

it in

contain

dialect

of

of
in

as

fragments

other

In London
of

religious matter).
The

text

of

the

edited

was

by

according

to

I), and

A.

refer

the

the

him,

probably

localities

Decapolis).
to be found

mentioned

Further

his second

and
and

tomi,

St.

thinl

of

this

ZDMG

(for the

the

(59 and

latter

most
were

leaves).

70

Ctxlex

For

Gospels,
the

xxii., 443
the sixth

266

xxiii.,

Vat.

the

of

the

'64.

and

tliird and

[Blau, ibid,

version

journeys

1861

the

between

originated

Petersburg;

Verona

cf. Noldeke,

of this version,

of

two-thirds

about

embraces

soil
Judaean
upon
in the annotations

fragments

in London

c?or/upon
(except the

dialect

translation

which
Erizzo,

Mimmilchi
''

"Christian-Palestinian

MS.,

Vatican
F.

to

sq.;
turies
cen-

sq., seeks to
the ancient

part Pallrapeesta) are


collected
All

bv2l"efk"i-

these

rragments

with
IlymnH.i.
Codex),
fragments of Biographies of Saints.
of his ^Vne*
in Tom.
iv.
"fragmenla
svropalaestina
as
by Land

Vat.

"

were

edited

syriaca (Lugd.

"

Bat.

1875), including

fragments

from

the

I'salms

(which

are

trans-

Hebraica.

110

the

the

from

lations

London

Land,

Melk"

than

figures [BezifEerung] show), from


Septuacriiit,as the arithmetical
the London
exhibits, according to
I'eie islmrg
Gospels (of which
older
in 1089.
founded
T.] Ritual
Abbey
{a oelebratetl Beneilictine
Codex

Deuter.,

are
younger
Isiiiali. l"n"verbs.

Isaiah

and

an

older

distinguished), linally

be

to

London

and

quite peculiar

fragments from
Gospels, Deuter.,

the

is later

Codex

Roman

the

Land,
to
According
ones
(The London
fragments.
Job.

from

fragments

Petei-sburg

with

Bible,

Petersburg

wliile, in the

Codex,

Boman

the

and

and

all

almost

than

between
the eighth
placed by Wnght
the otlier
the
of its origin, accordingly, at
At
the time
the
thirteenth
and
centuries.)
of
Aramaic
no
was
longer the language
eleventh
of the
century,
beginning
show.
The
the
Arabic
with
it,
inscriptions
as
in the circles concerned
intercourse
for books
at Edessa,
is a variety of the capitals used
to Land,
writing, according
and
in the rude
imitated
withal
angular character
which
the Greek
capitals have

of the

are

letters.

Ma'lula

in

present only
population
This

fact

made

was

S"D^raIc
ret given by the
Society
scheii

431

XX.,

Dialekt

clear

long

im

Antilibanon

") ZDMG

ibid,

the

ity
decliventire

the

as

to

same

p. 183
list of words

xxi.,

farther

Eastern

and,

Volney (cf Renan, histoire


the
language itself was
of the
the Journal
Royal Asiatic
nocli
lebenden
syri(" iiber den

in

Ferrette

discusses

the

upon

decay

at

and

reference

with

Noldeke

of

found

are

end.

by Brmcn

ago

Jules

missionary

sq.;

villages
state

its

near

diffused,

widely

so

bad

information

Closer

268).

p.

in

well,

as

once

neighboring

two

course

Arabic

speaks

dialect,

this

and
of

Anti-Lebanon,

of

of

remains

Living

10.

cf. the

sq,;

of the

of

remarks

Mei^

Ma'lula-dialect

was
thereuiMin
xxii.,
sq.
in the autumn
of 1877, in the Journal
published by CI. Huart, who visited Ma'lula
asiatique, Ser. vii.. Vol. xii., 478 sq. (Oct.-Dec. 1878; cf. the notice of R. Duval
and
ibid. XIII., 465 sq. and
L'universe
Israelite,1879, No. 16). Accurate
hensive
comprewho
still
be
disclosures
Socin
and
from
to
eral
are
expected
Prym,
passed sevin Ma'lula
in the latter part of the summer
scribed,
weeks
of 1869, and
carefully tranfrom
the mouth
womani
of the Greek
of a Christian
confession, a series
of narratives
with
debted
inArabic
I am
The
translation.
following sample, for which
to Prof. Socin, may
this
the
of
of
idea
condition
Aramaic
:
an
give
vot

ahad

iflhme froz lalo He

KJin(N)
brother

i 6.

there

271

whose

man

CORRECT

THE

IN

1.

In

the

terminology

Aramaic

the

nearest

"

One

Heb."

little

related

secondly, however,

pretended

Chaldaic,
reverse

of

the

theM

the

Lehrgebaeude

and

from

the

of

"

is

by the
Aram.

Jewish

East-

influence

Idiomc,

Chald.

East-Aramuic

Palest.-Aram.-Hebrcw,"

the

well

it the

and

Aramaic
the

West-

as

by Eiirst2

Christian

its

the

people,

(Leipzig, 18a5)

language
as

from

of

the

the

Bab.

Syriac.

p.

maic,''
Ara-

of the

Aramaic,"

dialect.

5; there

again,
as

is

Moreover,

of the

language

Talmud)

as

distinction
"

Syriac,

women;

that

designated

inverted

proposed

speaks
by

4,

ii.,

men

Arabic.

Gramm.

(the
as

but

of

only this dialect, but

from

'^Jewish

as

chiefly
of

of

ways,

Chaldean

etc., were

distinction

Islam,

to

out

the

lical-Aramai
Bib-

the

many

confirmation

Dan.

of

that, not

Aramaic,

The

maintained

from

Targums,

flowed

Syriac

over

the

with

language

in

yet

even

said

derived

the

of

there

the

gone

language
der

distinguishes

view

misconception

the

as

has

was

is correct.

villages has

of

been

dialect, that

FOUND

of

generally, and

what

Ezra

the

dialects

prevails

and

atready greatly corrupted


"

(had)

DiALECT

ARAMAIC

THE

confusion

(" 1). The

Daniel

while

tradition

Puem

has

Testament.

Aramaic

such

in

(so-called) Chaldaic

the

the

supplement

its firet consequence,

as

this

to

FOR

Old

employed

dialect

"Chaldaic;"
of

of

particular,

tliat it is necessary

also

"T^^" DKH)

nOtTN

'allah,he

Faragh

was

NAME

THE

designation
in

has,

{KIH'^K^ D^

(iD^K

name

etc.

CONX'ERNIXO

the

H*?

hona, i. e

was

however,

"Bab.-Aram.-

is

The

Dot

altogether suitable, according

Aramaic

dialects
but

Syrians,
from

West-

also

5, Xo.

belong

as

yet existing

arpse

of

these

for

More

most

lying before

"Biblical

Aramaic.''

in

us

Daniel

soil

the

the

the

Egyptian
In

and

the

list

belongs

most

we

of

of this dialect

dialects

Ezra, which

less

no

designation

Palestine.

Aramaic

East-

preserN'ed, which

remnants

of

the

it follows

Palmyrene,

the

and

is

to

by the Christian

been

the

as

for

Talmud;

suitable

upon

{ 5
used

have

Palestinian

or

in

Edessa

(except the

part

Aramaic

down

of

inasmuch

inscriptions)

West-

(South)

laid

monuments

group.

the

is

Ill

Babylonian

Aramaic^

Xabatean

the

the

Jewish

extra-

PaleMinian

dialect

the
as

all

of

language

that

to what

only the dialect

not

West-Aramaic

Aramaic

almost

the

7-10,

the

to

belongs,

Lanouaoe.

Aramaic

now

fitlydesignate

In
Daniel
informed
that the Kasdim,
are
ii., 4% we
or
Chaldeans, summoned
in Aramaic
addressed
him
in
by Nebuchadnezzar,
fact, their
( H'O'IK
), and,
dialogue with the king (v. 4b sq.) is reported in the Aramaic
ingly,
Accordlanguage.
it was
of the book
of Daniel
plainly the opinion of the author
(or of ch.
this Aramaic
the
dialect was
i.-vii.) that
at the
court
language of conversation

of

Nebuchadnezzar

and

Babylonian

whose

those

of

Jer.

his

form

Nebuchadnezzar

instead

successors,

lies before

in

us

himself.

This

of

'"'

real

the

East-Semitic

dialect

inscriptions" among

numerous

Chaldaic."

which

others,

is mentioned

in

unintelligible to the Jews


(cf.the similar verdict of Isa.
and
11
of Daniel
19, with
XXVIII.,
regard to Assyrian), the author
xxxiii.,
the
learned
secret
conceives
as
or
language of the Alagians, since he (i.,4) lets
the
in the
Jewish
boys be instnicted
language and literature of the Chaldeans
;
than
else in Daniel
sense
surely in no other
everywhere
D^'IC'D is here used
v., 15,

as

language

'3 rH?2

(except v., 30, in the connection


designated
Jerome
of

word

the

in

correctly

(on Dan.

Dan.
The

"nC^D-*'^

members

of

nl Xa/Jaioi

as

Aramaic,

so

1, '^

ix.,

ilO^D)

(also Ez. iv., 7) ri^O'lX *^as


of a
just on account

ii., 4
''

4), the

ii.,

and

been

Chaldaic."

of

author

Daniel

the

uses

and

dialect

the

termed,

since

misunderstanding

word

as

title for

the

Babylonian
guild of priests, as
already Herodotus
regards
was
designation of the priests of Baal, and the name
subsequently
the
for the
one
Magians, Astrologers, Soothsayers, etc., of the East.
customary
who
of
followed
therewith
the use
and
those
Jerome,
him, confused
however,
in
of
"Chaldeans"
and
Dan.
the
the
4,
as
name
speak
people;
since,
ii.,
U^^iyD

lexicons,"

This

"

It
or

Is, to

be

distinguished

ix.),

as

Cf.

questionable,

sure,

teachers.

(cf. e.

g.

"

identical.

the "Hebrew

falls to the

in

the

the

the

Chaldee

fable

the

ground

exile

language

forgot
of

versation,
con-

gottesdienstl.Vortrige

die

Zunt,

And
and

Babylonian

Chaldaic,"

by Pfannkuehe

proposed

In Ekhham'$

AUg.

Bible.. vliL,

late

to

already

East-Aramalo

expressly
XXV.,

900

which

drawn

miirht be cited
the

of

the

upon

comes

fact

that.

p. x%'ill. sci.). the

same,

In the

Jerome

self
him-

Masaora

to

Tanrum-Aramalo

Biblioah

A.

]wh in

0nt73

SeMoettr

(Syriao)

BdiUon

Inir

misunderstand

this
latter,

the

doubt,

about

as

the

KiBT'S latufwtge of the


Is deslirnated
repeatedly as 'KIODT
(Ibtd.
belongs, acoordlnff to BsHlnar
compoaltton of this Massora
of the 1
us
at this point reminds
D.. thouirh BsrMner

the

from

Without

whether

For

(cf. BcrUner't

Onkelos

of

24 a, according

was

the

it, brought

already been

Jews

the

date), that
of

be

to

and

there

terminologj'

Palestine

to

has

his Jewish

upon

CTialtUans.

of

them

terminology

theTargum

p.

latest

instead

and,

held

were

grammars"
to this day.

468.

8, p.

(as

the

to

up

Hebrew
with

"Chaldee

possession of the correct

(stillstated
their

"Aramaic"

and
in the

thus

spite of all protests,^ up

in

In

2.

"Chaldaic''
stood

has

matter

the

again

West-Aramaic

by

113 sq. (die Namen

Gtioer
der

1.,4.

ZDMO.
aram.

the

means

Biblical

Aramato

xvili.. S"4, and


Nation

Aramaic

vlli. dTHl

Kopcrtortum.

In EUhhnm-*
and

Dan.

und

languace.

"
!".p. llf* sq.; the correct
of the Tarffuma)
and the language

Ifo$UM",

8pnu4ia.)

IbM.

zxU

US

tq.* tnA

ticularly
par-

Hebraica.

12

B6n"ktr,
that

it

the

was

be

may

Lehrb.

ausfiihrUches

Babylon

With

8.

which

regard

this

is designated

dialect

IS. 17, perhape

altliough the
also

of

the

14, (as already


flrst two
the
the

for

XXVI.,

is recorded,

well

long

on,

time, had

been

LXX.

had

(ZDMG
the

in

the

to

same

Just

designation "O*^

p. 117

tame

of
this

nation

"as

distinction

"a

hebr.
the

"
"n

the

'ar"maje

form,

Testament

Quite

mlsuken

"

So

uiao

Vnage

DtliUseh,
p. 210

Schaul,

under

the

Law;

but

simply

the

Hebrew

Delttuch

SchauU

be

lema

'armaje

and

x., 11

Talmud

to

the

Neh.

B^ifipdoes not mean


"clearly,
distinctly"
New

still supposed

redaft jcUhU

Testament,
that:
the

viil., 8
In

W^])

'

p. ao
"with

ascended

two

as

call

Lord

'

the

any

neu-

portions

of

xxxi.,

47)

Gen.

then

people

neededi
In

than

more

"

people

(cf. Levy,

in

that

passage

with

united

the

Aramaic

words

by

original designation

of

name

the

proof,

the

as

was

sources

proof

Ezra

manlfeste).

(cf. above
a

the

as

The

that

(Vulg.

well

Heathen
it

as

for

14, fl'ND^N

["^fyM^

Jewish

the

New

the

language

*XD"1N)and

of

while

as

"

"Heathen

with

ii.,

sq.

for

and

^0*^10^

from

apart

Noldeke

to

Aramseans

; Gal.

were

Aramaic

116

of

for

already,

as,

According

be regarded

idea

just

Syriac translation

the

to

from

proved

of the

is

the

"Q-)X
Jer.

for

'El3paiuv)^

tuv

Greeks,

the

identical

all

of

ular.vernac-

Syriac, which,

Christian

in Noldeke,

however

(including

of

Iv., 18, "interpreted,"

evidence

the

called

(at least

form

can

is the appeal

"interpretation"

Jews

solemnity

Aramaic

Aramaic

10, for ^EAA^v

xix.,

and

become

to

over

and

{yAurra

ovpiari.

the

by

had

artificiallyset

was

W.-B.

Old

nung"1874,

which

chald.

u.

the

see

sq., that

the

and

preserved

was

Babylonian Jews;

the

"

Palestinian

the

so,

adopted

^Y

In

tongue.

invariably by
of

his future

and

his time.

Syrian

department

passed
1

of

used

sacred

the

Hebrew

uses

era,

the

of

not

almost

Jl'P^N

of

favors

neighborhood;

the

importance

and
also

in

the

In

Apostle

education

use

vernacular

"Aramean

xvi.

the

purpose

was

had

sense,

to

Christian

whole

name

the

Hebrew

rendered

Jew,

(e. g.. Acts

k^vuuJi).

the

everywhere

that,

Testament

the

of

in

xxvi.,

as

xxii.,

the

the

meaning

well

in

if

hearers

Pharisaic

more

Aramaic

the

all

his

Josephus

the

for

used

116), this

XXV.,

reason

and,

within

to

16),

in

doubtful.

reported

people

than

old

the

of the

as

designations

as

of

Testament,

Hebrew,

Further

fixed
the

Xew

the

of old

4.

think

to

15)

xvi.,

xix.,

xvi.,

The

as

is

easily explained,

part,

better

no

and

2;

already

2,

xxii.,

in

ix., 11, perhaps

Rev.

in

used

v.,

language.

and

40

the

record

on

also, it corresponds

14

Acts
what

With

most

place

(cf. v. 3)

Law

the

could

of

take

Testament,

John

moreover,

Hebrew

old

xii., 7

is less

familiar, for the

vernacular

seal

silence

in

apuayE^iov Rev.

(so surely

xxi.,

Mac.

silence

deep

this

the contrary, he

on

as

the
for

Hebrew,

:"

certainly,

the

designate

to

iSpatc "^'fj

passages,

old

xvi.,

not

dialect
New

the

In

obscure

the

16;

to Neh.

by Aramaic
could

Aramaic

West-

forward

applied

";e3pai^ dta/^KToc, Acts

expression

the

Rev.

Sirach)

of Jesus

Prologue

elsewhere

is

and

20

xix.,

with

and

20

xix.,

word

same

John

in

in

also

sq.;

account

according

Hebrew
Jews

(so certainly

t^paiari Hehreio

as

of

out

there.

the

brought

be

is yet to

antiquity, the following

of

designations

the

to

of

sq.),the

p. 4

spoken

not

was

13. C,

430

overthrow

slow

the

(cf.above

grounds

valid

upon

from

that

and

Leaving

18).

i.,

about

practice in Jenisalem

nonnal

shown

dialect

Sprache

hebr.

der

iii., 44

Israel

Volkes

des

Hertfeld, Gesch.

18S2, p. 7 sq.;

24, to speak nniiTi*

XIII.,

Berl.

Juden,

dor

In

8 4,

this

brought

In

N6te);

"Saat

(Palestinian
Saul

of

auf

HofifIan-

Aramaic)

Damascus

to

his

The

curtly called

are

QlJl'in

128), because

p.

written

interpretation
in

composed
tine

the

at

customary
Jerome;
daico

syroque

the

to

be

to

however"

the

doubt
of

the

the

placed

in

their

use

last
47
not

Qam^ts

last

the

in the

xxxi.,

47

the

first

traced

to

is "chal-

Testament

the

verse

containing

Even

if this

direction
45

w.

the

the

sq."

fourth
of

the

ancient

of the

syllable might

can

the
be

not

of the
in

tateuch
Pen-

question,
Ilaran

24) from

and

Massoretic

the

writing

correctly for West-

vowelled

be

it
be

into

can

words

20

; for

Ezra

sources

two

(cf. vv.

East- Aramaic

there

in

B. C.

century

form

the

is very

have

other

or

can

teuch
Penta-

redaction

of

text

them

the

should

time

some

present

one

of
we

back

verse

of

dialect, since
at

erated
enum-

reach

might

(post-exilic) redactor

''Aramaean,"

be

to

Old

case

of

originated from
be shown, from

be

General.

in

the

Biblical-Aramaic

of

long time

Uebrews

the

Pentateuch.

sources

quaiter

them

prove

in

Gen.

in

C,

redactioi^ of

of Laban

words

as

with

Niinnp^

the

of

of Pftlee-

for

likewise

the

Scripture

vernacular
was

might

idiom

gloss, introduced

the

could

Mesopotamia,

is

and

XXXI.,

(J or E) it
that

the

than

If Gen.

1.

sample

of

the

Texts

activity in
the

prophet,

earlier

by
an

the

N*^pp,

of

for

employed

which

Gospel

the

the

proofs in Nolddce

scriptum."

in

B.
of

sources

fact,

x., 11

The

Aramaic

of

Jer.

with

designation

Uteris

century

old

in

as

transmitted

welding

oldest

that

West-

the

addition

an

and,

in

prominent

the

contrasted

Biblical-Aramaic

ninth

of

one

hebraico

words

the

(see the

is elsewhere

unfortunate),

very

the

of

Talmud

Syro-Chaldaic,"

Pelag. in.,

two

in

"

US

which

The

the

as

sed

remnants

shown

text

adv.

and

Scripture,

course

sermone,

sometime

no

language

language.^*

of

" 1, the

probably

Mishna

the

Concerning

in

belonged

the

in

Jesus

(though

cf. Jeronie

Of

be

of

time

I 7.

to

sacred

Language.

i"

of

(targiim)

the

Aramaic

and in
initial {Jf (instead of D in the Targums
(as for Syriac); from
be drawn
conclusion
the same
ponds
corresSyriac, cf. " 9, Rem.
2), no
can
; moreover
in this root regularly to the Arabic
be verified as
The
sin.
noun
'^y* may
well
from
the Syriac as from
the Targums.
had the verse
2.
to have
That
Jer. x., 11, in spite of the LXX.,
who
seem
is a
into
the
before
directly
them,
text, follows
gloss introduced
wrongfully
10 and
from
the troublesome
between
12;
w.
interruption of the original connection
tion
inserfrom
the fact that no reasonable
indirectly, however,
ground for the sudden

Aramaic

"

of

Aramaic

an

verse

Jews

spoken

how

must

form

the

{"n")J"iwhich
|t

the

This

W.

which

Bereslth

at

H.
of

Uea

is
near

"

that

them
See

bclnjr
0(d

\^vh

at

band,

the

be

Prophet*
be only

Barn

and

loi"t, their

TMCamanf

by

belonged

meant

was

verse

to

the

dicate
in-

to

they could

have

tion.
refuta"artk
and

East- Aramaic

plaoe

StudanC

fact

from
that

The
remaining
Babylonla.2
East-Aramaic),
p^pWI (Syr. 'OKJI*
time

v., 8

xxxU,
not

miirht be olted

protected. Indeed*

not

Gen.

to

ihould

can

Daniel

in

(cf. Ezra

rabba

terminolon^
ITanl.

some

invariably '1

language

'0*^0

at

verse

xxxi.. 47). the

Oen.
Here

(Targum).

Kp*^K

the

into

Persian

Hq.).

portions

laUon

**

Talmudio

by Dr.

that

the

(here,

iv.,
"

ed

this

to whom

have

to

seems

also^'Q^nii QH?

Mldrasob

that

Law

Bsra

that

(almost

as

Babylonian
In the

intnided

perhaps was
forms, such

for

the

answer

"

is found

verdict

discovered

Chaldeans,
they
serious
to deserve
Chaldaic," is too trifiing an argument
only in
^
the usual
It is striking that, in this gloss, together with
KjnK
the

to

in

be

can

'"

aa

47. it aaoribed

for
the

to

evidence

and

the
of

for

orlrlnally

aupplled
Nov.,

1MB,

auipielon of

It la enumoratod

the

pp.
an

text
of

opinion

(Dan.

lU"i

*D^)0

for

Lewmmtnl,
In

Hebrew,

Aramaic

it In
tq^

'7.

follow^
and
Trana-

[T.]

90. 91.
ancient

by the

Um

honored

haa

entirely

corresponding

to the

NaebBUin

bar
Ood

Kethubhlm
the

wrttten

the

by

BUBuel
alnoe

error

x.. 11)

anolent

were

waa

elsewhere)'
correspond

and

llirhtiy eateemed,

(Jer.
an

in

Jewa

a suaptaiao
to
(naturally aooordlng

copylat-crror.

Hebraica.

114

to the

bekmSB

gloss

peculiarities. At
places, do
proper
Aramaic
of the
decomposition

their

in

mention
Daniel

the

(Renan,

hist

Tradition

Textual

Aramaic

Samaritans,

(i 6, 1), of

Hebrew

the
the

of

copyists, of

later

variations

superior

form

forgotten that

of
in

the

of

soretes, in certain
for the

which

be

may

Benan,

in

the

when

Tlie

mentioned,

of grammars

1860), Lpz.

ed.

II.,

p.

Schriften

80

sq.;

des

A.

X., 11), amoiiK

occurrence

Mu9eum

upon

Noeldeke,
Aramaic
"

For

Mand.

"^Op,
the

monument

from

by

the

Volck, in

Ocsch.

Oramm.,
t4) Bmake,

Hebraisms
of the

611

der
p.

beside
in the

Jued.

78.
the

The

change

of

of

of

Onlcelos,

tion,
tradition,
tradi-

this

of
of

the

Biblical

604

ins

earth,

Assyrian

bum

1862,
appears

Test.,

is

so

its

by

For

KDIK

sufficiently

191

sq."

unquestionable

Royal-palaces

149).

p.

hi.

der

Gesch.

Beuss,
A.

but

Chaldaica,

Porta

the

to
in

British

Mandaic,

by

guaranteed

cf.

the

incenfie.

which

cf. Geiger

p.

Sprachkunde"

f iir hebr.

sq. ;

ths

sound

in Steinsdmeider^s

Petermamt^s

the

Leipzig,

"MSp,to

Idiom,

in

Einleitung

from

Muenzen,

(cf.

grammatical

the

phenomena

prakt. Liter,

PRE^I,

names

Hebrew

Targum

South-Western

ten

brought

West-

pointing

Massoretic

is considered

survey

Strack,

of

form
the

criticism

mistakes

suspicious.

und

Herzog's
;

or

seven,

fra^ment^

is

Aramaic

Cf., further, the

four,

larg"

analogous

Biblical

iiber die theoret.

1859.

from

Mas-

conspicuously
made

the

critically fixed

the

withdraw

not

general,

for

Test., p.

the

(cf. Levy,

in

Aramaic

**bibliograph.Handbuch
to

least

at

text, by its deviation

literature

(up

from

by the
the

pronunciation

have

therefore,

Although,

220).

p.

proceed

nevertheless,

of West-

or

may

before

intended

another

to

must

certain

have

we

; because

influenced

have

time,

witnesses.

most

places, have

rarely, also, reference

Targums,

everywhere

the

Aramaic,

the

form,

to

doing, it

and

that

impossible

sometimes

and

the

so

texts

the

text ; in other

same

Not

from

work

must

it must,

the

demonstrated.

acquired

exposition

Jer.

of

is

substituted

reason,

consonant

the

by

in the vocalization

Aramaic,

without

have,

cases,

In

security

pronunciation,

asserted

first

other

and

it.

upon

assumption

This

of

it necessary

for

relatively oldest
offers

wise

no

less

no

Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah

manuscript

assertions

in

suffered

finds

to

and

Aramaic,

multitude

of

placed

be

of

has

Hahn

of

edition

best

strong

traces

might

recently checked,

is only the

and

writing
Ezra.

demanded

one

wavered

of

of

his

the

our

tradition, and

and

Daniel

in

of

this text

even

Mass"retic

all particulars

authors

based

everywhere

such

edition

the

by

bears

text

; until

very

was

fixed

basis

the

on

however

stereotype

iS. Baer

which

1882)

have

we

he

never

e.

as,

text

(Lpz., Tauchnitz,
Hence,

g., the

The

above

influenced

ignorant

were

and

strongly

mentioned

Hebraisms

the

some

Hebrew.

the

prevailing confusion

The

present.
by the

arisen

has

of

whom

printed editions,

the

in

corruption

us.

Biblical

it to

adjusted

designedly

also

Aramaic

great part

account

some

only,

influence

the

Jews
less

or

largely

latter

(the

more

distinction

the

sense,

Aramaic

Christian

and

Jewish

this

from

proceeding

content,

things, originally

of

nature

;i and, in

Hebrew

of

Aramaic.

religious

is justified. Similarly, the

Greek)

further

Treatment

Grammatical

and

the

in

all,

the

by

of

texts,

are

influenced

much

already advanced

has

Biblical
The

are

g^n^rale, p. 219).

The

18.

copyist.

Hebrew

close, if it

the

at

added

more
distinguished
by lexical,
will
the few
we
differences, which
all events,
in
of
that
the
book
the
verdict,
not
justify

fnaminatical

than

by

Ezra

and

Daniel

in

added

been

have

all, must

at

sections

Anmaic

The

H^X

word

clearly Hebrew

The

idiom.

West-Anunaic

is
in

commonly

ZDMG,

regarded

xviii., 653

sq.

as

the

most

uine
gen-

Hebraica.

He

(Lines 1"9

%n^N
nn

noDS

yc

ti?'^ |Vn(*)no^i

h.

Nnpiv

DJn

in]

|oi

no'c^

lo.

jn^ Djn

'n'?N jrnhid

N!:^n

N*m

the

10.

DJrTof

12.

and

his seed

in

13.

who

injures

this?

remove

15.

of

16.

the

may

him

and

17.

18.

from

19.

of

20.

twenty-one

21.

the

the

22

and

22.

fo
pD

DtC^i

23.

of

son

Petosiri,
And

of D^Jl-

image

man

gods of Teima

the
his

and

is the

the

to

surface

the

from

name

duty which
of

image
and

date-palms
by

year.

no

profit from

the

to

his

year

....

shall derive

of

the

....

DJIH:
the

from

date-palms, altogether

ten

21.

field ten

king

of

seed

this

...

20.

may

his

image of
the gods of Teima

"

t^'?

image

house

the

And

19.

iz

is.

gods

(?) the

protect

Teima!

11.

14.

n.

D'?VD *jn^ n^

this is suggested the translation

Teima

^n'?N

n:["r]

nrtr

But

15.

nj;nr]'?i fr^n

HDC^i

For

ND^n

f'^pn
K'?pnp
ppl ND'7D n

III m

nD

13.

ND^n

n^c^D
|n'?Ni

noDD

'^nn* n

NHi

D'?^

*?D

ppn
tri^i

entirely.)

almost

gone

are

seed

and

And

treasure

date-palms

gods
of

image

his

of

and

men

of Petosiri.

^ttJ^, son

name

To

the left hand, above, is a sceptre-bearingimage, which


Euting describes a"
this
ing
is a priest offerportrait of king in pure
Below
Assyrian costume."

"the
at

alter,underneath

an

which

is written

K1DD

Dtt^

0*7^, "Image

of "^Wr

the priest."
The
to

language of

the

whole

is

Aramaean,

the oldest type, resembling those

of Abydos.

Aagyrian

the wide-spread
Noeldeke

supremacy,

11.

XXXVI.,
atone

For

itself is

The

on

the way

In the possession of
roll which
town

claims

Meyandop

synagogue

roll.

was

to

Oroomiah

bought it. From

saw

and

was

contract

in New

as

York
the

the

and

him

tables

the

and

in the

lion

of the

time

Kgs. xviii., 26, and


Egyptian Pet-Osiri.
of

[is a fragment

last

said to belong

Is.

Kurdo-Persian
the

among

who

the

greater

missionary

part passed into the hands

of

The

synagogue

plunder

the
a

war

other

used

shoemaker,
entirely destroyed, however,
a

are

language,

compare

history.
by the Kurds,

Before

characters

Aramaean

Landauer

In

of it in his trade.

the

Babylonian

of the

purchased by
it

and

is explained
Germany.

gentleman

romantic

sacked

was

This

use

and

Petosiri

name

now

on

the

an

little
was

part
from

Armen-

Miscellaneous

student, who

ian

brought it to
St. Petersburg Museum.

to the

of book.

to end

There

margin.

length

the
ekal

Hatte

The

of the

fifteen

land

the

bit-hilani

but the larger part is said to have

part in this country


roll

his

Delitzsch

of

they call, I

and

Kassu, which

find

of Gen.

different

8, and

x.,

He

also

was

make,

inclined

work,

on

of the

more

Kossaean

between

the KaSSu

G. Pinches

Theo

and

?1J? p)

the

was

special

have

the

ending

names

with

the

KaSSu.

north-west.

in

Pinches,

"The

cuneiform

this particular

to

this

Such

holds

that

of

the

as

the

other

would

In Assyrian

C^^.
of Gen.

7, and

X.,

Paradies, DeliUsch

and

The

from

to prove,

the

Kaldu

or

(D**1C^D)examination

an

or

in

writing
points

the

the

from

came

Royal
Review

Andover

of such

the mountains

1500, B. C.

of

(his

KarduniaS

kings of

nine

Mr.

of Kossaean

the direction

in

isted
ex-

the Elamitcs.

of
linguisticconnection

The

were

Persian

linguisticconnection

no

Ka""u

C^D

KaSSu

of

west

KaSda

Babylonia about

still inclines

Hom-

mistake

the Ka""u.

that

know

the

and

view, in the Journal

Haupt,

little we

on

61, Prof. Friedrich

p.

the Sumerian-Accadians

the

He

a".

with

of their settlement.

Mr.

For

of Schrader

das

the north

to

attempts

by Berosus, he regards

dynasty, mentioned

(A

of the West-

x., 7 to be identical with

2, maintaining the

that

on

lag

and

known,

Prof.

seat

KiiSu

them

now

either

gained control

north-east, and

of

app"tS tamSil

language

for (^3.

Wo

In

peoples

words

Prof. Delitzsch

connection.

the

to think

seems

hand, he

Sumerian-Accadian.

(July), also

*'bit

being originallywritten

connect

Part

xvi.,

the

note

mistake

the

writes, in opposition

Society,Vol.

Asiatic

of

other

and

be old.

to

knowledge

u"epi"a me^rit bab^in."

of the view

l^J) of x., 8.

to

the

read:

32,

of which

seem

our

Ku-su, Ethiopian, the C'O

or

stratum

In the present

forty or

Kossdei;

both

similarlyconnecting
"

not
to

their doors.)

view, supposing 52^^)3of Gen.

Elamite-Sumerian

gulf.

der

his acceptance

(or

word

gone

xxix.,

also 1 Kgs. vi., 3.

Spradie

to

Ex.

six inches

It does

in

be built before

to

Ku-u-su

t^)^

which

temple,

ii., 13, x., 8, is

one

easy

is the

maintained

"

Die

lif)^in Gen.

inscriptionswe

the

caused
compare

latest work,

natural

bit hilani isassilSu

Hittite

practicallyannounces

mel, that the


a

of

manner

contains

inches, about

iytwenty

columns

aharre

mat

of architecture

form
In

are

lisan

"a ina

portico after

this country,

117

manuscript.
In his Keihchrifttexte Sargons, Dr. Lyon adds one
Hittite language. In the Stier-Inschri/t,
67-69, we

are

be

The

Notes.

Arabian

an

Kossaean, and, like KarduniaS,


to

connect^, the

Ka^a,

or

they

Chaldees,

hand, seeks the origin of the Ka^u

style of writing was

in

use

in

early times

in

in

Ca|"-

of Cush."
Thence,
to have borne the name
padocia, and the country around seems
in his opinion, the Accadian
including the KaSiu, emigrated to Babylonia.
race,
ably
On the ground of some
newly discovered texts. Prof. Delitssch also deals considerwith the difficult subject of early Babylonian chronology. In the May number

Proceedings of Biblical Archo'ology, Mr. Pinches also deals with the same
The two together leave the
discoveries.
recent
subject,on the ground of still more

of the

unsatisfactory condition.
Miss C. L. Wolfe, of New
York, an
By
main
The
Babylonia has at last been rendered possible.
in

matter

very

of
the liberality

to

is exploration. One

of

the

members

is the

Rev.

W.

American

object

expedition

of the

tion
expedi-

H. Ward, D. D.. "if the

Independnit.
Oeschichte
Israels, p. 118, Prof. Wellh"ui"fii
Prolegomena zur
ty.
festival,undoubtedly the Sabbath also reached back to a great antiquia lunar
this
significance.
peculiar
however,
the Israelites,
day acquired a quit""
Among

In
'As

his

^;^^^.

Hebraica.

118

by wbich

Originally the

i^ox^.

"rr*

rest

this compare
Sabbati:
Hisiorta

"11)

principiopertinuerunt 13) Sunt fortasse


principalis(Grundzahl)
yloniis numerus

modus,

book

on

W.

I.," published last

Nebuchadnezzar

tbe "Inscription of

"

18

is in archaic characters

the

transcriptioninto

given us a
transcriptionof

in the

is

Dr.

by

press

guages.
of lan-

an

edition

H.

Hilprecht

of

I."

Nebuchadnezzar's

characters.

Babylonian

later

common

quietis

It

original,the editors have, therefore,

to the

and, in addition

diem

families

plates

year

title "Freibrief

the

Inaugural-Dissertation under

"

its

Among

appeared.

part, has

I., vol. v., 2nd

A.

Babdierum

etc."

has

Hamitic

and

Japhetic, Semitic

the

relations between

the

Coptic scholar,

otii

sabbata

senum

subsequi

quem

de

sed

senarius

numerus

Babyloniis acceperunt,

well-known

the

of Dresden,

atri

cultum

Lunae

erat, quare

mensurarum

laboris
esse
laboris quasi planus videbatur
Sabbata
Israelitae
14)
esset.
coDsenUneum

Dr. Carl Abel,

quod

orta,

eo

ex

ad

12) Non

tristis.

minime

dies

erant

non

rest

With

Quaestiommi

Lotz's

in Dr.

up

[apud Babylonios]

of

day

festival,etc."

of the

consequence

summing

the

Sabbata

qoidem imperati, venim

a"Tere

only

was

following from

the

the

festivals; it became

all other

distinfruishedfrom

it was

transliteration

similar

translation, the
inscription,together with
published by
particularsfrom those of Dr. Hilprecht, were
latter differing in some
the Society
the
number
of
the
in
of
Proceedings
April
Messrs. Pinches and Budge,
and
Pinches
Budge, as well as Dr. Hilprecht,
of Biblical Archoeology. Messrs.
this

did the

Friedr. Delitzsch

of

middle

the

I. to

assigned Nebuchadnezzar

have

same

called synchronous history in II. R, 65, where


to

May,

we

ruled

king whose

should

12th

out

turn

history,the

of the

to

be Nabiikudiirusur

This

is important,

on

affected

king
B. C,

account

or

above

by

dated

the texts

Among
described

now

this stone

for May

there

will be found
XLIV.

kings/' of which
tSer (cf.pp. 20,

January,

change

1881.

The

use

Besides

this

mistake.

monarch

the

above

ed
mention-

(p. 15) conjectured


B.

century

Prof. Delitzsch

C.

of this

made
the

Nebuchadnezzar,

Simmas-sigu, whom

1146

synchronous

ascribes to

reasons.

to

Unless

the

reigned in the 10th

who

to.

1154

made

had

Prof. Delitzsch

ingenious

is

so-

seems

most

portant
im-

placed about

Delitzsch

1003"985.
in the

or

at

LX.

LXI.,

"stone

tablet

from

the

inscription of Nabu-bal-iddina."
photo-lithograph, with description and general

in Transactions, Vol.

further

contains

and

already

Society of Biblical

Sippara, containing an

appeared

Proceedings

of the

been

have

part of V. R., which

new

especially Plates

notice

of contents,

Plate

referred

published

temple of the Sun-god

summary

the

the

From

though

as

give his

which

name

discussed, in the Transacfifms

Archceology, we
Of

the

of

seem

Assyriologists

not

Ninipkudurusur,

was

conjecture in the work


1175

that

to show

seems

does

Babylon

transliterate.

to

Review, Prof. Haupt

Andover
B. C, but

1300

the

or

Prof.
the

Pinches, in the Proceedings for

failed

it would

kings,

Babylonian

ground
of

1175 onward.

from
has

Pinches

Nebuchadnezzar,

to be

list of

in question the date


list also

Mr.

name

July number

In the

filled up

century

on

of

of Tiglathpileser I.,king of Assyria.

In the list of Babylonian kings, published by Mr.


find the

the

C.

B.

century

Nebuchadnezzar

AssuresiSi, father

of

be the cotemporary

12th

the

in his Spracfie der Kossder,

and

notice

the "list of

Prof. Delitzsch

21),and which

was

VIII.,

of the

discussed

2, and

in

the

Proceedings

same.

of ancient

names

has made

Part

such

by

large
Mr.

use

Sumerian
in

the

and

Accadian

Sprache der Kos-

Pinches, in the Proceedings for

PiRKE

The

ABOTH

date 3800, B. C. (Sarpon of Akkad),


in the

texts

of IV.

fact

lies in the

manuscript,

that

than

critical editions

probably

it

rather

western

Syriac

and

was

it contains
The

2 Peter, 2 and

is the

written

Arabic

the manuscript

marginal

by

PIRKE

about

the

from

Rev.

Hebrew

[What

B.

Ph.

Pick,

Edition

is included

of

In

is

as

man.2

be

Moreover,

weighty

thou

Compute

Is

the
and

the

an

hearing

2.

Rabban

law

Rabbi

Freund

wul

is Rabbi

of

Mlshna,

our

der

MMina,

review

in

Schuerer's

Ps.

Dan.

Irat:
"

long

iv., 8:

xxxiv.,

[About
dynasty

"

Study:

ti r/f

18, 17;

[Comp.

sorlptus
210-n5
of
io

the
also

ha-na"U

Loipz.

l:ran"of ravra

of

in

IMS;

twofold

of

the

by transgression

used

1X81. No.

8.]

son

seoond

of

wilt avoid

A.

sin

menttonod
D.

On

him

Etltg$t%oam

AntonhnuaU
Jehuda

study^ of
causes

Simeon,

century,

Raiibt

with

The

occupation

AwtUw

Marau

respective

All-seeing eye,

an

of

book.*

8. Oelbhaus,
to

thee

from
as

performance

thou

the prince, said:

be

1880, only

by the

ha-^adosh,

Rabbenu

last quarter

honor

to the

things, and

is above

Judah,

Bodek,

due

gain acquired

three

for himself?

light precept

sustained

written

are

of

award

temporary
what

choose

gets him

HanoHuitddURt'

[Oomp.

preoautlon).

8tx"ok*t

'/.oyi^taifr,

iii., U8.
lit. 5: zlll.. 8: xx..

Rev.

D., Ho

house

; A.

HUratunettuna,

proferctur.
A.

give

Berlin, Germany.

of

should

the

pursuits ; the

in the

il.,63-M

Peter

of

translntor.l

man

damage

the

ha-naai, also

1876 (in fact

TheoUtg.

Kai

vii., 10.

Liber

Jehuda

estimate

of Rabbi

son

flourished

Jehuda

Vienna,

in

number

FATHERS.

Strack,

the

performance

Consider

worldly

Hec/io/iu

Ralthi

de*

dactUm

sPhil.

with

plainly

Krochmal.

Abr.

oomp.

well

Asia,
"

it is written

the like,"which

therein, and

Contemplate

all thy deeds

ear,^ and

THE

L.

by

that

way

temporal

reward, and

Gamaliel,^ the

accords

1.. 18. editor

the

for transgressions.

occasions

of

text

n.

the

not

in eternity.

by the damage

''Bodleian

D.,

H.

Prof

treads

about

canst

always

by its eternal

duty

who

him

careful

as

because

one,

precepts.

to

honorable

and

date

Further

has

Pa.

brackets

saith, AVhicli is the right

Rabbii

1.

but

of

chief

The

the

from

critical,and

OF

CHAPTER

such

coveries
dis-

linguisticscience."

Allegheny,

Translated

Jude.

with

comes

points,vowels,

or, SAYINGS

ABOTH;

It

be

to

and

agreement

Christian

trinitarian

It attempts

in

By

the

Assyrian.

little closer to the Greek

of Pococke."

notes

high value

It is also

text

Syrian hand."

3 John,

is in substantial

text

reported by Pococke.

as

where

of

from

in press.

now

D.

of writing is 1471, A.

All

quite, all from

in distinction

chieflyBabylonian,

are

the

to

discussed

and

LXIV.

if not

almost,

back

us

published

was

Plate

as

appears

carried

of

the

valuable

the

is

1882,

119

September 4th, Dr. I. H. Hall gives some


account
Independent
Its
Syriac MS., belonging to Mr. R. S. Williams, of Utica, N. Y.

In

value

FATHERS.

THE

portion of which

publication are

and

Rassam,

edition

new

this latest

of

of Mr.
A

for November,

ProceeJings

The

OF

Sippara, which

cj-linder from

Nabonidus

famous

SAYINGS

; OR,

wm

In quo
named

totum

Dathnuu

HiUol.]

Iv., 13a: vl., 6, e; different

12:

xxl.. n.

continctur,

v., il.

Unde

i. e., the

"

Oomp.
mundut

Last,"

ftlno the

word

In thedlM

Judloetur].

beoauie

he

terminated

the

IIebraica.

120

of

will become

of

meriti

they

purposes;

by

stand

make

be

I shall

will

not

bashfulii

the

engros8edi2 merchant
a

He

caused

become

to

others

Merit

"

Leipz.

Matt,

IJohn

maxims

In

not

of

have

is

sin, nor

can

there

not

no

fidence
con-

be

no

men,

saint

teacher

not,

say

leisure.

rustic^

until

; and

have

man

are

His

incomprehensible,

comprehensible
wilt

He

of

thy fellow-man

that

thou

that

will.

thy
; and

not

passionate

where

own,
account

on

;io

will

nor

strivei^ thou

to

of

Fliarisee

maxim

"it

party,

his

of

error

Is

Boclus.

denotes

the

saint]
It

Bashful,

""

nninO

Deut,

here:
also

XXX.,

13:

Eccbu.

huckster

will

i"

The

Comp.

Return

same

that

29:

be

floated

especially

Theologie,

280-286.

pp.

"

read:

we

Wilt

thou

have

the

favor

of

"

the

This,"

of

the

[Bean

Ewald

Pharisees

traditional

from

men

elevation

teacher

of

Stanley
"

remarks,

followed,

the

chain

house

the

of

protesting

best

again

strange

as

truth

would

ing
sayfor

have

spirits above

against

taken

(i.,16-2, 4a).

Ewald

quotes

is a

Pharisee

no

is

Hillel

the

ever

their

fundamental

before

thou

of

In

as

the

hast

Ezek.

examined;

vii.,27, though

knowledge

other

passages,

Hi., 10b.

think

e.

Observe

of

the

g.

v.,

the

special

in that

not

law, John
10, an

first, and

over

prominence

buke.]
re-

tion)
significa-

same

vii., 49: s

individual

then

oxM

which

ovrog

is meant

[comp.

is

attached

ethical.
with

ShdbbcUh,

Is ashamed

of

fol. 63, col. 1, towards

Is It

"A

1.,7:

Is
"

given
With

fol. 31, col.

D'Dl^a

beyond

In

the
1:

"

will

from
the

kS

the

end

[when

the

rustic

question.

[not

hardly

keep

Eruvtn
in

Is it found
himself

55,

the

col.

law
the

among
free

1, where
is not

from

it is said

found

merchants.

doing

on

among

[Comp.

wrong,

and

"

Berathoth,
ye

fol.

heaven],

sin."]

Aramaic

measure

What

the sea], neither

merchant
free

putting

xxvil., 15), comp.

said:

declared

maxim

Shabbath,

of

distingruished

not

Jochanan

[neither

Sola

who

hast

his neighborhood.

Rabbi

not

of those

end

thou

altaynagogalen palaesUnischen

1., 12-14), the

sentences

already occurring

the

he

xx"i.,

above

see

had

vl.. 5 traffic)cf. Ezek.

high-minded;

also

der

fathers]

11.,1, 28

of

contradiction
In

not

devoid

mass

above

seeming

live

Memor.

appreciation

plur. ^t-(Kn 'Dy

Intellectual

Only

""

expression
great

then

genUle),

Because

tendencies."]

vbfiov. Here,

ft^ytvitOKuvTbv
the

true

example

xl., 7: Blame

(an

^nicn Dj?

"

"

iv., Sb, vl., l, to profit by.

death."

which,

with

only

peculiar

own

[Comp.

"

the

^,) eyKaTaXetTrovTeg ktX.

not.

; one

adds,
the

not

water, said:

; and

System
of the

Inserted

x., 25

Separate

uttered

he

Yet,"

arisen.

floated

njn)

(others,

by the

Heb.

"

have

to

the

"i*

F. Weber,

the

will

community

word

of

the

nor

been

Xenoph.

6 4b-7

separate.

to

hast

(Nlphal

Interrupted

was

this

on

they do

gods."]

HUlel'B

EhS

is

not

floating on

'T [1.e., merit

11., 15, 17.

the

serve

skull

comp.

r"13K

xxl., 22.]

[Comp.

with

nOT

on

vii.,21.]

[Comp.

which

the

10;

Matt,

guds,

seen

profit; mn;

use,

[Comp.

"

to

but

thine

were

thy

judge

mayhap

; and

sage

the

; and

be fearful

they will be floated,

on

chap.

"

13

study

learned,

float,thou

that

nOI;

1880,

nwn

"

also

having

will be

thee

up,

forever.

them.

them,

account

on

eventually be

cannot

be

the

man.

6.

the

shall

boor

the

be

others

utter

it will

that

leisure, I

at

also said:

He

6.

Nullify

day of thy death

the

to

if it

as

Separate^ not thyself from

until

impression)

the

When

will.*

His

were

placed in his position ;8 and

art

(under

(God's) wilP

His

nullify the will of

said:

thyself

in

if it

will

patronize except for selfish

useful2

are

men

engaged

then

endure

performed

not

is

sake;

distress.

Make

as

may

Hillel"

46.

thou

He

that

will,* 80

will

thy

is in

he

to say

while

friends

as

when

God's

had

by business,

whoever

righteousness

their
if ye

as

be, for they do

that

powers

appear

man

lie used

4a,

you

of the

great reward

to

supported

And

for

act

to

and

support them,

ancestors

of sin.

cause

ought

congregation

the

I entitle

Beware

8.

may

of

their

for you,

As

will be the

effect, and

is not

that

study of the law,

all the

none

service

the

in

And

forgotten.

to be

mete,

Is hateful

fol. 63, col. 1.

it shall

to you,

do

be
not

measured
unto

unto

you,"

thy neighbor."

and

HiUel's

PlBK"

also

He

7.

cares

increases

his

increases

prudence

increases

gained

good

it

consider

not

has

He

as

used

good deed

; he

who

men-servants,
life ; he

increases

peace

has

who

if

counsel,

the

gained

has

man

words

of

life.
of

son

Zaccai,

If

to say:

thou

received
hast

thy part, since

on

if he

increases

law, increases

; he

who

increases

of the

wisdom

himself

eternal

the

he

witchcraft

justice, increases

it for

gained

Joclianan,2

Shammai.

and

Hillel

increases

for himself

gained

Rabban

8a.i

he

name,

law, he has

who

who

knowledge

121

worms;

increases

he

college, increases

in

he

wives,

his

increases

FATIIERS.

THE

flesh increases

lewdness;

increases

study

OF

increases

who

who

; he

robbery

increases

he

SAYINGS

OB,

who

maid-servants,

increases

the

He

said:

riches, increases

who

AbOTH

the

studied

thou

tradition
law

the

created

for

disciples, and

these

wast

from

much,

do

that

very

purpose.3
86.
Rabbi

Rabban

of

son

is

Hananya,
of

weigli

He

that

Continuation

same

Luke

Comp.

"

'ypKav6^.
the

In

Aooordlnir

1
"

evil

in
"

i"

the

of
v..

of
not

the

[the

eye

way

of

is the

pervaded

in

ever-

scale

one

would

Israel

of
out-

in

were

Eleazar, the

of

son

said

Rabbi

eye^

R"ibbi

from

borroweth

said

it is

payeth

who

not

tliem
his

Joshua

bad
said:
rower
bor-

said, The
If he

as

again

words

is the

Rabbi

Simeon

man,

and

to
as

which

consider

bad

He

said, A

said. One

words;

your

and

which

to

Joshua

Simeon

heart.'
to

borrows

good path

;" Rabbi

borrows
; but

the

of

by

Hto

Hillel

and

beoune

UO

okt

the

jrean

K. Airiba.

alreadjr

which

name,

A.

century
Matt.

[and
good,

to

In

ocours

the

second

B. C.

oentunr

D.

Matt,

oomp.

Thus

iouU
la often

prMenoo.

"

have

eye," thoee

good

of

Balaam

**a

bad

vi.. 22].

In

deatruotion.

comp.
the

2, he

fol. 31 ooU

ha-"hana,
to

ascertained.

yet

darkoMw;*'
mirror

this

darkneia.

[Literally, "place." which


to hot

neighbor;

disciples of Abraham

xxii.,

the

RoBh

to

second

10. the

Prov.

likes

one

the

an

Ix., 16.

1 Cor.

[1.e.. susceptible of every


which
leads
[1.c. the way

the

walk

to

also

Oomp.

10;

mcaninff

first half

"

forth

one

and

is the
eye

good

Go

wicked

ascribed

was

135-106) is

Hyrcanus,

"

according
which

xvii..
The

Arach,

bad

is

other, he
of

son

Simeon,

Arach,

sages

of

i., 15.

to

Mosaic"

"ye."

which

the

aire"

when

The

''

which

good

of

Eliezer

said, A
for

repay,

Hillel:

of

disciple

"(John

for

not

Rabbi

Jos6

R.

of

son

Joshua,

;
;

were

the

them,

Eleazar, the

all.

; A

said,
son

them

to

shun.

Rabbi

does

who

said

also

God,io for it is said

from

Eleazar

of

Israel

in

good neighbor

drop

son

of

with

consider
said

Eleazer, the

should

man

comrade;

bad

said,

the

If all the

name:

Rabbi

Rabbi

Hananya,

saint

they

are

Eliezer, the
a

priest, is

sages

them

and

not

Hyrcanos,

Hyrcanos,

Eliezer

Rabbi

He

yours.

forth

Jos6

of

of

outweigh

Rabbi

future

words

of

son

Go

all the

son

and
Rabbi

loses

tlie

of

son

Xathanael,

Eleazar,

said, in his

would

Rabbi

prefer the

way^

SauP

Abba

Jos6,

If

say

the

worth:

which

Rabbi

Eliezer, the

cleave.

perceives the

include

R.

to them

comrade

^ood

of

son

R.

five

Joshua,

their

and

to

used

Eliezer, the

said

should

man

sin

other, he

in the

Arach,
9.

He

all.

scale, and

one

the

estimated

parents

fears

and

them

his

are

spring.

balance,

Simeon,

had

Rabbi

well-plastered cistern,

Nathanael,

flowing
the

as

happy

of Zaccai,

son

Hyrkanos,*

thus

He

Arach.

Hyrkanos,

"on

of

son

priest. Rabbi

the

Jose,

the

Jochanan,
the

Eliezer,

Prov.

v., 8;

the

ii., 13:

Luke

"

who

alio

2 Peter

11.,!".]

oomp.

Matt.

vl.. 88.]

used

In Jewish

Phllo

ds mimn,

vi..

Scriptures

45.]

n;n

leave

the

p'y yjltamuM

meant

paths

**dariroee8,**

often
of

upriirhtooas

to hOMvtoua,

to

malloloaa.

It iiopUM"
Ood.b"omMtliMre
wrIUngafbr
6 ^t^ KoUlrm
rtffforr^ rt^ccp;r'(^
aayi:

IIebraica.

122

righteous showeth
said

to them

his words

be

companion
careful

serpent,
11.

thine

all their

Rabbi

Joshua

of

Jose

and

said

in

Rabbi

xxxvil.,

Ps.

Mark

Each

Comp.

MCullB

He

words,

your

as

of

thy

easily provoked,

and

the

pent
re-

fire of the

is

bite

Let

the

their

and

is the

burn

and

sages,

bite of

the

as

thought^

bad

the

eye,

in

thine

to

the

of

burn

be

jackal,

fiery

draw

misanthropy

and

be

it will

not

to

of

presence

God,

and

mercy,

be

is

repenteth

of

and

as-

to

Prayer ;i2

for mercy

pray

of

thee

God.io

the

and

merciful^

and

gracious

him

to

bequeathed

name

fixed,i3but

for he

dear

as

Shemaii

the

as
"

the

promote

reading

thy prayer

not

for

evil,"i* and

the

be

sight.

own

said

diligent to study the law, and

Be

is

epicurean,

an

of

thy companion

law,
be

deeds

thy

careful

in

of

the

study

to

Be

said

the

The

for

wages
is

day

for

also

consider

and

is to pay

who

Tarphoni^

15.

heart.2

honor

said

thyself by

property

the

let all

said

thy employer,i6

is

who

Arach,

not

be

thee, for their

bad

thyself

Eleazer

rejoin

mayest

Let

abundant

and

Rabbi

14.

to

fiery coals.

as

prayest consider

thou

impious

own

scorpion,

The

;^ and

Simeon

to anger,

not

of

; and

warm

burn

not

wordsare

supplicate for grace


slow

thine

as

sting

prepare

Rabbi

when

and

son

bad

world.^

the

own,

13.

does

said

by inheritance

thee

to thee

the

and

Rabbi

12.

of

Eliezer*

Rabbi

thy deatli, and^

sting like

out

man

the

Eleazer,

things

three

dear

as

their coal

that

their

and

said

before

day*

one

said

Eleazar

yours.

also

They3

10.

of

words

the

prefer

inchide

Rabbi

giveth."i

and

mercy

what

considei

whom

thou
and

workest,

thou

thy labor.

short,i8

vast,i9 but

labor

the

and

the

21.

vii., 21, 22.


them.

of

C. A.

R. Eliezer

R. Toetterman,

niugtrisgimos

ben

Hyrcanos

attraxtt.

ludaeorum

quondam

de

sive

vi

Christiana

doctrina

qtm

1877

Leipzig,

Theol.

(comp.

primis

Literaturzeitunff

1"77. ool. 687-689).


One

day,

"

The

There

II. ih

words

according

The

evil inclination
Draw

"

is also

of the

out

to

in

probably

called

teaching.
'

ly

refers

later

and

good

man,

Jewish

world,"

Hillel'*

Comp.

end.

coals"

flery
Inclinations

so,

can

"

do

"and
two

fol. 153, col. 1.

Shabbath,

die to-morrow,

may

you

the

toward

are

and

since

to-day,

i. e.

1. 14 and

words,

addition,
evil

an

Comp.

without

Weber,

addition,

IV., 21,

Theol.

esp.

evil,.

the

conquer

208 sq., 221

p.

sq.

1.

IV.,

physical life. Comp.

the

to

is to

good

Altsyn.

Aboth,

see

here. III., 10b and

The

Nathan.

Rabbi

Aboth

comp.

one.

Prov.

ziv., 30.
"

to

the

Deut.

Comp.
[Comp.

!"

The

recite

"

also

lit

Pick,

and
i"

Strong,
Btrachoth

Comp.

(in the

Shema

art.

eighteen

is not

Num.

in

the

37-41, and

xv.,

McClintock

and

bears

Strong's

Shemoneh

or

women,

children

It contains

the

(excepting

evening).
its

name

and

slaves)

first word

from

the

art.

Shemoneh

haa
of

sections

three

^*D12^.

Cyclop.]

Esreh.

Comp.

Pick,

Esreh

Clintock
Mc-

in

IV., 4, where

read

we

as

R. Bliezer's

"

word:

If

one

makes

his prayer

fixed,

supplications."

Joel

Freethinker,

i"

Ood,

*'

Tpin^uv, a contemporary

see

in

Israelite

and

1. c]

of Agiba.

morning

benedictions

U.,

male

grown-up

every

vl., 4-9, xi., 13-21;

Is the

his prayer

31.]

day

every

law, Deut.

[Comp.

x.,

which

prayer,

twice

4.

xxxiil.,

1 Cor.

18.
1. e., the

non-Israelltish

freethinker,

according

to

Sarihedrin,

fol. 39, col. 2.

f 16.

[Some

tjrr's Dialogue.

maintained

Comp.

Pick,

18

[Comp.

John

"

[Comp.

Ibid, iv., 36.J

ix., 4.]

of

that
art.

the
he

five

disciples

is the

Tarplwn

in

same

of

Jochanan,

Trypho,

McClintock

who
and

often
is

the

Strong's

mentioned

interlocutor

Cyclop.]

as

the
in

opponent

Justin

Mar-

Hebraica.

124

short

vowels

every

possibilityoflfered
of the

conjugations

full
and

in the

letters;

more

Imperfect

the

in

verb, and

quite

from

explained

be

not

the

are

the

has

Ethiopic

Arabic

in

is

structure

of

grammatical
its literature
of

by

any

of

its

syntactical features

said

Greek

"WTiile the

any

may

have

exhibits

grammar
of

structure

that

only

other

the

has

and

in

partly

and

yet

un-Semitic.

or

opic
Ethi-

the

syntax of

is contained

partly in the Arabic

languages,

because

languages,

unnatural
the

the

but

variety of the

and

incitement,

idea,

of what

development

the

ingly
exceed-

Greek

are

and

models

the

furnished

marked

veiy

Syriac syntax,

Semitic

the

branch,

probably

and

example

yet

as

developed

language,

of its sister

other

the
tains
con-

ings
mean-

surpassed

elegance

latter

syntax unequalled

be

it cannot

Greek

under

nourished

was

The

Ethiopic.

the

In

can

has

One

has

and

the

with

compared

single

and

Semitic

neighbor.

Hebrew

of

character

nothing

pliabilityof the Arabic

syntax.

latter

[North

Arabic

The

; in

from

indeed

of words

the

the

southern

its

is its

stereotyped

in

to

least

at

or

mass

where

cases

found

not

own,

peculiarities as

same

stiff and

the

fineness

its

great

four

of

voluntative

verbomm

copia

and

regular

peculiarities.

vocables,

the

yet

in many

and

Ethiopic language

of the

feature

basis, but

Semitic

as

same

apparent.
probably African

are

significations of

and

roots

of what

number

The

and

equally close

is

relation

the

lexicon

of

use

roots

pronouns

the

f ormatonis

and

and

grammatical

important

less

of other

number

twelve

plural

personal

two

and

of

frequency

of verb

subjunctive

of the

separating

the

large

sound

forms, making

number

collective

and

possibility of suffixing

the

in

broken

in

regular accusative;

the

verb

inner,

or

the

; in

triliteral

the

producing

thus

and

in

verbal

of

wealth

connection,

in this

emphatic

an

further,

palatals);

in the

of words,

end

Uie

at

developed

has

thereof

room

gutturals and

u-containhig

of

number

in the

but

in Aiabic,

ease

in

germ

in

the

North

the

Semitic.

yet the Ethiopic is by

And
the

fact that

the

most

that

only

short

numerous;

its
or

the

to left.

And

relation

to

that

Arabia

closer

Semitic
did

show
when

of

been

the
in

in the

that

it became

which

or

the

Ethiopic

the

literary language.

language

its proper

character

and

All

development,

branch

these
as

of

the

and

it has

features

opia
Ethi-

of

the

was

its

nearer

of

rather, indicate

or,

one

original

class

and

which

but

developed,

Still another

decay had

right

from

lexicon, point

and

also

still

languages

nearer

of the

no

reads

inscriptions

language

grammar

dropped.
of

being

varied

whatever

but

features

process

in

and

as

method

the

languages,

some

position

older

Arabia,
in

Semitic

rate

that

unknown

northern

at any

not

are

original

an

Middle

developed

abundant,

the

show

facts, both

North

for

entered

against the Arabic, which

over

and

other

the

and

develop,

to

those

as

alphabet is syllabic and

development,

seem

same

Ethiopic language
so

and
used

existence

nearly all peculiar;

; its

pointing to

thus

facts

the

formations

are

comparatively

of

with

tongue

not

later

Northern

number

adjective

position

the

to

connection

Arabic

giving

is

of

Ethiopic retained

undivided
the

number

least

at

have

may

the

this

not

are

genitive

no

independent

an

tongue

Southern

early period

the

conjunctions

forms, and

(iovoTpoprjddvstyle, and
while

not

vowels

in

objects

common

Already

of the Arabic.

dialect

Ethiopic

in

and

and

prepositions

occupied
classical

Its

own.

; its nominal

elative

most

are

comparatively
its

right, although

left to

showing

of

vowels

diminutive
from

at

development

upon
its

acts

frequently occurring

Arabic, shows

merely

means

for the

words

of the

many

no

of

liarities
pecu-

already commenced

combined

branch,

but

Semitic

family.

one

will

marked

aid

in

viduality
by indi-

Contributed

The

Originally it
Ethiopia;
of

spread
of

The

which

to

With

belonged.
of

the

Luther's

Bible

Ethiopic

literature

fact that

the

Amharic

and

the

even

be

to

the

these

and

translation
rather

obtinent
sunt

the

soon

be

should

viz., the

Ruth)

Testament

version

P. Piatt

books

were

originals have
of

numl"er

been

appeared
German

new

at

Rome

for the

About

the

are

lost, and
of

translation.

In
of

doubt

the
with

chief

Old
of

extensive

In

spirit

to

vague

are

have

Testament
Is the

has

in

or

of

published
is

thus

Uie

and
the

been

not

Judges
The

in

New

1880

of

"ano!i

lH)okH.

which

tlie

than

the

original

texts.

greater
the

can

luimber

of Biblical

Th.

c"f these

after,

works

have

ence,
Sci-

Tesfa-Zion,

neither
soon

Ideas

one,

Dillmann

1853

Joshua,

been

enigmatical

Introduction

Enoch

but

the

Testament

of old

understanding

or

these

from

canonically received

translations

has

Dillmann

in 1882.
Allied

the

case

influence

pi*ophet Joel.

Bible,

con-

genus

reliable

fair and

Pentateuch,

the

among

locum

or

by the Abyssinian

the

l*rolego-

made

and

Society

to

determining
the

translation

Testament

the

ture
litera-

fundamentum

importance

Old

translations

these

in this

aiding

owing
found

sometimes
of

with

time

the

Ethiopic

in the

Polyglot Bible, and

Bible

British

same

been

all the

to

Psalms,

1548

as

to the

scribendique

of the

great London

translated, which,

translation,
Andover

early

as

into the

Pseudepographi
Without

church.

of which

in

Bible

have

partly from

form

questions

lately also

people,

of the

scholars,

the

(i. e. the

Octateuchus

Kings, and

large number

literary value

mere

the

edition

Ethiopians

Fortunately

an

critical.

the

among

received

was

issued

of other

and

published

was

be called

of the

the

literature) primum

Ethiopia, is

the

published

versions

Abyssinianim

yet the whole

As

Ludolph

of

little of it, it continues

and

This

vexed

is

day, although

present

assigned

dicendi

of

of the

one

convey
such

as

chronological grounds, but

overestimate

nowise

LXX.

the
Job

literarum

Christianization

settling

edition
of

and

of

1701

critical

the
in

text

In

published.

in

and

of

from

proved

language

or

character

suum

beginnings
is

as

of translations

chiefly on

literary life of Ethiopia.

after
heard

quse

words

for the

Septuagint

omnium

many
Ger-

place through

of this literature

(i.e. Ethiopic

reliqui scriptores

quam

version

greatest of Ethiopic
ea

member,

sacra.

position here
or

gave

Inter

says,

the

literature

The

the
""

lingua

tory.
his-

of the

In the

mouths

but

characteristics

this translation

These

and

which

stands

only

not

Dillmann,

the

as

chief

Arabic.

iEthiopica,
et

of this version

and

that

Lexicon,

norma,

Bible

fact

formavenint."

issued

Church

two

is based

Biblia

et

the

to the

people understand

the

partly from

his

to

of

the

came
be-

in

also.

took

it in the

supplanted

Ethiopic literature

words

followed.

that
mena

educated

of the
the

on

have

And

sort.

capital

observed

pre-Christian days
of

of

district

was

spread

influences,

to

free.

part

the

the

alphabet and

yet the literature

it is *car' t^'ov'/*'churchly, and

expressed"
Greek

and

it

the

back

of

Mohammed

Christian

to

ecclesiastical

dialects

services
of

head

with

and

heathenish,
and

priests

ascribed

inscriptions date

other

in the

used

At

old

Christian

be

Uxum,

often

transformation

Although

the

originally the dialect

was

religion

similar

of

northern

at

phenomenon

new

writings.

cannot

decidedly

entirely of
and

other

these

sentiments

the

and

is

family, of which
the

period

language

in the

established

was

of literature

of

conquests

reformation

the

and

the

district

country, the language

This

Kuraisch

125

Ge?","

Tigre,

of the

rest

Koran

the

lezana

government

country.

of the

Arabic

Kinana,

the

in

spoken

the

over

''

tongue

powerful

language

their

language

when

"ind

the

the

was

but

Tigre,

tribe

call

Ethiopians

Notes.

pre8er"e"l

Book

notes,

by the

Ethiopic

haggadlsUc

of

text

to

Knocli,
writer

and

production

IIebraica.

126

Kufale,

the

called

which

ytvtcti, in

of
and

kind, well

early middle
Christian

of Adam,

contest
Malan.

The

has

been

of which

present writer

the

chiefly from

extant

are

Chrysostom

; a

confessions

of

and
as

one

be

can

The

works

two

or

almanac

Ethiopic

the

service

of

the

all that

the

have

been

for readers

The

but

work

of

tnie

that

scholar

for

day
the

but

have

person
A.

had

we

author

are

into

the

Commentarius

shade.

jEthiopica offer
for work.
of

the

of

They

Schrader,

careful

treatise
"De

Stade,

now

Grammar,
made

all the

are

the

fruit

known

wrote
some

in

Giessen

dissertation

contributions

will repay

Conatis
the

the

to the

to

the

of

pluraliteral

Ethiopic

new

stems

lexicon

in

vast

in

his

all this

well

material
basis

solid

the

also

aids

Semitic

and

the

and

threw

upon

Other

is

Clirestomathia

student

Linguis Comparatae
author

It

enthusiastic

that

and

written
other

understands

nearly all the

work

advanced

study.

enough

of this literature.

^thiopica

Dillmann's

scholar, has

Ethiopic

and
on

of

Histone

JEthiopic Latiymm
also the

is

even

pupil of Ewald.

ripe scholarship, written


and

of the
Cum

but

course

not

only

who

one

lexicon

and

^thiop.;

Assyrian

relation

Linguae ^thiopicae
Professor

of

Berlin,

valuable

very

Lexicon

philology,

well

the

on

in Hist,

Orammatik,

Semitic

of

tion
transla-

Of

scope

this

And

not.

grammar

the

only the beginner, but

not

comparative

hand.

has

Ilis

does

Dillmann,

and

good for any

very

who

laudations

1882.

furnish

to

in

stood

Ethiopic works,

character

saint.

every

biographical

English

January

endeavored
to the

as

in

.^thiopice
of

in extenso.

and

prayers

literature,

it has

found, but

be

list of

complete

judgment

accompanying

to

is

from

individuals;

of this saints'

Sacra

Bibliotheca

like

Professor

his

Ludolf

also

Specilegium

studying Ethiopic

man,

before

Job

in the

published,

poor

very

single

of

kind

anything

to form

facilities for

German,

Poetry

few

Pachominy

of

biography

consisting chiefly of antiphones,


A

writer

here

and

day,

of

described

being

translation

German

the

London,
Some

ascetic

The

saints

ly,
Quarter-

in

prominent

of

Book

translations

Kules

medicine.

and

for every

saint

Synaxarium.

saints.

given

not

material

large, the lives

of

has

Church,

given by

was

have

we

the

of the

and

Mary

law

and

whole

as

recently published

calendar, called
of

Church

Luthern

Liturgies.

the

called

by
tle
lit-

but

Baptismal

in the

the

English

1867, published

exegesis, mostly

as

commands

philosophy,

on

is very

expected,

Wiistenfeld

of the

faith, both

and

Ethiopic Prayers and

of

Monastic

of

is

issued
into

and

text

Ethiopic

Ethiopic

the

translation

1864

subjects, such

other

on

made
in

Rodwell,

collection

illustrate

and

translated

and

published

1878

large collection

the

the

in

literature

teach

this kind

of

by

is the

work

peculiar

to

Isaiae

published

liturgical work, of which, however,

after

soon

and

Pa.;

MSS.,

in

Ascensio

was

edited
w^ork

by Trumpp,

in

Trumpp

are

latest

The

1877.

rich

the

used

Hommel

of this

Ethiopic

is also

translated.

Gettysburg,
works

in

edited

literature

of nature

objects

in

are

former

Christian

of

works

Other

most

1820.

class

strange

morality, and

and

translation

German

of

the

in which

ages,

doctrine

in

by Piatt

of the latter

of the

text

lished
pub-

Goettinger

the

made.

been

yet

as

patristic citations,

Ethiopic

The

representative

Phjftiologus, the

has

of

Dillmann

in

translation

German

the

through

known

1876, and

in

Dilhnann

and

English translation

no

Apocal"T)se of Ezra.

the

made

texts

but

Anuiger,

this

1859

Ethiopic

the
OdArier

with

in

stories.

of rabbinical

all kinds

filled out

leizTfj

ch

scheme

the

under

reproduced

are

Genesis,

Smaller

the

also

or

Genesis

of

contents

the

periods, and

JubUee

of Jubilees,

Book

the

or

at

are

digested

and

tongues,

Indole

Universae;^^
Hebrew

excellent

Ethiopic

titled
en-

; Hommel

Physiologus

and

his

Contributed

Namen

Ldngethieres heiden

der

in this direction

of

the

Hebrew

new

the

on

similar

it is

work.
that

apparent

that

regretted

based

From

find

plenty of

inclination

to

of

and

also

two

is

by

no

devote

It is

from
in

Old

the

Aramaic

in

the

as

Scotch

dialect
of

So

dialect
in

find

is

{I have

has

would
dialects
is

Aramaic

and

of

the

at

to do

branches

of
well

as

Macaulay,

lie
the

as

that

expect
time

of

so,

The

various

literature

same

English

be

the

one

niles

Northumberland

would

in

result

our

misleading.

the

verb

('o"")i while

KOH

by the

designated

plural of masculine

'iQ,

noun

in

ends

nouns

In

T*)?''^{men).

in

others

*_,

the

some

n*|lp{"and

comp.

thus

recorded

there

in

in others

"__, in others

the

Sing. Perf. of the

1 p.

"'lOK

i^ ''"^'* said), iVVtl


to be

of differences

hundreds

are

example

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with

has

i^ne)

the

drink,

to

been

of Southeni
the

valley and

(tenesareth

and

the

Westeni

or

found.

thou

Aramaic

Is

of

how

still

Aramaic
tlie shores

on

more

spoken
of

the

or

quoted

tO'H

prevailing In the

were

Eastern

spoken

foolish

(cIohAyv)

Eliezer

Instead

Palestine,

the

Thou

thyself with,

Rabbi

xxiv..

rice

asked.

he

a^lOn

mean

the

anecdotes

there

him.

clothe

they say H^^V

of Northern

between

Judea, and

of
and

age,

several

find

they answered

differences

dialect

the

Talmudic

we

^OJ^ {toool)to

Galilee

lexical

difference

And

Ilabba, chap,

in

and

to

come

thy "IQJ^ ? Dost

with

that

grammatical

inhabitants

Euphrates

remark

IQl^

an

(a lamb) to kill it? In Genesis


made

the

diffculty in
had

Judea

in

even

53^, for instance,

Galilean

desire

thou

IQn

that

proving

understood

was

dost

what

have

On

^"^

1!2i^ '^ ^^ho

pent). If such
must

and

the

us

attempt

Any

IJabyl. Erubhin

For

upon,

having

of the

n^-H

are

Galilee

an

Galilean,

"tO^N

the

seen). And

Talmud

this.

showing

ride

in the

other

some

others

some

general.

Ezra,

reasonably

the

English,

water

some,

some

in

enough

In

Who

com.

rV_",

neighboring
versa.

In

of

now

give

Aramaic

the

in

Chaucer

we

should

another,

in

and

presented

as
as

-:

Fiicts

as

of

some

I^

t*_,
in

ends

*xrn

as

with

of

Could

language

S.

considerably, grammatically

very

writings

Wales.

Aramaic

and

place the^remains
the

Aramaic

pretend,

in Daniel

Midrashic

this

ending

H.

be

to

to

special commendation

the

nor

the

for

-:

X^D*

^^

"

in

of

that

only J^tH is used.

verb

in the

as

English

one

we

^"y r*0'

to

and

of

preserved

literature, differ

and

and

Talmuds,

to

intend,

grammar

them

modern

confounding

"

himself

neither

old
English and
English of Sussex
County ?

the

others

write

asunder

the

did

deserves

work

restricted

he

have

we

This

"

has

that

to

time

widely

governing

as

two

In

almost

grammar

and

Jewish

ancient

and

author

done,

dialects,

lexically.

as

the

have

Targums,
the

(iraminar.

Testament,

Iiim

before

that

only

attention

more

G.

Aramaic

tlie fact

others

ive,
exhaust-

disposal of scholars

interesting subject.

Kaut2sch's

ies
stud-

and

means

Ethiopic language.
to

thing
some-

series of

Ethiopic language,
at the

time

done

Konig, the author

published

course

material
the

has

Ethiopic;

has

of the

last, which

literary study of

the

few

so

is

forms

Trumpp

Qimhi,

on

and

this

there

Volkem

127

contributions

pronunciation

critical and

the

both

Suedsemit.

various

grammar

alphabet,

done

have

in his

Notes.

i^f^-

speech
marked
in

the

lake

page

still spoken

16 of his grammar.

in three

villages on

Prof.
the

Kautzsch
eastern

gives

specimen

slope of the

AntI-

of

the

Lebanon

Aramaic
mount-

of

IIebraica.

128

If

ain.

of

the

form

for the

y^,

left the

has

Targum
indexes,"

an

says

the

to

has

been

carried

to twelve

of

two

years,

it

making

Arabic,

aids

by which

Iiaradigms and

they

of simple sentences
of the

most

then

took

much

in

former

students

young

time, there
four

were

of the
The

very

Every

early

are

more

Hebrew

take

Arabic

The

University
to

long

an

is not
offered

before

and

to

about

and
in

vice

the

one

to

The

course.

their

charge

they

tion
transla-

knowledge

The

way.

students

omitting

for

with

commentary

laying before

of

while;

in

but

short

There

translate.

not

mathy
Chresto-

of the

thirds

two

expediency

could

the

by

versa.

same

in

of dictation,

means

Muallakat,

hard,

very

books

different

Chrestomathy,

least

the

students

text.

is the

Koran,

important

most

It

They

will

is

find

not

with

were

Beidhawis'

with

Suras

pointed.

commentary

of

course

encyclopedic

chair

lectures
than

has

Semitic
has

been

is given

commentary

best

it,by

philological

the

on

accustom

to
any

means,

so

College.

instruction
not

yet any

languages.
established.

Nearly
in

Semitic

languages.

nature.

University of Cincinnati,
Union

received

of Cincinnati
the

in the

Hebrew

already

the

The

the

unpointed

taught

teaching
such

is

years

think.

by the

have

five

or

followed

was

Arnold's

by

was

that

is given

to

year
of

this

and

and

It

text.

English

doubt

passages

translated,

other

By

the

few

that

difficult lis they would

These

the

succeeded

diflicult.

curriculum,

under

with

At

so

four

those

The

years.

catalogue,

post-graduate

urge

imparted

was

some

was

the

instructor

unnecessary.

(Fleischer's edition).

very

into

Grammar

was

in

five
their

read.

last lKK"k

selected,

students

Syntax

There

Muallakat

Commentary
are

acquired,

of

it

text

read

being

and

read,

were

to

Arabic

as

(Arnold's edition).

taught

Arabic

Wright's

up

the

the

were

of

possible.

as

by

were

and

of Arabic

study

than

more

given

in

supplied

from

rules

common

long

as

were

Onkelos

the

Felsenthal.

The

down

strongly

the

at least

student.

part

have

branch

College

Union

vocabulary

students

secondary

or

students

first the

Arabic,

main

study thereof

in the

to engage

many

as

laid

as

course,

instances

Hebrew

of the

authorities

At

in

but

The

thirteen.

or

for

it

taken

to

by notes, introduction,
of every

of Cincinnati

have

that

students

of

the

good

and

edition

University of Cincinnati."

the

University

in the

on

of

number

whole
amounts

in

of Arabic

Study

salem
Jeru-

forth.

so

groundless,

B.

The

HV

say

lacking

consonant-text

excellent

demands

will satisfy the

which

still

are

happily become

now

Berliner's

A.

we

are

[to speak)

I^J^

and
llt^h,

form
that

(Berlin, 1884), accompanied

press

edition

has

"^"s) they
(^'^

for

appears,

shortened

regard

in

both

months,

few

Kautzsch

complaint

This

within

For

book.

Targum,

the

thereof.

vocaliziition

1ty*?Nthe
Prof.

letters

literature, especially in the

form

(""")the

px

noun

proper

of

critical edition

in part.

for

3 of his

I 6, No.

In

we

where

Talmud,

acteristics
char-

Syrians

radical

even

for JllH

X^^H,

say

hundred

few

dialect

Aramaic

old

find in the

of

moutlis

that

in

that

say

{brother)they

XJIPTN

peculiarity

same

as

the

be justified in determining

would

we

still living in the

might

we

For

"rft6n dropped.
The

Aramaic

present day,

the

of

specimen

this short

from

Hebrew,

professor

on

all of

that

It will, without

of the

account
the

students

Chaldee

and

devotes

his

doubt,

not

vantages
ad-

that

Syriac.
time

be

clusively
ex-

very

Contributed

One

great hindrance

be

even

the

added,
that

grammar

is furnished
of tliese

to the
of

lack
in

gives,

by fiftyLatin,

Hebrews

Babylonians.

The

in the

explained
this

word

usual

passed

writer, is,of course,

in the

pj;

"garden,"

in

but

non-Semitic,
these
the

Semitic

see,

of

the

of

acceptance
Accadian."

first

4.

name.

It

Assyrian, but
e.

g.,

the

not

plantetl

Del.), t.

older

this

as

".,

wonl

be

to

(Assurb.
less

no

of

acceptance

by I-di-ig-lat, i.
the

to

Hebrew

not

of

for

its

far

as

Smith,

also

which,

As

the

Persian

certainly became

Urimizda

or
as

the

Uramasda,
same

probably

out

of

H.

F.

the

in Dan.

also

to

as

from

one

of

holds

the

form

(II. lUiwl.

these

the

represent
In

the

proposed,

Tigris

Assyrian

corresponds

the

language

Samaritau
to anotlier,

in the

inscription

Aburmaida*
of

UrimiEda'

good

in

(Di-lg-lat).

1. 3.3

liabylonian
also

also

only the

present
text

Ahuramasd",
the

The

satisfactor"'by the

joins itself with

and

we

as

188).

coming

syllables a,i,u.

form

in

"ganlen,"

It is found

known

the

as
a

because

prefixed \}i, whicli we


finally,in the Persian form

syllabaries. One

84, and

as

word

with

; these

texts

e.,

in

passed

probable,

Tigris,occurring

nor,

in tmnsfer
h(i) t" \}{i),

infrequent.

inscription), and

the

Arabic,

pnmunciation,

Naksch-i-RuHtani,
with

of

sjwcifically Hebraic.

Beh.

the

regarded
word

replaceil kar,

gin

least, made

complete
in

which

foreign

this

word

(l. c.) inscription, Babyl.


more

for

Assyrian

Ethiopic, is

pronunciation

in the usual

in such

regards its meaning

as

opinion, e"iually

the

the

ha,hi,hu,=Hidiglat,

also

is, in general,

13ehistun

in

as

name

in

word,
Hebrew

the

Jahveh

possibility that

gun,

by

is the

nor

ideograph

hardening

(together

the

all events,

the

syllabary

happens

whether

Asurbanipal

say

than

known,

in the

The
*:"p-|n-

of

of

Behistun

the

it,however,

nearly

is

is, however,

(BAR.TIK.KAR)

very

time

Hebrew

Aramaic,

not, however,

60, 7) explains

represent

kar;

origin

14), the

as

in the

meet

been

is also, to

II.,

Noteworthy,

'Diglat,"

the

in

our

at

tlie

,Sc/i"ader 'a KAT.^

neither
the

in

word

and,

c-jTlJIfy

u,

.Vssyr. ginu (gi-nu-u),


clear through
Assyrian, made

the

The

is, in

proper

its Semitic

(Gen.
*?p'in

meet

Accadian

is

"*.

they probably connected

ideogi-aph

[Sayce, Haupt,
ours.

"plain,"

by

often

as

undecided

remain

in

have

to

seems

the

must

used

as

the

15, 217) by

languages, also

135) the

for

etymology

It

the

ASK,

pi.
flj;,

{uralte^),non-Semitic

explained,

this, it is, for

"Park"

as

is

gan,

of

this "field"

The

with

312) by i-di-n

which

""In

eitlier

pursue

Steppe,"

left column

Hebrews,
and

man.

and

from

Semitic

into

PD.

Accadian,

now

We

kar

Sumero-Accadian

languages,

(vid. F. Del.

of

the

placed

read

all the

the

"joy," "pleasure.

he

field,"

old

as

Sproull.

do

to

"

the

an

etymology,

own

^pn^ "field."

i. e.,

is found

X.,

their

and, aside

ga-na,

to

field," plain ") from

(Del.). Eden,

which

name,

in

was

Semitic

''

one

**

18, No.

ASK,

it

syllabaries (vid. III., R, 70, 96;

from

wishing

"

is not

insight into Arabic

an

those

for

time,

that

the

proper

which

"garden,"

the

into

meaning

conception

in

There

cost.

any

(meaning

ideograph

same

supposed

in

the

at

interpreted after

ik-lu,

books, and, it might

originally nothmg

word

the

Assyrian

appears,

over

later

Accad.

at

to

of

cost

form, such

grammars

syllabaries (vid. Haupt,

which

the

is the

books

clear

pj^) had

received

be

with

and

Greek

or

(Heb.

(as i-di-in), it may

cases,

right

of

W.

DO'ij^-'^^

as

kind

129

languages.

fU^^-fJ.""Eden"

and

the

study of Arabic

succinct

Notes.

in

the

the

Aasyrian

Hebbaica.

180

itself

the

in

*7p1(n)is

Aramaic
that

and

in the

Persian

while,

in

Tigra, and

the

hard, emphatic

exist

is

(a,t) in

ending

Cf. the

and

latter

(the

in

reflected

as

aLL^4",

Arabic

nunciation
pro-

that, in Assyrian,
and

Babylonian

still

ciations,
pronun-

and

Assyrian

in

that,

rejection of

fern.

the
the

other

constantly retained

have

"nnti^y?r^^^i^H^^i

ilDHl^^]^-Schrader^s

Hebrew-Canaanitic

the

the

Assy rian-IIimjaritic-Aramaic

the

in

the

and

is the

notice
while

Aramaic;

in

Babylonian,

the

Assyrian

of

Worthy

known

above, including the Neo-Persian,

reverse

with

contrast

j| in
the

between

known.

Hebrew

the

mentioned

languages
it.

well

less

no

it is also

cases

weak

ig 1

;;. -Prob-

specifically Assynan

the

Aramaic,

other

to

corresponds

respects, differences

other

In

with

pronunciation,

present day

the

to

(cf. i^^h

precedence.

received

and

'^pTin)"

original

an

t, especially D

Assyrian

still earlier form

Babylonian

weaker

retained

as

and

Hebrew

I d ig 1

the

to

back

goes

that

thus,

inscription) was

Behistun

the

with

from

pronunciation

in

only hardened

stands

matter

so

"Hamath,'

this

that

probable

also

it is

Amattu

and

Hamattu

names

"Amid,"

pronunciation

the

ably the

foreign

the

Amidi

and

Ha-midi

of

case

^^

KAT.^

"

E.

F.

^EDITOI(I^IiM?OTES.-^
The
to devote

is

it,little can

to

mistaken

devoted

to the

study

it for granted
there

is

Shall

exclusively
a

that

Or, perhaps the statement


existed," and,
to the

arduous

largely removed.
which
for

have

the

been

ogist"
of

the

will enable
he

The

be
such

men

him
will

to

know

adoption
one

be

think

we

has

the

of

would

seemed

minor

the
that
when
it

it

and

was

decided

it will

all the

exaggerated.

been

which

The

get

rapidly
the

now

those

nitely
quite defiin

eminent

an

to

are

with

been

helpful step

encourage

of

thanks

greatest difficulty

it has

advance

Assyriolknowledge

some

then, gradually

signification

ally
origin-

Oppert, Sayce,

by

first

more

department,

profitably study ?

but, compared

and

one

to take

we

insuperable,"

that

texts, and
:

now

expedient,

was

Assyrian,
are

difficulties

almost

important

an

in

Latin

have

character.

syllabary,

syllabary

the

master

to

and

cause
thoroughly, be-

roots

; and

it

the

student

formative

and

stiind.

this method
have

of

meaning

The

impression
profitably be

given

may
of

study
:

still remain

advantages

the

signs

thus

Delitzsch, Schrader,

transliterated
two

acquire
the

made

sure,

are

of

he

prospective professor

as

they

through

method

which

life-time

This

might

subjects. But

specialistin

department

conceded, they

mastery

But

for which

otherwise,
the

the

during tlie past summer,


practical instructor"
that

This

elements

of

is the

language

signs.

better

may

overcome,

student

made

become

that

Difficulties,to be

determined.
was

is to

life

authority

an

difficulties of Assyrian

it must

labors

as

kindred

except
the

recognized

entire

and

with

study Latin

man

It is probable

one's

to this

man

in connection

has

one

study of Assyrian.

that

course,

that, to become

up

in the

accomplished

that, unless

nothing

no

be

impression prevails that, unless

It is true, of

one.

give himself

must

The

Study of Assyrian."

will

hesitated.

syllabary, after having gained

some

induce
Nor

five
need

knowledge

to take

men
we

fear
of

the

that

up

Assyrian

men

language.

will

not

where,
learn

Surely that

Hebraica.

1S2

three

true

for

opportunity

an

Shall

Geraumy
whatever

God,

of

Word

the

concerns

deep

in

done

interest

in

Word

is

that

which

in

language

the

or

have

they

that

show

scholars

American

not

in

summer,
be

of work

kind

all this

Shall

Lyon

Ilaupt.

coming

the

be,

also

will

tliere

Paul

Professor

Baltimore,

in

Peters;

P.

John

G.

Brown;

R.

Francis

City, Professor

York

New

D.

Professor

Cambridge,

At

true.

and
the past summer,
gaining this instniction.

during

was,

longer

no

in

Professor

Philadelphia,
There

is

Assyrian;

in

chMsee

has

bwt

ago,

yea"

written?

Uaarcented
admirable

In

the

that

inferred
the

facts

The

regarded

Hebrew

as

as

"ary,

in

aid

an

of

system

And

including

law

down

is

laid

vowel;

but

we
a

But

That

And,

as

by

it is

writer,
what

But

of attention.

from

and

are

and

loosely closed,"

the

Of

letter.
as

neces-

Hebrew

the

Massoretic

the

wiiy

reason

large

or

ing
seem-

for this

case

of

in

one

such

vow^el,
273

accented,

are

the

all grammars

syllables

i. e.,

every

181
In

accent).

an

number

these,

(or open)
in

reason

to

violation

must

have

seven,

has

long

short

violation

seeming

should

occurs,

cases

of

upon

fact, repeated
the

appropriate
"

That

sake

Bible, is

the

term

of

opened."

basis

no

of

"half-open;"
our

at

occurs

punctuation,
in

syllables ending
has

Strack

part,

own

take

critical teacher.

designate

Green

not

will

Massoretic

unaccented

convenience,

stances
in-

classify the

principle,
not

of the

Professor

For

to
who

fundamental

most

instances

(Kautzsch)

others,

and

teacher

deviation,

of tlie Hebrew

page

not, for

this

notice

critical student.

Hebrew

Gesenius
for

indeed

of

be

real
artificial,

or

more

to

means

syllables ending with

syllables, 39,

clear

in

every
of

AVhy

natural

as

454

Genesis

simple

so

called

of

matter

definite

be

on

of

being regarded

of the

is all the

system

no

knowledge
principles of

accurate

regarded

be

quiescent

fails

who

study

No

by

which,

times

our

vowel.

some

any

used

these
the

suggests

syllables
expression
for

of these

one

some

terms

satisfactory.

[In the article


allowed

the

merely valuable, but

is not

mastery

the

unaccented

be

fact

In

would

:"

closely examined.

unaccented

of them

"intermediate;"
"

place

letter to

take

received.

been

in

as

authentic, and

not

text,"

chapter
a

why, when

student

twenty

with

273

it,cannot

4)
short

by

the

be made

account

first

is, of course,

rule.

of

least

and

worthy

"while

these

be

not
"I(5th(?gh

that

of

There

mention

it should

ending

(the

into

orally

language.

whether

in the

those

unaccented

3)

regarded

of

cannot

we

have

subject by giammarians,

deemed

absolute

an

regularity of

the

are

the

from

from

There

2)

learning

aside

departures

the

that

We
regret
subject which

be

may

of this

not

one

part of the

punctuation,

imaginary.

vowel.

on

expressed

vowel-system,

intrinsic

an

be obtained

can

is

this

words

few

teachers

subject

the

close.

will

articles

treatment

clear

Hebrew

in

Strack's

Hebraica

in

discussion

the

1)

of

of

lack

"

Professor

With

Vowel."

Short

Syllable

discussion,

the

opinions of eminent

the

"

publication of other

closing

From

Syllables

"

Intermediate

"

for the

apace

of

treatment

so-called

the

Syllables with

Open

to

transliterated

on

stand, by

"

The
an

by w, and

Aramaic

Language,"

oversight, instead
{^ by n."Ed.]

of

^
"

the
,

spelling

Semitic."

''

Shemitic

Hereafter

"

")will

was

be

Book

Koticss.

188

^BOOIfMiOTI6ES.-""
KAUTZSCH'S

Tliis

is

the

author.

in

this

book

the

is

maintained,

opinion

which
The

light

been

with

which

and

in

In

questions.

hand

that

shows

the

the

the

with

and

work,

The

the

real

which

excellence

with

Hebrew
of

been

the

consulted.

forty-seven Aramaic

one

is

teen
seven-

latter, everything

have

to

all but

of

communication

seems

by

comprises

comparison

free

dealing

in

matter

Scripture passages
cited
in the
body of

(a translation
Orthography

make

Grammar

follows, in the main,

Syntax, forty-one.

noted,

the

pages

will

Hebrew

work, and

Introduction

thoroughness

upon

that

as

and

to

Index

have

the

of Gesenius's

twenty-three

difficult

on

shed

may

BIBLICAL-ARAMAIC*

edition

The

differences

and

THE

large

as

ninety-one

in

consists

of

author's

contains

Etymology,

pages

half
there.

pursued

number)

the

to

It is about

arrangement

given

volume

companion

same

the

OF

Reference-grvLvam"r for Biblical- Ar^nnsdc^ and

complete

convenient

GRAMMAR

passage

verses

has

eleven

has

done

such

references.

details, it

For

here

Aramaic

which

he

except

that

The

feminine
class.

same

g., in the

of

of

on

84, that

p.

be

and

least

occurring

in the

classification
in Gesenius,

with
into

brought

fem.

alone.
at

is like that

discussed

here

are

of the

n_

Etymology

all forms

enumerated

are

Forty

numerous,

and

classification

particular class

very

form,

every
to

interesting facts

Many

statement,

of

case

method

general
nouns

the

attempted.

to the

are

for the

loosely treated, is

so

never

given

are

citations

by the author

said

are

gives.

in

to

fullness

type,

Biblical

the

author

our

and, hitherto,

with

in minion

grammar,

being referred

passage

and

what

to

treatment

accuracy

of them

of the

division

in Biblical

of the

half

refer

to

of

difficult

so

scientific

than

more

this

one

e.

with

handled

pages,

In

subject,

This

noun.

sufficient

be

may

emph.

the

masculines

prominence,

as,

used

is not

masc.

by Hebraism
as

old

for

the

as

remarks

The

of
the

in

the

The
in

; The

Noun

"

of

Noun

by

ObAMMATIK

Offie in Tueblogen.

be

are

of

DBS

are,

iM

and

NsuviT
18S pp.

the

else

in

by Verbs
; The

Biblical

Von
F. C.

Seghoiates.The
forms

book,

the

actually

not

following list of sections

the

by
The

Noun
The

; The

Numbers

by the

Emphatic
; Tlie

in exclamation

Adjective

State

Const

so-called

Noun
and

attributive

as

us

renders

Aramaic

all other

; and

Uie

books

IT.

KlfMI

B.

VogU,

KRITISOllBlf

Kfttttaoh, OrO.
18B4.

R.

BaOVtnBUirO
ProteHor

of the

deser^-ea

auUior
C.

lOT

really

are

part, satisfactor"'. In

most

study.

Lelpslf

least

at

Numerals.

before

Tmtambkt.

Q^

like

I-Class

and

special sort of type.

^*^; The

concerns

of Semitic

for

relation

BiBLISOH-ARAMAXUOinUV,

WoBRTSR
viu

as

DtTJi^are

Genders

r^erence the volume


far

like

Genitive
with

forms

91, that

estimated

so

good Aramaic

as

page

by

The

:-"

the

just

as

wiiere

circumlocution

of all friends

ARAXAUsoinu*

governed

nigh useless, so

thanks

the

of it

purposes

sort well

brief

every

by circumlocution
; Tlie

expression
For

forms

may

They

representation

Genitive

on

distinguished

are

of the

Syntax

apposition

the

one

as

noun,

Bible

printed in tlie contents.


State

the

A-Class, while

the

discussion

the

in

regarded

foreign words, though

on

occurring

is to be

latter; and
of

Segholates

J^_, but

B.

UWM.

dar

TliMl-

Hebraica.

1S4

In

For

it the

for

how

possessed of

one

It is certainly to be
the

the

that

regretted

Brown's

from

Selections

old

the

also

and

have

work

be

to

yet
The

of Aramaic

aid in the
the

his book

corresponding
the

all the

Chaldee,
As

has

paradigms,

so

The
and

a?

the

know

book,

the

of

book

Professor

Brown

so-called

Chaldee

already,

so

"

An

Arakaic

Targums,

Publication

after

Method,

by Charles

title

of

or

of

mar.
Gram-

design of

the
''

In

acquisition of

this

the

method,

the

for

between

principles

real

proof

and

of

in

discover

the

Hebrew

been

of

set

the

hands

Park,

for
I.

the

Text,
1884.

of the

work

of

of

them.
is

Chaldee)
the

the

language

of

study

petent
com-

of

To

eye.

good
those

this sort in

our

publishers.

contribution
of

adopted

to

his work
as

the

study of

is, that

his

in

text-book

Seminaries.

Part

Chaldee
of

command

to

excellence

the

Brown

pleasing

upon

self
him-

and

II, Professor

and

the

means,
for

mar.
Gram-

(Hebrew

good

the

Chaldee

student

thorough

valuable
the

to

complete

with

this

By

in

printed

Onkelos,

knowledge

more

is very

credit

Part

form,
the

character

pages

has

of the

study

will

such

the

upon

of

instructor,

giving

and

Brown

Targum

page,

stands,

now

Class-Book

Morgan

Part

consist

the

the

Book,

First

opposite pages.

skilful

its publication, has

R. Brown.

Society of Hebrew,

the

the

on

systematic

small

no

one

Theological

these

Vocabulary.

Reading

learns

Professor

yet unpublished

square

made

; and

soon

least five important

and

has

of

difficulty of securing

reflects

in

language

the

of the

the

mon
com-

selections,
of

text

because

used

differences

for

enter

and

appearance

old

to

tinguish
dis-

to

parts; (1)

these

will

itself,and

Testament,

English

anything

it

to

Preface,

be

purpose,

and

for the

as

the

three

it is only the

Method."

help of

apparatus

will fit him

coimtry, the press-work


the

the

I, before

complete

print, both

clear, and

who

Part

of

(for the

Inductive

text

prepared

portions of the Old

Targums,

the

this

from

on

Grammar,

shall

true

more

Syriac.

II, which

the

chapters

resemblances

become

that

teacher,

of his

Hebrew

partial compensation
in

gives

afterwards.

first ten
the

the

Part

work

in the

the

that

us

so-called

facts

be able, with

thus

inserted

Aramaic

the

facts

the

important

and
a

see

of

the

by which

(3) a carefully prepared


in

of

issue

completed

by

portions of

will

student

the

accomplishment

text

of

book

name

offshoot

other
as

Testament

stated

informs

some

helpful ^otes

published before

the

these

underlying

laws

To

is

Old

the

is

as

also

by
his

is that

is first led to

student
and

completed

Brown

elements

the

Preface

Chrestomathy

Professor

his

however,

see,

Brown's

substantially

and

Bible), and

essentially,

The

Chrestomathy.

Hebrew

to the

is

book

the

Thus

tuted
substi-

Yet

study

to

easy

of Chaldee,

name

consists

(2) scholarly

portions of

Aramaic

the

on

is referred

student

book

excellent

Targums,

the

thorough

Professor

cannot

we

than

case

that
from
the language of the Targums
stock, i. e. the language, or dialect, known

l*rofessor

and

Aramaic.

is not

to

slightly indefinite.

Chaldee,

name

more

It

obliged

otherwise.

of the

philologicalfacts

to

Targums.

the

scholarly spirit of which

the
done

have

could

evidence,

and

been

is

of

name

indefinite

more

have

that

correctness

introduction

an

Bible

of the

Chaldee

be

to

is only designed

book

so-called

also

but

correct,

more

and

to

seems

really inaccurate,

old, but

rejected the

has

he

inaccuracy

unscientific

between

choose

Brown

Professor

work.

his

title to

the

METHOD.*

ARAMAIC

BROWN'S

at

S. B.

study

of

Notes,

the
and

Elements

Vocabulary.

of

Aramaic

Chicago:

from

Bible

American

Bibliography.

Semitic

136

""-SEIIiITIG:BIBLI0GI(JIP^Y.-6observations

Quelques

a.

Amand,

Die

ibn

Ganah.

Badgek,

G.

Bassett,

J.

p.

Wien

Grammatical

note

Manuel

a.

Bergaigne,
T.

Zur

Editio

nach

Gorzelauczyk

J.

Bloch,

Loicy.
C.

Brown,

Ztschr.

Babyloniens

und

erlautert.

Noten,

im

I. Thl.

Einleitmig

Wissenschaften

der

der

mud
Tal-

in

und

Text,

Register.

Berlin.

Berlin

Andover

Talmudische

Talmudischen

BevietOy Oct.,

'84.

Literatur.

Einblicke

Literatur.

Wien

D.
,

Class-Book

Targums.

and

for

Part

the

Language

viewed

in

study

Text, Notes

I.

Society of Hebrew,

Publication

of

the

ments
Ele-

ulary.
Vocab-

and

1884

$1.75

light of Assyrian

Research.

Utbl., 25.

appell"5epays

aram^enne,

Joum.

Ueber

in die

Method.

contr"5e

Asiatique, Feb., Mar.

"tinuru"

Formen

sprechenden

Chrestomathie,

Litter atur-Blatt^ July 31, '84.

(By G. F. Moore.)

Bible

Hebrew

syriaques.

Rud.

Dvorak,

Language.

in Pamphylien.

Ethnographie

II. Thl.

Acad.emie

American

la

Sur

.80s.

139.

(By II. L. Strack.) Theol.


R.

Sanscrite,

Herausgegeben

Einleitung

x,

Friedr.

graphes

und

Entstehung

from

Chicago

Duval,

Co.

M.IO."

Aramaic

An

of Aramaic

Delitzsch,

k.

zur

der

8vo, pp.

R.

Persian

"

12fr.

Juedisches

Onkelos.

Beitrage

Gr.

of the

giiechischen Alphabete

d. J. 1557.

Targum

S.

dialect

Langue

la

Geographic

der

Geschichte

in die

Trench

Co., 1884

"

A.

Berliner,

Paul

Vieiceg

Onkelos.

Sabioneta

Unterstiitzung

Mit

des

zur

Targum

A.

Berliner,

6tudier

(By Kroner.)

Midrash.

und

London

4.

xi,

Beitrage

A.

MerM.1.20

Simnuni

grammaire.

Geschichte

f. Xumismatik^
Berliner,

the

on

pour

de

lexique, principes
Bergk,

d. Abulwalid

Soc., Jan., '84.

Boy. Asiatic

Joum.

Sprachvergleichung
Lexicon.

English- Arabic

An

de Tell-Lah.

Sohn

GeroWs

statues

'84.

Ilebriiisch-Arabische

W.

Wan

Bachek,

les inscriptions des

sur

Ztschr.f. Keilsdiriftforsch.,April

des

Assyrisch-Babylonischen

ubrigen semitischen

der

superior, par

les

lexico-

'84.
and

die

ent-

Ztschr. f. KeUschrift-

Sprachen.

forschung, April, '84.


Fischer,

B.

Gainet.

Le

(By 11. L. Strack.) Theol.

Chrestomathie.

Talmudische

LUbU.,

24.

Jacquin.

Gesenius,

Die

22

P.

(By

Mar.,

Besan^on:

u.

Qott.

W.

1884.

8vo, pp. iv, 89.M."


iiber

Ilandworterbuch
Volck.

gel. Am.,

(By
7;

II. L.

das

.50

Alte

Strack.) Theol.

(By C. Siegfried.) 2 AeoZ.

6.

racine

assyrienne;

bard.

Joum.

ABtatique, Feb.,

'84.

GuYARD,

St.

Halsvt,

J.

I.

sumdro-aceadiennes.

Questions
d'oeil

Coup

Feb., Mar.,
Baking,

Anklam

chaldaisches

Lagarde.)

de

nouvelle

Une

St.

und

F. Muhlau

v.

lAteraturzeitung, Sept.
GuYARD,

Bibel.

der

Ilebriiisches
9. Aufl.

quaternaires des geologues.

194.

xlii,

Lokalkenntniss

W.

Testament.
Utblt.

et les terrains

N06

de

8vo, pp.

II.

Genz,

deluge

retrospectif

sur

Ztschr.f. KeUschriftfortch.
Apr. '84.
I'alphabet libyque.

/owm.

Amatiquty

'84.

Die

W*^^^,""d

Wueritenxberg, 1884,

2.

D*VI^

^m

Alten

Testament.

Theol.

SUidiim

am

Hebraica.

196

84.

f. Orient, PhUol,, March,


Heidekhsue,

Noten,

textkritiaehen

mit

Einleitung,

I.

versehen.

Beilagen

und

Scholieu

und

Ilerausgegeben

Samaiitana.

BiblioUieca

M.

Literatur-Bl.

1882-83.

Jahren

iii den

Syriens

Presaerteugnisse

M.

Habtmann,

Leipzig:

Sa^fOm

Stellung seiner

aosialen

E.

tening

Grammatik

der

aramaischen

Vogel

8., pp.

C. R.

Lyon,

W.

Draper, 1884,

D.

Preiswerk,

J.

London

W.

July,

II.

E.

Berlin

The

GeroWs

II.

[Aus:

Sohn

78s.

Kastatt, 1883.
Notes.

and

Heath,

Parts

I. and

iiber die Talmudin

und

1884.

Worterbuch

von

Assyrien.

and

Reading

'84.

(By J. P. Taylor.)

Grammar

Book.

Andover

$1.25
book

for

beginners.

Boston:

Ginn,
.$1.80

h^braique. 4 ^d., refondue


alphabets. Basel

des

Leipzig

Fock.

8vo,
of

Co., Post

par

im

S. Preiswerk.
lxvi,

Ilebraischen.

402.

(Hallen-

32

pp.

the

Past.

Georg. Gr. 8.,pp.

Nomina

zusammengesetzten

M.I."

Ottoman-Turkish

Language.

216.

8vo, pp.

literary works

Zur

E.

L.

IL

Lehrbuch

der

of Ancient

Babylonia.

Ztschr.

f.Keilschriftf.,

Ztschr.
C.

H.

brevissime

ZOECKLER,
seines

'84 ;

O.

der

Cultur.

altbabylonischen

49.

Asurbanipal.
neuhebraischen

Ztschr.

f. Keilschriftforsch.,
July, '84

Sprache.

und

Literatur.

Grammatik.
(By II. Vuilleumier.)
(By E. Nestle.) lAt. Centralhl, 25.

Fiinf

babylonische

linguae hebraicae

Freiberg
Luther

grosseren

Vertrage

f. Keilschriftforschung,
April,

Rudimenta
accommodata.

Kaulen.

Ursprunge

Ilebraische

S. J.

nezzar.

dem

4to, pp.

Modern

'84.

Phil., July,

Strassmaier,

Gr.
und

RevieWy July,
Strack,

1884.

Kineladan

II. L.

Strack,

nach

Frage

Duemmler,

Schrader,

Fr.

"

Ginn

simplified Grammar
"

W.

C.

'84.

Schrader,

et de

F.

232

comparatif

Truebner

a.

Sayce,

VosEN,

Pp.

die

Eror-

'.

Lessons:

Dissertation, 1883.)

Redhouse,

Leipzig

Vocabulaiy

Hebrew

Grammaire

Ueber

G.

Bammelt,
ser

S.

tableau

un

with

120

pp.

1884.

Co.,

d-

Avec

kritischen

'84.

June,

Hebrew

II. G.

Heath

Wien

Sargon's, Konigs

Elementary

C.

E.
F.

einer

Lexicographic.

Wissensch."]

und,chaldaisches

Review,

Andover

Mitchell,

mit

arabischen

Boston

Keilinschrifttexte

G.

Mitchell,

Grammatik.

Aug.,
(By S. Fraenkel.) Lit.-Bl.f. Orient. Pliilol.,

Midraschim.
D.

Hebraischer

Testament.

Neuen

zur

Reader,

Neuhebraisches

J.

Levy,

38.

pp.

'84.

Gymasialprogramm.

Vocabulary.

and

Texts

II.

8vo,

Verwandtschafts-

ilire

M.4

Studien.

Sanskrit

im

der

k. Akad.

der

zu

181

Beitrage

Ilebraische

F.

Kremp,
Lanman,

Sprache

und

1884.

162.

pp.

Worter

v.

der

Sitzungsber.

"

und

Biblisch-Aramaischen

des

viii,

Frhr.

a.

Krjemer,

Judenthum

zum

Kauffmann,

Gesenius-Kautzsch'

zu

Vogel, 1884,

E.

Gr.

Frankfurt

Uebungsbuch

Leipzig: F. C. W.
Kautzsch,

des

April, July,
Ztsdir.f. Keilschriftforscli.,

verhaltnisse.
Kaitzsch,

Talmuds

Beziehung
Bekenner.

sumero-akkadisclie'

Die

Fritz.

IIoMMEL.

die

Ueber

R.

8.

ffiparm^

O.

M.3.50

als

Her-der.

Ausleger

Genesis-Commentars.

Gr.

8vo,

des Alten

der

Zeit

von

pp.

de Theol.

Nebukad-

'84.

publicis et domesticae

Retractavit, auxit,
:

aus

Bevioe

sextum

disciplinae

emendatissima

ed. Dr.

iv, 131.

Testaments,

Greifswald

Abel,

gewiirdigt auf Grund


1884.

8vo,

pp.

77.M.1

^T]m^'jim%'"^

I.

Volume

JANUARY,

MASSOKETIO

THE

By

Professor

is little

There
fixed

is

this

opinion

teaching

on

it

where

Jewish

the

liglit

the

on

the

to

are

THE

SOUNDS.

in

have

be

is

the

hope
in

of

As

taken

of

habit

of

sounds

the

only

explanations

testimony,

as

eliciting

the

the

to

its

to

as

differenoes

been

genesis

system.

to

vowel-signs;

question

considerable

and

what

Massoretic

only

are

historical

they

grammarians,

there

subject,
of

Massoretic

The

but

not

ss

authority.

final

transliterate

Kihbus,

seem

of

time

in

Hebrew.

because

it is

because

it

at

the

i^asons
As

merely

is

no

am

as

elocution,

and

lead

and
d

the

and

certainly

I
o

shall
e

as

uncertain

ik t
y

be

mentione"l

it may

be

useful

to

This

only

in

mark

them
is

to

of

them

that

uncertain,
ing
feel-

speaker's

an

an

in

u.

and

For

these

l"eginneni.

ble
immuta-

transliteration,

etymological

explanation

it for

is tnie

-soron"lary,

mutable

Unween

I.

this

difference

by the
than

they

length

l)elow.

distinguish

not

that

these

the

quality"

longer

inentione"l

difference

need

but

in

objection

lixed

be

two

8urek-

misleading
only

natural

an

articulate

an

those

of

characteristic

to

make

be

suppose

merely
is still

is apt

to

to

the

e;

"short;''

or

to

another

reason

essential

use

phonetic

n^st,

b li r. and

him
an"l

terms,

recognizable

difference,

though

the

may

the.se

avoid

Holcm,

KiimcH,

phonetic

which

moment,

there

to

no

indicate

and

of

consequence

largely

is

from

Sere,
sounds

two

5, ft.

i,

likely

are

differs

to

secondary

6;

"long''

as

({uality.it

artictilate

by
a

belongs

I shall

write

vowels

there

understoocl

be

they

different

of

the

define

they

if

But
sounds

and

the

composite,

They

sound

Seg5l,e;

a;

Holcm,

o;

described

one

that

its utterance"

to

Hatuf,

objectionable.

impression

Patta^,

a;

suspended,

'

usually

are

me

the

given

in

length

simple,

be

to

Kame?,

Kanie?

i;

^'wa

to

convey

may

vowel-sounds

The
terms

and

follows:

as

i and

Hlrek,

of

sounds

refer

the

Bibles.

substance

I sliall

of

use

wliicli

to

the

give

throw

to

seems

old

the

but

Cambridge,

actual

about

contribution

point.

this

the
Hebrew

our

explanation,

as

discussion,

further

of

and,

3.

Toy,

University,

to

as

of

readings

II.

Harvard

in

Number

VOWEL-SYSTEM.

Ckawford

doubt

no

and

statement

proper

of

or

tlie

by

1885.

of

and

ments;
vowel-move-

not

IIeuraica.

Its

vowel-BOunds

The

opened
and

very

column

the

the

organs"

; we

the

open,

English

Seg5l,

in

moderately
of

back

Sere,

open

and

the

in

Hirek, i,T, seems


teeth
the

of

and

mouth,
the

in

ictus

the

linguo-palatals,

occurring
About

in

usually
latter

this
that

Kame?

it differs

and

the

It is not

the

The

sound

next

rounded,

HSlem,
of

the

next

lips, and

in front

of

the

affect the

"Va

1.

vowels

draws

latter

former

in

of

syllabic
a

very

be

may

According

two

has

lips more

as

in

of
ward,
for-

which

far

the

lips
back

and

this

not

in

the

about

or

of

that
and

made

aw,

more

But

further

arched

are

than

the

stand

w^

lips
later
far.

very

rounded

e.

with

apparently

the

and

pit.

for supposing

ictus

between

it is

first,

i in

e.

is this

tongue

rule.

and

the

it does

open,

of

pique

aperture

note.

lying just behind,

one

and

outermost
; the

the

series, diminishes
back

of

i in

this

back"

which

roof

give ground

in

and

apart

these, the

having

midway

drawn

case

top
well

middle

the

nearer

between

forward,

lips more

in the

of

is farther

a, but

in

the

farther

lips farther

second

in

its ictus

kept

are

as

the

ictus

being

less than

being

closed,

lips

air is made

the

syllables, is

a, from

second,

wide

so

; it is not

high

as

of

with

midway

farther

the

is not

it the

syllabic relations

sounds,

this-

by

forward

apart, and

also

the

labials,

labial

tongue

full, the
doubt

than

the

the

the

sort

simple, ", is
The

of

ii,represents

first is nearly
same

closed

more

But,

cavity

with

made

open
is

tongue

Kames.

a.

form

farther

tongue

is,nearly

and

apart,

5 ; the

of

and

of

is about

mouth,

series, proceeding

member

Surek-Kibbu?,u,

the

in the

tongue

Massoretic

unaffected

column

principally,

or

depressed;

in blot, that

Kamc?,

0, the

only,

series

tongue

yet well

of

sound

the

the

; its

to

sound.

forward

sure

hard

English

met.

both

the

usually in

not

of

the

syllables,

from

Hatiif, o, begins

rounded,

found

am

forward, the elevation

Sere,

further

closed

i I

of

of

that

mann.

the

little

lips a

articulating
be

is further

tongue

in

cavity is
possible,

as

into
the

vocal

; to

of

ictus

sounds,

and

Segol

the

diphthongal

in

as

roof

two

represent

to

than

nearer

the

the

perhaps

mate,

the

about

palate"

toward

tip

and

ictus

sounds

of

it

it,the

the

t\\e

were

mark

to

German

nearly

series,keeps

raised

and

by

modification

as

established,

continue

may

far

it would

which

modified

vocal

as

that, in both

that, in making

teeth,

hard

same

tongue
as

of

fact

linguo- palatal

of

unmodified

regarded

parallel,the

row

against

e, in the

the

series

bottom

the

we

more

the

begins

e,

pat, but

and

been

the

the

back

drawn

however,

before

slightly raised,

is

tongue
a

is

in

Kames

differs from

a,

the

pronunciation,

of

change
Pattab.

from

this

when

and

to have

seems

relations, long

its phonetic

as

tlie sound

systems,

time,

some

produced

unchecked

At

probably infer

may

Babylonian

the

father.

in

sound

depressed

tongue

air issues

of

certainty,

fix with
a

the

wide,

follows

as

is the

its original form,

i, in

Kime",

described

be

may

the

other

tongue

further

arched,

than

the

i,though

the

second

just
ward,
for; the

i"

there

doubt

will

not

movements.

slight i, e
arranged

to the

or

; the

in several

place of the ictus

composites
different
on

the

ways

line

slight forms

are

from

of

a, e,

0.

throat

to lips :

aaoeeiluoii
This

list indicates

the

relation

of the vowels

to the

consonants

Alef
,

Waw.

He, Yod,.

140

HSBRAICA.

"

I shall, therefore, consider

8onant-|-vowel
I do

It

this is

of the

closed

We

With

1.

Tlie

5,

u.

in

penult

in

suflBxes

in

a,

It

in the

form

tone

has

fondness

to

for

pause-form

has

noun

before

a,

in

the

form

and

ha.

plural
An

of

e.

toned

the

example

the

easily

more

and

light,

difference
to

in

otiier

The

in

of

of

the

then

feeling

Ic,out

zaya

from

gole,
goli,

as

of

of

of

out

euphony

felt

in

the

has

becomes

the

and

et,
of

large number

as

necessary

the

is

in

at

the

the

toned

has

at

; or

has

of

lute
abso-

t.i

forms

Segolate

a.

^ 1 e t, out

"*wa,k

into

sunk

e.

to

first vowel

participle

the

became

be

ending

the

monosyllabic

the

to

ending,

of

the

when

was

treating

stem

or

form

in

and

been

shows

the

atonic

be

suffix

s e

the

k
.

a,

old

essential

an

ka,

petrified

and

the

old

a, the

diphthong

ei,

s u

s e

of

part

d*bar6.ka,

as

Accus.

termination
the

the

stem.

retraction

case-ending
plural
out

of

of

ay,

in

the

suffixes
from

the

as

the
tone

is retained

with

noun

ai

a,

So

in

a
as

in

'

an

syllable

open

t $1 1 a

n
.

in

is

obedience

found
to

in
a

the

law

3
of

sing.

Perf.

masc.

euphony

the

full

susaya.

toned

sing, suffix,

of

ella,

guttural,

i,

pause.

the

retained

toneless

full vowel,

s u

1e

it

is

e,

gole.

that

a,

abundantly

syllables. Thus,

i-forms,

are

syllable.

with
a

in

of

as

was

of

za,

to

vowels

and

from

impatience

is felt to

noun

word

or

The

before
e

radical

which
e.

open

the

out

susay,

or

is found

these

nouns

come

as

modes

the

at,

retained

where
of

which

probably represents

1 pers.

under

syllable separately.

and

of

vowel,

pause

second

to two

following

of

Hebrew

led

from

the

of the

segolate

penult necessitates

the

closed,

subordinate

open

in

referred

be

Segolates,

stress

Tlie

is

stem-e

karni^.la,

with

of

with

receded

assimilated

to

explanation

heavy

favorite

occur

in

last

fuller

the

If the

a.

feminine

toned

shows

special

into

is to

accentuation

the

of the

into

and

and

final,but

out

ge);

of the

The

a,

"these,"
These

a-class

old

elle

Waw.

or

koteletforkotelat.

the

the

heavier

made

of

verb-forms,

and

(also written

presence

the

in

the

strengthen
So

Yod

the

only

was

gone

them.

simple syllable.

But

be

oftenest
in

verbs,

especially

"this,"

construct
in

k, where

the

vowels,

sorts

illustrations.

no

and

nouns

ze

The

Further,

needs

to

it may

that
various

the

syllable is perhaps

however,

the

and

here

to

radical

language.
al

in

preceding

between

to

open

reason.

applied

as

great but

so

may

"valley"

ge

third

1 iy

the

ends

division
partly artificial,

syllables prefer

open

terms

examine

open

vowels,

a;

verbs

rule

demonstratives

el I ay

but

tone.

toned

Other
the

the

general

The

into

Hebrew

physiological

relative

is not

pronunciation

of

considerations.

that

obvious

an

only

are

open,

said

be

for

vowels,

and

in

secondary,

the

have

we

it may

general,

extensible

ease

as

wa

theory

"

untoned.

and

toned

In

heads

which

syllables is

of

physiological division

primary

of

into

S'

the

by applying

nants.
conso-

facts.

The
each

consonant

the

tested

be

will best

so

treat

to

decidedly simpler

seems

Whether

to

con-

half-open

closed,

neither

with

"

of

suspended

unpleasantly

remains

two

or

class

nor

open

belongs

that

vowel

syllable,but

succeeding

to the

nor

is attached

which

to

consonant

consisting of

open,

third

is neither

syllables, a syllable that

"

intermediate

**

or

making

of

need

is any

there

that

see

syllable :

eoiisonant-fvowel-|-one

closed, consisting of

and

not

of

sorts

two

only

tone

The

is retracted,

by

y
a

be

of

in the

the

the

with

noun

of

dual

k the

and

general euphonic

tlie

original

verb-stem

ending

s u

; the

a.k,

a.y

The

same

for

retained, but,
advanced

to

being the

s a

back,

seems

stem,

accus.

in accordance

explanation

would

kanafa.ya.m,

haps
per-

a.

which

susa.yik.

s u

is drawn

is

is

i, is not

tone

Hebrew.

in

the

141

sing. fern, suffix,aa

k'nafayim

ayim:

of

of

pronoun

principle

ending

vowel

phonetic weight

plural

plural sign

Vowel-System.

primitive third

phonetic degradation

the

the

reason

Also,
to

and

Massoretic

with

apply

where

to

is the

mimation.
In

2.

The
the

two

considerations, besides

pretonic vowel,

final

added

word

or

the

either

always

following

In

the

absolute

The
forms

Kal

takes

sing,

Perf.

word

final

not

as

definition

added

by

The

pretonic

lightest, "'wa,never
is found

to

succeeding

in tlie

syllable be heavy,
not.

or

given

slightest form-

to its

otherwise

the

needing

phonetic weight

pretonic

vowel

a, e, o,

so

to

as

is

vowel
u.

katol;

zaken,
Impf.

Nifal

masc,

the

needing

the

or

full

dabar,

as

; and
as

light,

I, o, u,

e,

sing,

the

If the

be

then,

cases,

Kal

heavy

ken,
Perf.

k'talam

sing,

and

masc.,

certain

Hifil

sing.

the

the

tone

attract

for

suffix

except

pretone, when
of the

vowel

z*kena.hu,

for
k a,

ken,

kem,

it

noun-stem,
suffix

itself,that is,any

to

z*keno

any

mutable

with

old third

d'baraya,

with

masc.

a, or

syllable with
to

enough
d'bari

as

has

syllable

one

except

d'barenu;
k'^alini,

as

Kal

Perf.

farther

sing. fern,

k'talat'ka.

slight

final

forms

which

is not

ka, kem,

In

back

the

than

Semitic

the

before
from

tone

inseparable

1 a,

whence
the

On

following

which

it is desired

The

(Infin.) and
The

the

sing,

Imperat.

ko^Mi,
which

with

with

all

all of

belonged
The

kit.te.l*.k6m,

the

ultima,

la. hen,

of

rapid pronunciation

which

fem.

go

the

very

at

here

ending
a

of Uie

trace

out

la.mayim,
is to

^'wa represents

the

old

of

ba

put "'wa in pretone

an

original full vowel

including the abstract

(Imperative),

Inf.

d'bar,

ken,

suffixes, aa
recollection

shows

the

as

kem,

ka,

and

endings

masc.

cannot

maintaining

preserves

ba.hcm,

suffixes

suffix k

sing.

the

and

tone

the

Inf.

d*.bar'.kii,
of

with
for

its ancient

of action

noun

di.b'.rc,

k'^ol;
ail sufflxef,

dabara.ki;
kn(ul,

form

these both
being merely rapidly pronounced
great weight that it retains before it the

Imperative,
carries

ending, only degraded


Perf.

of

importance

the

plur. of Nouns,

to

sake

as

command

The

ki.^Mu.

the

of

k'^alatnii,

as:

the

1 *.

preserve

of

noun

nouns.

The

to

rule, that

result

sing, and

noun

likewise

accus.

in

for

ken,

kem,

except

ordinary

The
to

over

and

the

cases,

construct

ka.

the

tone

the

abandoned,

preposition,

hand,

in the

is

going

come

other

suffix

any

example

penult,

antepenultimate

An

with

last

the

vowel-sound

prevents

old

a,

whose

noun

suffix

which

the

will

noun,

a-sounds, that determine

and

heavy,

very

the

for

of

regarded
depress

its vowel.

pretone

In

preference

construct)

is to

retain

the

tone,

and

word

tendency

it will

case

the

take

In

the

syntactical position

(absolute

syllable.

suffix

contrary

the

are

definition

needing

or

pretone.

to
wiUi

k'^a.l'.kem,

so

"*wi
the

suffixes

precisely

as

the

ka,
noun

kem,
;

ken,

as

k*til*k%

Hebraica.

142

The

Perf.

of

identity of action

of the

be either

might

tbe

produces

Verb-forms,
suffixes

except Hifil, in

verb-forms,

All

is d

of

explanation

this

fact

that

the

transformation
of

the

that

the

which

light

retained,

and

example,

an

(before

the

bi.k'tol;

or

Here

wa.y'hi.
the
a

second

single syllable, it
by

with

b.

From

When

to

keeps

second

vowel

its onginal

contrivance

action

from

bi.g'dl,

the

example

may

early times

the

the

than

us

light

appears

The

often

The
sense-

assumption
form

if

vowel,

with

mutable,

reason

of

ous,
obvi-

so

in

cases,
in

first of

the

antepretone.

to the

form,

d*bar

or

dagesh

forte

the

in

(as
of

end

fusion

combination

the

d I, and

are

suspect

that

in the

the

here

noun.

l)een

lables,
syl1

t o

as

is different

case

words,
"

far

so

to

kill

the

as

that

")

1 ik

pronounced

1.

to
.

form

In

Massoretic

original kutul.i

case,
a

of the
the

noun;
w^as

the

more

or

u.

The

first

vowel

k i b'd

second

abstract

beged,

concrete

pronunciation
pointing.

of

S'wa, and

retention

one

and

of

difference

in

Const,

the

out

of

is the
to

adopted
this

is

Inf.

to

followsthe analogy

apparently,

has

full syllable preceded

form

is

attached

kot*li

k i t'l u

peculiarity

concrete

of two

word.

itself in

language,

two

English

ba
bar

makes

omitted,

The

the

the

suffixes

or

of

similar

For

of

bi.d"

consider

to

consisting of

the

out

composed

prefers

one

be

syllable.

makes

being
is

having

it must

bi,

as

kHol,

but

syllable,

; or, if

words

word,

antepretonic

construct

to

prefixed

the

compound,

Inf.

maintains

to

objectit.

the

the

is found

essential

in

usual

syllable, and

procedure

lead

the

than

and

vowel,

stand
with

as

const.

ordinaiy

same

later

ence,
differ-

real
with

complete

with

slight vowel-accompaniment.

endings

form.

of

The

as

the

suffixes

accus.

more

classes

are

half-open

at the

vowel,
noun;

verb

the

the

r o.

antepretonic

to be

kot'li, kit'lu, kib'di;

as

I.i, k i b'd i from

original

Kal,

is held

the

complete

its first

inflectional

Imperative

the

additions

a, when

of the' word.

b*^),with

be defined

so

tone,

grammar.

two

heavy

then

is very

with

is

Infin. gives up

not

which

consonant

is concerned,

sense

the

will

vowel,

is

1 i (out of 1 a) and

of

with

the

numerous,

vow'els

S'wa

y'hi,

must

so

are
a

preposition

full

of

there

slender

vowel

bik'

are

second

this

with

wa

z
.

from

and

with

the

vowel,

beginning

with

with

but

latter"maintains

probably

was

cases

S'wa,

the

at

light

the

antepretone.

inseparable

syllable

in

If, now,

pretone.

d \ b

general Semitic

full

in the

words

Monosyllabic

fe'wain

is necessary.

and

additions

From

a.

has

has

vowel

farther back.

remark

light vowel,

First,

underwent

stem

verb-form

the

perhaps,

that

The

m.

vowel

consists

syllable, the

noun-verb

to

as

subject-suffix

with

pretonic

; the

pretone

But

for example,

are,

form

any

differs

here

verb

I.

the

d abara

stem

afformative

the

connected,

d'barim

further

no

When

its

belongs

or

pretone

"*wa, as

verb

original

antepi'etone,

Wherever
becomes

which

both

is

this

object-suffixes. But
In

verb

Mc

i ;

"

construction

subject-suffixes, a

3.

1a

t a

ka, attracting

tlie suffix

noun-

The

the

degrades

former

the

noun

is between

tlierefore,
suffix

tM

of the

that

with

agrees

r a,

latter

the

"

noteworthy"

is

is that

t'.kut.tMi.

ki.(*.la, nik.tMu,
former

as

guttural witli open-syllable preformative,

Pe

Verbs

e n,

final syllable contains

y ik

as

m,

primitive

in the

end,

at the

case

reason

Hifll, whose

except

added

are

The

two.

changes

same

in this

verb

and

noun

suffixes

sing, fem., with

vowel,
of

noun

which
and

makes
this

frequent

last
in

The

A\Tien
where

the

the

kem

ening of
avoid

out

of

the

toned

the

case,
into

the

into

kem,

in

tlien

the

the
In

the

di.b'.re, ma.l'.ke.
strong,

so

then

pretone
sometimes
form

1a k

then

With
m

this

big'di,

we

above

is

the

second
be

sing., not
by

which

The

of

because
is

refer

the
to

The
toned

This

a,

in

of

a-

keeps

the

the

are,

of

that

of

the

old stem,
third

and

vowel,

vowel

is

^*wa,and

of

is sometimes

m'l

form

as

is

the

ante-

sometimes

a,

the

full

becomes

k i m)

found,

primitive dabara

form

which

the

i,

plural

in

the

1a k

e,

shape
the

in the

last

in the

latter, in those

preceded

in contra.st

by,

^"wa, the

second

in

the

same

the

with

way;

t retain

It may,

fore,
therestated.

antepretone.
a

is added

to

Kal

Perfect

forms

as

vowel' being
full, and,

remains
and

S'wa

in

k"t'Ii, ka^'lii,

thinl

the

of

in

preceded

vowel

out

may

which

c-vowel

vowel,
to;

of

an

syllable, or

referred

suffix

when

as

nunciation,
pro-

we

to

in open

following syllables with

two

acts

Curtiss, p. 61).

vowel

t,

Bickell

general fact above

more

heavy

ancient

an

'aS.tut.

and

that

Or, with

all feminines

not

the

to

in
as

same

plu. uialaku,

is the
But

already been
of

1.

former,

is

of, or

of

stem.

the

in

vowel

survival

sing.

mar.dut

case
:

the

by S.

feminines

feminines

be

may

another

here

of

certain

of

forms

these

question

z'ken'ka

verb

a,

its vowel

dabaru

dabarat,

d'bard.

noun-form

MVI.I.AItl.KM.

CLOMfr:i"

with

the

noun.

similarly

m.

the

one

dabar,

syllable, as

contracted

1a

of

such

verb

an

the

The
from

heavy

two

or

niiApat,

is, perhaps,

pronunciation

contracted.

In

in

vowel

the

has

noun,

'am,

and

as

tone.

close"l

meaning

so

addition

with
the

nial'ke, sif're, kod'Ae;

have

in

and

The

a.

absolute

full

diminished

diminished.

cases

B.

In

in

Eng. translation

mention

noun

dab'ra, dab'ru,

1.

vowel

vowel,

second

of

lightness of

to

i,

preceding syllable,

of

vowel

noun

pronunciation

may

the

d'bar'ka,

the

increased

come

we

noun-form

before

retained

the

subject-suffix consists

the

kat'lun.

hight-

dab

the

on

in the

light antepretonic

find, for example,

have

as

the

construct

striking contrast
the

second

explanation

segolate, having

mutable,

the

existing

connect

we

to
we

plu.

while, in

to the

retains

e m

earlier

full vowel

Why

full

pretonic vowel

in both

occurs

ka;

antepretonic

is in

in the

Grammar,

vowel;

better

The

of

drops the third

the

own

ground-form

the

Finally,
This

its

retained

the

added, and

of

retention

The

Hebrew

that

suppose

kem

also

sense

mentioned;

of

retain

segolate forms

may
t.

which

(Outlines

Onal

becomes

verb

nouns

has

the

syllable leads

the

but

e.

I'd

the

(ordinarily now

in

I'k

I'k ii t, y

in

as

of

before

Before

vowels.

as

syllables.

then

di.b*.re.kem,

slender

clear.

not

its

cause

naturally
o,

HI

and

to

as

d i have

d'bar*, just

d'bar.tem.

The

d*.ba.i*.kem,

as

greater weight

which

with

plu. of

const,

the

heavy

noun

tem

drops it, is

here

143

di.

to

becomes

verb

lightness

must

the

of

nouns,

becomes

its ba,

da

to

preantepretonic

a,

of

of

addition

dabar.tem

and

r'. k

a.

b', and

procedure
the

the

bar

sinks

dabara.ya,

This

accumulation

only diminishing
verb

and

comparative
d'. b

a,

Vowel-System.

is added

primitive sing,

latter

to

kem

antepretonic ba

the

the

suffix

Massoretic

due

exceptions
fuller

" is

forms;

are

exn'ption.s,

lakcMi,
the

to
:

and

few

takes

niMal,
sense

of

lieavy

niokfil, m'knnc''
oompleU'ness

monosyllabic words,

particles, such

in

vowel

as

in
like

the
bat

'al, 'ad, I'bad,

retained, in spite of the euphonic doubling of the

m.

IIebraica.

144

The

in

noun

z'kaUf

pat,

of

dependence

**

such

on

In

word.

the

as

prepositions

this

category

under

come

from

we

form

construct

the

of

the

ably
prob-

may

aSar,

noun

of

head

same

mis-

d*bar,

as

resulting

pronunciation

rapid

""er,

possible,

if

a-vowel,

an

the

following

pronoun

the

also,

Perhaps,

place/'

noun

relative

the

include

of

consequence

yam"

lightens

state

construct

construct

nouns.

verb

The

shows

frequently

also

closed

in

with

syllables

the

tone,

in

as

Perf
.

of

Nifal,

Kal,

Whether
the

Perf.

from

original

for

the

of

the

to

the

and

found

in

Piel

that

almost

the

and

here

pointed

forms

such

with

far

'e.

as

m,

of

n.

min

i,

n,

in

for

Piel

dibber,

is

e.

m,

n,

having
'e

where

not,"

am

primitive

na.

conjunction

and

on

retained

several

of

n,

"I

is

instead

m,

preposition

the

the

or

Ilitil,

and

and

relation

Piel

here

from

Ilithpaal.

and

construct

In

consonant,

demonstrative

added

sense

of

sort

dibber,

as

not

1.

Ilofal

even

e,

was

'a

pronouns

in

proclitic
the

vowel

with

in

though

with

form

Pual,

decide.

to

found,

are

shows

dependent

WithoiU

2.

be

The

verbs,

stands

undertake

beginning

an,

is

Tlie

to

mas.

verb

the

not

vowels

accusative

en

It

that

shall

subject-ending

is

Further,
come

is

sing.

heavier

several

in

feeling

of

Imperf.

and

Ililhpaal,

word,

before

found

to

the

hand,

Perfects,

is

due

following

other

in

is

this

with

the

Ilofal,

Pual,

that

we

owe

'im.

and

tone.

is,

either

without

exception,
1

or

The

light.
1

a.

better

of

plural
the

latter,

bay

b*y

"

it,

a.

house,"

m.

This
The

is

general
forming

not

for

himself

(The
article."

what

has

method

writer's

and

to

results

independent

an

the

Eo.]

seemed

necessary

own

melhod

the

me

remain

syllable
changes

of

best

transliteration

the

in

and

the

of

statement

if

same,

one

any

we

who

the

prefer
takes

Hebrew

vowel-system.
to

this

the

treat
view

may

^*wa

as

make

wording.

has,

for

obvious

reasons,

been

employed

in

this

THE

[Translated

from

DA6HESH

Dissertation

IN

in

the

INITIAL

Baer

and

Fletcher,

Respecting
submit

this

p'm*2

^1K1

follows

If the

two

contrary,
If

3.
or

If

joins

latter

Of

in

monosyllable

these

only

Proverbs,

grammarians

immediately

letters

"TJD

'^D

n"t33i:iD

it is to

be

pronounced

word

is not

terminates

cent,
quies-

(p'"30);
not

are

and

the

joined

closely

second

Mil

with

[from

afar]

or

but

on

are,

el or,

two

to speak,

so

letters

appeal

penultima,

second

the

word,

of

last

it will
and

words

these

be

not

regulated,
writing

since,

especially

U"ken.

mere

of

tliis edition

in

by

laws

by

stated,

accurately

is

-same

to set

superfluous

of

^PH
hence

and

accuracy,

more

mars
gram-

*"i^

p^fn

two,

insufficient

methods
to

in the

sufficiently clear
the

with

accepted

there

made

are

examined

newly

the

on

^HN)*

(pTHD

Wherefore

errors.

accent

Mtrel.

and

partially

the

the

concerning

initial

for

here

and

found

of

of the

reasons

will

we

earlier

^ODl

pronounced

first two

laws,

the

dagessation
the

the

admixture

conspectus

assigning

'^

longinquo

there

an

the

V'n\

preceding

pronounced

is

one

the

which

""

be

whatever
with

the

quiescents
so

O.

bj Rev.

ProvertM,

(p^rP!);

to

exceptions,

without

not

forth

it

is either

deals

p^mtD^

HtJD

the

MtlrS'

four

these

;"*but

is

word,

as

of

consideration

in contact

first

ViT*?

the

of

(p" D"5D)i

word

come

the

itself,

to
the

in

first

apceic

4.

and

the

"1JD

,^")1

sound

under

separated

^M

one

which

consonantal

words

the

it is not

with

edition

111.]

ID

any

of

one

; but

Vpf*

JO

is, if
in

(raph^)

its

If the

2.

that

ends

letter

retains

but

IS

which

aspiration

1.

ictus

p^DiDt:^50

Delitzsch

Ottawa,

of

pronunciation

p^rn;2

word

without

the

the

rule:

LETTEBS,

"!.
Whenever

is, with

that

soft

or

those

[aspirated],^

[( I have

found

t"e. in

to

the

of

the

not

Hebrew

8o

r\2D7y

Massora

'K
*

1878,
4

(n'"i)

IK

Dolltasch
pp.

this

13

Vn.

has

686-"00,

Because

we

to

of

"y^il).

nui/fff. r"esond";rs

Ben-Asher
are

The

this

D'Si|)3.

the

eeoond

the

DU

title

peculiarity,
See

hclmie"selk"

"1MI8).

by

as

call

by this
with

the

book

PhmUhgU
p.

11

sa.

der
Jseim

the

of

of

it in

d.

name

fully In

MiefdoL

in

the

88.

b#
tions
edi-

who

edited

floloaion
and

MiMora;

*p^^p^ *

D*9;:*0n

the

o.

to

reapect

It It,

oommoiMr

reed"r"

of

orif^

wUl

which

carefully

most

the

thirty.

havv
work.

wrtlc
|1b6-S^,
Jir^-S^M

17. for

mention

attention

that

tta"

"tJD

in

found

text,
In

mutes,

jlM

about

were

MaMoretfo

the

authority

the

the

be

to

there

contaloed

In

Kimchi

la true

Dagmtkimo

DeUtawjh'a

call

Uv.,

quite

Mst

that

to

David

makes

to
Mune

tae

corrections

and

already

these

the

[unaspirated]

harxi

accent,

referonoc*

Of

from

D'km
3.

to

are

well

needed

rule

accustomed

form.

discussed
under

die

this

be

it may

two

-^ST?

adduce

others

which

wrtte

to

in'-jSn?
chap.

since

reduced

appear

'K

and

correct,

measure

the

2^

here,

Just

Isaiah,

O'tyK

13T?
Kimchl

Moses
"^nx

of

riven
different

quite

biblical

done.

so

of

one

either

distinctive

in

errors

with

begins

pronounced

with

hero

instances,

latter

are

I have

where

references

text

xli., 18. for


I

correcting

the

Bible.

Baer-Delitzsch

of
note

few

which

""IJD

special

that

the

interpunctuated

liberty

maldnjr
known

course,

jlDD

are

the

taken

Inal, without
of

of the

one

which

of

words,

two

In the

diaaertatioo

rule

the

printed),
related

rule:

llansu.
this
*""

Is

in
in

^^^

does

'*"
noi

p*901 ^yt

73

EtttsekHft*

LMlkmtmtu

TIwmiss.
calls
fmd

theee

Mimlk

alz
in

Hmr

Un"r%

to

Btdmttmg

which

Mr

it addal
dit

Otbm-

Hebraica.

146

always, without

i:p^VD(Gen.

""UnttD-i?

nrw\"iM

'Ufiwn

26);

I.,

(^""28); [w;

n*)i

njii?

aspiration,

the

i. e., loses

Daghesh,

the

single exception, receives

(".,13);

^:c*n

i^")n (iv., 5).

is); v:3

"2.
But
with

when

the

accent,
in

terminates

ren

r")N3

n.

(".,

nDThc'NO

does

mute

in

by Maqqepli

Daghesh,

unless

closed

syllable ;

the

On

when

contrary,

1-nn

preceding

i., 11);
TJ^.^CJen.

'

nt

(i.,26);

in

it ends
have

not

an

of the

ends

in

open

syllable, the

Daghesh:

one

^jin

e.g.,

and

quiescents

lows
fol-

which

mute

(Gen.

^^^'^

i.,

2);

ai n'?vi (iv., 22); j;rjp^"ln (ix.,26);

(i-,29);

id

i7).i

xi.,

preceding

word

the

is,when
does

chron.

iN*nn

aspirated and

is

nji5

30); Tn

quiesces, that

letter

this

junctive
con-

px (n.. i3); d^ ]nr\^(m., 6); nn ^^pindv., 12);


'pn'^ini:^(xvi.,8);'
h); ry
trxan^p (Lev.'n.,
'

(VII.,

word

HQ

e.g.,

by. a

or

criD

(XII.,4);

nrx^Dh

the

closely

more

it,eitlier

to

receive

not

thus

and

consonant

coheres

JliJD "iy^-"

of the

one

is annexed

and

word

preceding

the

witli

beginning

word

-uiiTn(xv.,i).2
If these
it

somewhat
the

interjected

the

by

this

disjoined,

second

word

n^P I ^^y
VI./2).
DHD

also

Daghesh

{'i1).

Chron.

The

to

are

examples:

are

be

which

with

mute

21); ^^2

ix.,

Nl|)N(I'l'ov.

(Neh. xm.,

HlinO

they

following

but

accent,

an

reading
the

causes

(Deut.

3); D^DII

xxi.,

the

in

P*siq that,

trN^lI IHN

by

logically united

are

line

separation

have

21);

XVIII.,

to;; (1

little
to

begins

(Gen.

consideration

under

words

two

is indicated

15).

"3.
There
that

of

is hardened

similar

(p'fn);

the

having

remote

that,

The

first
the

of

Under

(p^1*)D ^HN)-

only the

j1"3D "IJID

of

but

word

the

by

and

of

third

pirated
as-

rence
concur-

of

tones

the

preceding,

letters, j;ni "HN

all

is the

concussion

the

second

is not

mute

conditions

these

second,

following

syllable,

open

general law,

this

abrogate

may
an

nVHIN);

attraction

the

tone

(jllDII

which
after

even

by Daghesh.

letters

third,

not

conditions

it is effected

is, by which
but

other

however,

are,

latter

these

ditions,
con-

receive

excepted,

Daghesh.
"4.
If
and

jy
i

By

the

first

ni

word

"

xlx.,

iitzsch
a

gives
Ps.

of

reason

and
in

often)

we

of

these

two

p-SD,
that

see

(Dan.

the

consonant,

with

first

can

nSl
j'flj

xxiil., 42); 03

Luth.

the

[The

ZetUchr.,

latter.
author

examples

xxxiv.,

2;

this, either
is written,

Ben-Naphtall

follows

In

or

termination

Mappiq,

^'s

here;

three

See

with

even

the

force

hence,

the

it

of

or

which

consonant.

niYD

(Gen.

vi.,

oc'cur'that,
though
irln-1p (Is. xxxiv.,

aspiration:
to

and
letter

D'tyJI

does

Massora

the

S*wa,

times

retains

(Ps. IxvlII., 18).

'JIX

or

has

is, having

Only

following

mute

that

belongs

it

vii., 6).

^'s,

letters

Ixviii.,'l8,
Diqduqe

Ps.

1 29.

By
2

ends

the

such

vll., 11);

iSbt (Bzek.

Hateamim

He

of

name

two

and
f)],**
called

Pt3 (Ezek.

Dna

11);

and

Maasorltes
very

with

begins

[or ^

Tho

the

1"":

word

has
of

Job

1878, pp.

adds

See

it.

'p

and

omitted

xxlv.,

5:

589

J (J3),

argument

See

kS

on

the

Kgs.

according

as

nh

111.,22, 23;
has

Kgs.

xx.,

conjunctive

or

10)

or

k*?

disjunctive

(Gen.

xviii,, 15;

accent.

See

De-

sq.

Ben-Asher
Ps.

on

xxiil., 3.

combination

references

to

2 Chr.

xxix., 36.1

Lev.

3
xxv.,

the

contrary

Diqduqe
and

53;

Hateamim,

") ; probably
2 Sam.

opposing;

the

textu"

receptiLS

p. dO.

through

xviii., 25;

Isa.

oversight,
lix., 21; Zeph.

since

he

ill.,13;

Hebraica.

148

la either

second

final

the

that

Willi
"'wa niobile.
Examples:

of

letter

first

MTl'el, the

condition,

this

under

or

in

ends

closely attached

words

two

monosyllable

only

but

Diehesh.

of

first

if the

b) Moroover

the

syllable

and

n_

receives

latter

of

the

former

the

gins
be-

"Htr^
^^'Hpjin^
nNrnflp'?
xxiii.,13);'?)3'7-n^n(xxvn.,4)
iq (XXVII., 26); X3-:f?(Num.
(xxv., 30); D^-nb*!^*)
7); n*?D-nN*P (2 Kgs. vii., l);'l'^-n^n^
XXVIII.,
(1 8am.
(Ezek. xxViii./l7);
9); Tj^-niNS'?
(XXXII.,
(Jer. VIII., 14); 1*rn'?pcrN'i
(Ruth n.; ?); rts-nDtr' (iv., i);
frrryojw (cai^t. mVn); NrnL)p'?N*
(Prov:xm., 12);
l3-nnbcrj (Ps. lxvi., o; ri^rnDrN(^xxi., 23;) D'^-n'^nD

DB^DTTXI
But
the

rule

T)^tn

final

syllable

of

not

applied,

hence

*"

aspirated, [and

is

(Lev.

4)rO*rn01

(2 Sam.

IJIJl-nM

XVII.,

than

at

does
the

5);

")D'7-rr'?Ji:
(Isa.

(XVIII., 16);

(xxil.,
^^rH^^}

XXI.,

XLV.,
pTV-ni:yi'(Ps.

5); Tll^-rrDn

i5-nwcn

17);

(Prov. XV.,

the

second

word

Daghesh]:

without

e.

Ij'^-mV (xxxiii.,
1); 1^-nn'?tr (Ezek.

XXIII.,

ntTD-nnp'(Mic.
(lLxvih.,
fjobxxxn.,
20); ^"j-nyp^

i.,ll);

10);

g.

22);

xi.,

ni-ni'^tn (xvn., d; Ntrn-nNn^i

4).

"'wa mobile,

with

of

beginning

is written

mute

23);

begin

not

(Deut.
n-nj^D"!^*)

23);

xvm.,

mute

ii.,

*i:'vJ-n'iniy(Job
xxxiv.,

22);

first word

the

other

letter

ni-nXOD'?

7);

(XX.,
y^-n^'pC'N

(XV., 17;)

iifthe

(Gen.

10);
25).

(xxvu.,

"6.
If the

ending
the

in

Qam^^

mutei

of the

with

which

first word

distance.

words

^^

the
"

latter

venlens

is remote

the

and

of

that

has

an

second

from

law

of

accented
its

syllable of

formation,

the

the

first word
would

tone

^^ nmi

xxviii.,86);

nran
r:

D3

is the

fall:

e.

one

(xvi., 2);

(xxxii.,

from
these

riNvn
t

10);

14);

r\"yi;

p5

pyVc^i^^J
xvi.

1);

J-

(xxm.,

r))i^n
t

"JlNil
HD*?

ni

13);

(xxi.,

(2 Sam.

xiv.,

h);

j-

(Jos. i., s); ^'^ tiirsr^ (J"cig. xn.,

28); 13 num

XXI.,

1);

H'^tL^V) (Deut.

jt

""

(1 Sam.

i6);

in.,

to

vt

(xxxi.,

nok

10);

according

j^J^f H^'l^V (Gen.

g.,

rtoi^

J-

"*?n^^
'"'""

accent

under

which,

on

J-

J-

^Ty^n
T

is called
the

place

^ ni^n (XII., 18); iD| nnn (xiv., lo); i^^


n^n (xxxvm.,
(xxivni.,
29); 1N3TinDjri(XLii.,10);
;;iti^
rHND
(xlvi.,

nos

rule

'

a) If the

(Exod.

syllable,

powerfully

it

takes

syllable

first

afar],because

TlK

p^rHQ

the
This

attracts

and

final

open

on

Daghesh.

[coming

the
of

account

on

has
"

and

is accented

word

commences

longinquo

from

Dagessation

second

conditions:

the

is Mil'el

closely attached

S^ghol,

or

^^^^

*nK"

p*rn!D
a

first of two

lo);

j_

32); ^11^ H^n^VN


\T

T"T

(Is-

)":

^_

XXVII.,

4); na

riyjt(Ps.
13

xvii.,

(Ezra
"

jn

npiNO

IX.,

[See 1

6);

(MIc. vn.,

10);

nD3

r\'*J21 (Ezek.

xxxi.,

18); tT^T:^^

ip nrf7)y (xcn., i6); tj-ij^^


'^^nn;; (cxix., u);
VII., 13); Vj^
5); n^'Z^ HJ^^ (Ruth
n^^y (Job xxxviii.^

3);

(Prov.

npWm

1m8);

m^Nnn

(Jer. xxxix.,

H'^N
rj*?

3 last seotence.

for

12); "tifj^ri
riVHD

(Cien. xxxiii.,
the

letters

(Hab.

iii.,

5); Ks H'T'N (Deut.

affected

by this rule.]

13);

v.,

^iah'y^^d?

3).

The

b) If the
this

syllable

then

is

hn'pd (Jo^i
IV.,

nj

19)

13)

place of

Daghesh.
the

nj;5^(XXX.,

D^?

If, on
of

the

contrary,

ni"^^(Isa.

npii(Ruth

u)

i.,

6)

IV.,

(Lam.

JT

Tl'?HDID
T

(Ruth

of

mute

may

and

"Isa. XLiv.,

(Prov.

syllable

1^ nC^jr

word

i6);

(lxxxiv.,

nxvp

ll'rov. vn.,
1^'npCOf

syllable which

not

""

is

admitted

ntyj-n(Num.

(Job xx.,
verbs

IX., 10)

incapable

e.

tXltl

g.

13 lnD^

rfjr.

which

in

/T

27).
however,

are,

Daghesh,

has

excepted
the

though

even

does

M^thSgh

belong

not

as

after

these
accent

Tlh HC'J^ (Gen.

niJpK (Num. xxiii., 16); ^D Hiry


("ab. ii., 18); yr\ ;^y
^pc* n")l!?1

i.,

16);

19); nntr
8); -llD n'7r(XX.',
3^'n:p"(XIX.,

21);

receding

31); ,13

(Exod. XXI.,

nf n45*.(Zech.

24);

XI.,

26)

n'5

i.,

JT

participles of H"/

subsequent

12);

XXXI.,

1*^nOOIpntD

16);

IV.,

the

occupy

py^S"

xxxvi^

(Ezek.

(Lam.
rij-^]

^T

Imperfects
the

tS

H'YT); **?
nj^Dd*!!
xx.^ivl,6) ; 13 HDCO

oro

i3)

is

mute

(XXIV., 1); t]DpnXp (XXII., 19); 31t3 rn\:^ (Ezek.


;
ni^DlxxiiV.,
14); ^^7
(Jonah ii.,3);"3 HJj; (R"th I., 21);
nnyO
11:^8);
}"sr)ntr;; (I's-Lxxvm.,
12); ri? nDoh^i^^^-n., 46);

8); 310

IT

Examples

ni NVg

19)

XVII.,

HDJ

M(^th$gh,i

i6).

occupies

Tt

XVII.,

receding

accent

a;^ ntrj; (xm., 4) ; HDiD

(Deut.

(xxxi.,
hj/bj
d-);d

dagessation of the

the

receiving Mgth^gh,

^"i (Gen.

16) ;
the

firm

tone,

(Ecci. II., 9) ; ij'p


nfyi (I's.Lxxxm.,
^^ nntDjf
hn'n (cxviii.,23j;
^^nilj;(Jer. xxxi.,
4) ; n^r
13)

("lldN JIDi)' a"d


the

(lxixVi9);
nn\n
^:)l

hod:

n3

penultima

the

of

D"l

149

the

receives

recession

the

10); 13
nfc6'(xL.,

to

takes

word

(Deut. xxix.,

n^T})

1^

(XL., 7);

second

without

38, whereas

XIX.,

(XXI., 23); 13

2)

the

recedes

its accent

and

lengthened

Letters.

Initial

in

first word

the

commencing

mute

(Gen.

of

tone

Daohesh

niS

-f);

(XXVI..

"

on

(Job

n^N^n

if

c) Likewise
the

mute

at

9).

xxxix.,

of the

beginning

place of

the

MStht^gh occupies

the

"

second

word

has

the

accent

in

tlie first word,

Daghesh, according

to

the

rule

""-ni^*
(Gren. xxi., 8, where
Mdthdgh fillsthe place of the
g.
;
xix.,'38);
cf.
21); ^n^
(xvm.,
(I"-. 12); Nrnn^^
^Jp-n^nj
j3 nn'7;
(ExotJ.
(xxxvil.,16);
(xxx.,'83);'xrnT'!n
(XXX., 1); ^5-nn;j|r)
N^-TO'?^
(Jer. iv., 19);
(Num. XXII., 6); "^-.nip^
(xxii., 11); ^H^h
IV., 18); "ynn^
(iW.
6); n^Hntry^
XXXI.,
(P8. cxx"
22).
(2 Chr. II., 3); nJ^-HJ?^
il*3 nln

linN

JD-3

e.

cent;
ac-

d) Al.so, if the

tone,

but

which

first

Da^'hesh from

l)egins has

r\"3D being, however,


Examples:

tion.

indicating

only MtHh^gh

it

syllable of

the

excepted, since

njp^

HOtr

the

second

word

does

not

have

tone, nevertlieless

secondary

the

of the

the
the

primary
letter

by

^*"*- "TJO

law

"linN JDJ*
analogy
they reject this looser c("ndition of diigessa-

(Gen.

81);

XLix.,

(Exod.
tjjp
iTJ^C^'X

xv.

I);

nspp njyN (Lev. XI., 26); Tfn*?KD rwnn (^i^-.


i4);ntrj;\n53(Num.xv.,ii);!txt:u:]nDy(xxxi.,49);^i^

vn^p

nvjn

Conoornlnir

Arrhfr}

1""I")

(xxvn.,

tho

[and

flnn

and

Knutxi"ch'!i

aj;

finllappniablo
nofcntif

M"i"

Moihcirh
"

^r.....

(]nn
i

in

"?

Jn3).
i..i.

99m

Mitke^ Stintmg

lOilTcrc,

Heukaica.

150

19);1C'jrnnDy(xxxn.,2o);nDj;*.:]nDJ/n(xxxii.,27);
11)1'
npjijDn'l^jn (xxii.,8); tr%o

XV.,

(i sam.

nny:

6);'
ndiy (^^"'
fj"*ocr-N**^

i.,

(xxxii,26)l
nnp;rD"

nn^strx

n'?^ (is- xnv.,


^pJ^I*.

^^)"

nS5(iv.,i3);
rrJ?j;(Ezek.iv.,'2);'
?]*N7yn;5v
nyyrlp
1^^^*J
iBrV*
non

");

nnn:
Tj^xT^

(xxxvii., 9);

Wm
u^nii?^
is

Ml^th^gh

of

one

rp^-]

six

the

where

of

tone

aspirate.

There

Daghesh:

HDOD
b*?N^

e) If the

either

itself

letter

of

the

not

11)

(Dan.

DC5^"3 (Exod.
");

conditions], will

these

[under

I.,

5). The

iVnny)
:

^^

particle

rp nY'?^ (Gen.
"); :]*?
n?DN1 (2 Sam.
^

perceive.

pronunciation

force

harden

to
mute

an

assumes

(Jos.

28).

viii.,

Mil'el, besrins

with

four

^y')^ being

serviles

letter

(xn., 5);Hnwrt

CXXXIX./S);'^}^^
(civ., l);
n*?;!^

That

the

do
^^J^'")^

letters

from

appear

(Neli.'ix.,
7); and

i^;^'np^l
these

examples

not

take

^^11^^*1*

trt{i^pnn(Deut.xxi.,15);
DJ^"n^^n^(xivI
(zech.'xiV;
12); nnir
^^"-^
^^i'ln'^^in?
n^p?n

^^^-

p-TV5T^T

to

12);

XXXIII.,

tS^'jith'?
(Lam.

or

the

(IV.,25);

29).i

xxv.,

only secondary, which

HD^t^n
D'^II^-'^p

and

Daghesh,

N^?

10); J^OD

in.,

(Exod.
Vn'TVp n^t^^JTl

Daghesh

is

suflScient

have

ViNtSf (Isa. v.; 14); ^iXir'ny'^VNI


(Ps.

even

the

Hg^j;,H? ntrj;(Gen. i., 11,12); f;;^^


nf)^

excepted: e.g. ns

ajrp nOb^

is easy

changes,

second

monosyllable

receives

having

U'W.^^^^^^

2);

places where, nevertheless,

(Exod. xv.,
word,

second

"*wa, this

having

does

two

however,

are,

syllable

dagessation

indicates, the

M^th^gh

the letter

following examples

the

cause

but

only sharpens,

first

the

from

The

11).

(Lxxxix.,
not

letters

in which

cases

(XLiv.,
D.7O9 r\'?y_^

(Ps. ix., 11);

^^tlp nX5"T

in these

Daghesh
but

nnn:

{Lev.xm.,
(xxiv.,3i);ioj;;in^;^nn

nd?

ii.,4);noj^n

those

discerned

readily

is

six mutes,

nyy

16);

(Lxxvii.,

place in

take

not

does

the

("en.
rtrt?^nri?t".

28);

23);

ix.,

36).

dagessation

That

(Ps. xxxi.,

nj7^iDnpt?^ (i^xvi.,

(^x., 6);

(^eh.
nnox
(xcix., 4);D.7nnVf'^
onc^^^'n^D

11);

21);

which

constantly receives

is

Daghesh

ed:
except-

(XXIII.,
^p ny^^) (Deut. X., 1); ^^ '^]^n'7N
xn., 8); rp hn\h(xn., 9); ri'^
n'?Ntr(lKgs. ni.,ll);
n^'^lVs.
n^^':)'?
this analogy.
3) foUows
xix.,
25);

xviii.,

(xi.,SS)."

J-

;_

" 7.
From
words

this

taken

statement

mere

together

does

of

not

the

rules, we

gather

receive

Daghesh

by

that

the

of

reason

So

the

In

Spanish

Delltzsch

1878

p.

12)

extended

initial

use

in

Daghesh
under

this

says

the

this
its

p'PT
the

codices,

Heidenheim

commentary

of

p^Hl

or

use

and

species

is the

Daghesh

letter.

Some

Daghesh
than

added

has

been
the

according
his

to

orthophonic,
codices

orthophonic

especially
Daghesh

Hayyugr,

says

has

as

too

hitherto

Daghesh

forte conjunctive.

edition

to

Jequshiel

of

the

inasmuch

Erfurt.
much.

as

3 (see
But

p^mD

"n"

is

entitled

rightly

the

it

tion
pronuncia-

distinct

Va/rianten,

orthophonic
is doubtful

classified

by

the

ical
crit-

")1ND.

DTJ?

Complutenaische

Daghesh

Indeed

whose

punctator,

it preserves

Delitzsch's

really the

acknowledged.

the

Pentateuch

p^fl^lDr
'

'

unless

of two

second

is

more

whether

grammarians

the

Tile

This

1.

word

syllable ;

fii*st

Qumey

(xxiv.,

(XV., 21); nn

if

15);

v.,

MTl'el

any

word

the

following

o);

^^

of this
in

ends

iS

receive

1 Sam.

19;

The

at

least

to

itself

I5l

the

secondary

tone,

the

on

after

?|XV 101D

?|*19X^^i"

fo^r

n^tt^r (2

xv.,

11);

XII.,

8);

in

sam.

n*B^

^typy

the

that,

following
31);

xii.,

T\b (1 Sam.

H^l
Also

10).

vin.,

11);

usage

14, Exod.

(Gen. xix.,
ii., 24);

to be

come

liquid beginning

(Deut.
?)yp 101J5

xv.,

particles f^*?

the

places: Gen.xix.,2;i

Judg.

xviii.,

13.

vi.,

inasmuch

anomalous,

are

expounded

however,

or

i^H^) (Hos.
CD^/tp

30);

19; Est.

following

15);

sibilant
:

9); nnoD

(Prov.
D'p-mj^:)
It has,

either

raph^:Tn5n5*1D{Num.
xxiii.,

14);

u,

by Daghesh, ends

(Exod.
^^p r^i^^j;

10);

Examples

xn.,

Daghesh

viii.,

laws

the

Letters.

(i"eut. vm.,

elsewhere.

vowel

Daghesh.

n^ lOi(Jer. XLix.,

and

nonx

xiv.,

sort

the

nxt?')r)'2\:fn(Exod.
");

or

remain

(Ezek. xxxi.,

nnv
and

have

may

tone,

joins the second

n-tDC^-?|'?")n
(Gen.

12);

(Neh.

primary

which

S^ghol. Hence

or

Initial

in

and

rini n^DiM
XII.,

the

first word

The

2.

has

Daqhesh

but

above,

they

as

confirmed

are

by

be

cannot

the

authority

under

arranged
of

the

Massora

(xv., is); ^ot


nKr'3(Exod.xv.,i,2i);nDD3^o(xv.,ii);n*?N4ir-Dj;
pxD (XV., 16); yp^ -|pK (Deut. xxxii., 6); n*gf3 rviy (xxxii., 15); ^naen
nxj

(Is.
ii'5np

12);

Liv.,

h''ij^D^n

i"");

N\7-p

(xciv.Vi2);
n^ ^nxnp

i^-

5);'n^^^no*

(cxvm.,

{lenan'iNnnnj

(Job v., 27);

n)r\pn

-nbDH^V^

"n^N^Ji (Jer. xx., 9);'ynp


rf?M
':)S'7j-)

(Dan.

lxxvu.,

2, s);

m.,

i8);

(cxvm.,
no^m

ii).2
" 8

It remains
to

for us to add
something concerning that Daghesh which, aocording^
*"
teaching of the ancients, is written, not only in the niD3"njl3 ^"^ ^^^

the

other

letters, after words

taken

the

together

ends

with

the

tlie

in the

in

with

word

second

For, if the first of two

consonant.

consonant

same

the

begins

preceding

which

takes

words

commences,

lest it be confounded

Examples

^i-'yy (xxxiv.,

54);

second

the

Daghesh

hasty reading.*

more

(XXXI.,
Orfp-'^DN*?

28);

XIV.,

with

which

consonant

tenninating

tDinD*DK

("^"en.

Dtt^CTO-DJ.

8);

-0:1

*70nOKExod. W., 10); ^^'J2 (xxxiii., 11); UOg D*?W^ (Lev. v., 2); ys'GHy
xiv.,
(^ Kg".
50); .Tr^rp
(Josh. III., 7); Ij-p ( ISam.
(xxvii., 8); nC:*0-Dy
28); O'D

XXV.,

Cf.

Delitxsch's

cr.

the

But

paaaa"ea).

6, 19], It ia
what

aee

"

Wo
force

ainoe

uao

of

by editors

show,
of

law

in

explained
Dayheah

aatlafaotorjr

more

our
even

v.. 11.

(p. 4) and
this
of

Norsl

the

text

of

to

the

(nrookbaus
older

and

pamaso

elaewhere,
tbeae

aooount
(on

Q'O'Q^Hb^ '^210
zlx., U

ZMgdiig* haUamim
abore
rule
propoaed

la omitted

to

Daffbesb.
the

Psalter
with

by

17);

xli.,

thla

on

Dan.,

on

be

Parotaon

The

omitted

oommenUrjr

Maaaora

oxvlii.. 5. 18. can

(laa.

DCpaO

Bx.
which

xr.)

two

Oelltsaoh

1874, p.

In

jrmn*
of

In

*Sl.Oivyy]
n*

aa

Um

Todha,

oonnentanr

oa

[Pa. ozrt,

'331Aa

oxoepUooa.

Pa.
UMa^

F^

the

reat"

aajr.
haa

flrao

the

ralbar
Ifnoranoe
Ix) that tba anplojmMat

Bible, throufh

Maaaorltaa.

aa

DeUtaaoh'a

an, at).

pp.

Dacbaah

The

(aee

Inataooea

od.

(Ith Gomi.

I ".

(xli., 18);

D'CV

naane

tbaa
of

oKfco|*o""B* iMa

bean

IIebraica.

Itt

ps^y^Di
12);

(XXX.,

it

it

17.

XXVI.,

of

Lim^h

e.

g.

Exod.

Very

DMhesh;

Jlj?0

and

now

yy,,

|.,y
s

Cr.

yjiJ-p

U.,37);
then,

(Num.

Lonzano

3lS

23);

Or

line

P"slq,

(Deut.

vii.,

hn2)

It

xvil..

in

D'3T

where

1;

xiii.,

little

^^''^

(1

be

can

ih

thora,

Chron.

done,

SjlKI
on

Exod.

"j'^ ^^,

thus

^^

has

with

in

the

and

Ilab.

i.,
5.

xxxii.,

Htf/fD

noun

5).i

inasmuch

Daghesh,

9;

6);

xh.,

emphasis

Deut.

III.,

(i".,

(ecci.

dji

xxxvm.,

whenever

placed

between

nnjD

3);

xxiL,
Methegh

xx.,

vi.,

Gen.

written

(Prov.

Nllil-pnK

naji?)

negative

in

is

m'^"'?;;

6;

as

and

by

to

tinguish
dis-

Prov.

And

the

precedes

it
;

1.2

xiv.,

(Prov.

24);

10);

together

as

iy

Daghesh

1);

(vn.,

the

^^

ii.,

signification,

in

pronoun

7);

""7 ":jin!:'?

4);

xxvi.,

(XCV.,

(I"an.

come

enunciate

intent

same

29;

10,

the

often

the

"JON*?

word

the

VI.,

as

(Jer.

the

With

ify

and

to

from

carefully

ob'^i

different

admonished

is

reader

^^
but

sound

Dip

py-nno

particles
in

similar

are

the

6);

VI.,

tlie

Wherever

these

i.,

(e"

KD*?9

2);

DI^

IH^IP

5);

(Ps.

"nt:-D;r

21);

(Lxvi.,

(LXVII.,

(Lam.

*7:}*m

b^^

ontD-Din

D^Sy

nCfrO

TVrh^y

8);

17);

(Liv.,

Dj^O
remoram

such

two

Sjp

D'UH

D't^JKI

"

DD'nX

(Neh.

words,

is

(Is.
ii.,

12);

[retarding]

substituted

Ixvi.,

20);
T}31

(mD;,*n)

14).

10.
"

for

is

D'SjS

liyn

added,

the

^22

(xi.,

33);

e.

g.,

THE

TESTAMENT

OLD

IN

THE

Rev.

By

B.

TIME

Pick,

AU^heny,

I
The

word

(xarcjv)

canon

for

corresponding

word

The

expressions

different

{Sabim
"

Writings

Holy

fcA.

27, col.

The

in

manner

which

list of

be

regarded

read

in

Baba

**

and

of

with

Ilosea?

Rabbi

the

he

was

next

have
it is

of

and

Because

book

desolation,
Isaiah

solation

with

Btra

with

this

of

phraoo

(" jan

un

Minhna,

the

thereon

Individual

V.

Canon

"uoh

sase

In

poalnir

of the

mutilated

Old

by

teacher.

before

(Reply)

is entirely

full

desolation,

with

and

con-

tiio late

form

as

Kanon

that

the

translator

to

Its directions

convoy

was

Herao^'s
not

no

were
is

onUrely

this
idea
Real

familiar

whole
of

what

As
not

Beraitiia

the

roffardcd

omitted

In

Talmudlcal
Prof.

ffneyMopwfia.
enouffli with

the

to

can

distinguish
only

was

tbo

It

from

prlvat"

of

kind
the

ion
opin-

binding.

as

Booinolopedl*

8ohair*IIonn"

the

Intended

only

Hebrew,

by

account

and

roproduord

there

pasture

8track

Beraitha,

is called

In Italics, In order

put

Job

Esther,
time

in the

lived

what

l" Introduced

"H)

and

Danifl

Job

that

says

Talmudlsts.

Indeed

in

who

have

we

Ha"loffrapha

article

him

to

and

Psalms,

and

Lamentations,

and

of Songs

abbreviatc"l
which

TettametU.

his

It entirely.

or

ami

is Ruth

[I.e., Hagiographa]

According

"Thlspanurraphonthe
a.

[Ilosea]

lived

desolation,

with

desolation

propli-

because

them?

closes

and

it

No;

Isaiah

then,
stands

last

should

Jeremiah

and

desolation,

combine

we

the

before

placed

l)een

desolation,

with

of the Kethubim

made

some

have

four

Why,

(Reply)

Since

Moses?
the

consolation.

to

obsorvaUons

(Question)

with

commences

Chronicles.^

supplement

lost.

the

beginning

prophecy

are

then,

But,

Jeremiah]

of

first of

his

these

as

prophets

and

Amos.

we

the 7"rf/iy.

and

in the

the

Micah,

tain
con-

(thus

of the

him

was

[before

to

ought
closes

and,

the

which

beginning

speak

Because

(Reply)

(Objection)

them.

The

between

Ilosea

he

Isaiah,

Malachi

and

did

prophets
that

taughC^

Isaiah

EzekieU

how

Hosea,

placed

is all consolation,

order

and

time"

have

it is written,

many

Jeremiah]

Provei'bs, Scdesiastes, Song

and

Ilagio-

passage,

) '''that the order

and

But

easily been

Kings

{Taanith,
and

respecting

following

rabbis

15, col.

meaning

with

Istiiah

of

'DHO*

does, however,

It

the

as

Jeremiah

i., 2).

as

that

have

Ezekiel

whereas

''The

could

*"'o^7v

war*

t^^ipn

information

""Our

fol.

been

Zechariah

Ezekiel,

the

not

by itself, and

small, and

Book"

2),

era.

Writings.

Prophets

formed.

was

canonical,

as

( IIos.

counted

Law,

impart

to

first ; because

[i.e., before

Ilaggai,

written

Jeremiah

of

first

our

Jewish

*'the

19, col.

i- e-, the

canon

Kings,

this

prophesied
put

is, therefore,

so

is the

at

in

1), {('IpO,i. e., reading

xvi.,

profess

and

there

fol.

Pesachim,

2;

classicus^ shows

Ilosea'

found

1"3Dn"

or

of

century

nowhere

'l")D

14, col. 2, and

explains

who

been

of

Samuel

Have

that

ets, he

locus

Judges^

to

is

third

1).

regarded

Ilosea

used,

Testament

fol.

Lord

not

to

the

D.

the

NiTniK,

not

books

as

Jochanan

prophets

Old

Bathra,

(Question)

word

does

the

all the

may

is Joshua

49,

also

in

5 ; Sabbath

col.

TALMUD.

CANON.

first

are

13, col.

D^N^D^

fol.

Talmud

Bible

in.,

2), DOinDI

{Kiddushin^

grapha

for

fol.

( Yadaim

"

now

Pn.

THE

Pa,

THE

occurs

canon,

SabbaUi,

12;

v.,

1.

OF

quoUnr
for

thought

this
it beat

this

by
to

In
pM"
supomil

IIemraica.

lo4

end,

happy

Ruth

called

as

Because

[Deut.

Ruth.
the

elders, with

ten

of

Ileman,

wrote

his

Moses,

of

Jeremiah

jinip.*Ezra

is
down

the

in

his

%vritten

the

and

for

and

then

Great

in

passage

Jerusalem

of

Rab

[for

went

he

the

Babylonian

word

the

word

to toi-ite

liis

Rashi, in

That

Moses

this

wrote

^HD?

j""'j" abbreviated
It also

But

shekel

on

father

or

to

behalf

that

David

their

in

of

and

It shows

wrote,

inconsistent

"pl7D*the
*

;iJp.p

V)

Chananel

prefixed

as

to

his

T*

with

divine

in
Ps,

from

Talmud

had

of

book

[the

of"

"

parallel

no

depends

eld

has

in

entirely
form

one

or

statement

views

on

the

context,

on

nifying
sig-

as

rightly maintains
has

Bathra,

although

his

but

putting violence

in

Strack

Baba

ored
endeav-

strangely

It is also

its

parts

[are

that

the

given

not

MefflUa,

hy).

fol.

Pss.

xxxix.,

several

ex.

Ixxxviii.)

correct

ment
ele-

necessary

literary

names

If this
as

put
be

his

young,

above

found

Ixxxix.;

tioned
men-

Moses,

1.,Ixxiii.-lxxxili.

Pss.

Asaph,

is

temple

passage
are

Ps.

Abraham,

devices

he

the

has.

often

the

pays
if

explains
whose

phrase

who

he

i. e., he
"

standpoints.

such

"

"and

1:

Bloch

xlii.,Ixxvii.;

Ixxxvii.,

recognized

24, col.

elders

ten

Melchizedek,

Ixxxv.,

i.,6, 7,

Hence

the

for

question

this

signification

(cf. Shekcdim

IT

cxxxix.;

their

has

which

these

Psalms

the

meaning
lawful

perfectly

in their

the

of
and

in

no

inspiration."

sign

the

for

n'B';

SKpm^

"

of," which

help

Sj!etc.;

his stead

in

in

stated,

room

.Teduthun,

it were,
the

it

said,

till he

his doings.

of

the

the

in

Psalms

Ixxxviii.;

that

Ezekiel;

and

following

The

D^iV

""

-Isaiah

D -Proverbs
T\^);\ff'",

""SiyD;
W

phT]p.

Ecclesiastes

ivp

books:

Twelve

Prophets;

Minor

bx^Jl Daniel;

Esther.

li*. Rashl
says

"

xllf.-xlix., Ixxxiv.,

D'Tiyn

nS JO

""nDK

expressly
series

HB^N
it

the

mnemonic

Songs

of

is

of

do

which

Chronicles

Land],

significations ;

canon."

passage,

h}^"with

woman"

distinct

the

into,

the

and

"T

shall
wrote

Pss.

passage.

Song

Ps.

Korah,

mouths,

way

section

sense

of

and

Jehuda

write, which,

^^

Herzf

qualifying

the

titles (1. e., Adam,

Heman,

Ps.xc:

of

his teacher

mean

sons

for
the

in

occurs

the

compass.

five

some

on

bis Law,

and

in

introduce

to

Rab

understanding

rejected by scholars.

commentary

Moses

of

in, or

its

here

it, without

regard

to

Ezekiel

of

finished

Talmud,

its

and

the

to

within

rightly been

point have

this

Korah.

Hezekiah

book

Holy

Who

up.'

and

Abraham,
of

symbol

; for

the

eight

Ecclesiastes,

Esther, the

saying

of

wrote

the

wrote

place of]2

sons

and

Synagogue

of

Babylon

Talmud;

it is used

that

show

Holy

of Hachaliah."

frequently

so

occurs

to

the

Judges

Lamentations.

genealogies

other,

she

the

in the

[or

three

Songs

roll of

the

leave

not

did

signification assigned

the

the

the

and
of

and

book
of

and

Melchizedek,

of

Song

the

his

of

Kings

the

and

support

son

famous

older

much

the

is

Ezra

of

of

men

book

genealogy,

o\\ti

is the

This

upon

'

Nehemiah,

Ezra]?

in

This

.5

of Rab,

name

his

wrote

himself

to

The

was

Moses

book

his

assistance

and

Asaph

Proverbs,

Prophets], Daniel

[Mhior

Twelve

the

the

first man,

books

Isaiah,

f)"iy-^

is

of which

symbol

of

the

and

wrote

with

the

Jeduthun,

book

assistants

his

and

of

with

AVhy

refreshed

who

wrote

wrote

Samuel

5-12].

of Adam,

aid

the

2].

holy writings] ?

; Joshua

Job

and

of Psalms,

book

the

TiTote

David

7, col.

David,

the

[viz.,all

them

xxxiv.,

fol.

misfortune

psalms.

of Balaam^

section

Law

the

of

verses

the

and

his book

and

wrote

who

*'(Que8tion) And

of

ancestress

the

was

hymns

he I with

be

blessed

One,

she

But

(Reply)

[cf. Bei-achoth,

said

Jochanan

Rabbi

misfortune.

with

commence

never

misfortune.

too, contains

Ruth,

But

(Objection)

AVe

(Reply)

put first?

be

to

Job

ought

Moees,

the

explains

that

own

genealogy.

here

stands

clause
for

See

to

mean

iSl,the

"

as

far

first word

Levy, Neuhebr.

u.

as

his (Ezra's)

of

2 Chron.

Chald.

W.

B.,

own

genealogy.

xxl., 2, which
s.

v.

DDD.

verse

But
Ezra

Rabbi

had

IIebicaica.

l"

thirteen

and

there,

"He

canon]

causes

but

col. 1),

where

Midrash

and

Talmud

reader,

VI., 6

22

""

VI., 32

"

(Syriac)

Sanhedrin,

Berachoth

Jerus.

sect.

(Syriac)

Eruvin,

"

Succa,

Yebamoth,

"

Abothi.,5.

XI., 1

*'

Jer. Berachoth,

XI., 27

"

11-19

8,

XXV.,

17

"

Bereshith

"

Eruvin,

"

Midrash

"

Pesachim,

XXVII.,

14

XXVIII.,

22

This

XXXVIII.,

4,

"

Betza, fol. 32,

''

Sanhedrin,

bad

Kethubim

(or
in

Prophets,
they
dwells
Ecclus.

the
as

it

by

in

is

as

its kind,

and

xiii.,15; xxvii.,

Law,

and

the

and

handed

9.

man

1.

fol. 63, col. 2.

col. 2 ; Aboth

fol.

not

the

In
down

by

one

'

who

in

in

1, Yalkut,

de

Rabbi

1.
148.

Job,
ch.

Nathan,

the

with

the

collection

or

and

24.

the

is akin

Kethubim,
him.'

and

to
as

"

The

?'
third

vain

is written,
last

He

passage

as

that

replied

time

in

the

Beraitha.

;'repeated

Jephthah
it

the

in

again

books,

people

the

trees

Ishmael

unto

went

gathered

to

have

barren,

Talmud

the

sacred

reiterated

traditions,

were

of

Where

lazy,

Esau

that

inferred

bar-Mare:

and

there
time

be

Prophets,

in

xxlx., 9),

third

to

along

goes

fol. 9, col.

100, col. 2.

Rabban

to

fol. 63, col. 2.

Yebamoth,

2 ;

fol. 12, col.

it must

xi., 3), 'and

reiterated

of

and

(Gen.

(Judg.

son

Rabba,

repeated

it is written

written,

him;'

said

about

1.

fol. 100, col. 2.

1.

44; Jer. Taanith,

belonging

as

"Rabba

the

Sanhedrin,

quotations,

wanders

Haglogrrapha)
Law,

with

were

thus:

runs

palm-tree
is written

matter

Written

100, col. 2.

Bereshith

13, col.

col.

"

Sira

fol.

100,

fol.

of Ben

Sarah, fol. 19, col.

fol. 82, col. 3.

sect. 30.

Sanhedrin,

frequent

Nazir,
Eabba,

2.

Rabba,

Jer.

book

Jerus.

2,

xiii., 15.

"

these

end

11, col. 1.

9, 10

the

ii., 1.

fol. 63, col.

fol. 100, col. 2; Yebamoth,

XXXVIII.,

passage
"

under

fol.

cf. Wayyikra

80

Chagiga

113, col. 2.

Sanhedrin,

the

occur

54, col. 1.

"

XLii.,

The

Sabbath,

Sanhedrin,

100,

fol.

*'

"

col.

Tanchuma,

23

XLI.,

fol.

fol.

22,

liagio-

as

which

fol. 92, col. 2.

Eabba,

"

see

XXVIII.,

XXX.,

sajrlng

XXVI.,

Sira

fol. 29, col. 1; Nazir, fol. 18, col.

fol.

Kamma,

Baba

28

XXV.,

"

Ilagiographa

Ben

fol. 63, col. 2 ; Sanhedrin,

Sanhedrin,

XIII., 25, 31
XIV.,

48,

is written

fol. 65, col. 1.

IX., 8-13

XVIII.,

fol.

fol. 48, col. 1 ; Bereshith

fol. 21, col. 2 ; Aboda

IX., 12 (Syriac)

15; XXVII.,

in the

from

towards

vii.

"

XIII.,

matter

list of passages

Ecclesias-

91.

"

VII., 10
VIII.,

this

fol. 100, col. 2; Yebamoth,

v., 3 ; Berachoth,

10

"

time

quoted

twenty-four
as

Berachoth,

O^HDI^

subjoin

we

the

known

fol. 13, col. 1 ; Jerus.

cf. Chagiga,

III., 2

"

regarded

[i.e.,the

Ecclus.

From

read

we

house

from

course,

third

is

passage

of the

of

65, col.l),or

fol.

Erubin,

l*rophets, reiterated

in the

benefit

the

For

are,

it is written"

"as

HOK^tJ^,

fol. 92, col. 2,

{Baha Kama,
in the

"

repeated

Law,

graphic).!

12

xii.,

his

Sira, commonly

Ben

from

by

introduced

are

Talmud

the

in

made

find citations

also

we

for it is said

'*

into

books

twenty-four

than

more

t^'enty-

confusion."

ticus, which

in the

brings

that

quotations

The

books,

the

and

books

four

to the

other, together twenty-four, corresponding


of tlie priests," and
on
twenty-four watches

the

upon

in

men,

'every
is found

the
and
bird
in

The

Old

Testament

the

following statements

the

world

to
he

namely,

who

Torah

the

He

also

the

Jerusalem

and
*'

who

the

in

of

Ben

Sira

Zuckermandel,
detile

the

that

in

included

that
to
"t

the

the

support

pond.,

Prophets

Yezira

books

Megilla, ch. 7),

the

Isaac

Abraham,

(ed.

Yadaim

heretics

of

do

not
from

written

is not

etc., and

though

this book, yet

quotes

it is not

that

Lib.

in

of the

(De tnenfuria

fuisse

non

the

Sol.) says,

not
people {pletis)^

Epiphanius

foederis

arco

book

the

Ecclesiasticus

says,

doctrines," and

DIVISION

of

Old

the

from

the

i- e.,

book

of

book

of

Jacob"

and

OF

Law,

called

so

or

instruction

in

The

1")D)

{^ty^

for the

12, says:

twenty-four

were

{Prol.

St. Jerome

'^Siracidem

Hagiographa.

Bereshith,

1.

often

Midrashim,

Sira

asservatum,

adscriptum."

twenty-four
and

''

read

5 4.
The

which

says.

Ben

xii.,

the

of

Accordingly

20).

xvii.,

ecclesiastical

that

proinde canonicis

nee

be
of

the

of

Tosefta

books

authorities, distinctly

Dei

should

states

"i

Akiva

example,

in the

the

books

all the

hands.

and

Jewish

civitate

authority

534)

Sira,
the

as, for

And

etc.

gospels and

than

more

his house,

and

Koheleth,

on

house

that

or

latter clause

books

Melito, Origen, Cyril, Hilary, Rufinus,

ancient

Ecclesiasticus

his

into

The

Ben

Talmud

the

Midrash

of

Rabbi

*'the

to come,

Torah,

1), which

in

portion

world

in the

x.,

mean

has

the

in

Epicurean.

to

167

Israel

dead

{Sanhedrin

Tiglah,"
"

defile

of

{De

Ben

of

not

canon

Canon

middle

the

is] an

The

etc.

All

portion

no

of

books"

the

read

book

like

like

also,

Hebrew

of
we

do

the

St. Augustine,
he

683)

onwards

[he who

or

Talmud.

the

read"**

we

have

brings confusion

the

hands,

time

into

book

p.

of

resurrection

no

Laanah,''

[of the canon]


the

thus

:"

extraneous

brings

and

is

time

(chap, x., 28") explains

Ben

who

one

the

persons

heaven,
the

Talmud

books

Every

books

from

reads

show

these

there

says,
not

is

will

But

come.

in

books.

the

Testament

Torah,

or

of

first word

OpJTI
'

book,^ also

the

called

also

"

Sepher

2;

Jerua,
of

book

*'the

-)")D" -^^wdo

Dn")DX

Xaw,

the

fol. 62, col.

1"3D)"

{jllDNn

pHlT
'

into

of five books, viz.:

{Sanhedrin.

creation
Patriarchs

the

divided

are

consists

iSaraA, fol.

25, col. 1).


Sfiemoth

2.

book.a

the

also

called

Qedololh, fol. 36).


the

special

book

Atthla

may

Holy

Writ

Tho

phnwe

well

bo

to

there

holy,
books

used
were

"acred

eaUbles.

Hence

nni

as

to

"

In

"

Origen

I.e.

o i"

by the

(Kuseb.

Hebrews

(7//cn*
,

to

It

holy

by mice),

**

WH.

TMtJinicnt.

Old

Keel,

botb

Itabbls

when

that

the
that
It

is

that

deeread

oomliMr

In contact
which

hands."
a

said

It

Whjr

belnff refarded

dlsoovored

it \* -aid

and

tlM

they
with

sacrad
should
those

excluslvel/
HOOO

Q'TH

TK

O'TH

t^

KOOO

which

the

CtarfstiaiM

tiook

|1l*

oanonloal.

vi., ")

from
/f/."iYT/"*.

as

Torah.

pollutes

Scripture

is not

decreed

the

from

i" K"kod.

deflllnir ll"e hands?

are

the

them

then"fc"re.

Inxik

the

of

tiooltfl

afierwants

was

is canonical:

the

and

pn"hiblt

Whewner.
iMink

that

It means

order

"All

decree

his cataloiruo

till yfvtair.Is called

in

food

(dnmaKt*

danircr

which

subjects

When

other.

iinr/Mn.

the

dtifUe the hantU,

tOrlgcn.

another

SaJbbatK, fol. 14. col. 1. th(" gucMlon

Thenima

the

each

applies to holy. I. e.. inftpinnl books.


that the
dtflUngth"han"t". it means
does

of

commencement

*D)" and

VT1

"^r

tho

concerninjr

Tnlinud

elKhteon

in. I"ecnui"e

placed near
thereby exposed
regarded

'l")D

(TWO

Talmud.

the

In
the

amonR

frlven

be

henceforth

in the

ummI

be

to

the

five books] (^}^ l^O^^"^alachoik


book, treating of the laws of damages, had

the

damages"

it here.

of

is reckoniHl

answer

from

(n'?')NJ"l"3D^-

is often

speak

called

80

fifth [of the

part of

of

book

"

name

niOB^)i

or

second

the

certain

of rwlemption"

ti?^^

{rX)0^

the

sajrs

tl"l

llrst word

tba

book

of tba

book.

IIebkaica.

158

is the

of

*'book

Sifra, col. 99), or sometimes

III., 4 ;

;i more

for

law-book

i. e., the

Koharnm,

Torath

name

book

of the

first word

the

IFayyflbra(JOp*^)"'rom

8.

priests {Jfenaclwth

the

priests" (D^^HD

the

ever,
how-

common,

")"3D"

-^"^"^'^o^'t

Otdoloth, fol. 86).

the

was

wdfuw.

large part

(Sifn?

book

Chumshin

merely

fol. 30, col. 1 ;

How

*'

Judali

said, four
The

well

X., 35,36;

the

Lord

hewn

out

her

are

there

not

five

I., 1"

col. 1, further
Tlie

Jeremiah,

third

Ibid.

otHKfya.

Jerome

In

Numeros
"

Ibid.

It is

of

the

Rabbi

in the

ness.
wilder-

Law.

The

The

found

'They

he
there

The

[fourth

books, viz.. Num.

it

because

(Yes) but

five ?

only

are

first

second

book, Wayedabber,

there

xxvi.,

book, Wayyikra

three

(Lev. ix., 1)
Torah.

the

said,

(Yes) but

'

For

the

beginning

i., 1

Bar

x.,

"

35;

Lord

giveth
'

divided

Talmud,

her

(Prov. ii.,

wisdom'

'

of

the

builded

(ibid, viii., 22). She

books

seven

Kapra

hath

his way

Prov.

(concerning

read

we

'Wisdom

of

the

are

Bar

Cf. also

Prophets

former

OaJcat.:

Prnl.

and

books

book

But

Torah.

the

[i.e.. Numbers]

Sabbath, fol. 115,

Joshua,

Twelve

the

Primus

apud

SenujUi,

the

D^N^D^)

and

eos

col. 2 ;

116,

Prophets, which
Later

Samuel,

were

Prophets

Kings;

the

('^

latter,

Prophets.

Talmud

(Judaeos)

Vaicra,

tertius

Judges,

Minor

Ilayiographa, the

"

comprised

(D^^IC^NI

comprised

VeeU

Secundus

id est

also

liber

in

knows

vocatur

Leviticu8.

BeresUh,
Quartus

more

definite

quem

nos

Vajedabber,

Genquem

etc.

which
afifiea^Kuieifi^
e'/J/^

he

could

not

interpret.

a6fhfiapifi.

interesting

admonitions,"

to

in the

me

[as above].

part, the

vocamus,

Orisren

"

only

Ezekiel, Isaiah

dicimu9.

it is

as

Earlier

The

The

eeln

sect. 11

this

part of the twenty-four

into

D^Jt'inX)-

cohorts

five books

fourth

But

(Gen.

Beer-sheba

four

division

on.

second

subdivided

the

64

sec.

in

book, Shemoth

into

pillars;' these

seven

etc."

35

X.,

Torah,

possessed

has

into

to

existed

book, Bereshith

third

the

Torah.

Babba^

referred

Kapra

'The

to

the

also

Babha,
make

became

first

second

Wayedabber

book

this is the

house;'

of the

Wayyikra

IX., 1): "Bar

6) and

or

sq."

XI.

Midrash

In

the

to

Isaac

to

the

to

corresponding

books

seven

divided

*)fiD)

together,

books

pj^J^IH"-Menac/io^/i,

books, there

children

five,corresponding

Shebah,

the

completes
Kapra

his

Esek, corresponding

called

he

c^eiT^p-

the five Chumshin

i., 8;

Bereshith

father

our

living water,' corresponding

of

well

well]

said

five

Midrash

did

Sitnah, corresponding

called
a

into

Wherefore

wells.

rabbis

Law

read

we

wells

many

called

he

of the

Thus

books.

seven

17, 18)

five

called

Megilla

to

(jl^n^^n

1. c).
*?C^J^li;J2^^]"^enachoth,

mm

division

the

Besides
into

or

These

3, 4), were

Jems.

ilC^ f2n"

(pC'Oin
also

fifth

book;* often,

1),corresponding

admonitions-.^

[Sofnm

Chumash

named

was

of

book

usual

numeri.

of the

Sepher Tokachoth

called

is also

book

of the

first word

the

fol. 25, col.

Sarah,

{Aboda

initio),i. e., the

in Deut.

each

r7'?K)"

after

(DHDin

Hattorah

3fishueti
A

since

Haddebarim

EUeh

5.

however,

verse

vii.);2 more

ch.

api^fioiand

to

corresponding

numbering,

the

about

first

iv., 3),3 i. e., one


{^'"'^')pQ;^"Menachoth

Happekudim

Chumash

name

five books

of the

\yayedahber {'^y^^)"3Iishna Yoma,

word,

first

the

also, after

of the

word

conspicuous

^^^^ most

C\yi*2'2)^ ^ro"

liammidbar

4.

thus

to

De

know

AgricuU.

that

Philo

" 39:

too

quotes

Deuteronomy

roZf izpoTpeizTiKolQ;De

by the
Mutat.

name

of

Nirni. " 41,-De

"

hortatory

Ptofug.

" 25.

The

rubrication

choth,

Old

of smaller

tbe

former,

the

sign;
de Rabbi

It is

four

the

lines

that

be

we

left

of

Proverbs,

Job"

-'^"-

f\^ii ^Y

called

Chronicles

Ruth,

and

of

Song

tlie

Solomon

Sotah, fol. 7, col. 1).

told, in the Talmud,

are

159

D**?^1JID'DinD"

and

(D^^Op

Talmud.

the

Daniel, Ezra, Nehemlab,

as

ch. XL.;

end) that between

must

time

Ecclesiastes, Lamentations,

Nathan,

noteworthy

(towards

the

Psalms,

as

latter,

Megilloth, i. e., Esther,

(cf. Abboth

in

larger Ketbubim

and

fol. 57, col. 2)

mnemotecbnic
five

Testambnt

each

book

blank, but

of

three

the

Baba

Bathra, fol. 18, col. 2,

Pentateuch

lines

of

and

between

each

Prophets

the

book

of

Minor

the

Prophets.
{ 5.
In

Of

Hebrew

our

divided

into

these

1-5

l,

of

4-9;

; 9-13

ch.

sections

for the

of the

Lev.

Num.

xxviii.

Taamid

4.
6.

Yadaim

6.

Sota

1-9;

XXL,

himself:

R.

"Said

the

wish

trouble

addition]?
Egypt

Exodus.
this

this

which
not

Num.

But

of

section
as

verse,

Moses,

[J^Wi

^'""-

contains

five

lion

do

things

Lev.

the

{ 7"

in.,

Deut.

xiii., 1-18;

; Num.

Atonement)

Exod.

I^v.

xxvi.,

(for

8-18

xvii.,
3

first

(for the

23-26

xxiii.,

of

day

(for the

26-33

xxii.,

Deut.

11-16;

xxx.,

; Lev.

following

7) the

vn.,

Temple);

not

Deut.

uq.;

we.

But

[The

But

why
R.

also

we

have

Jehuda,

of

tlie

against the opinion of those

who

divide

they

[Num.

rule

added

the

son

and

of

[1.e., for such

an

Uiem

he

xxiv.,

the

intended

to

why

But

which

Moees

l*arasliali of the

Chabiba,

fringes, the exodun,

the
of

said, Beemuae

yoke of the
lioretics

"

not

did

fHngee?
It
mandments
com-

[i.e., the

opinion
reject all teachings of the Talmud,

same],

the

as

I'arashah

tliat any

us

xxv.,
of

lay down

9]

of

out

[I.e., Lev.

anyone

the

not

tlie Rabbins

among

9]

xxv.,

it is written

couched,

of

son

Uiey did

brought

which

He

'

up V

it is

conceniing

execution

tliere

stir him

Because

reason

why

reason

2"

xxii.,

treating of usury
in

Jehuda,

Because

it ?

the

was

88-87],

is written
will

H.

of

there, *God

xix.,

of Abin,

verse

law

what

add

not

by Mbees

invented

were
name

[i.e.. Num.

Balak

they

Parashah

the

[i.e.. Lev.

87-41].
; the

of

did

Deut.

1-22;

xix.,

6-10., etc

xxv.,

Parashahs

Sotarti, in the

why

11-31;

v.,

12-16;
the

Parashah

say

who

Num.

it is written

Josi, son

[i. e., the


warning

of

teacher, divided,

XV.,

ch.

Vl., 22-27.

xxvi.,

son

because

R.

Num.

that

congregation.

then, alone?
our

viz., "xod.

Moon);

14-20;

read

the

is] that the

divide, neither

Menachoth^

(for the
of the

New

:"

22-27;

we

But

weight

great

sectioDSt

seven

x., 35, 36.

the

tlien,why

that

into

given, viz., Exod.

26-35

xvii.,

to add

the

But, said

lion, and
say

:"

vii., 2-6

Abuhu,

Perhaps,

and

35-381
add

is divided

(for Pentecost)

9-12

(for the

11-16

reading of the Shema.


to

cloaed.

are

; ii., 1-3.

xii., 1-12;

xxiii.,

; xiv.,

Sebida, they intended


to

1-34;

Deut.

1:"
1-11

XXVI.,

379

viz.:

vii., 1 ; Sota

are

Exod.

xvi.,

Berachoth, fol. 12B,

7.

; and

open

is

Days).

in., 4
VII.,

Festivals

1 ; Sota

v.,

Yoma

day of Dedication

xxviii.,

(for Fast

sq.

are

Mishna,

mentioned,

are

Pentateuch

text, the

37^1.

1-22;

xvi.,

(for the

vii., 18

Purim);

and

290

in the

ch. v., { 1 ;

(cf. also

; Deut.

Massoretic

; 24-31

Taamid,

xv.,

xix.,

Passover)

Year);

VI., 22"

Sabbath

Num.

17-19;

XXV.,

; 20-23

Phylacteries

4-6

I'ENTATEUCIL

TUE

history of creation

| 2;

; Num.

the

already made

; 14-19

IL,

and

13-21

follow

iv., " 3, the

; 6-8

OF

sections, of which
is

'Megillah, ch. in.,

3.

New

ch.

Prayer

XL,

SECTIONS

or

mention

Berackoth,

2.

sections

day

Parashahs

669

Taaniih^

viz.. Gen.

SMALLER

Bibles, which

Parashahs

1.

VL,

THE

and

Hebkaica.

160

do

Ibid,, fol. 68a,

8.

wife

woman

Hiskiab,

son

of

of

the

Farashah

[Num.

(which is the

form

no

and

Soferim
three
a

tabernacle

"

of

5-22];

[Num.

closed

13,

Parashahs

leUera,at the

not

one

also

we

read

beginning

viz.:

the

sees

the

wine.

R.
is the

Why

of

that

offering ?

the

Parashah

the

and

of Balaam"

Priest];

High

were

103B,
; cf.

An

Jerus.

also

is

section

that

an

of

line ; and

open

section

open

should

as

In

the

Tr.

width

of

middle

of

the

in

much

made

be

B.

71

space,

XIX.].

JllDlilDi

not

fol.

empty
is

closed

the

[Num.

closed

Megilla,
an

these

ilt^l^l[Lev.

ncrnSI
some

1-24];

1-4] ; HC^IDI

v.,

^^nC^

p"

the

on

But

IX., 6 sq.

nn")

nin^n"3"

open

said

[Lev. xxi.,

[^^^-

read

publicly

were

Dl^^B

D^^JlD

l-4]; HDHN

fol.

eight

nt^1"3l

were

open

which

sections

m'?*":^nC^*l"Dl [Num.
the

vm.,

Sabbath,

said

D*N0t3

concerning

Tr.

in

from

Jochanan,

to

mentioned,

are

erected,

was

these

his book

Levi

R.

to-day.] ; D^NDD

i.,

eight sections

section

some

who

abstain

of

that

to

near

Balak].

VIII.,

already read

closed,

of

nBn"3l

tradition, Rabbi

everyone

near

so

so

R.

of

name

adultery

wrote

Moses

[Num.

S-11]; rrn:

we

of

The

xvi.,

that

you

the

said, in

that
:

the

[Lev.

rilO nrrN
Tliat

*'

tabernacle

the

wlien

0*1^ nCnSI
ytnes

as

of

erection

at the

day

same

Gittin, 60 A

10.

1-21]

etc., etc.

idolatry"
the

you," etc., etc.

teach

Bathra, 14B

Baba

vi.,

degeneration, should

suspected

To

teach

To

in her

Pamach,

Rabbi
woman

9, 10.]

v.,

9.

have

[Num.

Nasir

the

11-31.]

[Num. v.,
suspected of adultery

adulterous

X.,

of

Parashali

is the

Why

says,

We

''

following

the

read

we

of

lust

and

sin,

of

lust

the

Deity],

the

recognize

not

line.

the

In Midrash

Bereshith

following:

"'And

Why

0**^VD)'
when

is it closed

why
kept

secret

were

kept
In

and

closed

Jacob

the

Again, why

is made

Different
and

Pentateuch

space,

in the
the

"K^'Uv

rwf

Josephus
tKaorrf^
TovTov

division

as

They

reading
of

KTjpiaaovraq avrhv
Cfnttra

Apion

tuv
if3So/ia6o^

the

Because,

the

end,

Again,

in

all troubles

it

and

was

world

the

seen

whole

from

Ixet h

ll., 17

u'/'auv

portions

or

Acts

rale

larger

and

and

xv.,

of

of

of

which

3, 4.

the

later

origin,

by

on

open

of the

successive

the

in

Law
yap

of

purpose

ek

certain
the

securing
period of
is

synagogues

apxaiuv

yeveuv

Kara

and
adftftarov
avayivucTKd/ievog,

itav

arrangement

formed
Farashahs
read

ovde
elg a-rza^ aKpoaad/ievovc

the

letters

co