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CHAPTER FOUR

SCIENCE
QUESTION ONE
Three ways by which heat is transferred are:
1. Convection
2. Radiation
3. Conduction
1.

CONVECTION: Is the process by which heat is transferred through a fluid medium.

Convection has two practical uses in building and that is it removes state air fumes and keeps
up the supply of fresh air and it causes water to circulate naturally in hot water supply
system.
2. RADIATION: Is the process by which heat is transferred through air/gas. It does not
need a solid or liquid medium. This means radiation is the only process which takes
place in vacuum.
3. CONDUCTION: Is the process whereby heat is transferred from one material to another
through a solid medium such as metals which generally transmit heat by conduction.
(II)
1. BENDING MOMENT: Is the algebraic sum of the moment about the section of all the
forces acting at one of the section.
2. BULK DENSIT Y: It is the mass per unit of the apparent volume of a substance.
3. SOULD DENSITY: Is defined at the mass per unit of the absolute volume of a
substance

Page 1

(III) Data:
Density = 2000kg/m
Volume = 2m x 1.25m x 5m=1.25m
To find the weight of a block
Density = Mass
Volume
Mass = Density x Volume
2000kg/m x 1.25
2500kgf
9.8 x 2500 = 24500N
24500 1000
= 24.5KN

(IV)
a. Porosity in materials reduces durability.
b. porosity in materials reduces specific gravity.
c. It reduces the strength of materials
d. It also increases heat insulation materials.
e. Porosity reduces sound insulation in materials.
(V)
Data
Bulk Density = 2080kg/m
Solid Density = 2660kg/m
To calculate the percentage porosity of stone
Porosity = Solid Density Bulk Density x 100
Solid Density
= 2660kg/m 2080kg/m x 100
2660kg/m
= 580 x 100
2660
= 21.8045
= 21.8%

Page 2

QUESTION 2
(i)

Data
Oven dry weight = 300g
Wet Weight
= 3450g
Calculate the percentage by weight
Weight percentage = wet weight Dry weight x 100
Dry weight
= 3450 300 x 100
300
= 3150 x 100
300
= 1050%

(ii)

(a)Water absorption is the taking in of water through the pores of


materials and heeding the water in the materials because of the voids.
Example is when rain falls on dry concrete the first few drops disappear
into the concrete.
(b)Permeability is defined as the rate at which water will flow through a
saturated material under constant head of water.
(c)Moisture content is the amount of water present in a material.
(d)Specific gravity is defined as the reaction of any volume of a substance
to the mass of an equal volume of water.
(iii)
Data
Initial Weight = 20N
Time
= 24Hrs
Percentage absorption = 21 + 100 = 121
To calculate the final weight of the brick
Final Weight = Percentage of absorption x Initial Weight
100
= 121 x 20N
100
= 24.2N

Page 3

(iv) Data
Specific gravity = 7.8
Density of water = 1000kg/m
To calculate for density of a metal in kg/m and weight per m (kg/m)
Specific Gravity = Density of a substance
Density of water
Density of water = Density of Substance
Specific gravity
= 1000kg/m3
7.8
=128.21kg/m
(v)
are:

Two examples of how defects can rise due to drying shrinkage


(a) Over seasoning of timber.
(b) When the timber is not grown

Page 4

QUESTION THREE
DATA
Weight of iron boiler = 150kgf
Water= 2000kg
Change in temperature $sc -50 =70c
To find how much heat a joule is required to raise the temperature of both boiler and its
content.
SOLUTION
Iron boiler MCKDT (Weight x water x change in temperature)
= 150kgf x4600 j/kg x 70c
= 48.300,000J
Water = MCDT (Mass x water x change in temperature
= 200kg x 4600 kg x 70

= 64.400,000J

Both = Iron boiler +water


= 48.300,000J +64,400,000J
= 112,700,000J

(ii)
a. MOMENT OF A FORCE: It is the force about a point which is the product of
the

force and the perpendicular distance of its line of action form the point.
b. RESULTANT FORCE: Is the multiple of two or more forces that produces
a single force.
c. MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE: It is the ratio of load to effort
d. MASS: It is the quantity of matter contained in a substance
e. WEIGHT: It is the gravitational pull exert on any Objects by the earth.
f. EFFORT: Is defined as the force applied a load to overcome a resistance.

Page 5

QUESTION FOUR
DATA
Room dimension =35mm x 40mm
Scale=1:100
The actual dimension of the room
SOLUTION
IF 1= 100

IF 1=100

35 =?

40=?

35 X100

40 X 100

= 3500mm

=4000mm

(B)
DATA
Length =350mm 1000=0.35m
Width = 150mm -1000 =0.150mm
Thickness =20mm 1000 =0.020m
Density of metal
SOLUTION
Density =mass
Volume (length x width x thickness
10.00150m3
= 150,000 kg/m

DATA
Length =5m
Square section =20mm -1000 = 0.020m
Density = 2.65 x 103kg/m3

The mass of a square section aluminum rod

Page 6

SOLUTION
Density = Mass
Volume
Volume = density x (Length x square section)
Volume = 5m x 0.020m x 0.020m = = 0.2m3
Mass= 2650kg/;m3 x 0.002m3 = 5.3kg

QUESTION FIVE
BEARING CAPCITY: Is the maximum stress of the maximum load per unit area that the
soil can carry without unequal settlement.
BEARING PRESSURES: It is the pressure produced on the ground due to load acting on
it.
FACTOR OF SAFETY : It sit he ratio of the ultimate stress to the working stress
SLENDERNESS RATIO: It is the ratio of the actual length of strut to its least lateral
dimension.
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE: Is defining as the pressure exerted in liquids.
MADE UP GROUND: It is the radiation of portion of the land by filling to an appreciable
level either below of above datum.
Data given
Load = 20kg
Distance = 3m
1kgf =9.84
Required: to calculate the % efficiency of the machine
Solution
Percentage efficiency = mechanical advantage x 100
Velocity ration
= 20kg x 9.84
3
= 65.6
=66

Page 7

QUESTION SEVEN
Efflorescence would be treated in affected block wall by removing the crystal deposit and brushing
the surface dry with metal brush.
Washing down merely shift the crystal from place to place unless continuously does for a long time
(B)
Data given
Ratio = 2:1
Bearing capacity = 240kn/m2
Load = 70 KN
Factor of safety = 1.5
Required: To calculate the size of the base according to the ratio
Solution
Working stress = Ultimate stress
Factor of safety
=240KN/m2
1.5
= 160 KN/M2
Area of the base = Load
=70KN
Stress
=0.438m2
Size of base =
2a x a =0.438
Therefore
a2 =0.219
A= (0.219) =0.46m
2a = 0.936m
QUESTION SEVEN
(C)
Data given
Bearing capacity = 200KN/m
Load = 65KN
Factor of safety = 2.5
Required: To calculate the recommended
Width for the strip foundation
Solution
Working stressUltimate Stress
Factor is safety
= 200KN/M
25
= 80KN/m
Therefore width = Load
Working stress
=65KN
80KN
= 0.88125.5
Page 8

=812.5
= 813mm

(D)
Data given
Mass =50kg
Area = 50mm2
Diameter = 8mm
Required: to calculate for
a. The force on the surface on which she stands.
b. The pressure on the surface on which she stands.
c. The force on the surface.
SOLUTION
a. Force = Mass x acceleration due to gravity
= 50kg x 9.81
= 490.5 N
i. Pressure Force
Area
= 490.5N
50mm2
= 9.81 N/MM2
Force on the surface = Area = X d2
4
3.142x 8mm2
4
=201.088mm2
4
= 50.272mm2
Pressure = Force
Area

Force = Pressure x Area


=9.81 N/mm2 x 50. 272 m2

Page 9

QUESTION EIGHT
SOLUTION
Taking moment about RA Sum of clockwise = Sum of anti Clockwise
(60 KN x 1.2m) + (40KN x 3.2m) =RB x 4m
72KNm
+ 12% KNm = RB x 4m
RB = 200 KNm
4m
RB = 50KN
In equilibrium
Sum of upward force = Sum of downward force
= RA + RB =100KN
= RA + 50KN =100KN
= RA = 50 KN.
Bending moment
= Reaction moment - load moment
BM max (A) BM max (D)
= OKN
BM max (B)

= Rational moment Load moment


= (50KN x 1.2m) (60KN x om)
= 60 KNm
= 60 KN/m
BM max (c)
= Relational moment Load moment
= (50KN x 3.2m) (60KN x 2m)
(40KN x 0)
= 160KNm 120KNm -o
= 40KNm
Shear force max = Rational Load
SF max (A) =500KN O
50KN
SF max (B) = Reactional - load
= 50KN O -60KN
=-10KN
SF max (c) = Reaction _Loan
= 50KN-O-60 KN 40KN
=-50 KN
SF max (D) = Reaction Load
=50Kn -0-600KN
= 40KN +50KN
=OKN

BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM (attached)


Page 10

QUESTION NINE
(a) INDUCED IS SYPHONAGE: Is the action that takes place when a column
of water in a soil stack passing causes other appliances water seal to get
broken,
(b) SELF SYPHONAGE: Is defined as the action that takes place when
appliance causes its own water seal to get broken.
(c) BACKPRESSURE: It is the pressure in pipes which exceed the atmospheric
level and cause the admission of drawn air into the room.

QUESTION TEN
Data given
Bearing Capacity = 250N/m2
Square size = 1.8m = 1.8m x 1.8m = 3.24m2
Factor of safety = 2
Required to calculate the maximum load to be carried by the column.
Solution
Working stress = ultimate stress
Factor of safety
= 250 KKN/m2
2
= 125 KN/m2
Maximum load = working stress x square side
= 125KN/m2 x 3.24m2
= 405 KN

(B)
Data given
Width = 6.6m
Thickness = 0.225m
Height = 3.75m
Density = 210kg/m
Required: To calculate the mass of brick
Work of the gable and of a wall.
Solution
Volume of gable = 1.2 x 6. 6m x 3.75m x 0.225m
= 2. 784m3
Mass = Density x volume
= 210kg.m3 x 2.784m3
= 584. 64kg

Page 11

(C)
( C) Reactions of the support
BA = RB= 5KN + 20KN + 5KN
RA =RB = 30 KN
2
RA = RB = 15KN
Since the load is symmetric, the reactions are equal
RA = 15N
RB = 15KN
MEMBER
A F
B G
C H
D J
E J
E F
E F
G H
H J

MANINITUDE
55 KN
41 KN
38 KN
55
KN
33
KN
47
KN
20
KN
17
KN
9
KN

SENESS
Compressive
Compressive
Compressive
Compressive
Tensile
Tensile
Compressive
Tensile
Compressive

DISTANCE

QUESTION ELEVEN (A)


Data given
Reduced level of the lower ground = 33.6m
Height of traveler = 6.7m
Inverted level (lower) = 29.0m
Distance between sight rails (AB) =60m
Required: To calculate
(i) Gradient of the sewer trench
(ii) The right of size of A
(iii) The invert depth at A
(iv)
The invert depth at B
(v)
Reduced level on the ground at B
(vi)
Height of sight rails at B
(vii) Adjustment at A to obtain HI
(viii) Adjustment at is to obtain HPC

Page 12

Solution
(a) Gradient of the sewer trench
Vertical distance
Horizontal distance
But vertical distance = inverted level (upper)
= inverted level (lower)
= 29.5m 29.OM
= 0.5m
Gradient = 0.5m = 5 = 1:120
60m 600
(ii)
The height of sight rail at A
= (inverted level (lower) + (height of traveler) Reduced level on the lower ground
= (29m + 6.7m) -33.6m
= 35.7m 33.6m
= 2.1m
(iii)
The invert depth at A
= Height of traveler height of sight rails of A
= 6.7m -2.1m
= 4.6m
(iv)
The invert depth at B
= invert depth at A + vertical distance
= 4.6m + 0.5m
= 5.1m
(v)
Reduced level on the found at B
=inverted level (upper) + invert depth at B
= 29.5 + 5.1m
=34.6m
(vi)
Height of sight rail at
= (inverted lower ground + height of traveler)
Reduced level at B
= (29m + 6.7m) -34.6m
= 1.1m
(vii) Adjustment at A to obtain Height of instrument
There is no adjustment at A to obtain Height of instrument.
(viii) Adjustment t B to obtain HPC
Height of sight rail at A- Height of sight rail at B
= 2.1m lm
= 1m

(B)
Data given
Ultimate tensile stress = 450N/mm2
Factor of safety = 3
Required: To calculate the working stress of the materials

Page 13

Solution Working stress = ultimate stress


Factor of safety
= 450N./mm2
3
= 150N/mm2

QUESTION TWELVE
Solution
Taking moment about RA
Clockwise moment =Anti- clockwise moment
(3KN x5m) + (5KN x 16m) + (2KN x 25m) = RB x 3cm
15KN + 80KNm + 50Knm = RB x 30
145 KNm =RB x 30m
RB =145KNm
30m
=4.83KN
In equilibrium
Sum of upward forces = Sum of downward forces
RA + RB = 3KN + 5KN +2KN
RA+RB = 10KN
RA + RB +4.83KN = 10KN
RA = 10KN 4.83KN
RA = 5.17KN
Bending moment values
= Reaction moment load moment
= BM max A = BM max E = OKN
Bmmax B = (5.17KN x 5m) (5KN x 0) = 25.85KN
Bmmax C = (5.17KN x 16m) (3KN x 5) (5KN x 0)
= 67.72KN
BMmax D = (5.17KN x 25m) (3KN x 16m) (5KN x 11m) (2KN x 0)
= 26.25KN
Shear force moment
Shear force max (A) = Reaction load
= 5.17KN 0
= 5.17KN
Shear force max (B) = Reaction load
= 5.17KN 0 3KN
= 2.17KN
Shear force max (C) = 5.17KN 0 3KN 5KN
= -2.83KN
Shear force max (D) = 5.17KN 0 3KN 5KN
= - 4.83KN
Shear force max (E) = 5.17KN 0 3KN 5KN - 2KN + 4.83KN
= 0KN
Page 14

(B)
DATA GIVEN
Ultimate stress = 50N/mm2
Factor of safety = 10
Required; to calculate the working stress of the material
SOLUTION
Working Stress = Ultimate stress
Factor of safety
= 50N/mm2
10
= 5N/mm2
(C)
Data Given
Total load = 30 tones / force
= 30 x 1000 x 9.81
= 294,300N
Ultimate stress = 28N/mm2
Factor of safety = 4
Required; to calculate the minimum size of a short square column
SOLUTION
Working stress = Ultimate stress
Factor of safety
= 28N/mm2
4
= 7N/mm2
Area

= Load
Working stress
= 294,300N
7N/mm2
= 42,042.9mm2

Size of a short column = Area


= 4242.9mm
= 205mm
=205mm

(D)
Data given
Force = 100N
Area = 5m2
Page 15

Required To calculate the pressure on the surface


Pressure
= Force
Area
= 1000N
5m2
2
= 200N/m

QUESTION THIRTEEN
Data given
Impose lead = 34N./m
Factor of safety = 4
Bearing capacity = 200KN/m2
Required To calculate the width f the concrete strip
Solution
Bearing pressure = bearing capacity
Factor of safety
= 500KN/m2
Area = Load
Bearing pressure
= 34/Nm
1000
= 0.034KN/m2
50KN/m2
Width =0.00068m

(B)
Data given
Total load = 284.45 K/n
Safety bearing load = 159.33KN
Required To calculate the size of the foundation required for a squire brick.
Solution
Pressure

= Force
Area

Area = Force
Pressure
= 284.45KN
169.33KN
= 1.6799

Page 16

Size of foundation = size Area


Size of foundation

169. 33m
130.0
= 13/.)m x13.0m

(C)
Data given
Square section =100 x100mm
Working stress= 7N/mm2
1 kg/f = 9.8N
Required: To find the maximum local which may be applied to the timber struct?
Solution
Stress=load/Force
Area
Load =stress x Area
= 7N/mm2 x 100 x 100mm
= 7000N
=7000N 98N
= 7142.857 kg

(D)
Data given
Bearing capacity = 200KN/m2
Load = 65Kn
Factor of safety =2.5
Required: To calculate the recommended
Width for the strip foundation.
Solution
Working stress= ultimate stress
Factor of safety
= 200KN/m2
L2.5
= 80KN/m2
Width of foundation = load
Working stress
= 65KN
80KN/m2
= 813m

Page 17

Area = 2
0.813m2
0.813

=9
=9
0.90166m
Area = 2
0-813m 2
0.813

=9
=9
= 0.90166m

Solution
Uniformly distributed load =UDL
=43N/m x 4
=16 KN
Taking moment about RA
Sum of clockwise moment = sum of Anti-clockwise moment
(8KN x 3m)+(16KN x 5m) +(12Kn x7m) =RB x 10m
24KNm + 80KNm = 84KNm = RB x10m
188KNm = Rb x10m
RB =188KNm
10m
RB =18.8KN
In equilibrium
Sum of upward forces = sum of down wared forces
RA +RA =8KN +16KN +12KN
RA +18.8KN =36KN
RA=36KN 18.8KN
RA =17.2KN
Bending moment values
Rational moment Load moment
BM max (A) =BM max E
=OKN
BM max (B) = RM Lm
=(17.2Kn x3m) (8KN x0)
= 51.6KNm OKN
=51.6KNm
BM ma
=bm-Lm
= (17.2Kn x5m)-(8Kn x3m)-(16Kn x0)
=86KNm -24kNm
= 62Knm
BM max (D) = RM Lm
=(17. 2KN x 5m) ( 88Kn x 5m) (16kn x2m) (12KN x0)
= 120.4knm 40knm -32kN
= 48.4KNm
Shear force = R-l
SF max (A) =17.2KN O
Page 18

=17.2KN
SF max (B) =R-L
= 17.2KN O-8KN
=9.2KN
SF max (c)
=R-L
= 17.2KN O -8KN -16KN -12KN
=-18.81KN
SF max (E) =R-L
=17.2KN-0-8KN -16KN-12KN+18.8KN

(B)
a. Dew point: is defined as the temperature at which water vapor in the atmospheric is
just sufficient saturates it.
b. Atmospheric Pressure: is defined as the air having weight and awing to its weight
the atmospheric exerts a pressure on all surface to the earth
c. Ambient temperature: is defined as the temperature of the surrounding air.
d. Vebe/ consitometre test
e. Slump test: is defined as the test conducted on site where quick checks on control
are necessary to provide a comparisim of workability between similar. Mixes.

(c)
AREA Q/5 =Tan 30
X =5x Tan 3X = 5 x0.577350269m
= 2.886751346m
Area R = L x B
=10m2
30m
Total Area Q +R
=2.88675136m +30m
= 32.58675135135m2
Data given
Joint =470mm x 245mm x 150mm
Allowance = 20% for waste
Required : To calculate the quantity of blokes required for the wall
Solution
Area of 1 block with mortar
=947mm-1000) x (245mm -1000)
= 0.470m x0.245m
=0.1151m
Page 19

Number of blocks required


= Total area.
Area of 1 block with mortar
=55m2
0.11515m
=0.,111515m
=478 blocks
Allowing 20%

Page 20

BUILDING CALCULATION
QUESTION ONE (A)
(b) Solution
Area of vegetable to the stripped
Foundation spread = width if foundation -wall thickness
2
= 450m -150m
2
=150m -0.15m
Stripped length = length + 2(spread)
14m +2m (0.15m)
=14.3m
Stripped length
=
6+2 (spread)
=10m +2 (0.15m)
=10.3m
Area of vegetables to the stripped
=14.3m x 10.3m
147.29m2
(ii) Solution
Death of excavation
= (1021.5 -1019 .5) +0.225
=2.0 +0.225
= 2.225m
Actual depth of excavation
=2.225 -0.15
= 2.075m
MG =2(L + B) 4-pertition
=2(14 +10) -4(0.15) + (10-0.3)
=48 -06 +9.7
= 57.1m
Volume of trench excavation
=GM x Actual foundation depth x foundation width
= 57.1m x 2.0 75m x 0.45m
= 53.32m
20%bulking
=
120 x 53m2
100
=63.984
= 63.98m2
(iii) Volume at foundation concrete
= MG X foundation width x foundation thickness
= 57 1m x 0.225m x 0.45m
=5.78m
3% residual waste = 103 x 5.78m
100
=5.95m
Page 21

(c) Volume of site concrete


Length
= 14-210.15 =13.7m
Width
= 10-2(0.15) =9.7m
Depth = 0.1
Volume = 13.7m x 9.7m x 0.1m
= 13.289m3
Allow 4% residual and transit waste
104 x 13.289
100
= 13.8206m3
(V) Volume of hard-core filling
Length = 13.7m
Width = 9.7m
Depth = 0.3m
Volume = 13.7m x 9.7m x 0.3m
= 39.867m3
Allowing 20% compaction
120 x 39.867
100
= 47.8404m3
(IV) Number of sand Crete blocks
= 450mm x 225mm
= 0.45m x 0.225m
= 0.10125m2
Number of sand Crete blocks
= Area of wall
Area of block
= 0.9m
0.10125m
= 8.888888889 or 9 blocks
Allowing 4% cutting waste
= 104 x 9
100
= 9.36 blocks
(VII) Volume of mortar required
= 0.9m x 14m x 10m
= 126m3
Allowing 3% residual waste
= 103 x 126m3
100
= 129.78m2

Page 22

QUESTION ONE (B)


(I) 7m of 225mm copper pipe at 400.00/m
= 225mm = 0.225m
= 0.225m x 400/m
7
= 12.86m2
(II) 5m of 15mm copper pipe at 300.00/m
= 15mm = 0.015m
= 0.015m x 300m
5
= 0.9m2
(III) 3 No. 22mm copper capillary
Fittings at 700.00each
=22mm = 0.022m
= 0.022m x 700
3
= 5.1333
(iv) No.15mm copper capillary fittings at 700.00each
= 15mm =0.015m
=0.0.15 x 700
4
=2.625
(iv) plumber + hrs. at 500.00 per hour
= 1 hour =500.00
=4 hour
4x 500
=2000.00
(vi) Plumbers assistant 4 hirs. At 300.00 per hour
=1 hour 300.00
= 4 hour
300+4 =1200.00
12% over head profit
= 112 x 1200
100
=1,344.00
QUESTION ONE
(c)
(i) Data given
Length
= 10m
Width = 6
Height = 4m
Opening
=10%

Page 23

Required To calculate the quantify of paint required in


(a) Litres
(b) Gallons
Taking
1st cost = 1litre covers 5.5m
2nd coat =1litre covers 6.5m2
3rd cost =1litre cover 8.5m
1 Gallons =5 litres
Solution
Surface Area = 2(L +B) H
=2(10m + 6m) 4m
= 2(16m) 4m
=32m x 4m
= 128m
Area of ceiling
=L XB
=10m x 6m
60m
Area of wall
=10 x 128
100
=13m
Total area of wall
1238 -13
= 115m2
Total area if room to be painted
= Total area of wall + Area of ceiling
= 115m +60m
=175m
1st coat
5.5m = 1 litre
175m = ?
=175 x 1 litre
5.5
=31.8181
=32 litres
2nd coat
6.5m = 1itre
=26.9231
= 27litres

Page 24

3rd coat
8.5m2 = 1 litre
175m =?
175 x 1 litre
8
=20.5882
21.5882
Total quantity of paint
= 32 + 27+ 21
+ 80litres
1 gallon
5 litres = 1 gallon
80 litres =?
80 x 1 gallon
5
=16gallons

QUESTION (D)
Solution
(i) Area of total trapezium
=1/2 (a +b) x h
A = 85 + 70 =155m
H = 50 + 70 = 120m
= (105 +155) x 120
= 0.5 x 260 x 120
= 15, 600m
Area a = tir
4
= 3. 142 x 70
4
= 3848.95m
Area of plot = Area of trapezium area o quadrant
=15,600-3848 -95
= 11,751.05m2
Volume = Area x thickness
11, 751. 05 x 0.15
= 1,762, 6575m3
AC2=AB2+BC2
AC2=120+50
AC2=14,400+2500
AC=16,900
AC=130m
X=2
4
Page 25

X=2 x70
4
=1/2 x 3.142 x70
4
=109.97m
(ii) Perimeter of the plot
=105+50+109.97+85+130
=479.97m
QUESTION ONE (E)
Solution
Span=2.5m
Density=2250kg/m3
Size of brick =215mm x 102.5mm x 65mm
Volume=?
Volume=0.215m x 0.1025m
=0.0220375m2
=2.5m x 0.0220375m2
=0.05509375m2
Mass=volume x Density
=0.05509375m3 x 2250kg/m3
=123,9609375kg
QUESTION TWO (A)
Data given
Rise =215mm
Going =240mm
Total rise =3010mm
Required: To calculate
(a) Number of risers in the stair.
(ii) Going of the flight.
(iii) Pitch of the stair.
Solution
(b) Number of risers in the stair
=Total rise
Number of step
=3010mm=3.01m
215mm=0.215m
=14m
(ii) Going of the flight
2r+g=240mm
2(0.15)+g=0.24m
0.3+g=0.24m
g =0.24m-0.3
Going=0.3-0.24m
=0.06m
(iii) Pitch of the stair
Page 26

=Total rise
Total going
=3.01
0.24
=12.54166667
=13
QUESTION TWO (B)
Data given
Length =6m
Width =5m
Height =4.5m
Required :To calculate the number of rolls of wall papers
Solution
Surface Area =2(L+B) x H
=2(6m+5m) x 4.5m
=2(11m) x 4.5m
=22m x 4.5m
=99m2
Area of room =99m2
6m2 =1 roll of paper
Number of rolls =Area of room
1 roll of paper
=99m2 x 1 roll
6m2
=16.5 rolls
15% cutting waste
=115 x 16.5
100
=18.975 rolls
QUESTION TWO ( C)
Data given
Floor =150mm =0.15m
Thickness =40m x 20m
Ratio =1:2:4
Total ratio =7
Solution
Area of floor
=0.15m x 40m x 20m
=120m3
Cost of cement =1 x 120m2
7
=17.14285714m2
=5000.00/m3
17.14285714m2
=291.6666667
Page 27

Cost of sand =2 x 120m3


7
=34,28571429m2
=6000.00/m2
34,28571429m2
=175.00
Cost of stone =4 x 120m2
7
=68,57142857m2
=10,000.00/m2
68,57142857m2
=145.8333333
Total cost of cement, sand and stone
=145,8333333+175+291,6666667
=612.5
2 masons =8 hours at 6000.00 per hour
=2 x 8hrs
=16hrs
= 16 x 6000
=96,000.000 per hr
12.5% overheads
=112.5 x 28,800
100
Cost of cement
= 1 x 120 m
7
=17.1428514m
= 5000.00/m2
17.14285714m
296666667
Cost of sand
=2x120m
7
=34,28571429m
= 6000.00/m3
34.28571429m
=175.00
Cost of stone
= 4 x 120m
7
= 68,5712857m2
=10,000.000/m
68,57142857m
145.83333333

Page 28

Total cost of cement, sand and stone


= 145,83333333 + 175 + 291,6666667
= 612.5
2 masons = 8 hours at 6000,00 per hour
= 2 x 8 hrs
= 16 hrs
= 16 x 6000
= 96,000.000 per hr
8 laborers = 8 hours at 450.000 per hour
= 8x 8hour
= 64 hours
=64 x 450.00
=28,8000.00 per hour
12.5% overheads
=112.5 x 28,800
100
=32,400.00 per hour
Gang output = 3 cubic meters/hr.
=1.2m x 3.6m
= 4. 32m
QUESTION TWO (d)
VOLUME OF EXCAVATION
= 2(l +b) -4 x thickness of wall
= 2( 7.45 +3.35 ) -4 x 0.25
= 2(10.8) -4 x 0.25
= 21.6 -1m
=20.6m
Volume
Length =20.6m
Weight =0.25m
Height = 7m
=20.6m x0.25m x 7m
= 36. 05m
20% Bulking
=125 x 36.05m
100
=45,0625m
(iii) Volume of concrete used
Length = 20.6m
Weight = 0.1m
Height =0.25m

Page 29

Volume
=20.6m x 0. 1m x 0.25
=0.515m
3% Residual waste
=103 x 0.515m3
100
=
0.53045m3

QUESTION THREE (A)


(a) Area A
=length x breath
= 10m x 8m
= 80m
Area B
= r2
2
=3.142 x25
2
=78.55
2
= 39.275m
Total Area of the wall
= Area A + Area B
= 80m2 +39.2 +5m
=119.275m
(ii) Quantity of blocks required
= Area of wall
Area of block
Where : Area of wall = 119.275m
`
Area of block =?
Area of a block
=0.470mm x 245mm
=0.47m x 0.245m
= 0.1151m
Quantity of blocks required
= Area of wall
= 119.275m
Area of block
0.11515m
=1,035,82284 blocks
20%cutting waste
=120 x 1,035,82284
100
= 1,242,987408
= 1,243 blocks
Page 30

QUESTION THREE
(B)
Solution
Area = 100m
Size of tiles
= o.26 x 0.16m
0.0416m
End lap of tile 75mm
Side lap of tile
=300m
Gauge
=length -end lap of tile
= 0.26 -0.075
= 0.185m
Net width
= width -side lap
= 0.16 0.03m
=0.13m
Area of tile
Gauge x Net width
= 0.185m x0.13m
= 0.02405m
Cost of tile
=800 x 0.02405
100
= 0.1924.00
Cost of tile nails per m2 = 200.00
= 200.00 x100m
M2
=20,000.00
Cost of batten per m =250.00
250.00 x 100m
m2
= 25,000.00
QUESTION THREE (C)
Solution
Area A is a trapezium
3m
5m

8m

8m

=1.2 (a +b) x h
=0.5 (3m +8m) x 8m
= 0.5 x 11m x 8m
= 44m2
Area B = Rectangle

Page 31

8m
= L x B15mm
= 15m x 8m
= 120m
Area c = trapezium
8m

3m

5m

= (a +b) x h
= 0.5 (3m8m
+ 8m) x 8m
= 0.5 x 11m x 8m
=44n2
Area D = Rectangle
20m
= L x B 15m
= 15m x 20m
= 300m
(b) Total area on plan = Area A+B + C + D
=44m + 120m + 44m + 300m
= 508m
(ii) Perimeter
AB = BC = AC
AB = 5 +8
AB
= 25 +64
x
5
AB 89
8
Total perimeter
AB = 9.4m
= 20 + 9.4 + 3 + 8 + 15 + 8 + 3 + 9 .4 + 20 + 15
= 110.8m
(iii) Volume of concrete
= Total area x thickness
= 508m x 0.15m
=76.2m
Question three (D)
Solution
Percentage of moisture content
= Wet weight - Dry weight
x 100
Dry weight
= 39.75 - 35. 5 x 100
35.5
= 4. 25 x 100
35.5
= 11. 97183099
= 12%
Page 32

QUESTION THREE ( E)
Data given
Rise
=215mm
Going
= 240mm
Total rise = 3010
Required : To calculate
(i)
Number of risers
(ii)

Going of ht flight

(iii)

Pitch of the stair.

Solution
Number of risers
= Total rise
Number of step
= 3.01
0.215
= 14m
(ii) Going of the flight
= 2r + g = 240mm
= 2(0.15) =g = 0.24m
= 0.3 +g = o.24m
G = 0.3 -024m
Going = 0.06
(iv)

Pitch of the stair

= Total rise
Total going
=3.01
=-/24
= 12.54166667
=13
QUESTION FOUR ( A)
Data given
Length
= 6.5m
Width = 4.5m
Height = 2.85m
1 roll of paper covers 6m
Required : To calculate the number of rolls of paper
Solution
Area = 1/2 (L +B ) x H
= (6.5m + 4.5m) x 2.85m
= 0.5 (11m) x 2.85m
=15.675m
Surface area =
2(L + B) x H
Page 33

= 2(6.5 +4.5) x 2.85


= 62. 7m
Area of room = 62 .7m
6m =1roll of paper
Number of roll of a paper
= Area of room
1 roll of paper
= 62.7m x 1 roll
6m
= 10.45 rolls
QUESTION FOUR (B)
Solution
Area of room
=LxB
=8. 5m x 10.5m
= 89. 25m
Area of skirling
0.012m x 0.075m
=0.0009m
Volume of timber
Area of room x Area of skirting
=89.25 x 0.00009m
=0.080325m
2.5% cutting waste
102.5 x 0.080325
100
= 0.082333125
QUESTION FOUR ( C)
Data given
Span = 2m
Mass = ?
Thickness = 215mm =0.215
Density = 2250kg/m
Required : To calculate the mass of brickwork
Solution
Mass = Volume x Density
Density = 2250kg/m
Volume = 2m x 0.215m
=0.43m
Mass =0.43m x 2250kg/m
=967.5kg/m
QUESTION FOUR
Solution
Cost of door =900,000.00
Labour cost at 0.5 hour =560.00
Page 34

1 hour =?
0.5
x 560.00
100
=4.67
2.5 hour =850.00
= 2.5 x 850.00
60
35.42
Total cost
= 900,000 +67 +35.42
= 900,040.09
QUESTION FOUR (E)
Solution
Area = 470m
Area of roofing sheet
=2.4m x 1.2m
= 2.88m
Number of roofing sheet\
= Area
Area of roofing sheet
= 470m
2.88m
=163.194
= 163 roofing sheet
6% cutting waste
= 106 x 163
100
= 173.78
= 173 roofing sheets
(ii) Area = 4 70m
Area of laps
= 0.15m
Number of packets
= Area
Area of laps
= 470m
0.015m
=31.33
= 31packets
(ii) Cost of roofing sheet
=173 x 1,500,000.00
= 259,500,000.00
Cost of carpenter work
= 1 hour a day = 80,00.00
3 weeks = 21 days
= 1,680,000,00
Cost of Assistant work
Page 35

=1 hour a d ay = 50,00.00
3 weeks = 21 days
= 21 x 50,000
= 1,050,000.00
QUESTION FIVE (A)
Slate size
o.45m 0.25m
Lap = 0.076m
Gauge x width Lap
=0.45m -00.76m
2
=0.374m
Area of slate
= Gauge + width
=o.37m +o.25m
=0. 624mm
Number of slate
= Area of Slate
= Area of Gauge
Area of slate
= 0.374m
0.624m
=0.5994m slate=
1m slate
(ii) Length of batten
=
Area of gauge
0.1m
==3.74m
Question five (B)
Length = 180m
Gradient = 1: 60
Fall =?
Slope Angle?
X =3
=0.0167
=tan -10.0167
=0.9568\
=1.0
=60 x=180
180
60
Fall = 3m
Mean slope
=Vertical interval
Horizontal equivalent
Page 36

=3m/180 = 1/60= 1:60


=1.60 0.016666666
QUESTION FIVE (C )
Solution
Tile = 275mm
Gange = 150mm
Side lap = 25mm
=0.275 x 0. 275
=0.07562m
0.0.15x 0.15
=0.00225m
0.025 x 0.025
=0000.625
Total =000.10647653
=0000.1063 +76565m x 3000
2m
=1,595,214844
= 0.05 x 0.5
=000.25x 20
5m/2m
=2.5
= 2.5 x 1000.00
42
=5,952,38095
QUESTION
(i) sectional Area
=1/2 (a +b) x h
Where a = 1.0m
b = 1.5m
h =1.5m
= 05(1.0m +2.0m) x 1.5m
=0.5 (3.0m) x 1.5m
= 2.25m
Length of the slope side
a
c
C =a+b
C = 0.5 +1.5
C = 0.25 +2.25
C =2.5
C= 2.5
C= 1.58113883m
C 2 = a2 +62
C 2= 0.5 2+1.52
C2 = 0 .25+2.25

Page 37

C2 =2.5
C = 1.58113883m2
Total length of the slope
=1.58113883 + 1.58113883
=3.16227766m2
(iii) Volume of trench excavation
= sectional area x length of trench
=2.25 x 40.50
= 91. 125m 2
20 % bulking
= 120 x 91.125 m2
100
= 109.35m3
(iv) Number of lorry loads with a capacity of 5m3.
=109.35m3
5m3
=21.87
=22 lorries
QUESTION FIVE (E)
Solution
=01m x 10,000
2m
=500
5% waste =105 x 500
100
525
=0.1 x 2,500
2
=125
5% waste =105 x 125
100
=131.25
=0.1 x 1700
2
=85
5% waste =105 x 85
100
=89.25
1 hour = 3600
0.5 hour
= 0.5 x 3600
60
= 30
15% profit and cost
= 15 x 30
Page 38

100
= 34.5
QUESTION FIVE (F)
Data given
Opening = 950 mm x 2250mm
= 0.95 m x 2.25m
Lining = 150mm x 40mm
= 0.15m x 0.04m
Required: to calculate the volume of the timber.
Solution
Area of room
= LXB
= 0.95m x 2.25m
= 2.1375m2
Timber size
150mm x 40mm
= 0.15m x 0.04m
Area of timber
= 0.15m x 0.0 4m
= 0.00 6m 2
Volume of timber requited
= Area of door x Area of timber living
= 2.1375m2 x 0.006m2
= 0.012 825m3
2.5% cutting waste
= 102.5 x 0. 1282
100
= 0.013145625625m2
QUESTION SIX (A)
Data
With = 450mm = 0.45m
Depth = 1.000m
Thickness = 650mm x 225mm
= 0. 65m x 0.225m
Required: to calculate the volume of
(i)
Trench excavations allow 15% bulking
(ii)

Concrete allow 4.5% residual waste/

(iii)

Gravel as backfilling allow 20% compaction

Solution
2L X 2 r
Page 39

= 25 x with of foundation
= 25- x 0.45m
= 24- 0.225m
= 24.775m
= (2 x 110) + (2x3.142 x 24775)
= 375.69m
Depth of trench = 1.000m
Width of trench = 0.45m
Area = depth x width
= 1m x 0.45m
= 0.45m2
(i) volume of trench excavation
= Area x mean girth
= 0.45m2 x 375.69m
= 169.06m3
15% bulking
= 115x 169. 06m2
100
= 194.419m3
(ii) concrete used
Depth = 650mm = 0.65m
Width = 450mm = 0.45m
Area = Depth x width
= 0. 65m x 0.45m
= 0.2925m2
Volume of concrete used
= 375.69 x 0. 2925m2
= 109.89325m3
4.5% residual waste
= 104.5 x 109.889325
100
= 114.8343446m3
(iii) Backing filing
= volume of excavation volume of block work + volume of concrete.
Back height = 1m 0.65m
= 0.35m
Thickness = 225mm = 0.225m
Area
= 0.225m x 0.35= 0.0 7875m2
Volume = Area x mean girth
= 0.0 7 875m2 x 375.69
= 29.586m3
Back filling
= 169.06 (109.889325 + 29.586) m3
= 29. 584675m3
Page 40

20% compaction
= 120 x 29. 584675m3
100
= 35.50161m3
QUESTION SIX (B)
Solution
Numbers of ceiling joist
= 0.05 x 0.05
= 000.25m2
4.2x 3
= 12.6m2
Number of ceiling joist
= Area of room
Area of ceiling joist
= 12.6m2
000.252m
= 50.4 ceiling joist
5% cutting waste
= 105.x 50.4
100
= 52.92 ceiling joist
Joist
= 52. 92 x 8,000
4.2
= 100.800
Page 41

Carpenter
= 1 hour = 10.000
= 3 weeks = 21 days
= 21 x 10,000
= 210, 000
Assistant
= 1 hour = 8,000
= 3 weeks = 21 days
= 21 x 8000
= 168, 000
QUESTION SIX (C)

SOH CAH TOA


Sin = 32= opposite
Hypo
= 0.57.x x
0.45
= 0.57 x 0 .45
= 0.2565m.

Page 42

Page 43